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Matthew Suhre

Overview

**History of Cryptography Cryptography Basics RSA Encryption
**

Algorithm Example History Process Pros and Cons Open Air Cryptography

Quantum Cryptography

Cryptography History

**Dates Back to Julius Ceaser
**

Didn’t trust messanger Used “Shift by 3” method

Cryptography Basics

Cryptosystem (Cipher System) – method of disguising messages so that only certain people can read them Cryptography – Art of creating and using Cryptosystems Cryptanalysis – Art of breaking Cryptosystems Cryptography – study of Cryptography and Cryptosystems

Cryptography Basics

**Symmetric Cryptosystems use the same key to encrypt and decrypt
**

You need to send the key securely

Asymmetric Cryptosystems use a public key to encrypt and a private key to decrypt

RSA Encryption

Invented in 1978 by Ron Rivest, Adi Shamir and Leonard Adleman Algorithm for public key encryption

**RSA Encryption Algorithm
**

**1. Find P and Q two large prime numbers 2. Choose E such that: 1<E<PQ
**

E does not have to be prime, but must be odd (P-1)(Q-1) and E must not have no prime factors in common

3. Compute D such that (DE-1) is evenly divisible by (P-1)(Q-1)

**RSA Encyrption Algorithm
**

**4. Encryption function is C = (T^E) mod PQ
**

C is the ciphertext (positive integer) T is the plaintext (positive integer) T must be less then the modulus PQ

**5. Decryption function is T = (C^D) mod PQ
**

C is the ciphertext (positive integer) T is the plaintext (positive integer) D is the private key

Example of RSA Encryption

RSA Encryption

Relying on

No one can solve Would take to long to solve

Theoretically Can be Broken

**Quantum Cryptography History
**

Early 1970’s Stephen Wiesner wrote “Conjugate Coding” 1979 Charles H. Bennett and Gilles Brassard wrote various papers on the subject Basis: Takes advantage of Heisenberg’s principle in which measuring a quantum system disturbs it and yields incomplete information

**Quantum Cryptography Setup
**

Most widely used is the BB84 Protocol developed by IBM The sending apparatus consists of a green lightemitting diode, a lens, a pinhole and mirrors that provide a collimated beam of horizontally polarized light. Next, electronic devices known as Pockels Cells are used to change the original horizontal polarization to any of four standard polarization states under the users control

**Quantum Cryptography Setup
**

The receiving apparatus contains a similar Pockels cell, which allows the user to choose the type of polarization he will measure. After the beam passes through hte Pockels Cell, it is split by a calcite prism into two perpendicularly polarized beams, which are directed into two photomultiplier tubes for the purpose of detecting individual photons

Alice Sends Polarizations

Bob randomly chooses measurement

Bob records the results

They Check the results

This then becomes the key

Quantum Cryptography

**If someone tries to steal the signal
**

Measurements are changed Signal is slower/weaker Sender/Reciever can stop

Pros

Nearly Impossible to steal Detect if someone is listening “Secure”

Cons

**Price limits length
**

Normally just for a local network about 10km Record set by Los Almos is 31 miles Longer length, signal is absorbed, noise increased

**Availability Compete with traditional networks
**

If was a straight pipe, distance could be limitless

Free Space

Being developed for longer distances May be possible to send from ground satellites to space satellites Longest recorded is ½ km, at Los Almos

Summary

**History of Cryptography Cryptography Basics RSA Encryption
**

Algorithm Example History Process Pros and Cons Open Air Cryptography

Quantum Cryptography

Bibliography

http://www.cs.mcgill.ca/~crepeau/CRYPTO/Biblio-QC.html http://www.qubit.org/intros/crypt.html http://www.faqs.org/faqs/cryptography-faq http://world.std.com/~franl/crypto.html http://www.lanl.gov/orgs/pa/science21/QuantumCrypto.html http://www.almaden.ibm.com/st/projects/quantum/crypto/ http://www.quantum.univie.ac.at/research/crypto/ http://www.rsasecurity.com/rsalabs/faq/sections.html http://www.sciam.com/news/122200/2.html

http://world.std.com/~franl/crypto/rsa-guts.html

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