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TE 402

RF & Microwave Engineering

Engr. Ghulam Shabbir

Electromagnetic Theory

Analysis Techniques in Microwave Theory

• In general, circuit theory is not applicable to

microwave problems.

• Circuit theory is derived from Maxwell’s equations

based on certain assumptions about the fields within

the circuit elements.

• Specifically, the circuit elements must be small relative

to wavelength for circuit equations to be valid.

• In this sense, microwave components must be modeled

by distributed elements, not lumped elements.

• For this reason, we must use field theory solutions

(Maxwell’s equations) for microwave applications.

Maxwell’s Equations

Instantaneous, symmetric form

Maxwell’s Equations

• The quantities of magnetic current density M and magnetic

charge density ρ

m

are nonphysical and included in the

symmetric forms of Maxwell’s equation for mathematical

convenience.

• These magnetic sources may be used to simplify the

mathematics of particular problems involving actual

electric currents and charges.

Instantaneous, symmetric form

Maxwell’s Equations

• The flux and field quantities are related by the

constitutive relations:

Instantaneous, symmetric form

Maxwell’s Equations

Instantaneous, symmetric form

• The instantaneous Maxwell’s equations are valid, given

any type of time-dependence for the electromagnetic

fields.

• Most applications in microwave engineering involve

fields which have a sinusoidal (harmonic) time-

dependence.

• This harmonic time-dependence allows us to simplify

Maxwell’s equations by writing them in terms of phasors

just like we use in circuit analysis.

Maxwell’s Equations

Instantaneous, symmetric form

Maxwell’s Equations

Instantaneous, symmetric form

• According to Euler’s identity, we may write the equation

above as

Maxwell’s Equations

Instantaneous, symmetric form

Maxwell’s Equations

Phasor form

• Relation of instantaneous quantities to phasor

quantities ...

Maxwell’s Equations

Complex Permittivity and Permeability

• In order to account for dielectric and magnetic losses in

media where time-harmonic electromagnetic fields exist,

we may define a complex permittivity and permeability.

• In the case of dielectrics, we may combine the

conductivity losses with the dielectric losses according

to Maxwell’s equations.

• The conduction current density J in a given medium is

defined by

Maxwell’s Equations

Complex Permittivity and Permeability

• We may write a single equation which includes dielectric

and conductor losses by incorporating the complex

permittivity and the conduction current equation into

Ampere’s law:

since

&

Maxwell’s Equations

Complex Permittivity and Permeability

Maxwell’s Equations

Material Classifications

Maxwell’s Equations

Electromagnetic Field Boundary Conditions

• Knowledge of how the components of an electromagnetic

field behave at the interface between two different media is

important in the solution of many problems in microwave

engineering.

• A simple interface between two media is shown below.

• The vector n is defined as the unit normal to the interface

pointing into region 2.

Maxwell’s Equations

Electromagnetic Field Boundary Conditions

The general boundary conditions are:

• Note that the individual components of the vector fields

are discontinuous at the interface by an amount equal to

the respective surface current or charge on the boundary.

• In most applications, we do not encounter all of the

surface sources.

• These general boundary conditions can be specialized to

problems involving specific combinations of materials.

• n·( ) defines the normal

components of the vector

• n × ( ) defines the tangential

components of the vector

Maxwell’s Equations

Interface Between Two Lossless Dielectric Materials

• Thus, the normal components of electric and magnetic

flux and the tangential components of electric and

magnetic field are continuous across a lossless dielectric

interface.

Maxwell’s Equations

Perfect Electric Conductor (PEC)

• Note that the tangential electric field is always zero on the

surface of a PEC.

• The tangential magnetic field on a PEC is equal to the

surface current while the normal electric flux is equal to

the surface charge.

Maxwell’s Equations

Perfect Magnetic Conductor (PMC)

• Note that the tangential magnetic field is always zero on the

surface of a PMC.

• The tangential electric field on a PEC is equal to the negative of

the surface magnetic current while the normal electric flux is

equal to the surface magnetic charge.

Electromagnetic Waves

Electromagnetic Waves

• Taking the curl of (1) and inserting (2) yields

• while taking the curl of (2) and inserting (1) yields

in (5) and (6) gives

Electromagnetic Waves

• However, the divergence terms in (7) and (8) are zero in

the source-free region. This gives the wave equations

(Helmholtz equations) for the electric and magnetic

field.

• The wave equations for the E and H show that energy

will propagate away from a time-varying

electromagnetic source in the form of electromagnetic

waves.

Electromagnetic Waves

Plane Waves

• Plane waves are the most commonly encountered wave

types in electromagnetic applications and are the easiest

to define mathematically.

• Plane wave - the electric and magnetic field of a plane

wave lie in the plane which is perpendicular to the

direction of wave propagation

(Direction of E × H is the direction of wave propagation)

• Uniform Plane wave - the electric and magnetic fields of a

uniform plane wave are uniform in the plane which is

perpendicular to the direction of propagation

(Magnitude of E and H vary only in the direction of wave

propagation)

Electromagnetic Waves

Example - Uniform Plane Wave

Electromagnetic Waves

Example - Uniform Plane Wave

• The uniform plane wave for this example has only

o a z-component of electric field and

o an x-component of magnetic field

o which are both functions of only y

• The vector Laplacian operator (∇

2

) which appears in the

wave equations for E and H may be expanded in

rectangular coordinates as

Electromagnetic Waves

Example - Uniform Plane Wave

• Given the vector Laplacian definition, the wave equations for

E and H reduce to

where the partial derivatives have been replaced by pure

derivatives given that the field components are functions of

only one variable.

Note that the right hand side of the equations above is the

zero vector.

Electromagnetic Waves

Example - Uniform Plane Wave

• Thus, by equating the vector components on both sides of

the equation, we may write scalar equations for E

z

and H

x

• The general solutions to these D.E.’s are

where E

1

, E

2

, H

1

, and H

2

are constants.

Electromagnetic Waves

Example - Uniform Plane Wave

• The instantaneous forms of the wave field components are

and

Electromagnetic Waves

Example - Uniform Plane Wave

• The direction of propagation for the plane wave may be

determined by investigating the points of constant phase

on the waves.

• Given the +a

y

traveling wave of our example, the constants

E

1

and H

1

must be zero so that

Electromagnetic Waves

Plane Wave Parameters

• The velocity of propagation (v

p

) of the plane wave is found

by differentiating the position of the point of constant

phase with respect to position.

Electromagnetic Waves

Plane Wave Parameters

• The radian frequency of the plane wave is defined by

• With the wave traveling at a velocity of v

p

, it takes one

period (T) for the wave to travel one wavelength (λ).

• The wavenumber definition in terms of λ shows that the all

waves see a phase change of 2π radians per wavelength.

Electromagnetic Waves

Plane Wave Parameters

• Plane waves have the characteristic that:

The ratio of the electric field to magnetic field at any point

is a constant

which is related to the constitutive parameters of the

medium.

• This property can be illustrated by using Maxwell’s

equations with our example of plane wave.

Electromagnetic Waves

Plane Wave Parameters

Electromagnetic Waves

Plane Waves in Lossy Media

• A plane wave loses energy as it propagates through a lossy

medium.

• A medium is defined as a lossy medium if it is characterized

by any or all of the following loss mechanisms:

• Dielectric and magnetic losses are typically small and can be

neglected for most materials.

• However, conduction losses can be significant for commonly

encountered materials.

Electromagnetic Waves

Plane Waves in Lossy Media

Electromagnetic Waves

Plane Waves in Lossy Media

Electromagnetic Waves

Plane Waves in Lossy Media

Electromagnetic Waves

Plane Waves in Lossy Media

• Given the same +y-directed uniform plane wave

assumed in the lossless example, the differential

equations governing the plane wave field components in

the lossy medium are

which have general solutions of the form

Electromagnetic Waves

Poynting’s Theorem

• The corresponding phasor form of the Poynting vector S is

Electromagnetic Waves

Poynting’s Theorem

• Given a volume V enclosed by the surface S which contains

electric and magnetic sources J and M, Poynting’s theorem

for the volume may be written as

Electromagnetic Waves

Poynting’s Theorem

• Poynting’s theorem states that the complex power produced by

the sources is equal to the power transmitted out of the volume

plus that dissipated in the form of heat (through conductor,

dielectric and magnetic losses) plus the 2ω times the net reactive

stored energy.

Maxwell’s Equations

Equations in point (differential) form of time-varying

0

,

,

,

= · V

= · V

+

c

c

= × V

÷

c

c ÷

= × V

B

D

J

t

D

H

M

t

B

E

µ

Equation Continuity , 0 =

c

c

+ · V

t

J

µ

( 0, 0) E M V· V· V× = V· =

· V

Generally, EM fields and sources vary with space (x, y, z) and time (t) coordinates.

Equations in integral form

, Faraday's Law

, Ampere's Law

, Gauss's Law

0, No free magnetic charge

C S

C S

S

S

B

E dl ds

t

D

H dl ds I

t

Dds Q

Bds

c

· = ÷

c

c

· = +

c

=

=

} }

} }

}

}

,

Divergence theorem

,

Stokes' theorem

v s

s c

A A ds

A A dl

V· = ·

V× = ·

} }

} }

Where MKS system of units is used, and

E : electric field intensity, in V/m.

H : magnetic field intensity, in A/m.

D : electric flux density, in Coul/m

2

.

B : magnetic flux density, in Wb/m

2

.

M : (fictitious) magnetic current density, in V/m

2

.

J : electric current density, in A/m

2

.

ρ: electric charge density, in Coul/m

3

.

ultimate source of the electromagnetic field.

Q : total charge contained in closed surface S.

I : total electric current flow through surface S.

Time-Harmonic Fields

0

,

,

,

= · V

= · V

+ = × V

÷ ÷ = × V

B

D

J D j H

M B j E

µ

e

e

When steady-state condition is considered, phasor representations of

Maxwell’s equations can be written as : (time dependence by multiply e

-jet

)

2

: Displacement current density, in A/m EM wave propagatiom

D

t

c

¬

c

Constitutive Relations

Question : 2(6) equations are not enough to solve 4(12) unknown

field components

In free space

H B

E D

0

0

,

µ

c

=

=

where c

0

= 8.854×10

-12

farad/m is the permittivity of free space.

μ

0

= 4t×10

-7

Henry/m is the permeability of free space.

In isotropic materials

(e.g. Crystal structure and ionized gases)

| | | |

3 3 3 3

,

x x x x

y y y y

z z z z

D E B H

D E B H

D E B H

c µ

× ×

( ( ( (

( ( ( (

= =

( ( ( (

( ( ( (

¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸

) 1 ( , ) (

); 1 ( ,

0

" '

0

0

" '

0

m m

e e

j H P H B

j E P E D

_ µ µ µ µ µ µ

_ c c c c c c

+ = ÷ = = + =

+ = ÷ = = + =

where P

e

is electric polarization, P

m

is magnetic polarization,

_

e

is electric susceptibility, and _

m

is magnetic susceptibility.

Complex

c and µ

The negative imaginary part of c and µ account for loss in medium (heat).

, Ohm's law from an EM field point of view

=

= ' ( " )

= ( ' " )

"

tan , Loss tangent

'

J E

H j D J

j E E

j E E

j j j E

o

e

ec o

ec ec o

o

e c ec

e

ec o

o

ec

=

V× = +

+

+ +

÷ ÷

+

=

where o is conductivity (conductor loss),

ωc’’ is loss due to dielectric damping,

(ωc’’ + o) can be seen as the total effective conductivity,

o is loss angle.

In a lossless medium, c and µ are real numbers.

Microwave materials are usually characterized by specifying the real

permittivity, c’=c

r

c

0

,and the loss tangent at a certain frequency.

It is useful to note that, after a problem has been solved assuming a

lossless dielectric, loss can easily be introduced by replaced the real c with

a complex c.

Example1.1 : In a source-free region, the electric field intensity is given as

follow. Find the signal frequency?

V/m 4 ˆ

) 3 ( y x j

e z E

÷ ÷

· =

Solution :

) 3 (

0

) 3 (

0

0

ˆ 4 ˆ 12

4 0 0

ˆ ˆ ˆ

1

y x j

y x j

e

y x

e

z y x

z y x

j

H H j E

÷ ÷

÷ ÷

+

=

(

(

(

(

¸

(

¸

c

c

c

c

c

c

÷ = ¬ ÷ = × V

eµ eµ

eµ

) 3 (

0 0

2

) 3 (

0

) 3 (

0

0

0

ˆ 16

0

4 12

ˆ ˆ ˆ

1

y x j

y x j y x j

e

z

e e

z y x

z y x

j

E

E j H

÷ ÷

÷ ÷ ÷ ÷

=

(

(

(

(

(

(

¸

(

¸

c

c

c

c

c

c

= ¬

= × V

c µ e

eµ eµ

ec

ec

8

2

0 0 0 0

16 2

4 6 10 rad/s e

µ c e µ c

= ¬ = = ×

Boundary Conditions

2 1 2 1

2 1 2 1

,

, ,

H n H n E n E n

B n B n D n D n

× = × × = ×

· = · · = ·

Fields at a dielectric interface

Fields at the interface with a perfect conductor (Electric Wall)

S

S

J H n E n

B n D n

= × = ×

= · = ·

, 0

, 0 , µ

Magnetic Wall boundary condition (not really exist)

0

,

, 0

, 0

= ×

÷ = ×

= ·

= ·

H n

M E n

B n

D n

S

· ÷ o ty conductivi Assumed

It is analogous to the relations between voltage and current at the end of

a short-circuited transmission line.

It is analogous to the relations between voltage and current at the end of

a open-circuited transmission line.

Helmholtz (Vector) Wave Equation

In a source-free, linear, isotropic, and homogeneous

medium

0

, 0

2 2

2 2

= + V

= + V

H H

E E

µc e

µc e

is defined the wavenumber, or propagation constant

, of the medium; its unit are 1/m.

Plane wave in a lossless medium

( ) ,

1

( ) [ ],

jkz jkz

x

jkz jkz

y

E z E e E e

H z E e E e

k

q

e µc

+ ÷ ÷

+ ÷ ÷

= +

= ÷

=

Solutions of above wave equations

H

E

k

÷ = =

c

µ

eµ

q

is wave impedance, intrinsic impedance of medium.

In free space, q

0

=377O.

ˆ

Transverse Electromagnetic Wave

(TEM)

x y

E H z ± ± ± ¬

,

E j H

H j E

ec

eµ

= × V

÷ = × V

V×

) tan 1 ( ) ( 1

' " '

o µc e c c µ e

ec

o

µc e | o ¸ j j j j j j j ÷ = ÷ = ÷ = + =

is phase velocity, defined as a fixed phase point on

the wave travels.

In free space, v

p

=c=2.998×10

8

m/s.

µc

e 1

= = =

k dt

dz

v

p

f

v v

k

p p

= = =

e

t

t

ì

2

2

is wavelength, defined as the distance between two

successive maximum (or minima) on the wave.

Plane wave in a general lossy medium

In wave equations, j k ¸ for following conditions.

-1

: Complex propagation constant (m )

: Attenuation constant(Np/m;1Np/m=8.69dB/m), : Phase constant(rad/m)

¸

o |

eµo o

o

2 1

= =

s

is skin depth or penetration depth, defined as the

amplitude of fields in the conductor decay by an amount

1/e or 36.8%, after traveling a distance of one skin depth.

Good conductor

Condition: (1) o >>ωc or (2) c’’>>c’

Scattering Parameters (S-Parameters)

Consider a circuit or device inserted

into a T-Line as shown in the Figure.

We can refer to this circuit or device

as a two-port network.

The behavior of the network can be

completely characterized by its

scattering parameters (S-parameters),

or its scattering matrix, [S].

Scattering matrices are frequently

used to characterize multiport

networks, especially at high

frequencies.

They are used to represent microwave

devices, such as amplifiers and

circulators, and are easily related to

concepts of gain, loss and reflection.

| |

11 12

21 22

S S

S

S S

(

=

(

¸ ¸

Scattering matrix

Scattering Parameters (S-Parameters)

The scattering parameters represent

ratios of voltage waves entering and

leaving the ports (If the same

characteristic impedance, Zo, at all ports

in the network are the same).

1 11 1 12 2

. V S V S V

÷ + +

= +

2 21 1 22 2

. V S V S V

÷ + +

= +

11 12 1 1

21 22 2 2

,

S S V V

S S V V

÷ +

÷ +

=

( ( (

( ( (

¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸

In matrix form this is written

| | | || | . V S V

÷ +

=

2

1

11

1

0 V

V

S

V

+

÷

+

=

=

1

1

12

2

0 V

V

S

V

+

÷

+

=

=

1

2

22

2

0 V

V

S

V

+

÷

+

=

=

2

2

21

1

0 V

V

S

V

+

÷

+

=

=

Scattering Parameters (S-Parameters)

Properties:

The two-port network is reciprocal

if the transmission characteristics

are the same in both directions

(i.e. S

21

= S

12

).

It is a property of passive circuits

(circuits with no active devices or

ferrites) that they form reciprocal

networks.

A network is reciprocal if it is equal

to its transpose. Stated

mathematically, for a reciprocal

network

| | | | ,

t

S S =

11 12 11 21

21 22 12 22

.

t

S S S S

S S S S

=

( (

( (

¸ ¸ ¸ ¸

12 21

S S =

Condition for Reciprocity:

1) Reciprocity

Microwave Applications

– Wireless Applications

– TV and Radio broadcast

– Optical Communications

– Radar

– Navigation

– Remote Sensing

– Domestic and Industrial Applications

– Medical Applications

– Surveillance

– Astronomy and Space Exploration

Radar System Comparison

Radar Characteristic µwave mmwave optical

tracking accuracy poor fair good

identification poor fair good

volume search good fair poor

adverse weather perf. good fair poor

perf. in smoke, dust, ... good good fair

Microwave Engr. Distinctions

· 1 - Circuit Lengths:

· Low frequency ac or rf circuits

· time delay, t, of a signal through a device

· t = L/v « T = 1/f where T=period of ac signal

· but fì=v so 1/f= ì/v

· so L «ì, I.e. size of circuit is generally much

smaller than the wavelength (or propagation

times or phase shift ~ 0)

· Microwaves: L~ ì

· propagation times not negligible

· Optics: L» ì

Microwave Distinctions

· 2 - Skin Depth:

· degree to which electromagnetic field

penetrates a conducting material

· microwave currents tend to flow along the

surface of conductors

· so resistive effect is increased, i.e.

· R ~ R

DC

a / 2 o, where

– o = skin depth = 1/ (t f µ

o

o

cond

)

1/2

– where, R

DC

= 1/ (t a

2

o

cond

)

– a = radius of the wire

• R

µwaves in Cu

>R

low freq. in Cu

Microwave Engr. Distinctions

· 3 - Measurement Technique

· At low frequencies circuit properties

measured by voltage and current

· But at microwaves frequencies, voltages

and currents are not uniquely defined; so

impedance and power are measured rather

than voltage and current

Circuit Limitations

• Simple circuit: 10V, ac driven, copper wire,

#18 guage, 1 inch long and 1 mm in

diameter: dc resistance is 0.4 mO,

L=0.027μH

– f = 0; X

L

= 2 t f L ~ 0.18 f ×10

-6

=0

– f = 60 Hz; X

L

~ 10

-5

O = 0.01 mO

– f = 6 MHz; X

L

~ 1 O

– f = 6 GHz; X

L

~ 10

3

O = 1 k O

– So, wires and printed circuit boards cannot be

used to connect microwave devices; we need

transmission lines, waveguides, striplines, and

microstrip

High-Frequency Resistors

• Inductance and resistance of wire resistors

under high-frequency conditions (f > 500

MHz):

– eL/R

DC

~ a / (2 o)

– R /R

DC

~ a / (2 o)

– where, R

DC

= /(t a

2

o

cond

)

– a = radius of the wire

– o = skin depth = 1/ (t f µ

o

o

cond

)

-1/2

Reference: Ludwig & Bretchko, RF Circuit Design

High Frequency Capacitor

• Equivalent circuit consists of parasitic lead

conductance L, series resistance R

s

describing

the losses in the the lead conductors and

dielectric loss resistance R

e

= 1/G

e

(in parallel)

with the Capacitor.

• G

e

= e C tan A

s

, where

– tan A

s

= (ec/o

diel

)

-1

= loss tangent

Reference: Ludwig & Bretchko, RF Circuit Design

Reference: Ludwig & Bretchko, RF Circuit Design

Transit Limitations

• Consider an FET

• Source to drain spacing roughly 2.5 microns

• Apply a 10 GHz signal:

– T = 1/f = 10

-10

= 0.10 nsec

– transit time across S to D is roughly 0.025 nsec

or 1/4 of a period so the gate voltage is low

and may not permit the S to D current to flow

Ref: text by Pozar

Wireless Communications

Options

• Sonic or ultrasonic - low data rates, poor

immunity to interference

• Infrared - moderate data rates, but easily

blocked by obstructions (use for TV remotes)

• Optical - high data rates, but easily

obstructed, requiring line-of-sight

• RF or Microwave systems - wide bandwidth,

reasonable propagation

Cellular Telephone Systems (1)

• Division of geographical area into non-

overlapping hexagonal cells, where each

has a receiving and transmitting station

• Adjacent cells assigned different sets of

channel frequencies, frequencies can be

reused if at least one cell away

• Generally use circuit-switched public

telephone networks to transfer calls

between users

Cellular Telephone Systems (2)

• Initially all used analog FM modulation and

divided their allocated frequency bands

into several hundred channels, Advanced

Mobile Phone Service (AMPS)

– both transmit and receive bands have 832, 25

kHz wide bands. [824-849 MHz and 869-894

MHz] using full duplex (with frequency

division)

• 2

nd

generation uses digital or Personal

Communication Systems (PCS)

Satellite systems

• Large number of users over wide areas

• Geosynchronous orbit (36,000 km above

earth)

– fixed position relative to the earth

– TV and data communications

• Low-earth orbit (500-2000 km)

– reduce time-delay of signals

– reduce the need for large signal strength

– requires more satellites

• Very expensive to maintain & often needs

line-of sight

Global Positioning Satellite

System (GPS)

• 24 satellites in a medium earth orbit (20km)

• Operates at two bands, L1 at 1575.42 and L2

at 1227.60 MHz , transmitting spread

spectrum signals with binary phase shift

keying.

• Accurate to better that 100 ft and with

differential GPS (with a correcting known base

station), better than 10 cm.

Frequency choices

• availability of spectrum

• noise (increases sharply at freq. below 100

MHz and above 10 GHz)

• antenna gain (increases with freq.)

• bandwidth (max. data rate so higher freq.

gives smaller fractional bandwidth)

• transmitter efficiency (decreases with freq.)

• propagation effects (higher freq, line-of sight)

Propagation

• Free space power density decreases by 1/R

2

• Atmospheric Attenuation

• Reflections with multiple propagation paths

cause fading that reduces effective range, data

rates and reliability and quality of service

• Techniques to reduce the effects of fading are

expensive and complex

Antennas

• RF to an electromagnetic wave or the inverse

• Radiation pattern - signal strength as a function

of position around the antenna

• Directivity - measure of directionality

• Relationship between frequency, gain, and size

of antenna, ì = c/f

– size decreases with frequency

– gain proportional to its cross-sectional area \ ì

2

– phased (or adaptive) array - change direction of

beam electronically

berikutnya coordinate systems Untuk

z x

an menghasilk x / partial oleh n didefisika yg Perubahan

C sin A B A

lainnya r terhadap satu vecto projeksi

product, dot atau scalar : cos A B A

on vectors interseksi B dan A Misalkan

Review

z y

y

x

B

B

Math

c

c

+

c

c

+

c

c

÷ V

c c

= ×

= ·

u

u

sungai) di mengalir yg daun (pusaran rotation

(Russian) ROT or ; ) ( ) A (

flow outward net : Divergence ; A

change of rate : gradient ; u

(Space) ruang dalam bervariasi

z) y, u(x, u scalar memiliki field sebuah jika

z

Curl

y

A

x

A

z

A

y

A

x

A

z

z

u

y

y

u

x

x

u

z

x

y

z

y

x

c

c

+

c

c

= × V

c

c

+

c

c

+

c

c

= · V

c

c

+

c

c

+

c

c

= V

=

theorem (batu) Stokes ; ) (

theorem Divergence ; ) (

0 curl of div or

0 ) ( ) ( ; ) ( ) (

0 gradient of curl or 0 ; 0

} }

} }

× V = ·

· V = ·

=

= · V × V = × V · V · × = × ·

= = V × V = ×

÷

÷

s

v

s

ds A d A

dV A ds A

C C C B A C B A

u A A

Maxwell’s Equations

• Gauss

• No Magnetic Poles

• Faraday’s Laws

• Ampere’s Circuit Law

t D J H

t B E

B

D

c c + = × V

c ÷c = × V

= - V

= - V

/

/

0

u µ

Characteristics of Medium

Constitutive Relationships

n propagatio of direction z constant, phase

constant on attentuati , j where

z) - t exp(j to al proportion H E,

plasma ferrites, except scalars , ,

surfaces on so not itself, medium in the 0, J

s Assumption

Current Convective J J J J E, J

ty Permeabili Magnetic , H, B

y Permitivit Dielectric , E D

v v, c c

r o

, o r

= = |

= o | + o = ¸

¸ e

c µ

= µ =

= + = o =

µ µ = µ µ =

c c = c c =

v

Fields in a Dielectric Materials

0 on conservati entergy to due negative

(heat) medium in the loss for accounts

magnitude) of orders 4 or (3 dielectric good for ,

j ) 1 (

E E ) 1 ( D

ity suceptibil dielectric , E density moment dipole P

density) nt displaceme or flux electric (D 0 J and

so magnetic, non and , P E D Assume

e

o

e

o

e

o

e

o o

> c

' '

c

' '

c

'

<< c

' '

c

' '

÷ c

'

= _ + c = c

c = _ + c =

= _ c _ = =

= = µ =

µ = µ = + c =

Fields in a Conductive Materials

c

'

e

o + c

' '

e

÷ o =

o + c

' '

e

o + c

' '

e + c

'

e =

e

o

÷ c

' '

÷ c

'

e =

c

' '

÷ e + c

'

e + o = c +

e

o

e =

ec + o =

c

c

c + o =

c

c

+ = × V

o = =

e

tan tangent loss effective

ty conductivi effective the is where

E )] ( j [ E ) j j ( j

E ) ) j ( j j ( E )

j

( j

E j E

t

E

E

t

D

J H

e as vary fields E where , E J J

t j

c

Wave Equation

c µ

µc e

µc e

µc e

ec eµ

eµ

ec eµ

e

and by described medium in

waves of constant n propagatio :

; H - H

; E - E

E ) )( (

) H ( E - E) ( E) (

E j H H, -j E

j t / Consider

2

2 2

2 2

2

= ÷

= V

= V

÷ =

÷ × V = V - V V = × V × V

= × V = × V

÷ c c

k def ine

similarly

j j

j

General Procedure to Find Fields in a

Guided Structure

• 1- Use wave equations to find the z

component of E

z

and/or H

z

– note classifications

– TEM: E

z

=

H

z

= 0

– TE: E

z

=

0,

H

z

= 0

– TM: H

z

=

0,

E

z

= 0

– HE or Hybrid: E

z

=

0,

H

z

= 0

General Procedure to Find Fields in a

Guided Structure

• 2- Use boundary conditions to solve for any

constraints in our general solution for E

z

and/or H

z

conductor of surface the to normal n

ˆ

where

conductor perfect of surface on 0 H or , 0 H n

ˆ

J H n

ˆ

/ E n

ˆ

conductor perfect of surface on 0 E or 0, E n

ˆ

n

s

t

=

= = ·

= ×

= ·

= = ×

c µ

s

Plane Waves in Lossless Medium

direction z in the moving constant kz t ω

)) kz t (cos( E )) kz t (cos( E ) t , z ( E

: domain time in the or

e E e E ) z ( E 0 E k

z

E

0 y / x / and E E

medium lossless a in

real are and since real is ω k where 0, E k E

x

j kz j kz

x x

2

2

x

2

x

2 2

+ = ÷

+ e + ÷ e =

+ = ¬ = +

c

c

= c c = c c ÷

c µ µc ÷ = + V

÷ +

+ ÷ ÷ +

Phase Velocity

c f v

f v

f

v v

c

k dt

d

dt

dz

p

p

p p

o

o

= =

= = = =

= = +

× = = =

= = = = = =

ì

ì

e

t

t

ì

ì t ì e e

c µ

µc µc e

e e e

: space free in

or

2

k

2

k 2 )) k(z - t ( - kz) - t (

maxima successive 2 between distance : Wavelength

m/sec 10 3

1

v space free in

1

)

k

constant - t

( v

a velocity at els point trav phase Fixed

8

p

p

Wave Impedance

E/H or

k

where

) e E e E (

k

H

H j e jkE e jkE

y

ˆ

z

E

x

ˆ

E z

ˆ

z

so ; 0

y x

H j

t

H

- E : eqn s Maxwell' By

j kz j kz

y

y

j kz j kz

x

x

÷ q

eµ

= q

÷

eµ

=

eµ ÷ = + ÷

c

c

÷ ×

c

c

=

c

c

=

c

c

eµ ÷ =

c

c

µ = × V

+ ÷ ÷ +

+ ÷ ÷ +

Plane Waves in a Lossy Medium

k and j and

0 , 0 note ) j 1 ( j j

complex now , number e wav ) j 1 (

0 E ) j 1 ( E

E ) E ( E

) E E j ( j ) H ( j E

E E j H and H j E

2 2

2 2

2

= | | ÷ ¸

÷ o ÷ o

ec

o

÷ µc e = | + o ÷ ¸

= ¸ ÷ =

ec

o

÷ µc e

=

ec

o

÷ µc e + V

V ÷ · V V = × V × V

o + ec ÷ eµ ÷ = × V eµ ÷ = × V × V

o + ec ÷ = × V eµ ÷ = × V

Wave Impedance in Lossy Medium

losses with impedance wave

j

where

) e E e E (

j

H

) z t cos( e domain time e e e

e E e E ) z ( E 0 E

z

E

0 y / x / and x

ˆ

E E before as

z z

y

z z j z z

z z

x x

2

2

x

2

x

=

¸

eµ

= q

+

eµ

¸ ÷

=

| ÷ e ÷ =

+ = ÷ = ¸ ÷

c

c

= c c = c c ÷

¸ + ÷ ¸ ÷ +

o ÷ | ÷ o ÷ ¸ ÷

¸ + ÷ ¸ ÷ +

Plane Waves in a good Conductor

surface on the flow currents s, frequencie microwave at

Au) Ag, Cu, (Al, metals most for m 1 GHz, 10 at

depth skin / 2 / 1

2 / 2 / ) j 1 (

/ j j / j j

case practical

s

s

2

µ s o

÷ eµo = o = o

eµo = o eµo + =

ec µco e ÷ = ec o ÷ µc e ~ ¸

ec >> o

Energy and Power

ed transmitt power ds z

ˆ

H E Re 2 / 1 P

) W W ( j 2 P P

sources by generated power P

dv H H 4 / dv B H Re 4 / 1 W

dv E E 4 / dv D E Re 4 / 1 W

loss as dissipated or ed transmitt be may that

power carry and energy magnetic and electric store

that fields up sets energy netic electromag of source A

*

s

o

e m o

s

v

*

v

*

m

v

*

v

*

e

= · × =

+ e + + =

=

· µ = · =

· c = · =

}

} }

} }

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