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Submitted By: Saurabh Gupta UE 6557 ECE 7th Semester
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Fig. Fig. Fig. Fig. Fig. Fig. Fig. Fig. Fig. Fig. Fig. Fig. 1: An RFID System 2: An RFID Tag 3: An RFID Tag 4: An Active Tag 5: A Passive Tag 6: The EPC Code 7: RFID Interrogators 8: The Working of an RFID System 9: Tag on a Cloth 10: Tag used for Animal Identification 11: Tag used as a Human Implant 12: Protest against RFID
List of Tables
Table 1: Active Tag vs. Passive Tag Table 2: RFID vs. Bar Code
List of Abbreviations RFID CONUS RF DSRC IRID EPC LFID HFID UHFID IC CASPIAN ICAO BEL IEEE Radio Frequency Identification Continental United States Radio Frequency Dedicated Short Range Communication Infra Red Frequency Identification Electronic Product Code Low Frequency Identification High Frequency Identification Ultra High Frequency Identification Integrated Circuits Consumers Against Supermarket Privacy Invasion and Numbering International Civil Aviation Organization Bharat Electronics Limited Institute of Electrical & Electronics Engineers .
XXII .Contents History………………………………………………………………………………………I Introduction to RFID…………………………………………………………....VII Interrogators….…IX How Does It Work? …………………………………………………………….II Components of RFID Technology………………………………..……XX Future Scope…………………………………………………………………….XI Advantages……………………………………………………………………………XII RFID vs.XIII Applications………………………………………………………………………...…XIV Issues in Implementation of RFID Technology………XVIII Initiatives in India on RFID………………………………………...……III RFID Tags………………………………………………………………………………. Bar Code…………………………………………………………….XXI References……………………………………………………………………….…………………………………………………………………VIII Antenna Types…………………………………………………………………….…V The EPC Code……………………………………………………………………….IV Types of RFID Tags…………………………………………………………….
was performed by Steven Depp. and Robert Freyman at the Los Alamos National Laboratory in 1973. The portable system operated at 915 MHz and used 12-bit Tags. Mario Cardullo's U. The initial device was passive. RFID’s earliest application was during World War II.713.S. pp 1196–1204. not the kind of plane it was. and was demonstrated in 1971 to the New York Port. a passive radio transponder with memory. Alfred Koelle. both passive and active. This technique is used by the majority of today's UHFID and microwave RFID Tags. A very early demonstration of reflected power RFID Tags. October 1948).History In 1946 Léon Theremin invented an espionage tool for the Soviet Union which retransmitted incident radio waves with audio information. Transponders are still used by most powered aircraft to this day.148 in 1973 was the first true ancestor of modern RFID. where United Kingdom used RFID devices to distinguish returning English airplanes from inbound German ones. Another early work exploring RFID is the landmark 1948 paper by Harry Stockman. Even though this device was a covert listening device. I . not an identification tag. Patent 3. RADAR was only able to signal the presence of a plane. it is considered to be a predecessor of RFID technology. powered by the interrogating signal. titled "Communication by Means of Reflected Power" (Proceedings of the IRE. The largest deployment of RFID is the US Department of Defense use of Savi Active Tags on every one of its more than a million shipping containers that travel outside of the Continental United States (CONUS).
animal. relying on storing and remotely retrieving data whenever required using devices called RFID Tags or transponders. IR frequencies are far higher than freq used for RFID. II . & they can’t penetrate into solid objects. 1: An RFID System IRID technology is almost similar to RFID. Fig. Therefore. It is an automatic identification method. It is also called Dedicated Short Range Communication (DSRC). In Electromagnetic spectrum. IRID is more commonly used in imaging applications such as night vision & motion detection. or a person. the main difference being the frequency of operation.Introduction to RFID RFID (Radio Frequency IDentification) is a technology that incorporates the use of electromagnetic or electrostatic coupling in the radio frequency (RF) portion of the electromagnetic spectrum to uniquely identify an object. path losses are very high. such as boxes to read the tags. At IR.
Interrogators (Antenna + Reader): Interrogators are used to read the Tags & in certain cases even write on them.Components Technology Tags (Chip + Antenna): of RFID An RFID Tag is an object that can be stuck on or incorporated into a product. Middleware: Middleware is the needed interface between the existing company databases & information management software. Middleware provides a range of functions: • Data Filtering • System Monitoring • Multiple Reader Co-ordination Business Application Software: It is used to manage & process the collected data. III . animal or a person for the purpose of identification using radio waves.
RFID Tags An RFID Tag is a transponder which receives a radio signal and in response to it. and optionally permanently locked. partition able. livestock. Tag contains an antenna. 2: An RFID Tag To communicate. Tags can be attached to almost anything: • pallets or cases of product • vehicles • company assets or personnel • items such as apparel. luggage. laundry • people. load modulation techniques can be used to manipulate the reader's field. as arriving signals can be very weak and must be differentiated. Fig. 3: An RFID Tag IV . sends out a radio signal. Tag memory can be factory or field programmed. backscatter is used in the far field. TVs. Typically. and a small chip that stores a small amount of data. whereas load modulation applies in the near field. Tags respond to queries generating signals that must not create interference with the readers. Besides backscattering. within a few wavelengths from the reader. camcorders Fig. or pets • high value electronics such as computers.
can be as small as a pencil lead in diameter and one-half inch in length. inserted beneath the skin. Tags can be screw-shaped to identify trees or wooden items. depending upon operating temperatures and battery type). Passive Tags Active Tags Active RFID Tags are powered by an internal battery and are typically read/write. There are two basic types of RFID Tags: 1. The anti-theft hard plastic Tags attached to merchandise in stores are RFID Tags. Tag data can be rewritten and/or modified. The trade off is greater size. and the machine would then report its performance to the Tag. Animal tracking Tags. In a typical read/write RFID work-in-process system. some systems operate with up to 1MB of memory. trucks.Types of RFID Tags RFID Tags are available in a wide variety of shapes and sizes. An Active Tag's memory size varies according to application requirements.. heavy-duty 5X4X2inch rectangular transponders used to track intermodal containers or heavy machinery. and railroad cars for maintenance and tracking applications are RFID Tags. The battery-supplied power of an Active Tag generally gives it a longer read range. In addition.e. and a limited operational life (which may yield a maximum of 10 years. Active Tags 2. This encoded data would then become part of the tagged part's history. a Tag might give a machine a set of instructions. greater cost. or credit-card shaped for use in access applications. i. V .
usually less Few hundred within 3m of reader 128 bytes of read/write Table 1: Active Tag vs. Passive Tags are consequently much lighter than Active Tags.Passive Tags Passive RFID Tags operate without a separate external power source and obtain operating power generated from the reader. Read-only Tags are typically passive and are programmed with a unique set of data (usually 32 to 128 bits) that cannot be modified. Active Tag Tag Power Source Tag Battery Required signal strength to Tag Range Multi-Tag reading Data Storage Internal to Tag Passive Tag Energy transferred using RF from reader No Very High Yes Very Low Up to 100m 1000’s of Tags recognized – up to 100mph Up to 128 Kb or read/ write & search Up to 3-5m. in the same way as linear barcodes reference a database containing modifiable product-specific information. less expensive. Readonly Tags most often operate as a license plate into a database. The trade off is that they have shorter read ranges than Active Tags and require a higher-powered reader. Passive Tag VI . and offer a virtually unlimited operational lifetime.
But recently a globally standardized standard. organize and communicate with one another.123456. 613. Fig. It could range fro a mere 36 bits to 128 bits.Could describe the product type (20 Bits) • Serial Number – Unique ID for that product item (34 Bits) VII .G. E.23000. named as the EPC Global. much as the Internet Protocol (IP) Address allows computers to identify. has been devised which suggests the standard length of EPC Code of 96 bits.123456789 (96 bits) • Header – defines data type (8 bits) • EPC Manager manufacturer) (34 bits) – describes originator of EPC (Product • Object Class . 6: The EPC Code Due to the lack of global standards. The EPC will be used to address and access individual objects from the computer network. there was no standard range of the EPC Code.The EPC Code The objective of the Electronic Product Code (EPC) is to provide unique identification of physical objects.
The reader has an antenna that emits radio waves.Interrogators An RFID Interrogator (or Reader) is a device that is used to interrogate an RFID Tag. or wireless. tethered. 7: RFID Interrogators VIII . the Tag responds by sending back its data The reader has two basic components: • A scanning antenna • A transceiver with a decoder to interpret the data Readers can be at a fixed point such as: • Entrance/exit • Point of sale • Warehouse Readers can also be mobile. Fig. hand-held.
These coils are less costly to produce than LF coils. IX .56 MHz. Compact LowFID Tags. and because the voltage induced is proportional to frequency. antennas can be bent or meandered. a HFID or HighFID Tag. Low-frequency is 30–300 kHz. and capacitive tip-loading or bowtie-like broadband structures are also used. Tags embedded in labels must be less than 10 cm (4 inches) in extent. UHFID and microwave Passive Tags are usually radiatively-coupled to the reader antenna and can employ conventional dipole-like antennas.Antenna Types The Antennas used for an RFID Tag are affected by the intended application and the frequency of operation. Ultrahigh-frequency or UHF is 300 MHz-3 GHz. use a multilayer coil (3 layers of 100–150 turns each) wrapped around a ferrite core. LFID or LowFID Passive Tags are normally inductively coupled. many coil turns are needed to produce enough voltage to operate an integrated circuit. for example. Half-wave dipoles (16 cm at 900 MHz) are too big for many applications. but two metal layers and an insulator layer are needed to allow for the crossover connection from the outermost layer to the inside of the spiral where the integrated circuit and resonance capacitor are located. Only one metal layer is required. reducing cost of manufacturing. High frequency is 3-30 MHz. To reduce the length of the antenna. using a planar spiral with 5–7 turns over a credit-card-sized form factor can be used to provide ranges of tens of centimeters. At 13. since they can be made using lithographic techniques rather than by wire winding. like glass-encapsulated Tags used in animal and human identification.
and the need to provide a ground layer and ground connection increases cost relative to simpler single-layer structures.Patch antennas are used to provide service in close proximity to metal surfaces. but a structure with good bandwidth is 3–6 mm thick. X . HFID and UHFID Tag antennas are usually fabricated from copper or aluminum. Conductive inks have seen some use in Tag antennas but have encountered problems with IC adhesion and environmental stability.
Reader decodes the data & results are returned to the host application. Tag receives and modifies carrier signal & sends back a modulated signal or reflects back the incoming signal depending upon the type of the Tag.How Does It Work? Fig. Carrier signal generated by the reader (upon request from the host application). Carrier signal hits Tag(s). • • • • • Reader and Tag communicate via RF signal. 8: The Working of an RFID System Sequence of Communication • Host Manages Reader(s) and Issues Commands. Carrier signal sent out through the antennas. • • XI . Antennas receive the modulated signal & send them to the Reader.
Bar codes only provide a manufacturer and product type. In addition. This translates to cost savings. on average. And add another for administrative costs for labels that aren't read properly. which causes inventory errors and non-compliant returns and penalties • • • XII . This makes it possible to use Tags in harsh environments and in closed containers/structures. 7 cents in human labor to scan a bar code. When using bar codes.Advantages • • • • • • • The read-only Tag code data is 100% secure and can not be changed or duplicated. The Tags can be used repeatedly Relatively low maintenance cost No line-of-sight necessary to read/write data. sizes and materials No need for physical contact between the data carrier and the communication device.scanners have to have line of sight to read them An RFID Tag could identify the item (not just its manufacturer and category). labor is required to put each label correctly on each plastic crate holder or panel. Add a cost for label changes and replacements for "non readable" codes. Very robust Tags that can stand extreme conditions and temperatures Tags are available in a great range of types. They don’t identify unique items Extremely low error rate RFID technology is a labor-saving technology. Using bar code technology costs.
here’s an analysis of the two systems in a tabular form: RFID Forging is difficult Bar Code Forging is easy Scanner not required. Therefore.RFID vs. No need to Scanner needs to see the bar code bring the Tag near the reader to read it RFID is comparatively fast Can read multiple Tags Relatively expensive as compared to Bar Codes (Reader 1000$. Bar Code XIII . Tag 20 cents a piece) Can be reusable within factory premises Cannot be reused Can read only one Tag at a time Table 2: RFID vs. Bar Code Bar Code Technology is the nearest competitor to the RFID Systems.
Product Tracking High-frequency RFID or HFID/HighFID Tags are used in library book or bookstore tracking. jewelry tracking. Belgium. In Feb 2008. Standards for RFID passports are determined by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). Portugal.Applications Passports RFID Tags are being used in passports issued by many countries. Fig. and are contained in ICAO Document 9303. Norway. Poland. Highfrequency Tags are widely used in identification badges. and apparel and pharmaceutical items tracking. 9: Tag on a Cloth XIV . Pakistan. The American Express Blue credit card now includes a HighFID Tag. Part 1. Japan. ICAO standards provide for e-passports to be identifiable by a standard e-passport logo on the front cover. Germany. pallet tracking. replacing earlier magnetic stripe cards. airline baggage tracking. These badges need only be held within a certain distance of the reader to authenticate the holder. Volumes 1 and 2 (6th edition. building access control. ICAO refers to the ISO 14443 RFID chips in e-passports as "contactless integrated circuits". including Malaysia. The United Kingdom. Australia and the United States. Ireland. The Netherlands. New Zealand. 2006). Emirates airline started a trial of RFID baggage tracing at London and Dubai airports.
and the reduction of inventory inaccuracies. such as a book's title or material type. Yard Management. the simplification of business processes.Transportation & Logistics Logistics & Transportation is a major area of implementation for RFID technology. The RFID Tag found on library materials typically measures 50 mm X 50 mm in North America and 50 mm x 75 mm in XV .). In an academic study performed at Wal-Mart.1 and 15 units a day. CDs. Other benefits of using RFID include the reduction of labor costs. DVDs. or simply "Chips" on animals. The information is read by an RFID reader. Libraries Among the many uses of RFID technologies is its deployment in libraries. the technology provides an accurate knowledge of the current inventory. This technology has slowly begun to replace the traditional barcodes on library items (books. Notably. Shipping & Freight and Distribution Centers are some areas where RFID tracking technology is used. The transponders are more well-known as Passive RFID technology. which replaces the standard barcode reader commonly found at a library's circulation desk. For example. without having to be pointed to a separate database (but this is rare in North America). The RFID Tag can contain identifying information. RFID reduced Out-of-Stocks by 30 percent for products selling between 0. Animal Identification Implantable RFID Tags or transponders can be used for animal identification. Transportation companies around the world value RFID technology due to its impact on the business value and efficiency. Inventory Systems An advanced automatic identification technology such as the Auto-ID system based on the Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology has significant value for inventory systems. etc.
a science museum in San Francisco. use an implantable chip to identify their VIP customers. A XVI . England is piloting a monitoring system designed to keep tabs on pupils by tracking radio chips in their uniforms. is using an RFID card system to check in and out of the main gate. who implanted a chip in his arm in 1998. England. and student IDs in a primary school. offering a different means of inventory management by the staff and self service by the borrowers. started September. taking the place of the more traditional electromagnetic security strip. Spain and in Rotterdam. Night clubs in Barcelona. but also the membership cards could be fitted with an RFID Tag. St Charles Sixth Form College in West London. Human Implants Implantable RFID chips designed for animal tagging are now being used in humans. It can also act as a security device. Museums RFID technologies are now also implemented in end-user applications in museums. to both track attendance and prevent unauthorized entrance. It may replace or be added to the barcode. California. Schools & Universities School authorities in the Japanese city of Osaka are now chipping children's clothing. The Netherlands. A school in Doncaster. An example is the custom-designed application "eXsport" at the Exploratorium. 2008. back packs. who in turn use it to pay for drinks. And not only the books.Europe. An early experiment with RFID implants was conducted by British professor of cybernetics Kevin Warwick.
the mirror reflects their image and also images of the apparel item being worn by celebrities on an interactive display. Social Retailing When customers enter a dressing room. normally on their arm. The eXspot system enables the visitor to receive information about the exhibit and take photos to be collected at the giftshop. A webcam also projects an image of the consumer wearing the item on the website for everyone to see. The Casimo Group Ltd sells such a system. Later they can visit their personal Web page on which specific information such as visit dates.visitor entering the museum receives an RF Tag that can be carried on a card or necklace. XVII . Riders have a transponder on their person. Lap Scoring Passive and Active RFID systems are used in off-road events such as Enduro and Hare and Hounds racing. the visited exhibits and the taken photographs can be viewed. When they complete a lap they swipe or touch the receiver which is connected to a computer and log their lap time. This creates an interaction between the consumers inside the store and their social network outside the store. The technology in this system is an RFID interrogator antenna in the dressing room and Electronic Product Code RFID Tags on the apparel item.
The two main privacy concerns regarding RFID are: • Since the owner of an item will not necessarily be aware of the presence of an RFID Tag and the Tag can be read at a distance without the knowledge of the individual. privacy organizations have expressed concerns in the context of ongoing efforts to embed electronic product code (EPC) RFID Tags in consumer products. it becomes XVIII . Tags which are worldreadable pose a risk to both personal location privacy and corporate/military security. co-founders of CASPIAN (Consumers Against Supermarket Privacy Invasion and Numbering). Privacy The use of RFID technology has engendered considerable controversy and even product boycotts by consumer privacy advocates. Furthermore.are two prominent critics of the technology who refer to RFID Tags as "spychips". Such concerns have been raised with respect to the United States Department of Defense's recent adoption of RFID Tags for supply chain management. no emerging standard has yet become as universal as the barcode. Katherine Albrecht and Liz McIntyre. More generally.Issues in Implementation of RFID Technology Global Standardization The frequencies used for RFID in the USA are currently incompatible with those of Europe or Japan. Security Concerns A primary RFID security concern is the illicit tracking of RFID Tags.
Human Implantation The Food and Drug Administration in the US has approved the use of RFID chips in humans. On July 22. at a conference in New York City showed that they could clone the RFID signal from a human implanted RFID chip. such as the Baja Beach nightclub in Barcelona. • If a tagged item is paid for by credit card or in conjunction with use of a loyalty card. XIX . then it would be possible to indirectly deduce the identity of the purchaser by reading the globally unique ID of that item (contained in the RFID Tag). Reuters reported that two hackers. Most concerns revolve around the fact that RFID Tags affixed to products remain functional even after the products have been purchased and taken home and thus can be used for surveillance and other purposes unrelated to their supply chain inventory functions. Newitz and Westhues. There are concerns this could lead to abuse by an authoritarian government or lead to removal of freedoms.possible to gather sensitive data about an individual without consent. This has provoked concerns into privacy of individuals as they can potentially be tracked wherever they go by an identifier unique to them. showing that the chip is not hack-proof as was previously believed. Some business establishments have also started to chip customers. 2006.
XX . • Patni Computer Systems Lab: Tracking System. Setting up a lab to study RFID 2.Initiatives in India on RFID • Wipro Technologies: Member of the Electronic Product Code (EPC) 1.5 million commuters per day. Working on pilot projects • Infosys Technologies: RFID consulting on logistics player in the RFID space. • Delhi Metro: The underground subway or metro system implements RFID ticket coins. Implemented Animal • Intellicon: Pilot project for BEL Bangalore. • TCS: Tied up with Hyderabad University to produce RFID tagged mark sheets & degrees to deter use of fake degree. has implemented the use of RFID ticket cards. • Mumbai: The busiest Suburban Rail Transport in the world. Buses inside the BEL campus were tracked with the aim of gauging employee punctuality. Tags installed on employee buses. which transports 3.
are overcome and this technology is fully implemented. security concerns.Future Scope The world will be very different once readers and RFID Tags are everywhere. In an RFID-enhanced future. the way we purchase goods. the way we open the locks of our homes. It has the potential of revolutionizing the way we travel. etc. XXI . the benefits would accrue not just to businesses. it can transform the way we live our lives. but also to consumers. Once various limitations like lack of a global standard. the cost factor. the way we do business and much more.
com http://www.rfidjournal.com XXII .wikipedia.org http://www.References • • • • IEEE Spectrum Magazine http://www.howstuffworks.
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