Introduction to Gas Turbines

 Gas turbines have been used for electricity generation.

Gas turbines are ideal for this application as they can be started and stopped quickly . There are two basic types of gas turbines –  Aero derivative and,  Industrial. Over the last ten years there have been major improvements to the sizes and efficiencies of these gas turbines.

Gas turbine power plant
 Gas turbine:
Working principle :
 Air is compressed to high pressure by a

fan-like device called the compressor.  Then fuel and compressed air are mixed in a combustion chamber and ignited.  Hot gases are given off, which spin the turbine wheels.  Most of the turbine’s power runs the compressor. Part of it drives the generator/machinery.

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Gas turbine power plant…
 Gas turbine:
Description:

 Gas turbines burn fuels such as oil,
nature gas and pulverised(powdered) coal.  Instead of using the heat to produce steam, as in steam turbines, gas turbines use the hot gases directly to turn the turbine blades.  Gas turbines have three main parts: i) Air compressor ii) Combustion chamber iii) Turbine
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 The cross section of a typical large gas turbine .

Layout gas turbine power plant .

.Advantages over diesel plants The work developed /kg of air is larger Less vibration due to perfect balancing Less space required Less capital cost High mechanical efficiency Running seeds of turbine is high  low instillation and maintenance cost The torque characteristics of turbine is far better The ignition and lubrication system are simpler The specific fuel consumption does not increase with time Poor quality fuels can be used.

Disadvantages over diesel power plant Poor art load efficiency Special materials and alloys are required for different components Special cooling methods are required for cooling the turbine blades Short life .

required less space and water supply Can brought to load quickly so can be used as peak load plant Components and circuits arranger are most economical Ratio of exhaust to inlet can be less Higher efficiencies above 550 0c Storage and handling of fuel is easy and economical .Advantages over steam power plants No ash handling problem Low capital cost Can be installed at selected load center as space required is less Fewer auxiliaries required/used Can be built quicker.

Site selection The plant should be located near the load center to avoid transmission cost and losses The site should be away from residential due to noisy operation Cheap and good quality fuel should be easily available Availability of labour. Availability of means of transportation  land should be available at cheaper price The bearing capacity of the land should be high .

Classification of gas turbine power plant By application In aircraft 1. Standby unit 3. Jet propulsion 2. End of transmission line unit 4. Prop-jet  Stationary 1. Industrial unit 2. Base load unit .

Classification of gas turbine power plant Locomotive  Marine  Transport By cycle  Open cycle  Closed cycle  Semi –closed cycle .

         Classification of gas turbine power plant According to arrangement Simple Single shaft Multi shaft Re heat Intercooler Regenerative combination According to combustion Continuous combustion Intermittent combustion .

Classification of gas turbine power plant By fuel Solid fuel Liquid fuel Gaseous fuel .

Merits of gas turbine over IC engine The mechanical efficiency of gas turbine (95%) is quite higher because of less sliding parts Flywheel not required as the torque on the shaft is continuous and uniform Can be drive at high RPM(40000) Work developed /kg of air is more due to expansion of gases up to atmospheric pressure Components are lighter since pressure used is very low(5 bar) Exhaust from gas turbine is less since excess air is used for combustion .

Demerits of gas turbine over IC engine Less thermal efficiency Fuel control is difficult Difficult to start Blades need separate cooling system .

part of the turbine’s power runs the compressor.  Gas turbines are not self starting. A starting motor initially drives the compressor till the first combustion of fuel takes place.  The air compressor sucks in air and compresses it. 5 April 2013 17 . thereby increasing its pressure. later. with the combustion chamber between them.Gas turbine power plant…  Gas turbine: Air compressor:  The air compressor and turbine are mounted at either end on a common horizontal axle(shaft).

the better the fuel air mixture burns.  Modern gas turbines usually use liquid fuel. but they may also use gaseous fuel. Note :  The combination of air compressor and combustion chamber is called as gas generator.Gas turbine power plant…  Gas turbine: Combustion chamber:  In the combustion chamber.  The greater the pressure of air. the compressed air combines with fuel and the resulting mixture is burnt. natural gas or gas produced artificially by gasification of a solid fuel. 5 April 2013 18 .

The area between the combustors and the turbine are also lined.  . Special heat resistant materials (such as ceramics) are used to line the inside walls of the combustors.Burners The compressed air and fuel is mixed and metered in special equipment called burners. The burners are attached to chambers called combustors. The fuel & air mixture is ignited close to the exit tip of the burners. then allowed to fully burn in the combustors. The temperature of the gas in the combustors and entering the turbine can reach up to 1350°C.

5 April 2013 20 . o Like in steam turbine. the gas turbine also has fixed(stationary) and moving(rotor) blades. o Hot gases move through a multistage gas turbine. o The stationary blades guide the moving gases to the rotor blades and adjust its velocity. where they cause the turbine wheels to rotate. o The shaft of the turbine is coupled to a generator or machinery to drive it.Gas turbine power plant…  Gas turbine: Turbine: o The burning gases expand rapidly and rush into the turbine.

compressors and high speed cars. 5 April 2013 21 .  Research is underway to use ceramic components at turbine inlet temperature of 13500C or more.  Used in aircraft and ships for their propulsion. They are not suitable for automobiles because of their very high speeds.  Power generation(used for peak load and as stand-by unit). the temperature may be as high as 1100 – 12600C.  The thermal efficiency of gas turbine made of metal components do not exceed 36%.Gas turbine power plant…  Applications of gas turbine:  Gas turbines are used to drive pumps. Note :  Gas turbines run at even higher temperatures than steam turbines. and reach thermal efficiencies over 40% in a 300 kW unit.

power output and thermal efficiency of the gas turbines are higher than when using most liquid fuels. distillate and "jet fuel" (a type of kerosene used in aircraft jet engines). and Gas produced as a by-product of an industrial process such as oil refining. coal.Fuel Gas turbines can operate on a variety of gaseous or liquid fuels. natural gas. municipal waste and biomass. methane. heavy fuel oil. Gas produced by gasification processes using. for example. including: Liquid or gaseous fossil fuel such as crude oil. When natural gas is used. .

Inlet Air  The air coming into the compressor of a gas turbine must be cleaned of impurities (such as dust and smoke) which could erode or stick to the blades of the compressor or turbine. Dry filters or water baths are usually used to carry out this cleaning. . reducing the power and efficiency of the gas turbine.

Noise  The inlet air (blue) enters the compressor at the left. Silencers are usually fitted in the inlet air and exhaust gas ducts. The exhaust gas (red) leaves the turbine at the right. The burners and combustors are located between the compressor and turbine  Gas turbines are very compact and occupy small ground area. ..

Note the large bolts that are used to hold the two halves of the casing together.Gas Turbine with half case  The photo shows what such a gas turbine looks like when its top half casing has been removed for inspection or maintenance. . The section that would hold the burners and combustors is between the compressor and the turbine. The air compressor is on the left and the turbine is on the right.

Gas turbine power plant… Open Cycle Closed Cycle 5 April 2013 26 .

Reheat. Regeneration.Ways to Improve Performance & Power Output of Gas Turbine Intercooling. 5 April 2013 27 .

 Decrease thermal efficiency & hence used along with heat exchanger.Ways to Improve Performance & Power Output of Gas Turbine Intercooling  Multistage compression with intercooling reduces compressor work. 5 April 2013 28 .  Increases both work ratio & specific work output.

Inter cooler .

5 April 2013 30 .  Increase thermal efficiency.Ways to Improve Performance & Power Output of Gas Turbine Regeneration  Heat Energy from Exhaust is transferred to the compressed air before it enters the combustion chamber.  Saving of fuel .  Reduction of waste heat.

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5 April 2013 32 .Ways to Improve Performance & Power Output of Gas Turbine Reheat  Increases the work output of the GT plant.  No Effect on thermal efficiency because the extra work is obtained at the expense of additional fuel.

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 The hot gases(products of combustion) expands through the high pressure turbine. Note :  About 66% of the power developed by the gas turbine power plant is used to run the compressor. 5 April 2013 34 . High pressure turbine (HPT):  In the beginning the starting motor runs the compressor shaft. Only 34% of the power developed by the plant is used to generate electric power. Now the HPT runs the compressor and the starting motor is stopped.  It is important to note that when the HPT shaft rotates it infact drives the compressor shaft which is coupled to it.

Layout of a gas turbine power plant 5 April 2013 35 .

Merits of closed cycle Higher thermal efficiency Reduced size No contamination Improved heat transmission Improved part load efficiency Lesser fluid friction No loss of working medium Greater output Inexpensive fuel .

therefore not economical for moving vehicles Requires the use of very large air heaters .Demerits of closed cycle Complexity Large amount of cooling water is required. this limits its use to stationary installation or marine use where water is available in abundance Dependent system The weight of the system per KW developed is high comparatively.

Combined Cycle Power Plant 5 April 2013 38 .

 It is simple in construction.Gas turbine power plant…  Advantages of gas turbine power plant :  Storage of fuel requires less area and handling is easy. benzene and powdered coal can be used which are cheaper than petrol and diesel.  The cost of maintenance is less.  Less pollution and less water is required.  Gas turbine plants can be used in water scarcity areas.  Cheaper fuel such as kerosene . condenser and other accessories as in the case of steam power plants. There is no need for boiler. paraffin. 5 April 2013 39 .

.000 rpm) and the operating temperature is as high as 1100 – 1260C.  The running speed of gas turbine is in the range of (40.000 to 100.Gas turbine power plant… Disadvantages of gas turbine power plant :  66% of the power developed is used to drive the compressor.  High frequency noise from the compressor is objectionable. Therefore the gas turbine unit has a low thermal efficiency.  For this reason special metals and alloys have to be used for the various parts of the turbine.

Combined cycle .

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