Preserving and Revitalizing Filipino Architecture Thru Museum

Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION
A. The Problem and Its Setting
a. Background of the Study Various cultural influences are here in our country, there’s the Chinese, Indian, Islamic, Spanish and even American traditions left their trademarks on the Filipino culture that plays a part on country’s architecture. Different traditions, motifs and even culture are merged with our identity. Identity that had struggled for centuries by Filipino especially in designing and architecture. Many of us are wondering with these questions: Does Philippine Architecture really exist? Is there Filipino architecture?People said that our architecture is an adaptation of Asian architecture. Our very own bahay -kubo, our mountain region dwellings are said to be similar with the other countries. Architecture, as an art, It is “subject to social, political or cultural influences”. It reflects the values of the society. we should provide an opportunity of more accommodating for the presentation, promotion and development of this art. The aim of this study is to give us the information about the architectural background of our country, not to prove that, but to give the facts and knowledge of our architecture. b. Statement of the Problem Major problem: Filipino architecture is not that recognized. Sub-problems:  Non existence of architectural museum in our country.  Several people are asking about the country’s architecture.  Only arch’l students and professionals are those people who have the knowledge/ information about architecture  People’s interests are more on technological gadgets and leisure like going mall shopping.
Alejandro, Kevin J. Architecture 4B 1

Strategies:  Study significant facts and information about the history of early and today’s present architecture. d. Strategies:  Study the architectural features of the Philippine.Preserving and Revitalizing Filipino Architecture Thru Museum c. 3. Architecture 4B 2 .) Strategies:  Create an ideal concept from innovative technology.  Look for the latest trends and architectural innovations today. To come up with a design that will revitalize the sleeping intellect of Filipinos regarding architecture. (To design a museum that is different from today’s modern setting. Kevin J. Architectural Thesis Goal To propose an architectural museum that leads to the architectural knowledge of the people.  To provide an innovative solution in preserving and enhancing architecture 2. To give the public a new look for museums and surpass their known perception.( Filipino architecture) Objectives: 1.  Studies regarding museum principles.  Study the existing features of a museum and seek for identical features to be changed or retain. Project scope and limitation Scope of the study: The study will cover the facts and information regarding the following:  Facts regarding Philippine historic and architectural background. To establish a museum that will give emphasis on architecture in the Philippines.  Architectural innovations Alejandro.

This study will provide ideas on the country’s architecture. the following will benefit:  Public .country’s economy will benefit with this project through the income it will provide. and will contribute our economic quality. Significance of the Study Museums are said to be storage of intellectual knowledge. especially students and researchers. Assumptions Through this project: 1.  Community – by providing a new environment that will give a sense of intellectuality. 2. Will provide the public a new stepping stone into culture and life. 6.Preserving and Revitalizing Filipino Architecture Thru Museum Limitation: This study will come up only with limited sources. Some of the data needed are time consuming and shall be given enough time to be presented. f. source of preserved information and facts. Will provide a new public perception on museums and be a part of their leisure. as a part of our culture and art through museum.as the main beneficiary of this project.  Economic Status . Will provide opportunities for learning for all age level. 3. Architecture 4B 3 . and with this project. especially students. Alejandro. e. Kevin J. The project will provide a new look and a site for our tourism. And these said assumptions will be accomplished with the participation of the local government for the possible project development and needs. The public will have the knowledge about the country’s architecture. 4. 5.

leisure or business purposes. Although these two ends may be distinguished. or historical importance and makes the available for public viewing through exhibits that may be permanent or temporary. and artistic sensibility.the art and science of design and erecting buildings and other physical structures Economy . Kevin J. processes. and the relative weight given to each can vary widely.pertaining to. technologies. or affecting a population or a community as a whole: Tourism . living in some proximity Innovation . the structures they produce reveal much about their environment (including climate and weather). and thus it serves both utilitarian and aesthetic ends. as well as many aspects of daily life. settled or nomadic—has a spatial relationship to the natural world and to other societies. history.is travel for recreational. and society. or ideas that are accepted by markets. governments. Community . they cannot be separated. artistic. Museum . Alejandro.a group of interacting people. Review of Related Literature and Studies Architecture T he art and technique of designing and building. ceremonies. cultural. The practice of architecture is employed to fulfill both practical and expressive requirements. Because every society —whether highly developed or less so.is the creation of better or more effective products. Architecture 4B 4 .Preserving and Revitalizing Filipino Architecture Thru Museum g. services. Definition of Terms Architecture. Public .is an institution that cares for a collection of artifacts and other objects of scientific. as distinguished from the skills associated with construction. B.activities related to the production and distribution of goods and services in a particular geographic region.

Alejandro. and other religious structures in wood and ivory. All these conditions must be met in architecture. utility is a minor concern. statues of saints. while the first and third vary in relative importance according to the social function of buildings. as in a factory. Architecture 4B 5 . Spanish and even American traditions left their trademarks on the Filipino culture including the Architecture of Philippines Let us bring your notice to Philippines Architecture. such as churches and city halls. Islamic.Preserving and Revitalizing Filipino Architecture Thru Museum The characteristics that distinguish a work of architecture from other man-made structures are (1) the suitability of the work to use by human beings in general and the adaptability of it to particular human activities. treatments and shapes. Chinese architectural styles were also often noted in these structures which were rich in religious symbols. Chinese. If the function is chiefly expressive. Architecture of Philippines A s you explore the culture of Philippines. With the passage of time. Napoleon Abueva introduced modernism in Philippine sculpture and was followed by masters like Eduardo Castrillo. as in a monumental tomb. Solomon Saprid. the statues often displayed the Spanish baroque style of architecture. In some buildings. Under the influence of Spanish colonial period. which was heavily overshadowed by the cultural movements turmoiling Europe and the United States since the 1950s. Architecture of Philippines also showcases strong religious symbols because it was highly patronized by the Roman Catholic Church at a point of time in the past. Kevin J. and (3) the communication of experience and ideas throug h its form. and Abdulmari Imao. By 1950s. Interestingly enough. The second is a constant. If the function is chiefly utilitarian. Local craftsmen were employed by the church to build stone churches with bas-relief sculpture. communication is of less importance. the architectural samples of this country evoke a strong sense of national pride and unity in spite of the diverse forms. utility and communication may be of equal importance. even the sculpture showed a shift from religious to secular items. (2) the stability and permanence of the work’s construction. Indian. you will find various cultural influences.

Kevin J. that the Philippine Architectre is an elusive thing. the almost 50 years of American rule. security. nipa. the Arab and Chinese influences through commerce and trade over the centuries. because while it makes full use of modern technology. Origins and Vernacular Architecture Building first evolved out of the dynamics between needs (shelter. Leandro Locsin once said. convents and fortifications. continuing on to the Spanish colonial period. As a result. worship. and "architecture" is the name given to the most highly formalized and respected versions of that craft. and today’s contemporary’ albeit “modern mundane” concrete structures of the cities. and the modern contemporary times. Architecture 4B 6 . the more than 300 years of Spanish domination. the massive Spanish colonial churches. What resulted may have been a hybrid. in churches and mosques. Alejandro.) and means (available building materials and attendant skills). the American commonwealth period. with their heavy “earthquake baroque” style. As human cultures developed and knowledge began to be formalized through oral traditions and practices. the Philippines has become an architectural melting pot. a totally new configuration which may include a remembrance of the past. Architecture in the Philippines today is the result of a natural growth enriched with the absorption of varied influences. etc. building became a craft. and other native materials. The philippine’s architectural landscape is a contrast among small traditional huts built of wood. bamboo. and in the buildings that have risen in response to the demands of progress and the aspirations of the people. grass.Preserving and Revitalizing Filipino Architecture Thru Museum History of architecture in the Philippines T he history and culture of the Philippines today are reflected in its architectural heritage. The late national hero for architecture. in the dwellings of its various people. the American mission style architecture as well as the buildings of commerce with their modern 20th century styles. It developed from the pre-colonial influences of our neighboring Malay brothers. but transformed or framed in terms of its significance today. it is a residue of the different overlays of foreign influences left in the Philippines over the centuries: the early Malay culture and vestiges of earlier Hindu influences.

? The 560-page textbook takes an in-depth examination of Philippine architecture as it has been shaped over the centuries by environmental. historic. eminent architecture historian Rodrigo D. whether schooled or not. the author steps back and refers to the built environment as part of an urban or landscape ensemble. Perez III writes in the foreword. has always shone through. history A MOST welcome addition to the scant material on Philippine architecture is? Arkitekturang Filipino: A History of Architecture and Urbanism in the Philippines. stubbornly refusing to be put to rest. ?may resurrect an old question: Is there such a thing as Filipino architecture?? For generations the issue keeps arising during academic and architectural discussions.? by Gerard Lico. Lico takes architecture in its holistic context.Preserving and Revitalizing Filipino Architecture Thru Museum Article: Pride of Place Is there ‘Filipino architecture?’ By Augusto Villalon Philippine Daily Inquirer First Posted 06:44:00 08/10/2009 Filed Under: Architecture. since architecture. Kevin J. Architecture 4B 7 . The book is from the collection published by the University of the Philippines Press in celebration of the university?s centennial. The title of this book. Illustrating how architecture is often used as an instrument of domination in some periods of injustice. which is the way it should be. political or financial demands. the genius of Filipino architects. is simply the Alejandro. integrating architecture with human life. But Perez resolves the issue. Buildings are not studied as solitary monuments. despite being subjected to colonial. Instead. completing his introductory statement: ?Anyone who has diligently examined the various types of buildings in this country and has bothered to look into their history will realize that there is such a thing as Filipino architecture. Books. cultural and political influences. no matter how grand or humble. professor of Architecture and campus architect of the University of the Philippines. Lico correctly points out that.

starting with the Astronesian building tradition that came to the Batanes islands from southern Taiwan over 6. Neoclassic government buildings. were situated at strategic locations as focal points declaring the new style of colonial governance. politics. such as the Manila Post Office and the Philippine General Hospital. Sulawesi. Kevin J. Thanks to the royal ordinance signed by King Phillip II of Spain. and especially in the rigid town planning following the precepts of the 1573 Leyes de Indias. around a central plaza where the two main structures were the principal government building and the church facing each other. Architecture 4B 8 .Preserving and Revitalizing Filipino Architecture Thru Museum nurturer of lifestyle. before dispersing to the west through the Philippines to Borneo. Eastward. Alejandro. DC. government buildings. which stipulated exactly how new towns were to be laid out. and Filipino architecture reflects the influences from across the seas. Geography as influence Geography is another strong influence in our lifestyle. economics and others in shaping our towns and the structures that give those towns their character. Upon the introduction of ?imperial imaginings? by the newly installed American colonial government in 1898. the Malay Peninsula. Indonesia and ultimately Oceania. Lico dissects its impact on the architecture and urban design in the new tropical colony of the United States. Manila broke out in wide. This is the age of Daniel Burnham and his City Beautiful urban plan for Manila and Baguio in the image of Washington. towns were laid out in a rectilinear pattern. with straight streets crossing each other at right angles. thatched roofs. The highest government and church officials lived in the town plaza along with the elite. He looks at it through a trained historian? eye while acknowledging the strong contribution of allied disciplines such as sociology. There is no denying colonial influence.000 years ago. Among some shared Astronesian characteristics very evident today are language similarities and houses raised on stilts with steep. radial boulevards shaded with tropical hardwood. culture. Philippine architecture reflected what Lico terms the ?spectacle of power? so evident in the Spanish colonial churches. Outside the Intramuros walls. reaching as far as Madagascar. the Astronesian influence spread to Vietnam. Lico does not isolate architecture. history.

preparing them to be thinking architects rather than simply being back-room architectural technicians servicing the export market. Architecture 4B 9 . Carlos Arguelles. new developments like Global City in Fort Bonifacio. Lico traces the permanent destruction of Intramuros and the rise of Quezon City. the Filipino will prevail. followed by examination of various architectural trends until arriving at the current phenomenon of an ?architecture of pluralism? that embraces the architecture of malls. Vernacular renaissance Lico takes a perceptive look into the renaissance of Filipino vernacular architecture.? Perez so positively declares. Kevin J. this volume provides an opportunity for students to discover and appreciate the intellectual foundation of the architectural profession. This was the time when architectural leaders emerged: Juan Nakpil. whose presence led to the establishment of a strong architectural profession. Alejandro. Leandro Locsin. Pablo Antonio. suburbia and bungalow housing. More importantly.Preserving and Revitalizing Filipino Architecture Thru Museum Pre-World War II Peace Time was the apex of American power in the Philippines. Rockwell Center and Eastwood City Cyberpark. From the ashes of World War II. The question with the present state of architecture in the Philippines is: Is the current trend signaling the end of Filipino architecture? One way or another. Hopefully this book will inculcate in the student who reads it a strong sense of pride for the culture that has produced the individualistic Philippine architecture. the halcyon days of Quezon when the Philippines reflected its opening to world influences with the Art Deco architecture and lifestyle of the 1930s. as in the past.

forums for debate. they can be seen as a talent magnet for the creative economy. from IMAX to web sites to podcasting . In this sense. However. What’s most amazing is that museums seem to absorb these technologies without fundamentally changing ___whether you date museums from the cathedral vault or the princely schatzkammer or the great eighteenth and nineteenth century universal collections. In its preserving of this primary evidence. places for the display of creation of new ideas. and circumstance from its original context. this implifies some changes in the ways that museums operate.) museums can be hubs for the creative economy as cultural accelerators. for the items housed in a museum are mainly unique and constitute the raw material of study and research. in many cases removed in time.( On the other hand. with which it has often been compared. Lifelong Learning and Civil Society M useums are huge success stories. Alejandro. The museum is a communication medium that has been functioning continuously for more than two hundred years. the museum differs markedly from the library.Preserving and Revitalizing Filipino Architecture Thru Museum Museums A re institution dedicated to preserving and interpreting the primary tangible evidence of humankind and the environment. Museums can also represent openness to diversity and self – expression. museums can also represent closed and static ways of thinking. museums have absorbed the technology into their exhibition and work processes. Museums. As technological change has transformed communication industries from print to radio to television and the internet. and attract visitors from the ranks of highly educated. Kevin J. In the museum the object. communicates itself directly to the viewer in a way not possible through other media. Architecture 4B 10 . place. Museums are typically employers of highly educated people.Museums have been among early adopters of new communication technologies. Museums have been founded for a variety of purposes: to serve as recreational. they remain powerful public spaces of representation of the leading ideas of their time___ based on the study of the objects that they collect and preserve.

Many art museums have highly specialized collecting objectives. Science Center: A museum that focuses on science is usually called a science center. They often commemorate a famous person or a historical or regional event. aviation and flight. Kevin J. Historic House: A historic house is furnished in period décor and usually interprets a fairly narrow aspect of history. shipwrecks or whaling are called maritime museums. fossils. and native peoples. time period. Aviation Museum: An aviation museum focuses on the history of aircraft. sculptures. furniture and other decorative arts.Preserving and Revitalizing Filipino Architecture Thru Museum Types of Museums Different kinds of museums to work at and visit: History Museum: History museums can be housed in modern buildings or inside a historic site. Many open air museums also include livestock and farming demonstrations. Art Museum: Art museums feature fine arts collections including paintings. or other theme that pertains to its Mission Statement. Collections document the history of a specific region.” These museums usually feature first person interpreters and craft and cooking demonstrations. Open Air Museum: A collection of historic buildings in a village setting is called an “open air museum. They feature interactive exhibitions relating to scientific themes. Alejandro. animals. Natural History Museum: Natural history museums explore topics such as dinosaurs. Architecture 4B 11 . Maritime Museum: Museums that focus on water-related topics such as boating. Most aviation museums contain a collection of vintage airplanes.

 encouraging intergenerational links and understanding. historical.debate or knowledge.Preserving and Revitalizing Filipino Architecture Thru Museum Zoos: A zoo’s collection contains live animals from around the world. “Museums will continue exist and evolve as long as they provide meaning to people and uplift their lives. museums have become cultural animators and social reformers. In recent years.  understanding how museums and galleries can better link to a changing population in a rapidly developing and competitive world. At different levels of intensity throughout the Philippine museum history.  helping the government deliver educational or social initiatives. scientific or artistic life of a region or locality  A contribution to the quality of life  In support of formal education  To attract tourists and contribute to ‘place marketing’ and attracting new investment in an area Alejandro. In the early stage. Museum social purpose:  Acquisition and care for collections which may illustrate the cultural.” Significance of a museum:  providing the country. conditions of the government support for the arts provided conductive environment for the museums growth and transformation.  initiatives for schools and young people to attract them into museums and galleries. Development of Philippine Museum The development of Philippine museum in the past 98 years has been from tradition to innovation.private and voluntary bodies to promote economic or social objectives. Many zoos participate in conservation programs to preserve endangered species. Kevin J.  working with other public.  working with the media to promote exhibitions and therefore to propagate ideas.  programmes for new citizens to provide a stepping-stone into culture and life. museums conformed to the orthodox framework_ as institutions that collect and exhibit material culture for the education of humanity. Architecture 4B 12 .a city or county with an understanding of its history.

the work opportunities (both paid & unpaid) that were available. Architecture 4B 13 .  opportunities for people to visit. i.  developing an appreciation of place and culture. i.all formal. added into the mix:  Exemplars of Enjoyment. and Preserve Filipino cultural heritage Alejandro.Preserving and Revitalizing Filipino Architecture Thru Museum "The museum should not be presented as a temple of knowledge whence enlightenment is offered by those who 'hold the keys'. community pride. Recreation.the museum becoming a multifunctional centre with a developed social awareness and a drive for topical relevance  Treasure. 32-51) Concerned Agencies: National Commission for Culture and the Arts (Philippines) Mandate:       Formulate policies for the development of culture and the arts To coordinate & implement the overall policies and program of attached agencies on the development of culture and arts as stated under Executive Order No. a former Secretary of the Smithsonian.e. including attending events. and Symbolic roles – implicit or not – were also acknowledged  The late Stephen Weil." Value of local museums were the links back to community. or Refreshment. Missions:  Cultural Centers and Social Instruments . 80 Administer the National Endowment Fund for Culture and the Arts Encourage artistic creation within a climate of artistic freedom Develop and promote the Filipino national culture and arts. the original Muse idea  Education in the broadest sense .  the wealth that the museum creates in the local community leading to generate money to go back to the community. museums preserving heritage. and opportunities for learning across all age levels.e. Museums may offer the individual an opportunity to regain lost cultural initiative. but rather as a place for the exchange of ideas. to learn what's new or simply to learn  and Value-stating roles (1983. Kevin J. Fetish.

addressing emerging social and ethical challenges. The broad goals and concrete objectives of the international community – as set out in the internationally agreed development goals. sustainable development and intercultural dialogue through education. fostering cultural diversity.Preserving and Revitalizing Filipino Architecture Thru Museum Department of Tourism (DOT) . Alejandro. the sciences. including the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) – underpin all UNESCO’s strategies and activities.is the executive department of the Philippine government responsible for the regulation of the Philippine tourism industry and the promotion of the Philippines as a tourist destination. communication and information". Architecture 4B 14 . Other priorities of the Organization include attaining quality education for all and lifelong learning. the eradication of poverty. culture. Kevin J. United Nations Educational. a culture of peace and building inclusive knowledge societies through information and communication. Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Mission and priorities: UNESCO’s stated aim is "to contribute to the building of peace.

Architecture 4B 15 .Preserving and Revitalizing Filipino Architecture Thru Museum C. The trends for commercial facilities have diverted public’s attention towards culture. Features of Philippine architecture Give the public a new look for museums and perception on museums Come up with a design that will revitalize the sleeping intellect of Filipinos regarding architecture. Kevin J.THEORETICAL/CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK Filipino Architecture is not that recognized Establish a museum that will give emphasis on Philippine architecture. An innovative solution in preserving and enhancing architecture Bahayan Preserving and Revitalizing Filipino Architecture Thru Museum Alejandro.

Marcelino. Kevin J.gov. 2008  Barry Lord.“TURISMUSEO: A Paradigmatic Cultural Museum through Enclosures” Undergraduate Thesis. Bibliography  Nerissa Sabaricos Pingol” Alternative Design for A Museum”( A Museum Depicting Bulacan Heritage and Culture) Undergraduate  Thesis. 2007  Sara Selwood Associates.ncca. . Bulacan: Bulacan State University.Preserving and Revitalizing Filipino Architecture Thru Museum D. Architecture 4B 16 .php?igm=1&i=110  Augusto Villalon”Is there ‘Filipino architecture?”Philippine Daily Inquirer (2009) retrieved from: http://showbizandstyle.net/lifestyle/lifestyle/view/20090810-219534/Isthere-Filipino-architecture Alejandro.ph/about-culture-and-arts/articles-on-c-na/article. Leopoldo M. Stephen Glaister “MUSEUMS Impact and innovation among national museums” London School of Economics Imperial College  History of Philippine Architecture(2012) Retrieved from: http://www.inquirer. 2003  Estrada.The Manual of Museum Learning: Rowman Altamira. Methodology of Research My research methodology requires gathering and reviewing relevant data from the specified documents and compiling databases in order to analyze the material and arrive at a more complete understanding about Philippine architecture E. Jayson P. Making a difference: the cultural impact of museums An essay for NMDC: July 2010  Tony Travers. Bulacan: Bulacan State University.

Kevin J. We. concerned by the future development of architecture in a fast changing world. Architecture 4B 17 . landscaped and maintained. belongs to the domain of the architects. influencing the way in which the built environment is made. used. the architects. being responsible for the improvement of the education of future architects to enable them to work for a sustainable development in every cultural heritage.Preserving and Revitalizing Filipino Architecture Thru Museum We. furnished. believe that everything. Alejandro.

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