Vegetable-based

recipes

DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Regional Field Unit No. 5 San Agustin, Pili, Camarines Sur

MESSAGE

Vegetables are rich in vitamins and minerals that are essential for our growth and development and over-all health. While dietary supplements and synthetic vitamins abound nowadays, it is still better to get our vitamins from natural sources. We are offering this recipe brochure to our farmers and housewives and the general public to help them prepare nutritious and very affordable food for their family. This brochure gives emphasis to malunggay because the Department of Agriculture is promoting the planting and consumption of malunggay to combat poverty and malnutrition. The development of malunggay-based products and its commercialization is likewise promoted by the DA. Malunggay leaves are very rich in Vitamin A and calcium and contain anti-oxidants that suppress the activities of free radicals which cause cell death. Agriculture Secretary Arthur C. Yap said, “if coconut is the tree of life, Malunggay is the miracle plant.” We hope that through this brochure Bicolanos will develop greater appreciation of the benefits of vegetable - not only on health and wellness but also as a natural and non-expensive means of combating diseases and alleviating malnutrition and poverty.

JOSE V. DAYAO, DVM, CESO IV Regional Executive Director Department of Agriculture, Region 5

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
How to prepare vegetables to retain their nutrients Gulay na Malunggay Tortang Malunggay Malunggabi Balls Ginataang Gulay Tokwa with Malunggay HaMalunggay Native Chopsuey Ginataang Talbos ng Kamoteng Kahoy at Papaya Pinakbet Kulawong Talong Ginisang Kalabasa, Sitao at Alugbati Kalamares Patola Tortang Patola with Cheese Patola with Chicken Strips Patolang Guisado Ginataang Talong Ginataang Tahong con IV (Ay-vee) Ampalaya pickles Squash Croquettes Squash Doughnut Kangkong Fritters Squash Leche Flan Squash Maja Blanca Banana Chips Cassava con Malunggay Nutri-Balls Squash Lumpia Fresh Lumpia Vitamin Chart Safety Tips in Preparing Your Food 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 6 6 6 7 7 8 8 8 9 9 10 10 10 11 11 11 12 12 13 15 20

Vegetables...
contain nutrients in different proportions to protect us from the 3 killer diseases – Heart disease, cancer and stroke The way you prepare vegetables can affect their nutritional value. Nutrient loss is from ¼ to ½ when we mash and make into puree vegetables.

H

ow to prepare vegetables to retain its nutrients

1. Avoid washing or cutting vegetables before you are ready to use them. 2. Rinse quickly rather than soak. 3. Use a sharp knife when cutting fresh vegetables. Bruising vegetables can deplete them of valuable vitamins. 4. Cut off only the inedible parts of vegetables. Sometimes the best nutrients are found in the skin and in the leaves). 5. Avoid peeling vegetables such as potatoes and beets until after cooking. 6. Try steaming, microwaving or pressure-cooking rather than boiling, since boiling can leach out the nutrients into the water. 7. If you must boil vegetables, cook them only until crisp and with only a small amount of water. 8. Use a lid to avoid steaming away precious vitamins. 9. Avoid cutting vegetables up into small pieces. Prepare them whole if possible. 10. These guidelines also apply to frozen and canned vegetables.

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Gulay na Malunggay
Ingredients: 2 cups coconut milk 1/2 tbsp garlic (minced) dash iodized salt 1 pc green pepper (optional) 1 cup Tinapa, (deboned) 1/3 cup onion, (chopped) 6 cups Malunggay leaves

Procedure: Boil the kakang gata for 10 minutes, including the tinapa, garlic and onion. While boiling, add salt. Stir constantly. Add the malunggay and let it boil for 5 minutes more. Serve while hot.

Tortang Malunggay
Ingredients: 2 1/3 cup green mungo, boiled and crushed 1 cup malunggay leaves 1/2 tbsp iodized salt 1/3 cup onion, chopped finely 1/4 tsp ground black pepper 1/2 cup ground pork 1/3 cup shrimp, peeled and chopped 1/2 cup cooking oil 2 pcs egg, beaten 1 1/4 garlic, minced

Procedure: Mix all the ingredients. Blend well. Make thin patties out of the mixed ingredients. Deep fry until golden brown. Serve with sauce. Sauce: 1/4 cup vinegar 1/4 cup white sugar 1/2 cup hugas-bigas 1/4 cup pineapple, ubod, chopped 2 tbsp garlic, chopped finely (optional) 1/2 tsp iodized salt 1/2 tsp ground black pepper Procedure: 1. Mix all the ingredients and blend well. Boil until cooked.

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Malunggabi Balls
Ingredients: 1 cup grated Gabi (kinayod) ¼ cup tomatoes 2 tbsp sili, pula, (chopped) ¼ tuna flakes in oil, de lata, (pinatiktik) 2 cups cooking oil 1 tsp iodized salt

1 pc egg, beaten 1 ½ cup bread crumbs ½ cup carrots (chopped) ½ cup Tahong, laman, cooked (chopped) 1 cup malunggay leaves,

Procedure: Mix all the ingredients and blend well. Form into balls based on desired size. Deep fry until golden brown. Serve with sweet and sour sauce.

Ginataang Gulay
Ingredients: 4 cloves garlic, minced 3 pcs tomatoes, sliced 1 tali sitao, cut into 2 inches 2 pcs ampalaya, cut into strips 1 tsp salt cooking oil 10 pcs amaranth (talbos) 2 pcs onion, sliced 1 cup dried anchovies (dilis) 1/4 kilo squash, cut into cubes 4 pcs. eggplant, hiniwa nang pabilog 2 pcs coconut (ginata, una at ikalawang piga)

Procedure: Saute garlic, onion and tomatoes. Add the anchovies. Add the sitao, squash, ampalaya and eggplant. Pour the coconut milk (gata mula sa ikalawang piga). Simmer until the vegetables are cooked. Season with salt. Add the kulitis and kakang gata. Serve while hot. (Source: A handbook on “Mga Lutuing
Katutubong Gulay” published by PCARRD)

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Tokwa with Malunggay
Ingredients: 3 pcs. tokwa (soya curd), sliced into small cubes 1 tsp garlic, sliced 1/2 cup shrimp, blanched and peeled shrimp heads 1 tbsp salt 3 cups malunggay leaves cooking oil 2 cups eggplant, sliced crosswise 3 tbsp onion, sliced 1 tbsp juice extracted from 2 tbsp soy sauce 1/8 tsp ground black pepper 1 tbsp lemon juice

Procedure: Fry the tokwa and eggplant. Set them aside. Saute garlic, onion and shrimp. Pour the shrimp juice and boil for 3 minutes. Season with salt soy sauce, salt and black pepper. Stir in the malunggay and cook for 5 minutes more. Pour the lemon juice. Remove from fire and pour on top of the fried eggplant and tokwa. (Source: “Mga Lutuing Katutubong Gulay” published by PCARRD)

HaMalunggay
Ingredients: 1 pc white onion, finely chopped 1/4 kilo ground pork 1 cup flour black pepper 7 cups malunggay leaves 2 pcs. egg salt cooking oil

Procedure: Combine all the ingredients except cooking oil. Place a 2-3 tablespoonfull of the mixture in a saucer and form it into burger patties. Deep fry in cooking oil until golden brown. Remove from fire and place in a strainer to remove excess fat. Serve while hot. (Source: “Mga Lutuing Katutubong Gulay” published
by PCARRD)

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Native Chopsuey
Ingredients: 1/4 kilo squid balls, sliced 5 pcs garlic, minced 2 packets dried shrimp (hibe), dipped in water 10 pcs sitao, cut in 2 inch. length 1 pcs carrot, sliced 2 pcs red or green pepper, cut into strips 1/4 kilo kikiam, sliced 1 pc onion, sliced 1/2 pcs upo, sliced 10 pcs sigarilyas (winged beans), sliced 10 pcs pechay, cut in small pcs patis ground black pepper cooking oil

Procedure: Fry the squid balls and kikiam for several minutes. Set it aside. Saute the garlic, onion and dried shrimp (hibe). Add the upo, sitao, sigarilyas and cook for five (5) minutes. Put the pechay, carrot and red/green pepper. Add the fried squid balls and kikiam. Season with patis and ground black pepper. Cook for 10 minutes more. Serve while hot.

Ginataang Talbos ng Kamoteng Kahoy at Papaya
Ingredients: 1/4 kilo cassava tops 4 cloves garlic, minced 1 pc unripe papaya, sliced thinly 2 pcs coconut, ginata 1 pc onion, sliced

Procedure: Mash the cassava tops and squeeze. Set aside. Boil the coconut milk. Add garlic, onion and cassava tops. After a while, add the papaya, let it boil again until tender. Season according to taste. Remove from fire. Serve while hot.

(Source: A handbook on “Mga Lutuing Katutubong Gulay” published by PCARRD)

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Ingredients: 1/8 kilo pork, sliced thinly 4 tbsp bagoong 1 pc. ginger, sliced thinly 2 pcs. onion, sliced 5 pcs. tomatoes, sliced 6 pcs. malunggay fruit, sliced 1/4 kilo sitao, cut into pcs. 1/4 kilo squash, cubed 5 pcs. eggplant, sliced 10 pcs. okra, sliced 10 grams alukon or himbabao 1 pc. ampalaya, sliced water Procedure: Boil the pork. Add the rest of the ingredients. Boil for 10 minutes. Serve while hot.

Pinakbet

Kulawong Talong
Ingredients: 3/4 kilo eggplant whole 1 pc. onion, sliced into rings salt black pepper 1 pc coconut, grated 4 cloves garlic, chopped 1 cup vinegar

Procedure: Boil the eggplant and cut into strips using your hands. Grill the grated coconut slightly then squeeze it to get the coconut milk. Boil the coconut milk, add the eggplant and the rest of the ingredients. Blend well and season according to taste. Remove from fire. Serve while hot.

Ginisang Kalabasa, Sitao, at Alugbati
Ingredients: 1/4 kilo pork, cubed 4 cloves garlic, chopped 1 pc onion, chopped 2 pcs. tomatoes, sliced thinly 1/4 kilo sitao, cut into 2 inches 1/4 pc squash, cubed 1/2 cup water 1 tali alugbati leaves cooking oil Procedure: Saute the pork in garlic, onion, and tomatoes. Add the sitao and squash. Put a little amount of water and boil until the vegetables are done. Add the alugbati and boil for a couple of minutes. Serve while hot.
(Source: A handbook on “Mga Lutuing Katutubong Gulay” published by PCARRD)

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Kalamares Patola
Ingredients: 1 cup flour 1/4 kilo shrimp, medium size, (remove the head) Sauce 1 tbsp sugar 1 pc patola, cut thinly 3 pcs. eggs, beaten cooking oil

4 tsp soy sauce 2 pcs. kalamansi

Procedure: Roll each piece of patola in flour and put a shrimp at the center of each patola. Dip each patola in beaten egg. Deep fry until golden brown. Serve with sauce made of sugar, soy sauce and kalamansi.

Tortang Patola with Cheese
Ingredients: 1/2 cup flour 3 pcs. eggs, beaten 1 pc. onion chopped 1/8 tsp black pepper cooking oil 1 pc patola, cut thinly 4 cloves garlic, chopped 1/2 tsp salt 4 tbsp cheese, melted

Procedure: Combine all the ingredients except cheese. Season with salt and pepper. Put enough amount of the mixture in a saucer and flatten following the shape of the saucer. Deep fry until golden brown. Remove from fire and garnish with cheese. Serve while hot.

(Source: A handbook on “Mga Lutuing Katutubong Gulay” published by PCARRD)

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Patola with Chicken Strips
Ingredients: 2 tsp garlic, chopped 1 kilo patola, cut crosswise 4-5 tbsp patis 3 tbsp cooking oil 2 tsp onion, finely minced 1 pc boiled chicken legs, stipped finely 2-3 cups water or chicken broth

Procedure: Saute the stripped chicken in garlic and onion. Season with patis. Add the patola and cook until tender. Pour the chicken broth. Cook for a little while. Serve while hot.

Patolang Guisado
Ingredients: 1 tbsp garlic, chopped finely 1/2 cup ground pork 3-4 tbsp patis 3-4 cup water or pork broth 1 tbsp onion, sliced 1/4 cup tomatoes, sliced 1 kilo patola, cut crosswise 2 tbsp cooking oil

Procedure: Lightly saute the ground pork in garlic, onion and tomatoes. Season with patis. Add the patola and cook for 3 minutes. Pour in the prok broth or water. Simmer for a couple of minutes. Remove from fire and serve hot.

Ginataang Talong
Ingredients: 1 onion salt and pepper to taste 1 cup coconut cream talong - eggplants Procedure: Roast eggplants in oven or over gas flame. Peel and chop fine. Peel onions and slice crosswise very fine. Heat oil in pan, add onions and fry until translucent. Add eggplants, stir for a couple of minutes. Season with salt and pepper. Remove from heat, add coconut cream, let sit for several minutes to develop the flavours.
(Source: A handbook on “Mga Lutuing Katutubong Gulay” published by PCARRD)

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Ginataang Tahong con IV (ay-vee)
Ingredients: 4 cloves garlic, chopped 2 pcs. tomatoes, sliced thinly 1/2 pc squash, cubed 1 cup kangkong leaves 1/2 cup amaranth leaves, cut into strips blanched 1 1/2 cup coconut milk 1 pc onion, sliced 1 cup sitao, cut into 2 inches 3 cups sigarilyas, sliced 1 cup alugbati leaves 1 kilo tahong, cooking oil

Procedure: Saute the garlic, onion and tomatoes. Add the sitao and squash and sigarilyas. Boil until the vegetables are half cooked. Add kangkong, alugbati and kulitis. Cook for a while. Put the tahong and the coconut milk. Boil until the coconut milk is done. Season with salt according to taste. Serve while hot.
(Source: A handbook on “Mga Lutuing Katutubong Gulay” published by PCARRD)

Ampalaya Pickles


Ingredients: 2 cups ampalaya Brine Solution 1 T garlic 1 cup water 1 T ginger 1 ½ tbsp salt ½ cup carrots 4 pcs pepper Pickling Solution ¼ cup pineapple juice ½ cup vinegar Pineapple tidbits ½ cup sugar ½ tsp. Salt Procedure: Prepare/slice the ampalaya according to desired cuts. Treat the ampalaya with brine solution for 30 mins. Wash thoroughly with running water, drain. Prepare the spices and the pickling solution. Arrange vegetable and spices inside jars showing all their colors. Pour the pickling solution into the jars. Cover the jars with rubberized cap. Pasteurize. Seal the cover completely. Store.

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Squash Croquettes


Ingredients: 1 cup grated squash 1 big chopped onion 1 tsp. Black pepper 1 pc. egg Salt to taste 1 pack pork or chicken powder 1 tbsp. Chopped garlic celery or kenchay (optional) ¼-1/2 cup flour Oil for frying

Procedure: Mix all the ingredients until well blended. Form into patties, balls, or wrap in lumpia. Serve.

Ingredients: 1 C boiled squash 3 pcs. Eggyolk 1 cup sugar 4-5 cup flour Procedure:

Squash Doughnut
¼ cup evaporated milk 1 tsp. Vanilla 4 tbsp. Margarine 1 tbsp. Baking powder

Add milk, vanilla and squash then mix very well. Add flour and baking powder and knead slightly. Pour in flowed board and flatten with the use of a rolling pin. Cut thru a doughnut cutter. Fry until golden brown.

Cream butter until soft. Add sugar alternatively with the eggs.

Kangkong Fritters
Raw Material: Kangkong leaves Ingredients: 1 pc egg 1 tsp bagoong fresh ¼ tsp black pepper ½ cup flour or cornstarch ½ cup water ½ tsp. Garlic powder Procedure: Mix all the ingredients thoroughly. Dip kangkong leaves in the mixture then fry until golden brown. Serve while hot.

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Squash Leche Flan
Ingredients: 1 can condensed milk 1 tsp. vanilla sugar to taste 4 pcs. eggs 2 cups squash (mashed)

Procedure: Caramelized sugar directly in the leche flan molder. Beat the eggs slightly and strain. Add sugar, milk and vanilla, stir until dissolved. Add the mashed squash and mix it thoroughly. Pour in individual leche flan molder. Steam. Insert toothpick at center, if it comes out, clean mixture is done. Let it cool and unmold.

Squash Maja Blanca
Ingredients: 2 cups mashed squash 7 cups coconut milk 1 tsp. vanilla 1 can evaporated milk 2 cups cornstarch 2 cups sugar 1 can sweet corn

Procedure: Dissolve cornstarch in coconut milk. Add the rest of the ingredients. Cook until thick. Stir constantly. Spread on greased baking pan or molder. Let it cool and serve.

Banana Chips
Ingredients: Unripe banana (saba) 4 tbsp. salt oil for frying 1 cup sugar 5 cups water

Procedure: Wash and peel green matured banana. Slice into chips, soak in syrup for 8 minutes. Drain. Wipe to remove excess liquid by spreading it on filter sheets. Fry in cooking oil heated to 200 degrees celsius for 3-5 minutes. Let it cool. Dust with cheese powder or onion powder. Pack in container.

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Cassava con Malunggay nutri-balls Ingredients:
1 1/2 kilo cassava, grated 1 pc egg, beaten 1 pc onion, chopped 1 pc oregano leaf, chopped 1 cup bread crumbs 1/4 cup alamang 5 cloves garlic, chopped 1 tbsp black pepper 1 cup malunggay leaves cooking oil

Procedure: Combine all the ingredients except cooking oil. Put enough amount of the mixture in a saucer and flatten following the shape of the saucer. Deep fry until golden brown. Serve with sauce made of vinegar, onion and hot pepper.

Squash Lumpia
Ingredients: 4 cloves garlic, chopped 1/3 cup ground pork 1/2 tsp salt 1/4 tsp black pepper 20 pcs. lumpia wrapper 1 pc onion sliced 1/4 kilo squash, sliced lengthwise thinly 4 pcs. oregano leaves, finely minced cooking oil

Procedure: Saute the ground pork and squash in garlic and onion. Stir in the oregano leaves and cook for a couple of minutes. Turn off the heat and cool for a few minutes. Separate the lumpia wrappers. Place 1 tbsp. of the mixed ingredients at the center of each wrapper and roll, folding the sides inward. Repeat until all the wrappers are filled. Deep fry until golden brown. Serve with vinegar-garlic sauce.

(Source: A handbook on “Mga Lutuing Katutubong Gulay” published by PCARRD)

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Fresh Lumpia
Ingredients: 12 lumpia (spring roll) wrappers 150 g. of ground or finely minced pork 100 g. of green beans, sliced diagonally into small pieces 1 carrot, cut into small cubes (or julienned) 1/2 head of native cabbage (similar to the napa variety in the west) 1/4 c. sweet-blend margarine (or vegetable cooking oil) 3 sweet potatoes 1 tbsp. of minced garlic 1 onion, chopped 1 tsp. of sesame seeds salt and pepper Procedure: With a vegetable peeler, peel the sweet potatoes. Cut into 1/2″ x 1/2″ cubes and soak in cold water to prevent discoloration. Heat a large skillet or wok. Melt the sweet-blend margarine. When hot, lightly fry the sweet potato cubes until the edges start to brown. With a slotted spoon, remove to a plate. Reheat the remaining oil and saute the garlic until fragrant. Add the onions and cook until soft. Add the ground pork. Cook until no longer pink. Add the rest of the vegetables and the sesame seeds. Season with salt and pepper. Cook over medium heat, stirring. The water from the vegetables will be enough to cook everything. A few seconds before the vegetables are done, stir in the sweet potatoes and cook until heated through. Turn off the heat and cool for a few minutes. Separate the lumpia (spring roll) wrappers. Place 2-3 tbsp. of vegetables at the center of each wrapper and roll, folding the sides inward. Repeat until all the wrappers are filled. Serve with soy-garlic sauce. For the soy-garlic sauce: Ingredients: 1/4 cup of dark soy sauce 1 tbp. minced fresh garlic 1-1/2 cups of water 2 tbsp. of cornstarch 3 tbsp. of sugar Procedure: Off the fire, mix all the ingredients together in a small saucepan. Stir until both the sugar and cornstarch are completely dissolved. The liquid will appear cloudy. Cook over medium heat, stirring often. When it reaches the boiling point, the cloudiness will start to disappear and the liquid will start to become clear. DO NOT STOP STIRRING. After about 30 seconds, the mixture will be thick and clear. Turn off the fire. Let sauce stand covered for 5 minutes to let the garlic develop its flavor. Uncover and stir. Serve with “ubod”.

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alunggay leaves are very rich in Vitamin A and calcium. A hundred grams of edible leaves contain water (75g), protein (6.7g), fat (1.7g), carbohydrates (13.4g), ash (2.3g), fiber (0.9g), vitamin A (11300 IU), vitamin B1 (0.06 mg), vitamin B2 (0.05 mg), niacin (0.8 mg), vitamin C (220 mg), Ca (440 mg), P (70 mg), and Fe (7 mg). The energy value is 385kJ/ 100g. (source: Indigenous Vegetables booklet published by the Department of Agriculture Bureau of Plant Industry (BPI)).

M

Nutrition Facts

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V

itamins are essential for our bodies to function properly, for growth, energy and for our general well-being. With very few exceptions the human body cannot manufacture or synthesize vitamins. They must be supplied in our diet or in man-made dietary supplements. Some people believe that vitamins can replace food, but that is incorrect. In fact, vitamins cannot be assimilated without also ingesting food. That is why it is best to take them with a meal. Synthetic vitamin supplements can be of varying quality, so it is a good idea to get your supplements from a reliable source.

Nutrient / Daily Amount Needed

Importance
Vitamin A helps cell reproduction. It also stimulates immunity and is needed for formation of some hormones. Vitamin A helps vision and promotes bone growth, tooth development, and helps maintain healthy skin, hair, and mucous membranes. It has been shown to be an effective preventive against measles. Deficiency can cause night blindness, dry skin, poor bone growth, and weak tooth enamel.

Vitamin A
10,000 IU/day (plant-derived) for adult males. 8,000 for adult females - 12,000 if lactating. 4,000 for children ages 1-3 5,000 for children ages 4-6 7,000 for children ages 7-10 Fruit Sources: tomatoes, peaches, watermelon, kiwi, oranges, avocado

Vegetable Sources: Malunggay, sweet potato, carrots, Alpha-carotene, beta-carotene and retinol are all versions of Vitamin A. spinach, broccoli, squash, peas, asparagus, green pepper, cassava leaves, alugbati, pechay, saluyot

Vitamin B1 (Thiamine)
1.2 mg for adult males and 1.1 mg for women - 1.5 mg if lactating. Children need .6 to .9 mg of B1/ thiamine per day. Fruit Sources: Watermelon avocado Vegetable Sources: Malunggay, peas, camote tops, saluyot, sigarilyas, sitao

Vitamin B1/thiamine is important in the production of energy. It helps the body cells convert carbohydrates into energy. It is also essential for the functioning of the heart, muscles, and nervous system. Not getting enough thiamine can leave one fatigued and weak. Note: Most fruits and vegetables are not a significant source of thiamine.

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Nutrient / Daily Amount Needed

Importance

Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)
1.3 mg for adult males and 1.1 mg for women - 1.5 mg if pregnant/lactating. Children need .6 to .9 mg of B2/ riboflavin per day. Fruit Sources: Kiwi, avocado Vegetable Sources: Malunggay, kangkong, pechay, pako, saluyot, sitao Vitamin B2 or riboflavin is important for body growth, reproduction and red cell production. It also helps in releasing energy from carbohydrates. Note: Most fruits and vegetables are not a significant source of riboflavin.

Vitamin B3 (Niacin)
16 mg for adult males and 14 mg for women - 17-18 mg if pregnant/lactating. Children need 9 - 16 mg of niacin per day. Fruit Sources: Peaches, tomatoes, bananas, kiwi, watermelon, avocado Vegetable Sources: Corn, malunggay, squash, , peas, potatoes, mushroom, sweet potato, broccoli, carrots, green pepper, kangkong, pako, saluyot, pepper, sitao Niacin assists in the functioning of the digestive system, skin, and nerves. It is also important for the conversion

Vitamin B5 (Pantothenic Acid)
5 mg for adults and 6 - 7 mg for women who are pregnant or lactating. Children need 2 - 4 mg of niacin per day. Fruit Sources: oranges, banana, avocado Vegetable Sources: sweet potato, potatoes, corn, lima beans, squash, mushroom, broccoli, cauliflower, carrots Pantothenic acid is essential for the metabolism of food as well as in the formation of hormones and (good) cholesterol.

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Nutrient / Daily Amount Needed

Importance

Vitamin B6 (Pryidoxine)
1.3 to 1.7 mg for adults - 2 mg for women who are pregnant or lactating. Children need between .6 to 1.3 mg. Fruit Sources: bananas, watermelon Vegetable Sources: avocado, peas, potatoes, carrots B6 plays a role in the creation of antibodies in the immune system. It helps maintain normal nerve function and acts in the formation of red blood cells. It is also required for the chemical reactions of proteins. The higher the protein intake, the more need there is for vitamin B6. Too little B6 in the diet can cause dizziness, nausea, confusion, irritability and convulsions.

Vitamin B9 (Folate/Folic Acid)
Folate and folic acid are both forms of B9. Folate occurs naturally in fresh foods, whereas folic acid is the synthetic form found in supplements. Your body needs foChildren need between 150 to 300 late to produce red blood cells, as well as components of the nervous mcg per day. system. It helps in the formation and creation of DNA and maintainFruit Sources: kiwi, blackberries, tomatoes, strawberry, melon, ing normal brain function, and is a critical part of spinal fluid. It has oranges, banana also been proven to reduce the risk for an NTD-affected (neural tube defect) pregnancy by 50 to Vegetable Sources: carrots, 70 percent. Folic acid is vital for green pepper, onions, potatoes, proper cell growth and developkale, sweet potato, corn, squash, ment of the embryo. That is why broccoli, spinach, peas, avocado, it is important for a woman to asparagus, lima beans. peanut, sunflower seeds, cashew, have enough folate/folic acid in her body both before and during At least 400 mcgs for most adults - pregnant women 600 mcgs and breastfeeding women should get at least 500 mcgs.

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Nutrient / Daily Amount Needed

Importance

Vitamin B12
Like the other B vitamins, vita2.4 mcg for adults and 2.6 - 2.8 mcg for women who are pregnant or min B12 is important for metabolism. It helps in the formalactating. tion of red blood cells and in Children need .9 - 2.4 mcg per day. the maintenance of the central nervous system. Sources: available only from fish, poultry, meat or dairy sources in food.

Vitamin C
60 mg for adults - 70 mg for women Vitamin C is one of the most important of all vitamins. It plays a who are pregnant and 95 for those significant role as an antioxidant, lactating. thereby protecting body tissue from the damage of oxidation. Children need between 45 and 50 Antioxidants act to protect your mg cells against the effects of free radicals, which are potentially Fruit Sources: Avocado, kiwi, damaging by-products of the strawberry, orange, black berries, melon, watermelon, tomatoes, lime, body’s metabolism. Free radicals can cause cell damage that may peach, bananas, apples, lemon, contribute to the development grapes of cardiovascular disease and cancer. Vitamin C has also been Vegetable Sources: Malunggay, found by scientists to be an efasparagus, broccoli, carrots, caulifective antiviral agent. flower, corn, cucumber, green pepper, lima beans, mushroom, onion,

Vitamin D
Vitamin D is known as the “sun5 mg for most adults. Between 50 - 70 yrs 10 mg, and after 70 15 mg. shine vitamin” since it is manufactured by the body after being exposed to sunshine. Ten to Children need about 5 mg/day. fifteen minutes of good sunshine three times weekly is adequate Vegetable Sources: mushroom to produce the body’s requirement of vitamin D. This means that we don’t need to obtain vitamin D from our diet unless we get very little sunlight – usually not a problem for children.

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Nutrient / Daily Amount Needed

Importance
Vitamin D is known as the “sunshine vitamin” since it is manufactured by the body after being exposed to sunshine. Ten to fifteen minutes of good sunshine three times weekly is adequate to produce the body’s requirement of vitamin D. This means that we don’t need to obtain vitamin D from our diet unless we get

Vitamin E
30 IU for most adults. Children need between 6-11 mg/day. (1 IU is equal to approximately .75 mg) Note: some researchers and medical experts believe that with all of the positive studies using higher doses of vitamin E, this daily recommended intake is not high enough. Fruit Sources: bananas, apple, kiwi, peanuts

Like vitamin C, vitamin E plays a significant role as an antioxidant, thereby protecting body tissue from the damage of oxidation. It is important in the formation of red blood cells and the use of vitamin K. Many women also use it to help minimize the appearance of wrinkles, and mothers use it to help heal minor wounds without scarring, as it is valued for its ability to soothe and heal broken or stressed skin tissue.

Vitamin K
70-80 micrograms/day for adult males, 60-65 micrograms per day for adult females. Children need about half the amount, depending on age. Sources: Vitamin K is found in significant quantities in dark green leafy vegetables such as spinach, broccoli. Can be found also in nuts and cashew. Vitamin K is fat soluble and plays a critical role in blood clotting. It regulates blood calcium levels and activates at least 3 proteins involved in bone health.

Source: Dr. J. D. Decuypere’s Nutrient Charts health alterntives 2000.com

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SAFETY TIPS IN PREPARING YOUR FOOD
-- Always wash your hands with soap and water prior to washing your food. -- Wash each item under running water (not in a container or sink filled with water). -- Remember to wash the utensils, dishes, bowls, cutting boards and countertops with hot, soapy water after you are finished preparing each individual food item. -- Wipe down the surfaces in your kitchen with paper towels. If you decide to use a cloth towel instead, be sure to put it through a hot wash cycle in the washing machine before using it again. -- It is very important to separate raw meat, poultry and seafood from other foods in your shopping cart and refrigerator. Also, under no circumstances should you ever place cooked food on a plate that once contained raw meat, poultry and seafood. -- If possible, use two different cutting boards: one for fresh produce and another for meat, poultry and seafood. When cutting food items, use a clean cutting surface and utensils. Do not let the food item or utensils come in contact with other raw foods. -- Be sure to cook your food to safe temperatures. Use a clean food thermometer in order to measure the internal temperature of meat, poultry and other foods in order to make sure they have a safe internal temperature. -- Always refrigerate fresh food items promptly. -- Thaw food in the refrigerator, under cold water or in the microwave oven. Foods should never be thawed at room temperature. -- Divide your leftovers into shallow containers so that they can be cooled quickly in the refrigerator. -- Always wash your hands with soap and water after preparing food.

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Prepared by Regional Agriculture and Fisheries Information Division DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RFU 5 San Agustin, Pili, Camarines Sur Graphics design and lay-out : Lovella P. Guarin Editor: Emily B. Bordado Photographer: Jun D. Collantes