INTERMEDIATE – ADVANCED

EXAM ESSAYS
including IELTS, TOEFL and Cambridge

text2 write
ROBERT LEWIS
M.A. LINGUISTICS

how to use this book for self study

For

self-study, you should work through the book, from page one to the end, checking your answers as you complete each of the exercises. Begin by reading the Introduction and learn about the essay form, the key stages and the language features of the essay that are important for this form of persuasive communication. What is the best way to study? First, find a quiet and comfortable place where you can work. You should feel good working there. Do a minimum of 40 minutes each day. Try to make a regular time for study, so that it becomes routine - the same time and place every day. You will need a dictionary to check the meaning of new vocabulary. At this level (advanced) you should use an Advanced Learners dictionary of English - rather than a bilingual dictionary. Whenever you find common or familiar expressions that you don’t know, learn these words first. They are the “building blocks” for the more difficult vocabulary you will learn later. Develop your vocabulary, step by step. The best way to learn new words is to guess their meaning from the context, check the meaning in a dictionary, and practice using them in your writing. The topics in this book are general topics selected to help develop your academic vocabulary. You should also read widely and become familiar with other topics and issues. It is a good idea to read about topics that are less familiar to you, but still relevant for a general English test, like the IELTS. What else can I do? Find a friend who will practice speaking English with you and discuss together the topics and issues that you read about in this book Of course, an English teacher will be helpful when you need to have your essays corrected and get advice about any errors you might be making in your writing. At the end of each chapter there is a checklist of things to look for in your writing. Check that you have done all these things, and, if you need to, make changes and corrections. Finally, it is advisable to attempt the sample essay questions provided at the end of each chapter. By completing all the exercises in this book, you are taking positive steps towards achieving your goals. Remember - every page completed is a giant step toward achieving success in essay writing.

By completing all the exercises in this book, you are taking positive steps towards achieving your goals. Remember - every page completed is a giant step toward achieving success in essay writing.

. argument. essay etc.retelling of past events.text2write.per week .o. . organization into stages or steps – a way of doing s. x/y =.to say without proof/evidence something is true .purposeful activity .examination – impersonal language used in formal situations – spaces where words are missing . text via viz.t..put together. recommendation recount structure strategy s. (x) OR (y) .number . s.e./ref. narrative.a statement or claim that may be true . R re. etc.t. exposition exam formal language gaps genre i. sometimes transcribed spoken .some one .introduction .com © copyright Robert Lewis .such as 2 www. advice .factual writing eg. practice proposition p/w Q.(1) talk about. IELTS intro L match no.terms & abbreviations / claim context diff.type of text. (2) consider two or more sides – example . eg.final suggestion.different . recount.right .type of persuasive/written text – etcetera : and so on . a method or technique .reference to / concerning / about . explanation.question or essay question .left .situation and circumstances .a written passage.some thing . link .International English Language Testing System . story about people .form. exposition – that is .alternative eg. discuss eg.through .

sample questions 25 31 30 34 39 TOPIC 3 : THE ENVIRONMENT Reading & Vocabulary Grammar : Reason Writing practice Review.text2write. checklist. checklist. sample questions 57 58 62 66 75 TOPIC 5 : SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY Reading & Vocabulary Grammar : Sound Reasonable Writing practice Review.contents INTRODUCTION The Essay 4 TOPIC 1 : LANGUAGE LEARNING Reading & Vocabulary Grammar : Be Logical Writing practice Review. sample questions 41 42 46 49 56 TOPIC 4 : TV & COMPUTER GAMES Reading & Vocabulary Grammar : Be Cohesive Writing practice Review. checklist. checklist. checklist.com © copyright Robert Lewis 3 . sample questions 7 8 12 16 23 TOPIC 2 : WORK AND LEISURE Reading & Vocabulary Grammar : Be Authoritative Writing practice Review. sample questions 77 78 82 84 91 ANSWERS 93 www.

present and develop logical and reasonable arguments. The general purpose of the essay is to demonstrate the importance of a given subject or issue. strength and logical development of arguments. Depending on the number. CONCLUSION Restatement The writer re-states their position to conclude. The staging of the essay is (in itself) a persuasive device. What is an exam essay? What do they examine? Exam essays.com © copyright Robert Lewis .answer the question. the writer should show that they can : . What are the key stages of an essay? It is important to remember that the exam essay is a response to a given question. To this end. the writer makes their position clear from the start. BODY Sequence of Arguments A sequence of arguments is given to support the writer’s position. and the ‘preview’ stage (which previews the arguments that will follow). using appropriate language (vocabulary and grammar). like the IELTS Task 2. which requires the careful analysis of the question. KEY STAGES Position INTRODUCTION The writer states their position or opinion. Statement and repeated restatement reinforce the writer’s position. in response to the question/s. any given essay will be more or less persuasive – and more or less successful. facts and examples. depending on the essay 4 www. and .communicate clearly.text2write. In other words. before finally restating their position. and persuade an educated reader to consider the writer’s point of view on the issue. so it should answer the question clearly and decisively. and then presents a sequence of arguments in support of their position. test a student’s ability to think analytically. such as a ‘lead-in’ (which introduces the topic by providing some very general background information/ideas). Most essays include a few optional stages. present persuasive arguments and thus communicate effectively in an academic context. Each argument is a claim supported with reasons. . A recommendation is optional.introduction What is an essay? The essay is a form of academic writing widely used in secondary and higher education. These are the three key stages of any essay.

There are causes. people should try to help those with gambling problems. Therefore. However. if we understand the causes and effects of gambling. The sample essay below illustrates a more complex staging of the essay genre. In an assessment of a candidate’s essay the examiner will consider (i) whether the writer answers the question. What are the causes. Solutions to the problems of gambling involve society and the government. Still others might take out their frustration on their friends or families.com © copyright Robert Lewis 5 . and possibly become violent. Q. They may spend all their savings. their families. it is a good idea to practice developing arguments on many different issues and topics. Many people participate in gambling as a form of recreation and entertainment. It is very popular in countries. to try and get out of debt. Generally speaking. In this way. to help gambling-addicts and raise people’s awareness and understanding of the related social problems. This essay (below) is a good example because it has a clear position statement. effects and possible solutions for the problems related to gambling. all essays display the same key stages as above. they may get into further debt. hardship and poverty as a result. 3. Though many essays will differ. and (iii) the cohesion of the text (including whether arguments are logically developed). and then borrow more money. Through education and support programs .text2write. previews the arguments that follow.question. the authorities might take their children away. If gamblers get into serious debt. gambling is viewed by many as a problem for society . and run education programs. In general. The government should also place restrictions on gambling. it is possible to give people and addicts the knowledge and assistance they need to resist or overcome their gambling problems. Many gamblers lose money and some get into debt very quickly. and proceeds to develop argumentation logically and coherently. the solutions become clear . in terms of optional staging. (ii) their expression (grammatical accuracy and vocabulary). there are a number of causes of gambling-related problems. as the writer is required to discuss solutions to the problem of gambling. whom they abandon while they spend time gambling in casinos. their families may suffer 2. like Australia. where more than 20 billion dollars was spent on gambling in the year 2000. The effects of gambling can be devastating on both the individual and Some gamblers neglect their children. If they are caught. effects and possible solutions to the problem of gambling? STAGING GAMBLING sample essay Lead-in POSITION Preview Sequence of ARGUMENTS 1. when preparing for a writing exam. www. Restatement Recommendation In conclusion. The recommendation stage follows logically from the essay question.

the writer is being persuasive. to persuade the reader of their position (opinion) on a given issue. Be COHESIVE REFERENCE WORDS 5. REASON Language of CAUSE and EFFECT 4.text2write. 6 www. namely. Sound REASONABLE Language of GENERALISATION Each chapter of this book discusses one of these five persuasive strategies and relevant language features as outlined above. In the Grammar unit of each chapter. 2.the language features of the essay The language features of an essay reflect the writer’s purpose. Be AUTHORITATIVE TECHNICAL VOCABULARY & Nominalisation 3. The language features of an essay also reflect the persuasive strategies commonly used in argumentation : be logical. Addition etc.com © copyright Robert Lewis . Be LOGICAL Language Features CONJUNCTIONS for Listing. sound authoritative and reasonable (don’t exaggerate). The relevant strategies and language features are summarised in the table below : PERSUASIVE STRATEGIES 1. We have already mentioned that the staging of the essay is itself a persuasive device – by repeatedly stating and expanding on their arguments. reason effectively. further explanation and exercises are provided to help the reader become more familiar with the key language features and their effective use in writing short exam essays. and communicate effectively (precisely and cohesively).

topic 1 language learning …     in this chapter learn new vocabulary and read about the topic learn about conjunctions : being logical learn about three types of essay question develop ideas and write an essay on the topic a Bizzy moment… visualise (v) to see in your mind.com © copyright Robert Lewis 7 .text2write. imagine visualisation (n) process of imagining. in your mind’s eye www.

t. advantage 6. method 5. The main . Success in exams. 1. The discussion was a very positive ………………………. One way to prepare for the test is to ……………………. 5. distinction 9. recommend 8.com © copyright Robert Lewis . students can practice speaking. h) relies on.1 above. 10. depends a) a positive thing. 9. Sally’s teacher ……………………………. for learning new words is using them! 8. aim j) ability to function k) clear difference l) in comparison to s. classroom learning is easier than self-study. conditional i) purpose.goal…. advise g) exchange between two . comparatively 10. 6.t. 11..facts. effectively 2.. 7. ………………. 1. of school is preparation for life.1 Match the word/expression with the meaning (R). When comparing two countries. a benefit b) situation. Many language tests are designed to assess ………………… ……………… 3. In the …………………… of the classroom. result f) suggest. the most obvious ……………… is cultural. goal 11. circumstances c) way of doing s. context 3. Deaf people communicate …………………… using sign language. The best ……………. memorise 4.. that she does more study. 4. 12.. functional proficiency 12.reading & vocabulary language learning 1. technique d) put into the memory e) with a good effect. interaction 7. 2. else 1. One …………………… of studying abroad is making new friends. on how hard you work.text2write. 8 www. ……………………… speaking.2 Fill the gap using expressions from 1.

40. 36. 13. serious 48. 25.3 Complete the table below. 30. proficiency 52. 18. contextual 43. 49. 27. 37. ___________ methodically 32. 39. interaction recommendation 41. acquisition 24. 42. instruct teach ___________ 31. www. 5. 23. necessary Noun study 4. dependently 38. functional/ing 33. ___________ ___________ 10. and revise vocabulary from Topic 1: language learning. 19. 44. 55. Adverb 3. ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ 58. Verb 2. 50. advantage 46. 16. memory/isation 14. 47. 8. 26. 29.com © copyright Robert Lewis 9 . ___________ ___________ 45. 7. 15. 57. 35. 28.. learnt 6. enjoyable repetitive 20. 11. copy understand 12.1. 53.text2write. 21. 34. 9.. 22. conversational 54. speech 56. Adjective 1. ___________ text 51. 17.

In some language classrooms. They have to do things. whilst popular.reading & vocabulary language learning There are millions of people all over the world who formally study a foreign language. and taking turns at asking and answering questions. using language for a purpose in context.text2write. may not be the most effective way to learn the language. rather than just some vague or abstract knowledge of grammar or vocabulary. Formal classes in a foreign language. The advantages are perhaps obvious. Sometimes. such as buy food. Learning through interaction helps students develop their functional proficiency. the classroom activity allows learners to use the language. (355 words) 10 www. The importance of interaction is acknowledged in many books on learning a foreign language. If the teacher requires the students to only copy text and memorise words and grammar rules. their teachers do not understand the distinction between studying and really learning a language. not just study it. but there are comparatively few who actually learn to use the language effectively.com © copyright Robert Lewis . which recommend that students travel abroad. The key to successful language learning is interaction – that is. The motivation for practise is very strong. This depends on the teacher and their methods. In this way. This process enables students to learn their new language through using it in actual communication. but don’t know how to use the words to communicate. They have not had the opportunity to actually practice communicating. The main goal should be to teach students to use the language. They are also exposed to the same language patterns many times and repeatedly practice what they need to say. find accommodation and make travel arrangements. the lessons involve students working in pairs or groups. like facts or telephone numbers. and acquire the basics of communication. It is therefore not surprising that students with this experience of formal classes do not speak the language very well. The reason for this is that most people study a foreign language the same way they study a subject at school. Students have to communicate if they want to survive. and learn the language in the country where it is spoken. They memorise words. then the students are not learning to use language.

10. 11. Many students of foreign languages cannot speak the language effectively. 2. 3. 8. All teachers understand the difference between studying and learning a foreign language. 12. 9.. T / F T / F T / F . Most books suggest it is best to learn a foreign language through formal lessons in the country where the language is spoken. T / F T / F T / F T / F T / F T / F T / F T / F T / F • Write down some ways you learnt English or another language.com © copyright Robert Lewis 11 . Students experience particular language patterns repeatedly when living in the country where the language is spoken.text2write. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… www. Students who do not practise speaking do not speak very well. They study the foreign language without actually using it. Memorising grammar rules or vocabulary is not as helpful as interacting in the classroom. A knowledge of grammar is more important than using the language. When students learn in the foreign country they have a strong reason to practice communication. 6. 5. Few books on language learning recognise the importance of interaction. Taking turns at asking and answering questions is not helpful. 4. 7.1.4 Reading comprehension. True or False ? 1. Formal classes are the best way to learn a foreign language.

Young Australians can vote ………………. so or when. ………………. Peter collects stamps ………………. a person marries. 13. Example 1: Example 2: Toothpaste is good for your teeth and apples are too. The new cars run on solar power ………………. nobody likes them. 6. 19. 7. In Example 1. Chocolate is bad for one’s teeth ………………. they turn 18 years of age. it tastes delicious. Marcel paints pictures ………………. 2. he was unhurt. 8. The weather is fine …………. ………………. he makes money selling them. Izumi was born in Tokyo ………………. ………………. cartoons are even more popular. s/he should choose their partner carefully. (i) SENTENCE-LEVEL CONJUNCTIONS join ideas within a sentence. Conjunctions. 11. trekking in the desert one should take lots of water. he was driving recklessly. but or because. Sarah bought a second-hand car ………………. (1 + 1) In Example 2.grammar : be logical The grammar focus of this unit is how to be LOGICAL or express ideas logically. Silvy sleeps all night ………………. Freddie played tennis.5 Fill the gap using and. soccer is fun to play. she turned sixteen. difficult to learn. she was taken to hospital. the scenery is beautiful. 1. the bell rings. 17. ………………. 14. petrol is too expensive. the children move off to their next lesson. 12. she went to night school. Some Americans carry guns ………………. 5. 9. ………………. 4. the man fell from a tall building. Jane wanted to learn Spanish ………………. Fill the gap using although. she sleeps in the afternoon too. she lives in New York. the conjunction because expresses ‘causation’.com © copyright Robert Lewis . 18. 20. Brushing is healthy because it reduces tooth decay.text2write. 15. it is played everywhere in the world. Action films are popular ………………. The police arrested a man ………………. My aunt has been sick …and…. express the logical relations between ideas. or joining words. Chinese writing is very beautiful ………………. There are two types: SENTENCE-LEVEL and STRUCTURAL CONJUNCTIONS. ………………. they can protect themselves. Eg. (1 -> 2) ( See the table on page 15 for a list of the most common conjunctions. 3. 16. ) 1. and therefore help us structure and develop our arguments. 12 www. 10. he could not play squash. the conjunction and expresses ‘addition’.

D) if we have a toothache. k) but Brisbane hasn’t any. v) because it is good exercise. x) since he won the Open. Movies are expensive to make 8. c) to afford a better life. w) unless drivers are careful. Hung is studying English 14. z) we should eat more of them. He had a bad temper 19. Although the task is not easy 2. s) before you eat a meal. Fast cars are dangerous 25. When children are young 7. Unless forests are protected 6. B) David moved back home. If vegetables are good for you 26. r) I felt very confident. Pete has been a top player 23. www. u) whereas Tijuana is small. Always seek advice 3. i) learn the language! j) so tickets are not cheap.text2write. d) you can still succeed. Because I knew my topic 20. We should see a dentist 29. The postman was sick 16. n) even though a car hit him. o) if prices increase. y) as it can cause skin cancer. q) but he was still popular. p) and the house is huge. f) try working hard. Though fast food is popular 11.1. After a year working overseas 27. Shopping is a favourite pastime 30. The garden is beautiful 12. C) so people cut their own hair. BEGINNINGS 1. Too much sunshine is unhealthy 28. Sydney has many beaches 13. l) while working part time. e) they are easily influenced. Instead of being lazy 9. b) products are expensive. Partly because of advertising 4. A) if you follow the fashions. t) because she was the best. Mexico is a big city 22. The man was not hurt 17. There will be trouble 18. Hair cuts are expensive ENDINGS a) if you are confused. Cycling is popular 24.com © copyright Robert Lewis 13 . Before visiting a country 10. g) it is unhealthy. m) so there was no mail. Many parents work hard 5. Yasmin got the job 15. Always wash your hands 21.6 Match the beginnings with the correct endings. h) they will be destroyed.

LISTING First of all / To begin with Firstly / Secondly. SUMMARISING To sum up / To conclude In conclusion / In summary 4. CONJUNCTIONS 1. CONTRASTING However / In comparison By contrast / Instead / but 7. Consequently.text2write. They can be classified as per the table below.com © copyright Robert Lewis . DO NOT FORGET to leave a CLEAR BREAK between paragraphs and make sure your punctuation is correct! 14 www. EXEMPLIFICATION For example / For instance such as / including 8. For example: Many people clean their teeth after every meal. Both types. tooth decay is reduced.(ii) STRUCTURAL CONJUNCTIONS join ideas across sentences. CONCESSIVE/CONDITIONAL However / Although / unless Even though / Nonetheless When / If / In order to 2. CAUSE/EFFECT In order to / In this way / so As a result / Because / then Consequently / As such Subsequently / Therefore 3. and show that your essay has a logical structure.. are important and widely used in academic writing. Then After that / Finally – STRUCTURAL and SENTENCE-LEVEL 5. sentence-level and structural conjunctions. GIVING ALTERNATIVES On the one hand / Alternately On the other hand / or NOTE – The LISTING CONJUNCTIONS are very important because they make the order of arguments clear to the reader. ADDING / REINFORCING In addition / Also / and as well as / In other words Another / Besides Furthermore / Moreover 6.

some people have a special ability for learning languages. and learn to speak more quickly then others. using language that is more formal. Chinese does not. Chinese characters are monosyllabic.7 Fill the gap. presents difficulties.………. but then they write it differently. English people say something one way. They can pick up new vocabulary easily. like Chinese. another so firstly but also whereas another consequently additionally also also therefore another notably www. (12)………… languages seem to be easy for them.………… problem is the vocabulary. (3)…………. (5)…. LEARNING ENGLISH In my opinion. the differences between English and Chinese make it a difficult language to learn.…… has verb tenses. (9) ……………………. English words have many syllables. (11)………………………………. English is not a tonal language.com © copyright Robert Lewis 15 .…… the two languages are very different. (6)…. which makes it difficult if you do not know these forms. Many new words must be learnt. learning English is difficult. (8)…………. which is Chinese. Choose conjunctions from the box below. They do not seem to be different from other people.………. My teacher says English speakers use contracted or short forms.. English (2)……. There are a number of reasons why I think this is true. (1)… Firstly … English is very different to my mother tongue.……… reason why learning English is difficult is that English speakers talk very fast. (7)…….1..text2write. 4)…….……… they are difficult to understand. The vocabulary and grammar of spoken and written English (10)…………….

A argue. ……… 12. followed by the Yes/No question. ……… 4. You must answer the question/s or the parts of the question fully. ARGUE The question usually includes a quote or proposition. Here. DISCUSS The key word here is “discuss”. the writer must present two sides of the issue. ……… 11. ……… 5. or prompt: Give your opinion. Usually. D discuss) 1. To begin with. ……… 6. Do you agree? What are the costs and benefits of travel? Fair trade is impractical. The writer chooses to either AGREE or DISAGREE. With Discuss and Argue questions. 3. There is however the possibility to choose just one point of view.text2write. for or against. as in B. depending on the type of question there may be a number of possible ways to answer the question.” Do you agree? Discuss the “pro’s and con’s” of smoking. Should the environment be protected? Advertising causes visual pollution. Discuss.com © copyright Robert Lewis 16 . It is important to begin with the essay question. ……… 7. ……… 8. there are (3) BASIC TYPES of essay question: examples types of essay questions 1. Too much hard work is boring. ……… 10. facts and examples. Do you agree? How can people improve their health? What are the best ways to succeed in exams? Discuss reasons for and against gambling. and understand that. the writer must explain their view. A/D 2. and then choose your response/position.8 What type of essay question is it? (E explain. 2. EXPLAIN This type of question usually begins with a WHquestion word. 1. supported by reasons. How can poverty be eradicated? NOTE – Explain essays do not give you a real choice about an issue or topic. ……… Should both parents work if they have children? What are the reasons for doing further study? Credit cards are risky. you can choose your position. ……… 3. ……… 9. and presents one point of view. What are the causes and effects of smoking? “Smoking is bad for your health.writing practice This unit looks at how to interpret the essay question. www. Give your opinion.

Do you agree? • • • www. Before you decide on your response to a given question. • • • h) Modern technology makes a great nation.A position statement is a possible response to the question. both … ………………………………………… ………………………………………… ………………………………………… ………………………………………… ………………………………………… ………………………………………… ………………………………………… ………………………………………… ………………………………………… ………………………………………… ………………………………………… ………………………………………… ………………………………………… ………………………………………… ………………………………………… ………………………………………… ………………………………………… ………………………………………… ………………………………………… ………………………………………… ………………………………………… b) Credit cards are risky.text2write. 1. Give your opinion. Give your opinion. Note: The VERB in the question is picked up in the Y/N answers. it is sometimes helpful to consider all the possible responses (or positions). Do you agree? • • • d) Should the environment be protected? • • • e) Advertising is visual pollution. • • • g) Married couples should share household duties.com © copyright Robert Lewis 17 . • • • c) Too much hard work is boring. POSITION STATEMENTS QUESTION/S a) Should both parents work if they have children? POSSIBLE • • • Both parents should work Both parents should not work… In some situations.9 Write down the 3 possible answers for each of these essay questions. Discuss. Do you agree? • • • f) Fair trade between rich and poor countries is impossible.

than by studying in a foreign country.text2write. 18 www. then you must say what other ways there are that are more effective. by writing about the story you have read. and this is a good way to build your vocabulary and knowledge of stories. and why The easiest way to answer questions like this is to take ONE SIDE (yes OR no). IF you decide that the proposition is PARTLY true. and why. but there are other ways just as good. however. I agree NO. we interpret the essay question for this chapter. then you must explain: o why learning a foreign language in the foreign country is good. and o what others ways are also good for learning a foreign language. and then develop each supporting reason/argument into a paragraph. “The best way to learn a foreign language is by studying in a foreign country. With the aid of a dictionary. I disagree PARTLY Yes & No The best way to learn a foreign language is by studying in a foreign country. Learning a foreign language in a foreign country is a good way.writing practice In this unit.” Do you agree? This question has TWO parts or stages: (1) Issue-proposition (2) Question-prompt “The best way to learn a foreign language is ……” Do you agree? IN TERPRETATION Your Answer could be : YES. you decide that you disagree with the proposition. you can learn the meaning of new words.com © copyright Robert Lewis . IF . Reading stories is fun. Here is the question: Q. There are other more effective ways to learn a foreign language. you can be sure that you are really learning these new expressions. Here’s one argument/paragraph to support the NO position on the issue : One way to learn a foreign language is by reading foreign language books. Subsequently. and develop ideas for writing a response.

r) You can read the local newspaper. o) It is safe to make mistakes in a classroom. y) The local people may not be friendly or helpful. m) The teacher will correct your writing and homework. i) Students are more motivated to speak with locals. n) You can learn useful expressions. d) The teacher will correct your mistakes. x) The teacher cannot teach everything you need to know. q) You can learn in pairs or in groups. v) Students can learn by watching TV. p) Students can use the language in real situations. u) Students can practise by doing homework. k) You can have a fun holiday and learn the language. j) You can pick up how the local people speak.10 Tick (√) the reasons for learning a language in a foreign country. 1. …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… Now. and not feel embarrassed. h) You can learn about the language and the culture. b) You can learn the grammar from the teacher. z) You can learn vocabulary from a bilingual dictionary. www. f) Students can practice before facing a real situation. cross (X) the reasons for NOT learning a language in a foreign country. t) The teacher can select tasks that are suitable. a) Students can practise speaking everyday. e) You need to communicate to get what you want.This next exercise will give you some ideas for the essay in this chapter. c) You can meet people and make new friends. l) You can improve pronunciation by doing drills.text2write. g) You can build your vocabulary by reading texts. s) Students can take risks.com © copyright Robert Lewis 19 . w) You do not have to do tests.

and write your essay. Make a plan.text2write.writing practice Take 40 minutes to complete this task. Q.” Do you agree? …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 20 www. “The best way to learn a foreign language is by studying in a foreign country.com © copyright Robert Lewis .

text2write.com © copyright Robert Lewis 21 .…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… www.

text2write.…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ASK A TEACHER TO CORRECT YOUR WRITING.com © copyright Robert Lewis . COMPARE WITH SAMPLE IN THE BACK OF THE BOOK. 22 www.

When planning your answer. and must decide on a clear position. choose your arguments carefully.review language learning checklist Did you read the essay question carefully? Did you make a plan.text2write. This chapter introduced vocabulary on the topic of Language Learning. The beginning or introduction of any essay should contain a clear POSITION statement. Can you see any differences between the two? Can you see any mistakes you have made? Note the mistakes. you might like to ask a teacher to help! summary This chapter looked at how to answer the essay question. and think about exercises that might help you to correct your mistakes? IF you have difficulty checking your writing. www. and follow it? Did you write a clear POSITION statement? Did you have clear paragraphs? Did you use LISTING conjunctions? COMPARE your essay with the sample answer at the back of the book. The student always has choices. and then use CONJUNCTIONS to sequence your arguments logically and effectively.com © copyright Robert Lewis 23 .

Do you agree with this statement? Give reasons to support your point of view. effects and solutions for this problem? 24 www. shouldn’t schools be single-sex. It is easy to learn a foreign language. Nearly a quarter of all students experience difficulties with reading and writing. rather than co-educational? Give your opinion. If this is the case. like English. What should be the priorities of the education system. What are the possible causes. To what extent do you agree with this statement? There is some debate as to whether schooling should be a preparation for life or work. and why? Boys and girls would seem to perform better when they are in separate classes. Illiteracy is one of the main problems for school systems in many countries.sample essay questions It has been said that education is the cause of social inequality – of the difference between the “haves” and the “have-nots”.com © copyright Robert Lewis .text2write.

T 12.interactive 37.r 20. / Hard work isn’t boring. j 12. enjoy 16. / Credit cards might involve some risk.b 4. memorise 13.s 21.contextualise 43. conversation 53. enjoyably 17.E 6. copying 8. i 11. teaching 28. function 31.F 8. c 5. enjoyment 15.and 11When 12.w 24. instructive 24.F 4.interact 38. study 3.C 1. functional proficiency 3. copied 7. h 9. g 7.proficient 51.h 6.6 1.y 28.Although 13.proficiently 52. method 8.advantageous 44. d) The environment should be protected. repetition 18.dependent 34. acquire 22. k 9.l 14. memorise 6.9 b) Credit cards are risky. repeat 19. e 2.A/D 12.m 16.but 4.repeatedly 20. 11.text2write.Because 10.1 1.com © copyright Robert Lewis 25 . necessity 57.T 11. / Hard work can be boring. method 30.ANSWERS topic 1 : language learning 1. 6. / Fair trade between rich and poor countries is possible within certain limits.although 17.context 42.because 5.w 1.seriousness 47. learning 5.f 9.so 15.F 10.3 1.interactively 39.A/D 9.D 8. context 5.functionally 33. spoken 55.memorised 12.When 16.t 15.A 30.and 6. l 10.n17.recommend 41. acquisitively 23. www. / Some advertising is visual pollution. / Credit cards are not risky.F 1. acquisitive 21. instructively 26.u 22.E 1. studied/ious 2.dependent 35.D 29. d 4.depend 36.F 6.e 7. b 3. goal 2.j 8. / The environment should be protected. c) Too much hard work is boring. though some areas should not be protected.p 12. f) Fair trade between rich and poor countries is impossible. / Advertising is not visual pollution.but 1.q 19.2 1.but 7.c 5. / The environment shouldn’t be protected.F 5.T 3.E 11. necessitate 58.and 2.so 14. comparatively 7. advantage. understood 1.o 18.i 10. learn 6. taught 27.textual 49. converse 54.recommended 40.seriously 48.understandably 11.x 23. interaction 10.g 11.Although 25. e) Advertising is visual pollution.but 8. / Fair trade between rich and poor countries is possible.A 4.7 (1) Firstly (2) also (3) but/whereas (4) In addition (5) Therefore/As such (6) Another (7) so (8) Another (9) Finally/ In conclusion (10) also (11) By contrast/ However (12)but 1. but they are generally quite safe. f 8.d 2.E 7.T 7. effectively 1.because 3.A/D 5.5 1.k 13.when 18.F 9. memorably 14. studiously 4.T 2. depends 4.when 19. instruction 25. speak 56.A/D 10. methodical 29.E 3.When 20.advantageously 46. distinction 12. recommends 9.a 3. function 32.A/D 2. understanding 10.4 1.8 1. necessarily 9.B 27.advance 45.z 26.text 50. a.

h) Modern technology makes a great nation. and the way you learn. y)X. s)X.text2write. you can build your vocabulary by reading more books.10 a)√. x)√. 26 www. there are advantages in learning a foreign language in the country. probably depends on your purpose. if you want to read a lot in that language. 1. j)√. b)X. t)X. but not all. v)X. because you can practise speaking everyday. e)√. h)√. l)X. / Some household duties should be shared by married couples. r)√. but this is not the only way to learn. and read and do exercises. n)√/X. you can learn more about the culture. For example. In addition. p)√. and teach them the grammar of the language. w)√.g) Married couples should share household duties. they prefer a more analytical approach. there are other ways to learn a foreign language. Perhaps. o)X. Some students want a teacher to correct their mistakes. / Modern technology does not make a great nation. They might also be a bit shy. i)√. However. Classrooms can be a good place to start. g)X. f)X. u)X. but there are other ways of learning. because you are learning and speaking the language in the country. with the help of a teacher.. Much depends on your purpose in the first place. Additionally. so they can build their confidence in the classroom setting. c)√. like food and dink. q)X. / Modern technology does not make a great nation. You can also learn everyday expressions that may not be in textbooks. you can meet local people. z)√/X Sample Answer . studying in a foreign country is a good way to learn a foreign language. You can go to websites on the Internet that have information in the foreign language. but learning a language in situ is beneficial. Another way to learn a foreign language is in the classroom.com © copyright Robert Lewis . but it helps. You must communicate to get everything you need. / Household duties should not be shared by married couples. m)X. and learn how to speak like them. d)X. First of all.STUDYING A FOREIGN LANGUAGE Studying in a foreign country is a good way to learn a foreign language. In conclusion. k)√.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful

Master Your Semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master Your Semester with a Special Offer from Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.