CURRICULUM FOUNDATIONS

PROBLEM CENTERED DESIGNS
Presentation by: Norliza Mohamad

Curriculum Designs:

Problem Centered Designs (Robert S. Zais)

g. major social problems.PROBLEM CENTERED DESIGN Design focused on the problems of living. areas of living. individual and social. the personal and social concerns of youth. contemporary social problems. persistent life situations. social action projects for the reconstruction of society. Broad and inclusive – large number of variations on the theme and focusing e. .

Problems centered design curricula determined by: Scope Classification of problem Needs.PROBLEM CENTERED DESIGN Emphasis an individual as opposed to social needs. concern and abilities of students * Content and the development of learners Emphasis the major life activities and problems of mankind .

PROBLEM CENTERED DESIGN  3 designs in this category: 1. Personal / social concerns of youth . Areas-of-living 2. Core curriculum 3.

Areas-of-living design • 19th century • Herbert Spencer’s (1885) What Knowledge Is Of Most Worth? • Spencer proposed the curriculum prepared people to function effectively in the 5 basic areas of living common to all societies: .

Leisure activities . shelter). Parenthood 4. Direct self preservation 2. Citizenship 5.Areas of living design 1. 3. Indirect self preservation (securing food.

Areas of living design Another statement advocating Commission on the Recognition of Secondary Education (1918) proposed a classification of areas of living – The Seven Cardinal Principles .

Health Command of fundamental process Worthy home membership Vocation Citizenship Worthy use of leisure time Ethical character . 6. 7. 3.THE 7 CARDINAL PRINCIPLES 1. 4. 2. 5.

Language Proficiency . Responsibility and competence 2. Family relationship 4. Intelligent consumer action 5. Appreciation of beauty 6. Economic understanding 3.Areas of living design Educational Policies of The National Education Association (1944) proposed 6 major categories of life: 1.

. Intellectual power.Areas of living design • Stratemeyer et. Responsibility for moral choices and aesthetic expression and appreciation. Situations calling for growth in individual capacities :Health. al prepared MASTER List of Persistent Life Situations: a.

group membership and intergroup memberships.Areas of living design b. economic social political structure and forces. c. Situations calling for growth in ability to deal with environmental factors and forces : Natural phenomena technological phenomena. Situations calling for growth in social participation : person to person relationships. .

.Areas of living design Tentative Course of Study for Virginia Public Schools identifies 11 areas of living constitute the scope of the curriculum for all grade levels.

Production of goods. Communication and transportation of goods & people 5. services & distribution of the returns of production 3. Integration of the individual . property & natural resources 11 A R E A S O F L I V I N G 6. Expression of aesthetic impulsus 7. Consumption of good & services 4. Protection & conservation of life. Extension of freedom 10. Education 9. Exploration 1. Expression of aesthetic impulsus 2.11 AREAS OF LIVING 11. Recreation 8.

. • Encourages problem solving procedures for learning.THE ADVANTAGES OF AREAS OF LIVING DESIGN • Presents subject matter in an integrated form – focusing on the related categories of social life. • Present subject matter in a relevant form – the content focus the solution of real life problems.

.FEATURES OF THE AREAS OF LIVING DESIGN • Focuses on problem solving procedures for learning. • Utilizes the experience immediate situations of learners – every students experience is closely realted to the basic areas of lives.

THE ADVANTAGES OF AREAS OF LIVING DESIGN • Present content in a functional formfocuses the solution of student own problems. it provides them with learning that are applicable to future life situations. • Learns the facts and processes of their own existence in the real world. .

THE DISADVANTAGES OF AREAS OF LIVING DESIGN • How to determine the scope and sequence of the essential areas of living? • Tendency to indoctrinate youth into existing conditional and to perpetuate the social status quo. • Teacher are not prepared to function effectively with the design .

• Parents are not ready to accept the departure from tradition that the design represents. .THE DISADVANTAGES OF AREAS OF LIVING DESIGN • Textbook and other teaching material needed to implement the design are not readily available.

THE CORE DESIGN • It centers on general education and the problems are based on common human activities. concerns of the learners. problems. • The central focus of the core design includes common needs. .

THE CORE DESIGN • Provide common learnings or general education for all students. Skeletal structure of the core design (page 422. Zais). • See the Figure 17-1. .

SKELETAL STRUCTURE OF THE CORE DESIGN PPREPROFESIONAL COURSE V P P V V V VVOCATIONAL COURSE S CORE S D D D D S S.SPECIAL INTEREST COURSE D DACADEMIC DISCIPLINE COURSE .

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English and social studies – taught by single teacher in a block time class.THE SEPARATE SUBJECTS CORE • Required individual subjects separately taught by subject matter specialists.g. . and weaknesses as that design. • Manifest the same characteristic. strengths. E.

• E. .g. they are reading biographies of Marx and Lenin in their English class. When students are studying communism in their social studies class.THE CORRELATED CORE • Showing the relationships among the two or more subjects included in the core – the content of the separate core subjects that can be related is brought together and taught concurrently.

g. .THE FUSED CORE • Based on the total integration or fusion of two or more separate subjects. botany. chemistry. E. • Mathematics and science are seldom found in this type core although they are required as separate subjects outside the block time classes. zoology as general sciences. physics.

Students and teacher decide on the project. .THE ACTIVITY / EXPERIENCE CORE • Immediate felt need and interest of learners. • E. and establish criteria for evaluation. project design to eliminate pollution in a local river.g. plan the activities.

• Allowance for student-teachers planning. when such planning take place. . however. it is always within the framework set by the basic curriculum structure.THE AREAS OF LIVING CORE • Preplanned • Required program of general education based on problems arising out of the common activities of man in society.

g. • e. Learning value standards and how to use them in process of critical thoughts.THE SOCIAL PROBLEMS CORE • Centering on crucial and controversial issues. -Tied to identification of crucial contemporary social problems. • Some curriculum specialists believe this core represents the ideal design for general education in a democracy. .

CORE WEAKNESSES & STRENGTHS S • Unifies content • Provides relevant subject matter • Encourages active processing of information • Fosters democratic processes in the classroom W • Nontraditional • Ignores the fundamentals • Materials are hard to find .

or problem based learning. organizes subject matter around a problem.CONCLUSION Problem-centered design. that needs to be solved. real or hypothetical. .

CONCLUSION The connection of subject matter to real situation increases the relevance of the curriculum. .

.CONCLUSION The planner should concern what outcomes and experiences all should have in common.

REVIEW • What curriculum design(s) do you find? • Do your schools support the problem – centered curriculum? .

What to teach 4.Teacher 2. How to Teach 5. self-direction Performance compared to learner’s own set of goals Parents Subject-Centered Master Competitors/ next masters ProblemCentered Trainer Problem-solvers/ independent 3. Partners Subject matter content which are detached from life Intellectual practices (ex: cram reviews) Learner’s mastery of the subject content Practical work (ex: social construction skills) Direct participation (ex: case study) Dealing with life and its problems community . Performance (measureme nt) 6.Approaches to CD 1. Learners Child or LearnerCentered Guide Most important /center of the educational process What learners want to learn/accompl ish Self-discovery.

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