# Lecture 2

TE 402
RF & Microwave Engineering
Engr. Ghulam Shabbir
Electromagnetic Theory
Analysis Techniques in Microwave Theory
• In general, circuit theory is not applicable to
microwave problems.
• Circuit theory is derived from Maxwell’s equations
based on certain assumptions about the fields within
the circuit elements.
• Specifically, the circuit elements must be small relative
to wavelength for circuit equations to be valid.
• In this sense, microwave components must be modeled
by distributed elements, not lumped elements.
• For this reason, we must use field theory solutions
(Maxwell’s equations) for microwave applications.
Maxwell’s Equations
Instantaneous, symmetric form
Maxwell’s Equations
• The quantities of magnetic current density M and magnetic
charge density ρ
m
are nonphysical and included in the
symmetric forms of Maxwell’s equation for mathematical
convenience.
• These magnetic sources may be used to simplify the
mathematics of particular problems involving actual
electric currents and charges.
Instantaneous, symmetric form
Maxwell’s Equations
• The flux and field quantities are related by the
constitutive relations:
Instantaneous, symmetric form
Maxwell’s Equations
Instantaneous, symmetric form
• The instantaneous Maxwell’s equations are valid, given
any type of time-dependence for the electromagnetic
fields.
• Most applications in microwave engineering involve
fields which have a sinusoidal (harmonic) time-
dependence.
• This harmonic time-dependence allows us to simplify
Maxwell’s equations by writing them in terms of phasors
just like we use in circuit analysis.

Maxwell’s Equations
Instantaneous, symmetric form
Maxwell’s Equations
Instantaneous, symmetric form
• According to Euler’s identity, we may write the equation
above as
Maxwell’s Equations
Instantaneous, symmetric form
Maxwell’s Equations
Phasor form
• Relation of instantaneous quantities to phasor
quantities ...
Maxwell’s Equations
Complex Permittivity and Permeability
• In order to account for dielectric and magnetic losses in
media where time-harmonic electromagnetic fields exist,
we may define a complex permittivity and permeability.
• In the case of dielectrics, we may combine the
conductivity losses with the dielectric losses according
to Maxwell’s equations.
• The conduction current density J in a given medium is
defined by
Maxwell’s Equations
Complex Permittivity and Permeability
• We may write a single equation which includes dielectric
and conductor losses by incorporating the complex
permittivity and the conduction current equation into
Ampere’s law:
since
&
Maxwell’s Equations
Complex Permittivity and Permeability
Maxwell’s Equations
Material Classifications
Maxwell’s Equations
Electromagnetic Field Boundary Conditions
• Knowledge of how the components of an electromagnetic
field behave at the interface between two different media is
important in the solution of many problems in microwave
engineering.
• A simple interface between two media is shown below.
• The vector n is defined as the unit normal to the interface
pointing into region 2.
Maxwell’s Equations
Electromagnetic Field Boundary Conditions
The general boundary conditions are:
• Note that the individual components of the vector fields
are discontinuous at the interface by an amount equal to
the respective surface current or charge on the boundary.
• In most applications, we do not encounter all of the
surface sources.
• These general boundary conditions can be specialized to
problems involving specific combinations of materials.
• n·( ) defines the normal
components of the vector

• n × ( ) defines the tangential
components of the vector
Maxwell’s Equations
Interface Between Two Lossless Dielectric Materials
• Thus, the normal components of electric and magnetic
flux and the tangential components of electric and
magnetic field are continuous across a lossless dielectric
interface.
Maxwell’s Equations
Perfect Electric Conductor (PEC)
• Note that the tangential electric field is always zero on the
surface of a PEC.
• The tangential magnetic field on a PEC is equal to the
surface current while the normal electric flux is equal to
the surface charge.
Maxwell’s Equations
Perfect Magnetic Conductor (PMC)
• Note that the tangential magnetic field is always zero on the
surface of a PMC.
• The tangential electric field on a PEC is equal to the negative of
the surface magnetic current while the normal electric flux is
equal to the surface magnetic charge.
Electromagnetic Waves
Electromagnetic Waves
• Taking the curl of (1) and inserting (2) yields
• while taking the curl of (2) and inserting (1) yields
in (5) and (6) gives
Electromagnetic Waves
• However, the divergence terms in (7) and (8) are zero in
the source-free region. This gives the wave equations
(Helmholtz equations) for the electric and magnetic
field.
• The wave equations for the E and H show that energy
will propagate away from a time-varying
electromagnetic source in the form of electromagnetic
waves.
Electromagnetic Waves
Plane Waves
• Plane waves are the most commonly encountered wave
types in electromagnetic applications and are the easiest
to define mathematically.
• Plane wave - the electric and magnetic field of a plane
wave lie in the plane which is perpendicular to the
direction of wave propagation
(Direction of E × H is the direction of wave propagation)
• Uniform Plane wave - the electric and magnetic fields of a
uniform plane wave are uniform in the plane which is
perpendicular to the direction of propagation
(Magnitude of E and H vary only in the direction of wave
propagation)
Electromagnetic Waves
Example - Uniform Plane Wave
Electromagnetic Waves
Example - Uniform Plane Wave
• The uniform plane wave for this example has only
o a z-component of electric field and
o an x-component of magnetic field
o which are both functions of only y
• The vector Laplacian operator (∇
2
) which appears in the
wave equations for E and H may be expanded in
rectangular coordinates as
Electromagnetic Waves
Example - Uniform Plane Wave
• Given the vector Laplacian definition, the wave equations for
E and H reduce to
where the partial derivatives have been replaced by pure
derivatives given that the field components are functions of
only one variable.

Note that the right hand side of the equations above is the
zero vector.
Electromagnetic Waves
Example - Uniform Plane Wave
• Thus, by equating the vector components on both sides of
the equation, we may write scalar equations for E
z
and H
x

• The general solutions to these D.E.’s are
where E
1
, E
2
, H
1
, and H
2
are constants.
Electromagnetic Waves
Example - Uniform Plane Wave
• The instantaneous forms of the wave field components are
and
Electromagnetic Waves
Example - Uniform Plane Wave
• The direction of propagation for the plane wave may be
determined by investigating the points of constant phase
on the waves.
• Given the +a
y
traveling wave of our example, the constants
E
1
and H
1
must be zero so that
Electromagnetic Waves
Plane Wave Parameters
• The velocity of propagation (v
p
) of the plane wave is found
by differentiating the position of the point of constant
phase with respect to position.
Electromagnetic Waves
Plane Wave Parameters
• The radian frequency of the plane wave is defined by
• With the wave traveling at a velocity of v
p
, it takes one
period (T) for the wave to travel one wavelength (λ).
• The wavenumber definition in terms of λ shows that the all
waves see a phase change of 2π radians per wavelength.
Electromagnetic Waves
Plane Wave Parameters
• Plane waves have the characteristic that:

The ratio of the electric field to magnetic field at any point
is a constant

which is related to the constitutive parameters of the
medium.

• This property can be illustrated by using Maxwell’s
equations with our example of plane wave.
Electromagnetic Waves
Plane Wave Parameters
Electromagnetic Waves
Plane Waves in Lossy Media
• A plane wave loses energy as it propagates through a lossy
medium.
• A medium is defined as a lossy medium if it is characterized
by any or all of the following loss mechanisms:
• Dielectric and magnetic losses are typically small and can be
neglected for most materials.
• However, conduction losses can be significant for commonly
encountered materials.
Electromagnetic Waves
Plane Waves in Lossy Media
Electromagnetic Waves
Plane Waves in Lossy Media
Electromagnetic Waves
Plane Waves in Lossy Media
Electromagnetic Waves
Plane Waves in Lossy Media
• Given the same +y-directed uniform plane wave
assumed in the lossless example, the differential
equations governing the plane wave field components in
the lossy medium are
which have general solutions of the form
Electromagnetic Waves
Poynting’s Theorem
• The corresponding phasor form of the Poynting vector S is
Electromagnetic Waves
Poynting’s Theorem
• Given a volume V enclosed by the surface S which contains
electric and magnetic sources J and M, Poynting’s theorem
for the volume may be written as
Electromagnetic Waves
Poynting’s Theorem
• Poynting’s theorem states that the complex power produced by
the sources is equal to the power transmitted out of the volume
plus that dissipated in the form of heat (through conductor,
dielectric and magnetic losses) plus the 2ω times the net reactive
stored energy.
Maxwell’s Equations
 Equations in point (differential) form of time-varying
0
,
,
,
= · V
= · V
+
c
c
= × V
÷
c
c ÷
= × V
B
D
J
t
D
H
M
t
B
E
µ
Equation Continuity , 0 =
c
c
+ · V
t
J
µ
( 0, 0) E M V· V· V× = V· =
· V
Generally, EM fields and sources vary with space (x, y, z) and time (t) coordinates.
 Equations in integral form
, Ampere's Law
, Gauss's Law
0, No free magnetic charge
C S
C S
S
S
B
E dl ds
t
D
H dl ds I
t
Dds Q
Bds
c
· = ÷
c
c
· = +
c
=
=
} }
} }
}
}
,
Divergence theorem
,
Stokes' theorem
v s
s c
A A ds
A A dl
V· = ·
V× = ·
} }
} }
Where MKS system of units is used, and
E : electric field intensity, in V/m.
H : magnetic field intensity, in A/m.
D : electric flux density, in Coul/m
2
.
B : magnetic flux density, in Wb/m
2
.
M : (fictitious) magnetic current density, in V/m
2
.
J : electric current density, in A/m
2
.
ρ: electric charge density, in Coul/m
3
.
 ultimate source of the electromagnetic field.
Q : total charge contained in closed surface S.
I : total electric current flow through surface S.
 Time-Harmonic Fields
0
,
,
,
= · V
= · V
+ = × V
÷ ÷ = × V
B
D
J D j H
M B j E
µ
e
e
When steady-state condition is considered, phasor representations of
Maxwell’s equations can be written as : (time dependence by multiply e
-jet
)
2
: Displacement current density, in A/m EM wave propagatiom
D
t
c
¬
c
 Constitutive Relations
Question : 2(6) equations are not enough to solve 4(12) unknown
field components
 In free space
H B
E D
0
0
,
µ
c
=
=
where c
0
= 8.854×10
-12
farad/m is the permittivity of free space.
μ
0
= 4t×10
-7
Henry/m is the permeability of free space.
 In isotropic materials
(e.g. Crystal structure and ionized gases)
| | | |
3 3 3 3
,
x x x x
y y y y
z z z z
D E B H
D E B H
D E B H
c µ
× ×
( ( ( (
( ( ( (
= =
( ( ( (
( ( ( (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
) 1 ( , ) (
); 1 ( ,
0
" '
0
0
" '
0
m m
e e
j H P H B
j E P E D
_ µ µ µ µ µ µ
_ c c c c c c
+ = ÷ = = + =
+ = ÷ = = + =
where P
e
is electric polarization, P
m
is magnetic polarization,
_
e
is electric susceptibility, and _
m
is magnetic susceptibility.
Complex
c and µ
The negative imaginary part of c and µ account for loss in medium (heat).
, Ohm's law from an EM field point of view
=
= ' ( " )
= ( ' " )
"
tan , Loss tangent
'

J E
H j D J
j E E
j E E
j j j E
o
e
ec o
ec ec o
o
e c ec
e
ec o
o
ec
=
V× = +
+
+ +
÷ ÷
+
=
where o is conductivity (conductor loss),
ωc’’ is loss due to dielectric damping,
(ωc’’ + o) can be seen as the total effective conductivity,
o is loss angle.
In a lossless medium, c and µ are real numbers.
Microwave materials are usually characterized by specifying the real
permittivity, c’=c
r
c
0
,and the loss tangent at a certain frequency.
It is useful to note that, after a problem has been solved assuming a
lossless dielectric, loss can easily be introduced by replaced the real c with
a complex c.
Example1.1 : In a source-free region, the electric field intensity is given as
follow. Find the signal frequency?
V/m 4 ˆ
) 3 ( y x j
e z E
÷ ÷
· =
Solution :
) 3 (
0
) 3 (
0
0
ˆ 4 ˆ 12
4 0 0
ˆ ˆ ˆ
1

y x j
y x j
e
y x
e
z y x
z y x
j
H H j E
÷ ÷
÷ ÷
+
=
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

c
c
c
c
c
c
÷ = ¬ ÷ = × V
eµ eµ

) 3 (
0 0
2
) 3 (
0
) 3 (
0
0
0
ˆ 16
0
4 12
ˆ ˆ ˆ
1

y x j
y x j y x j
e
z
e e
z y x
z y x
j
E
E j H
÷ ÷
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
=
(
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

c
c
c
c
c
c
= ¬
= × V
c µ e
eµ eµ
ec
ec
8
2
0 0 0 0
16 2
µ c e µ c
= ¬ = = ×
Boundary Conditions
2 1 2 1
2 1 2 1
,
, ,
H n H n E n E n
B n B n D n D n
× = × × = ×
· = · · = ·
 Fields at a dielectric interface
 Fields at the interface with a perfect conductor (Electric Wall)
S
S
J H n E n
B n D n
= × = ×
= · = ·
, 0
, 0 , µ
 Magnetic Wall boundary condition (not really exist)
0
,
, 0
, 0
= ×
÷ = ×
= ·
= ·
H n
M E n
B n
D n
S
· ÷ o ty conductivi Assumed
It is analogous to the relations between voltage and current at the end of
a short-circuited transmission line.
It is analogous to the relations between voltage and current at the end of
a open-circuited transmission line.
Helmholtz (Vector) Wave Equation
 In a source-free, linear, isotropic, and homogeneous
medium
0
, 0
2 2
2 2
= + V
= + V
H H
E E
µc e
µc e
is defined the wavenumber, or propagation constant
, of the medium; its unit are 1/m.
 Plane wave in a lossless medium
( ) ,
1
( ) [ ],

jkz jkz
x
jkz jkz
y
E z E e E e
H z E e E e
k
q
e µc
+ ÷ ÷
+ ÷ ÷
= +
= ÷
=
 Solutions of above wave equations
H
E
k
÷ = =
c
µ

q
is wave impedance, intrinsic impedance of medium.
In free space, q
0
=377O.
ˆ
Transverse Electromagnetic Wave
(TEM)
x y
E H z ± ± ± ¬

,
E j H
H j E
ec

= × V
÷ = × V

) tan 1 ( ) ( 1
' " '
o µc e c c µ e
ec
o
µc e | o ¸ j j j j j j j ÷ = ÷ = ÷ = + =
is phase velocity, defined as a fixed phase point on
the wave travels.
In free space, v
p
=c=2.998×10
8
m/s.

µc
e 1
= = =
k dt
dz
v
p
f
v v
k
p p
= = =
e
t
t
ì
2
2
is wavelength, defined as the distance between two
successive maximum (or minima) on the wave.
 Plane wave in a general lossy medium
In wave equations, j k ¸ for following conditions.
-1
: Complex propagation constant (m )
: Attenuation constant(Np/m;1Np/m=8.69dB/m), : Phase constant(rad/m)
¸
o |
eµo o
o
2 1
= =
s
is skin depth or penetration depth, defined as the
amplitude of fields in the conductor decay by an amount
1/e or 36.8%, after traveling a distance of one skin depth.
Good conductor
Condition: (1) o >>ωc or (2) c’’>>c’
Scattering Parameters (S-Parameters)
 Consider a circuit or device inserted
into a T-Line as shown in the Figure.
We can refer to this circuit or device
as a two-port network.
 The behavior of the network can be
completely characterized by its
scattering parameters (S-parameters),
or its scattering matrix, [S].
 Scattering matrices are frequently
used to characterize multiport
networks, especially at high
frequencies.
 They are used to represent microwave
devices, such as amplifiers and
circulators, and are easily related to
concepts of gain, loss and reflection.
| |
11 12
21 22
S S
S
S S
(
=
(
¸ ¸
Scattering matrix
Scattering Parameters (S-Parameters)
The scattering parameters represent
ratios of voltage waves entering and
leaving the ports (If the same
characteristic impedance, Zo, at all ports
in the network are the same).
1 11 1 12 2
. V S V S V
÷ + +
= +
2 21 1 22 2
. V S V S V
÷ + +
= +
11 12 1 1
21 22 2 2
,
S S V V
S S V V
÷ +
÷ +
=
( ( (
( ( (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
In matrix form this is written
| | | || | . V S V
÷ +
=
2
1
11
1
0 V
V
S
V
+
÷
+
=
=
1
1
12
2
0 V
V
S
V
+
÷
+
=
=
1
2
22
2
0 V
V
S
V
+
÷
+
=
=
2
2
21
1
0 V
V
S
V
+
÷
+
=
=
Scattering Parameters (S-Parameters)
Properties:
The two-port network is reciprocal
if the transmission characteristics
are the same in both directions
(i.e. S
21
= S
12
).
It is a property of passive circuits
(circuits with no active devices or
ferrites) that they form reciprocal
networks.
A network is reciprocal if it is equal
to its transpose. Stated
mathematically, for a reciprocal
network
| | | | ,
t
S S =
11 12 11 21
21 22 12 22
.
t
S S S S
S S S S
=
( (
( (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
12 21
S S =
Condition for Reciprocity:
1) Reciprocity
Microwave Applications
– Wireless Applications
– Optical Communications
– Remote Sensing
– Domestic and Industrial Applications
– Medical Applications
– Surveillance
– Astronomy and Space Exploration
tracking accuracy poor fair good
identification poor fair good
volume search good fair poor
adverse weather perf. good fair poor
perf. in smoke, dust, ... good good fair

Microwave Engr. Distinctions
· 1 - Circuit Lengths:
· Low frequency ac or rf circuits
· time delay, t, of a signal through a device
· t = L/v « T = 1/f where T=period of ac signal
· but fì=v so 1/f= ì/v
· so L «ì, I.e. size of circuit is generally much
smaller than the wavelength (or propagation
times or phase shift ~ 0)
· Microwaves: L~ ì
· propagation times not negligible
· Optics: L» ì
Microwave Distinctions
· 2 - Skin Depth:
· degree to which electromagnetic field
penetrates a conducting material
· microwave currents tend to flow along the
surface of conductors
· so resistive effect is increased, i.e.
· R ~ R
DC
a / 2 o, where
– o = skin depth = 1/ (t f µ
o
o
cond
)
1/2
– where, R
DC
= 1/ (t a
2
o
cond
)
– a = radius of the wire
• R
µwaves in Cu
>R
low freq. in Cu
Microwave Engr. Distinctions
· 3 - Measurement Technique
· At low frequencies circuit properties
measured by voltage and current
· But at microwaves frequencies, voltages
and currents are not uniquely defined; so
impedance and power are measured rather
than voltage and current
Circuit Limitations
• Simple circuit: 10V, ac driven, copper wire,
#18 guage, 1 inch long and 1 mm in
diameter: dc resistance is 0.4 mO,
L=0.027μH
– f = 0; X
L
= 2 t f L ~ 0.18 f ×10
-6
=0
– f = 60 Hz; X
L
~ 10
-5
O = 0.01 mO
– f = 6 MHz; X
L
~ 1 O
– f = 6 GHz; X
L
~ 10
3
O = 1 k O
– So, wires and printed circuit boards cannot be
used to connect microwave devices; we need
transmission lines, waveguides, striplines, and
microstrip
High-Frequency Resistors
• Inductance and resistance of wire resistors
under high-frequency conditions (f > 500
MHz):
– eL/R
DC
~ a / (2 o)
– R /R
DC
~ a / (2 o)
– where, R
DC
= /(t a
2
o
cond
)
– a = radius of the wire
– o = skin depth = 1/ (t f µ
o
o
cond
)
-1/2

Reference: Ludwig & Bretchko, RF Circuit Design
High Frequency Capacitor
• Equivalent circuit consists of parasitic lead
conductance L, series resistance R
s
describing
the losses in the the lead conductors and
dielectric loss resistance R
e
= 1/G
e
(in parallel)
with the Capacitor.
• G
e
= e C tan A
s
, where
– tan A
s
= (ec/o
diel
)
-1
= loss tangent

Reference: Ludwig & Bretchko, RF Circuit Design
Reference: Ludwig & Bretchko, RF Circuit Design
Transit Limitations
• Consider an FET
• Source to drain spacing roughly 2.5 microns
• Apply a 10 GHz signal:
– T = 1/f = 10
-10
= 0.10 nsec
– transit time across S to D is roughly 0.025 nsec
or 1/4 of a period so the gate voltage is low
and may not permit the S to D current to flow
Ref: text by Pozar
Wireless Communications
Options
• Sonic or ultrasonic - low data rates, poor
immunity to interference
• Infrared - moderate data rates, but easily
blocked by obstructions (use for TV remotes)
• Optical - high data rates, but easily
obstructed, requiring line-of-sight
• RF or Microwave systems - wide bandwidth,
reasonable propagation
Cellular Telephone Systems (1)
• Division of geographical area into non-
overlapping hexagonal cells, where each
has a receiving and transmitting station
• Adjacent cells assigned different sets of
channel frequencies, frequencies can be
reused if at least one cell away
• Generally use circuit-switched public
telephone networks to transfer calls
between users
Cellular Telephone Systems (2)
• Initially all used analog FM modulation and
divided their allocated frequency bands
Mobile Phone Service (AMPS)
– both transmit and receive bands have 832, 25
kHz wide bands. [824-849 MHz and 869-894
MHz] using full duplex (with frequency
division)
• 2
nd
generation uses digital or Personal
Communication Systems (PCS)
Satellite systems
• Large number of users over wide areas
• Geosynchronous orbit (36,000 km above
earth)
– fixed position relative to the earth
– TV and data communications
• Low-earth orbit (500-2000 km)
– reduce time-delay of signals
– reduce the need for large signal strength
– requires more satellites
• Very expensive to maintain & often needs
line-of sight
Global Positioning Satellite
System (GPS)
• 24 satellites in a medium earth orbit (20km)
• Operates at two bands, L1 at 1575.42 and L2
at 1227.60 MHz , transmitting spread
spectrum signals with binary phase shift
keying.
• Accurate to better that 100 ft and with
differential GPS (with a correcting known base
station), better than 10 cm.
Frequency choices
• availability of spectrum
• noise (increases sharply at freq. below 100
MHz and above 10 GHz)
• antenna gain (increases with freq.)
• bandwidth (max. data rate so higher freq.
gives smaller fractional bandwidth)
• transmitter efficiency (decreases with freq.)
• propagation effects (higher freq, line-of sight)
Propagation
• Free space power density decreases by 1/R
2

• Atmospheric Attenuation
• Reflections with multiple propagation paths
cause fading that reduces effective range, data
rates and reliability and quality of service
• Techniques to reduce the effects of fading are
expensive and complex
Antennas
• RF to an electromagnetic wave or the inverse
• Radiation pattern - signal strength as a function
of position around the antenna
• Directivity - measure of directionality
• Relationship between frequency, gain, and size
of antenna, ì = c/f
– size decreases with frequency
– gain proportional to its cross-sectional area \ ì
2
– phased (or adaptive) array - change direction of
beam electronically

berikutnya coordinate systems Untuk
z x
an menghasilk x / partial oleh n didefisika yg Perubahan
C sin A B A
lainnya r terhadap satu vecto projeksi
product, dot atau scalar : cos A B A
on vectors interseksi B dan A Misalkan
Review
z y
y
x
B
B
Math
  

   
   
 
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
÷ V
c c
= ×
= ·
u
u
sungai) di mengalir yg daun (pusaran rotation
(Russian) ROT or ; ) ( ) A (
flow outward net : Divergence ; A
change of rate : gradient ; u
(Space) ruang dalam bervariasi
z) y, u(x, u scalar memiliki field sebuah jika
z
Curl
y
A
x
A
z
A
y
A
x
A
z
z
u
y
y
u
x
x
u
z
x
y
z
y
x
c
c
+
c
c
= × V
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
= · V
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
= V
=

  
theorem (batu) Stokes ; ) (
theorem Divergence ; ) (
0 curl of div or
0 ) ( ) ( ; ) ( ) (
0 gradient of curl or 0 ; 0
} }
} }
× V = ·
· V = ·
=
= · V × V = × V · V · × = × ·
= = V × V = ×
÷
÷

 

 
       
 
s
v
s
ds A d A
dV A ds A
C C C B A C B A
u A A
Maxwell’s Equations
• Gauss
• No Magnetic Poles
• Ampere’s Circuit Law
t D J H
t B E
B
D
c c + = × V
c ÷c = × V
= - V
= - V
/
/
0
u µ
Characteristics of Medium
Constitutive Relationships

n propagatio of direction z constant, phase
constant on attentuati , j where
z) - t exp(j to al proportion H E,
plasma ferrites, except scalars , ,
surfaces on so not itself, medium in the 0, J
s Assumption
Current Convective J J J J E, J
ty Permeabili Magnetic , H, B
y Permitivit Dielectric , E D
v v, c c
r o
, o r
= = |
= o | + o = ¸
¸ e
c µ
= µ =
= + = o =
µ µ = µ µ =
c c = c c =
v
Fields in a Dielectric Materials

0 on conservati entergy to due negative
(heat) medium in the loss for accounts
magnitude) of orders 4 or (3 dielectric good for ,
j ) 1 (
E E ) 1 ( D
ity suceptibil dielectric , E density moment dipole P
density) nt displaceme or flux electric (D 0 J and
so magnetic, non and , P E D Assume
e
o
e
o
e
o
e
o o
> c
' '
c
' '
c
'
<< c
' '
c
' '
÷ c
'
= _ + c = c
c = _ + c =
= _ c _ = =
= = µ =
µ = µ = + c =
Fields in a Conductive Materials

c
'
e
o + c
' '
e
÷ o =
o + c
' '
e
o + c
' '
e + c
'
e =
e
o
÷ c
' '
÷ c
'
e =
c
' '
÷ e + c
'
e + o = c +
e
o
e =
ec + o =
c
c
c + o =
c
c
+ = × V
o = =
e
tan tangent loss effective
ty conductivi effective the is where
E )] ( j [ E ) j j ( j
E ) ) j ( j j ( E )
j
( j
E j E
t
E
E
t
D
J H
e as vary fields E where , E J J
t j
c
Wave Equation

c µ
µc e
µc e
µc e
ec eµ

ec eµ
e
and by described medium in
waves of constant n propagatio :
; H - H
; E - E
E ) )( (
) H ( E - E) ( E) (
E j H H, -j E
j t / Consider
2
2 2
2 2
2
= ÷
= V
= V
÷ =
÷ × V = V - V V = × V × V
= × V = × V
÷ c c
k def ine
similarly
j j
j
General Procedure to Find Fields in a
Guided Structure
• 1- Use wave equations to find the z
component of E
z
and/or H
z
– note classifications
– TEM: E
z
=

H
z
= 0
– TE: E
z
=

0,

H
z
= 0
– TM: H
z
=

0,

E
z
= 0
– HE or Hybrid: E
z
=

0,

H
z
= 0

General Procedure to Find Fields in a
Guided Structure
• 2- Use boundary conditions to solve for any
constraints in our general solution for E
z

and/or H
z

conductor of surface the to normal n
ˆ
where
conductor perfect of surface on 0 H or , 0 H n
ˆ
J H n
ˆ
/ E n
ˆ
conductor perfect of surface on 0 E or 0, E n
ˆ
n
s
t
=
= = ·
= ×
= ·
= = ×

c µ
s
Plane Waves in Lossless Medium

direction z in the moving constant kz t ω
)) kz t (cos( E )) kz t (cos( E ) t , z ( E
: domain time in the or
e E e E ) z ( E 0 E k
z
E

0 y / x / and E E
medium lossless a in
real are and since real is ω k where 0, E k E
x
j kz j kz
x x
2
2
x
2
x
2 2
+ = ÷
+ e + ÷ e =
+ = ¬ = +
c
c

= c c = c c ÷
c µ µc ÷ = + V
÷ +
+ ÷ ÷ +
Phase Velocity

c f v
f v
f
v v
c
k dt
d
dt
dz
p
p
p p
o
o
= =
= = = =
= = +
× = = =
= = = = = =
ì
ì
e
t
t
ì
ì t ì e e
c µ
µc µc e
e e e
: space free in
or
2
k
2
k 2 )) k(z - t ( - kz) - t (
maxima successive 2 between distance : Wavelength
m/sec 10 3
1
v space free in
1
)
k
constant - t
( v
a velocity at els point trav phase Fixed
8
p
p
Wave Impedance

E/H or
k
where
) e E e E (
k
H
H j e jkE e jkE
y
ˆ
z
E
x
ˆ
E z
ˆ
z
so ; 0
y x
H j
t
H
- E : eqn s Maxwell' By
j kz j kz
y
y
j kz j kz
x
x
÷ q

= q
÷

=
eµ ÷ = + ÷
c
c
÷ ×
c
c
=
c
c
=
c
c
eµ ÷ =
c
c
µ = × V
+ ÷ ÷ +
+ ÷ ÷ +
Plane Waves in a Lossy Medium

k and j and
0 , 0 note ) j 1 ( j j
complex now , number e wav ) j 1 (
0 E ) j 1 ( E
E ) E ( E
) E E j ( j ) H ( j E
E E j H and H j E
2 2
2 2
2
= | | ÷ ¸
÷ o ÷ o
ec
o
÷ µc e = | + o ÷ ¸
= ¸ ÷ =
ec
o
÷ µc e
=
ec
o
÷ µc e + V
V ÷ · V V = × V × V
o + ec ÷ eµ ÷ = × V eµ ÷ = × V × V
o + ec ÷ = × V eµ ÷ = × V
Wave Impedance in Lossy Medium

losses with impedance wave
j
where
) e E e E (
j
H
) z t cos( e domain time e e e
e E e E ) z ( E 0 E
z
E
0 y / x / and x
ˆ
E E before as
z z
y
z z j z z
z z
x x
2
2
x
2
x
=
¸

= q
+

¸ ÷
=
| ÷ e ÷ =
+ = ÷ = ¸ ÷
c
c

= c c = c c ÷
¸ + ÷ ¸ ÷ +
o ÷ | ÷ o ÷ ¸ ÷
¸ + ÷ ¸ ÷ +
Plane Waves in a good Conductor

surface on the flow currents s, frequencie microwave at
Au) Ag, Cu, (Al, metals most for m 1 GHz, 10 at
depth skin / 2 / 1
2 / 2 / ) j 1 (
/ j j / j j
case practical
s
s
2

µ s o
÷ eµo = o = o
eµo = o eµo + =
ec µco e ÷ = ec o ÷ µc e ~ ¸
ec >> o
Energy and Power

ed transmitt power ds z
ˆ
H E Re 2 / 1 P
) W W ( j 2 P P
sources by generated power P
dv H H 4 / dv B H Re 4 / 1 W
dv E E 4 / dv D E Re 4 / 1 W
loss as dissipated or ed transmitt be may that
power carry and energy magnetic and electric store
that fields up sets energy netic electromag of source A
*
s
o
e m o
s
v
*
v
*
m
v
*
v
*
e
= · × =
+ e + + =
=
· µ = · =
· c = · =
}
} }
} }