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CHAPTER 8

CORPORATE STRATEGY: DIVERSIFICATION AND THE MULTIBUSINESS COMPANY
CHAPTER SUMMARY
Chapter 8 moves up one level in the strategy-making hierarchy, from strategy making in a single business enterprise to strategy making in a diversified enterprise. The chapter begins with a description of the various paths through which a company can become diversified and provides an explanation of how a company can use diversification to create or compound competitive advantage for its business units. The chapter also examines the techniques and procedures for assessing the strategic attractiveness of a diversified company’s business portfolio and surveys the strategic options open to already-diversified companies.

LECTURE OUTLINE
I. Introduction 1. In most diversified companies, corporate level executives delegate considerable strategy-making authority to the heads of each business, usually giving them the latitude to craft a business strategy suited to their particular industry and competitive circumstances and holding them accountable for producing good results. However, the task of crafting a diversified company’s overall or corporate strategy falls squarely on the shoulders of top-level corporate executives. 2. Devising a corporate strategy has four distinct facets: a. Picking new industries to enter and deciding on the means of entry

b. Pursuing opportunities to leverage cross-business value chain relationships and strategic fits into competitive advantage c. Establishing investment priorities and steering corporate resources into the most attractive business units.

d. Initiating actions to boost the combined performances of the corporation’s collection of businesses.

II. When to Diversify 1. Diversifying into new industries always merits strong consideration whenever a single-business company encounters diminishing market opportunities and stagnating sales in its principle business. 2. There are four other instances in which a company becomes a prime candidate for diversifying: a. When it spots opportunities for expanding into industries whose technologies and products complement its present business.

b. When it can leverage existing competencies and capabilities by expanding into businesses where these same resource strengths are key success factors and valuable competitive assets. c. When diversifying into additional business opens new avenues for reducing costs or the transfer of competitively valuable resources and capabilities.

d. When it has a powerful and well-known brand name that can be transferred to the products of other businesses and thereby used as a lever for driving up the sales and profits of such a business. III. Building Shareholder Value: The Ultimate Justification for Diversifying 1. Diversification must do more for a company than simply spread its risk across various industries. 2. For there to be reasonable expectations that a diversification move can produce added value for shareholders, the move must pass three tests: a. The industry attractiveness test – The industry chosen for diversification must be attractive enough to yield consistently good returns on investment.

b. The cost of entry test – The cost to enter the target industry must not be so high as to erode the potential for profitability. c. The better-off test – Diversifying into a new business must offer potential for the company’s existing businesses and the new business to perform better together under a single corporate umbrella than they would perform operating as independent stand-alone businesses.

3. Diversification moves that satisfy all three tests have the greatest potential to grow shareholder value over the long term. Diversification moves that can pass only one or two tests are suspect.

CORE CONCEPT
Creating added value for shareholders via diversification requires building a multibusiness company where the whole is greater than the sum of its parts - an outcome known as synergy.

IV. Strategies for Entering New Businesses 1. Entry into new businesses can take any of three forms: a. Acquisition

b. Internal start-up c. Joint ventures/strategic partnerships

A. Acquisition of an Existing Business 1. Acquisition is the most popular means of diversifying into another industry. 2. The big dilemma an acquisition-minded firm faces is whether to pay a premium price for a successful firm or to buy a struggling company at a bargain price.

CORE CONCEPT
An acquisition premium is the amount by which the price offered exceeds the preacquisition market value of the target company.

B. Internal Development 1. Achieving diversification through internal development involves building a new business subsidiary from scratch and is often referred to as corporate venturing.

CORE CONCEPT
Corporate venturing is the process of developing new businesses as an outgrowth of a company’s established business operations. It is also referred to as corporate entrepreneurship or intrapreneurship since it requires entrepreneurial like qualities within a larger enterprise.

2. This entry option takes longer than the acquisition option and poses some hurdles. 3. Generally, using internal development to enter a new business has appeal only when: a. The parent company already has in-house most or all of the skills and resources it needs to piece together a new business and compete effectively

b. There is ample time to launch the business c. Internal entry has lower entry costs than entry via acquisition

d. The targeted industry is populated with many relatively small firms such that the new start-up does not have to compete head-to-head against larger, more powerful rivals e. f. Adding new production capacity will not adversely impact the supply-demand balance in the industry Incumbent firms are likely to be slow or ineffective in responding to a new entrant’s efforts to crack the market

C. Joint Ventures 1. Joint ventures typically entail forming a new corporate entity owned by the partners. 2. A strategic partnership or joint venture can be useful in at least three types of situations: a. To pursue an opportunity that is too complex, uneconomical, or risky for a single organization to pursue alone

b. When the opportunities in a new industry require a broader range of competencies and knowhow than any one organization can marshal c. To diversify into a new industry when the diversification move entails having operations in a foreign country

3. However, partnering with another company has significant drawbacks due to the potential for conflicting objectives, disagreements, over how to best operate the venture, culture clashes, and so on. 4. Joint ventures are generally the least durable of the entry options, usually lasting only until the partners decide to go their own ways. D. Choosing a Mode of Entry 1. The choice of entry mode depends on the answer to four important questions: a. Does the company have all the resources and capabilities it requires to enter the business through internal development or is it lacking some critical resources?

b. Are there entry barriers to overcome? c. Is speed an important factor in the firm’s chances for successful entry?

d. Which is the least costly mode of entry given the company’s objectives?

CORE CONCEPT
Transaction costs are the costs of completing a business agreement or deal of some sort, over and above the price of the deal. They can include the costs of searching for an attractive target, the costs of evaluating its worth, bargaining costs, and the costs of completing the transaction.

2.1. technological know-how. Strategic Fit and Diversification into Related Businesses A. Engaging in cross-business collaboration and knowledge sharing to create new competitively valuable resource strengths and capabilities CORE CONCEPT Strategic fit exists when the value chains of different businesses present opportunities for cross-business resource transfer. or other competitively valuable capabilities from one business to another b. lower costs through combining the performance of related value chain activities. unrelated businesses have very dissimilar value chains and resource requirements. or some mix of both. . CORE CONCEPTS Related businesses possess competitively valuable cross-business value chain and resource matchups. Businesses are said to be related when their value chains possess competitively valuable cross-business value chain matchups or strategic fits. with no competitively important cross-business relationships at the value chain level. unrelated businesses. VI. Transferring specialized expertise. the firm must choose whether to diversify into related businesses. such as relationships with suppliers or a dealer network. Choosing the Diversification Path: Related Versus Unrelated Businesses A. Related Businesses Possess Related Value Chain Activities and Competitively Valuable Strategic Fits.V. 1. looks at related businesses and strategic fits. and cross-business collaboration to build new or stronger competitive capabilities. Once the decision is made to pursue diversification. d. Exploiting common use of a well known brand name that connotes excellence in a certain type of product range. A related diversification strategy involves building the company around businesses whose value chains possess competitively valuable strategic fits. e. Strategic fit exists whenever one or more activities comprising the value chains of different businesses are sufficiently similar as to present opportunities for: a. Businesses are said to be related when their value chains possess competitively valuable cross-business relationships that present opportunities for the businesses to perform better under the same corporate umbrella than they could by operating as stand-alone entities. Combining the related activities of separate businesses into a single operation to achieve lower costs c. Figure 8. Sharing other resources that support corresponding value chain activities of the businesses. cross-business use of a potent brand name.

in contrast to generalized resources and capabilities that can be widely applied and can be deployed across a broad range of industry and business type. 5. After-sale service and repair organizations for the products of closely related businesses can often be consolidated into a single operation c. or transferring technological knowhow from one business to another has considerable appeal. There may be competitively valuable opportunities to transfer selling. Specialized resources and capabilities have very specific application and their use is limited to a restricted range of industry and business types. Cross-business strategic fits can exist anywhere along the value chain – in R&D and technology activities. CORE CONCEPT Related diversification involves sharing or transferring specialized resources and capabilities.Related diversification thus has strategic appeal from several angles. Identifying Cross-Business Strategic Fits Along the Value Chain 1. and/or added leverage with shippers in securing volume discounts on incoming parts and components. It allows a firm to reap the competitive advantage benefits of skills transfer. 6. Strategic Fits in R&D and Technology Activities: Diversifying into businesses where there is potential for sharing common technology. in sales and marketing. merchandising. in manufacturing. or in administrative support activities. B. Strategic Fits in Supply Chain Activities: Businesses that have supply chain strategic fits can perform better together because of the potential for skills transfer in procuring materials. advertising. greater bargaining power in negotiating with common suppliers. common brand names. Manufacturing-Related Strategic Fits: Cross-business strategic fits in manufacturing-related activities can represent an important source of competitive advantage in situations where a diversifier’s expertise in quality manufacture and cost-efficient production methods can be transferred to another business. 3. the benefits of added collaboration with common supply chain partners. Strategic Fits in Sales and Marketing: Various cost-saving opportunities spring from diversifying into businesses with closely related sales and marketing activities. Opportunities include: a. in distribution activities. Sales costs can be reduced by using a single sales force for the products of both businesses rather than having separate sales forces for each business b. 4. and product differentiation skills from one business to another . 2. in supply chain activities and relationships with suppliers. Distribution-Related Strategic Fits: Businesses with closely related distribution activities can perform better together than apart because of potential cost savings in sharing the same distribution facilities or using many of the same wholesale distributors and retail dealers to access customers. lower costs. exploiting the full range of business opportunities associated with a particular technology and its derivatives. and/or stronger competitive capabilities and still spread investor risks over a broad business base.

8. . and retailers. Strategic Fits in Customer Service Activities: Businesses can cut costs by consolidating aftersale service and repair organizations for closely related products. distributors.7. Distribution-Related Strategic Fit: Businesses with closely related distribution activities can perform better together than they can independently due to the cost savings associated with sharing facilities.

Related businesses often present opportunities to consolidate certain value chain activities or use common resources and thereby eliminate costs. A company with a portfolio of related businesses is poised to achieve a 1+1=3 financial performance and the hoped for gains in shareholder value. What makes related diversification an attractive strategy is the opportunity to convert the strategic fit relationships between the value chains of different businesses into a competitive advantage. Diversification Into Unrelated Business Companies that pursue a strategy of unrelated diversification generally exhibit a willingness to diversify into any industry where there is potential for a company to realize consistently good financial results. and Competitive Advantage 1. using such criteria as: Whether the business can meet corporate targets for profitability and return on investment Whether the business is an industry with attractive growth potential . whereas economies of scale accrue from a larger-size operation. The basic premise of unrelated diversification is that any company that can be acquired on good financial terms and that has satisfactory earnings potential represents a good acquisition and a good business opportunity.B. Such cost savings are termed economies of scope a. CORE CONCEPT Economies of scope are cost reductions that flow from operating in multiple businesses. Economies of scope stem directly from cost-saving strategic fits along the value chains of related businesses. From Competitive Advantage to Added Profitability and Gains in Shareholder Value: Armed with the competitive advantages that come from economies of scope and the capture of other strategic fit benefits. Economies of Scope. performing R&D together. The greater the economies associated with cost-saving strategic fits. b. Economies of Scope: A Path to Competitive Advantage: One of the most important competitive advantages that a related diversification strategy can produce is lower costs than competitors. sharing a common sales force or distributor/dealer network. using common manufacturing or distribution facilities. Diversifying into related businesses where competitively valuable strategic fit benefits can be captured puts sister businesses in position to perform better financially as part of the same company than they could have performed as independent enterprises. a. thus providing a clear avenue for boosting shareholder value. The company spends much time and effort screening new acquisition candidates and deciding whether to keep or divest existing businesses. 2. economies of scope are the result of two or more businesses sharing technology. b. 3. or using the same established brand name and/or sharing the same administrative infrastructure. Strategic Fit. Economies of scale are cost savings that accrue directly from a larger-sized operation. VII. Such companies are frequently labeled conglomerates. the greater the potential for a related diversification strategy to yield a competitive advantage based on lower costs. Most usually.

. whether the business passes the better-off test by growing profits as well as revenues.Whether the business is big enough to contribute significantly to the parent firm’s bottom line Most importantly.

There are three principle ways in which the parent company contributes to success of its unrelated businesses: a. Do a superior job of corporate parenting. and otherwise improving the productivity and profitability of a company. reducing unnecessary expenses. CORE CONCEPT A diversified company has a parenting advantage when it is more able than other companies to boost the combined performance of its individual businesses through high-level guidance. The Path to Greater Shareholder Value through Unrelated Diversification : Building shareholder value via unrelated diversification ultimately hinges on the business acumen of corporate executives. and first rate advise.3. Astute Corporate Parenting – The parent corporation must nurture its component businesses through top management expertise. c. Judicious Cross-Business Allocation of Financial Resources – The parent corporation can serve as an internal capital market and allocate surplus cash flows from some businesses to fund the capital requirements of others. selling off underutilized assets. the company must look for unrelated avenues. and other corporate-level contributions. In more specific terms. creative strategy suggestions. Those that are able to create more value in their businesses have what is called a parenting advantage. then restructuring their operations in ways that improve profitability. this means that corporate level executives must: a. expert problem solving. b. CORE CONCEPT Restructuring refers to overhauling and streamlining the activities of a business – combining plants with excess capacity. . Acquiring and Restructuring Undervalued Companies – The parent corporation can search out weak performing companies and purchase them at bargain prices. 4. Do a superior job of diversifying into new businesses that can produce consistently good earnings and returns on investment b. Building Shareholder Value via Unrelated Diversification – In the absence of cross-business strategic fits by which to grow shareholder value. general oversight. Do an excellent job of negotiating favorable acquisition prices c.

c. the more unrelated businesses that a company has diversified into. Demanding Managerial Requirements: Successfully managing a set of fundamentally different businesses operating in fundamentally different industry and competitive environments is a very challenging and exceptionally difficult proposition for corporate level managers. Limited Competitive Advantage: Unrelated diversification offers limited potential for competitive advantage beyond that of what each individual business can generate on its own. B. Inadequate Reasons for Pursuing Unrelated Diversification 1. a. Very demanding managerial requirements b. b. The Drawbacks of Unrelated Diversification 1. a. Rationales for unrelated diversification that are not likely to increase shareholder value include: a.‖ 6. . The greater the number of businesses a company is in and the more diverse those businesses are. the harder it is for corporate managers to: 1.B. the more corporate executives are reduced to ―managing by the numbers. Know enough about the issues and problems facing each subsidiary to pick business-unit heads having the requisite combination of managerial skills and know-how 3. Unrelated diversification strategies have two important negatives that undercut the positives: a. Without the competitive advantage potential of strategic fits. Know what to do if a business unit stumbles and its results suddenly head downhill b. Managerial Motives – unrelated diversification that results only in benefits to managers such as higher compensation and reduced employment risk. consolidated performance of an unrelated group of businesses stands to be little or no better than the sum of what the individual business units could achieve if they were independent. Stay abreast of what is happening in each industry and each subsidiary and thus judge whether a particular business has bright prospects or is headed for trouble 2. d. b. As a rule. Growth – pursuing growth for the sake of growth. Relying solely on the expertise of corporate executives to wisely manage a set of unrelated businesses is a much weaker foundation for enhancing shareholder value than it a strategy of related diversification. Be able to tell the difference between those strategic proposals of business-unit managers that are prudent and those that are risky or unlikely to succeed 4. Stabilization – offsetting market downtrends in some businesses by upswings in others. Limited competitive advantage potential 2. Risk reduction – reducing perceived risk by spreading the company’s investments over a set of truly diverse industries whose technologies and markets are largely disconnected.

Evaluating the Strategy of a Diversified Company A. Calculating Industry Attractiveness Scores for Each Industry into Which the Company Has Diversified: A simple and reliable analytical tool involves calculating quantitative industry attractiveness scores. Combination Related-Unrelated Diversification Strategies 1. Does each industry the company has diversified into represent a good business for the company to be in? b. VIII. Checking for resources fit 5. 2. which can then be used to gauge each industry’s attractiveness. unrelated businesses. Crafting new strategic moves to improve overall corporate performance A.VIII. Dominant-business enterprises – one major core business accounts for 50 to 80 percent of total revenues and a collection of small related or unrelated businesses accounts for the remainder b. A principal consideration in evaluating a diversified company’s business makeup and the caliber of its strategy is the attractiveness of the industries in which it has business operations. Narrowly diversified – 2 to 5 related or unrelated businesses c. Answers to several questions are required: a. Figure 8. and make judgments about the attractiveness of all the industries as a group. Assessing industry attractiveness individually and as a group 2. Ranking the business units on the basis of performance and priority for resource allocation 6. Checking the competitive advantage potential of cross-business strategic fits 4. The procedure for evaluating a diversified company’s strategy and deciding how to improve the company’s performance involves six steps: 1.2. Step 1: Evaluating Industry Attractiveness 1. Broadly diversified – wide ranging collection of related businesses. in actual practice the business makeup of diversified companies varies considerably: a. Strategy Alternatives for a Company Pursuing Diversification. Assessing competitive strength of each business-unit in its industry 3. How appealing is the whole group of industries in which the company has invested? 2. rank the industries from most to least attractive. Indeed. or a mixture of both 3. provides guidance on what strategy might be most effective in various situations. There is nothing to preclude a company from diversifying into both related and unrelated businesses. . Which of the company’s industries are most attractive and which are least attractive? c.

Seasonal and cyclical factors c. One is deciding on appropriate weights for the industry attractiveness measure. The presence of cross-industry strategic fits i. Industry uncertainty and business risk d. There are two hurdles to calculating industry attractiveness scores. Industry profitability The intensity of competition g. Each factor should be given a weight (with all weights adding up to 1. Despite the hurdles. Table 8. calculating industry attractiveness scores is a systematic and reasonably reliable method for ranking a diversified company’s industries from most to least attractive. Calculating Weighted Industry Attractiveness Scores. . Market size and projected growth rate e. regulatory. and environmental factors b. Interpreting the Industry Attractiveness Scores: Industries with a score much below 5. The following measures of industry attractiveness are likely to come into play for most companies: a.0) and each industry should be ranked between 1 and 10 for each factor. f. a substantial portion of its revenues and profits must come from business units with relatively high attractiveness scores. The Difficulties of Calculating Industry Attractiveness Scores a.3. Resource requirements 4. The second hurdle is gaining sufficient command for the industry to assign accurate and objective ratings b. For a diversified company to be a strong performer. Multiplying the rank by the weight provides the score for each factor for each industry. provides a sample calculation.0 probably do not pass the attractiveness test. Social.1. 1. 2. Emerging opportunities and threats h. 5. political.

Calculating Competitive Strength Scores for Each Business Unit: Quantitative measures of each business unit’s competitive strength can be calculated using a procedure similar to that for measuring industry attractiveness by looking at factors that impact competitiveness. In general. Industry attractiveness is plotted on the vertical axis and competitive strength on the horizontal axis.0) and each industry should be ranked between 1 and 10 for each factor.‖ b. Profitability relative to competitors 4. Relative market share b.2. Ability to exercise bargaining leverage with key suppliers or customers h.7 on a rating scale of 1 to 10 are strong market contenders in their industries. A nine-cell grid emerges from dividing the vertical axis into three regions and the horizontal axis into three regions. c. strong logic for why a diversified company needs to consider both the industry attractiveness and business strength in allocating resources and investment capital to its different businesses. Table 8. Figure 8. Ability to match or beat rivals on key product attributes Brand image and reputation Other competitively valuable resources and capabilities Ability to benefit from strategic fits with sister businesses g. A Nine-Cell Industry Attractiveness-Competitive Strength Matrix. depicts this tool. 6. The nine-cell attractiveness-strength matrix provides clear.B. Step 2: Evaluating Business-Unit Competitive Strength 1. Interpreting the Competitive Strength Scores: Business units with competitive strength ratings above 6. d e. f. Multiplying the rank by the weight provides the score for each factor for each industry. Using a Nine-Cell Matrix to Simultaneously Portray Industry Attractiveness and Competitive Strength: The industry attractiveness and business strength scores can be used to portray the strategic positions of each business in a diversified company. . 2. provides a sample calculation. Costs relative to competitors’ costs c. a diversified company’s prospects for good overall performance are enhanced by concentrating corporate resources and strategic attention on those business units having the greatest competitive strength and positioned in highly attractive industries. a. Each business unit is plotted on the nine-cell matrix according to its overall attractiveness score and strength score and then shown as a ―bubble. The following measures of competitive strength are likely to come into play for most companies: a. Each factor should be given a weight (with all weights adding up to 1. 5. The location of the business units on the attractiveness-strength matrix provides valuable guidance in deploying corporate resources to the various business units. Calculating Weighted Competitive Strength Scores for a Diversified Company’s Business Units. The second step in evaluating a diversified company is to appraise how strongly positioned each of its business units are in their respective industry.3. Caliber of alliances and collaborative partnerships with suppliers and/or buyers i. 3.

2. Opportunities to transfer skills.C. Identifying the Competitive Advantage Potential of Cross-Business Strategic Fits. either financially or strategically b. A portfolio approach to managing the diversified firm focuses on two general categories of businesses. Figure 8. 2. More than just strategic fit identification is needed. Step 3: Checking the Competitive Advantage Potential of Cross-Business Strategic Fits 1. Opportunities to share the use of a well-respected brand name d. D. 3. The real test is what competitive value can be generated from these fits. CORE CONCEPT A diversified company exhibits resource fit when its business add to a company’s overall resource strengths and have matching resource requirements and/or when the parent company has adequate corporate resources to support its businesses’ needs and add value. Businesses add to a company’s resource strengths. Opportunities to combine the performance of certain activities thereby reducing costs b. Financial Resource Fits: A diversified company must generate sufficient cash flows to fund the capital requirements of it business while remaining financially healthy. or intellectual capital from one business to another c. A company has the resources to adequately support its businesses as a group without spreading itself too thin 3. Opportunities for sister businesses to collaborate in creating valuable new competitive capabilities CORE CONCEPT Sister businesses possess resource fit when they add to a company’s overall resource strengths and when a company has adequate resources to support their requirements. Step 4: Checking for Resource Fit 1.. illustrates the process of searching for competitively valuable cross-business strategic-fits and value chain matchups. . cash hogs and cash cows. As discussed previously. technology.4. The businesses in a diversified company’s lineup need to exhibit good resource fit. Checking the competitive advantage potential of cross-business strategic fits involves searching and evaluating how much benefit a diversified company can gain from four types of value chain matchups: a. Resource fit exists when: a. a diversified firm must have a healthy internal capital market.

Does the company have adequate financial strength to fund its different businesses and maintain a healthy credit? 2.CORE CONCEPT A strong internal capital market allows a diversified company to add value by shifting capital from business units generating free cash flow to those needing additional capital to expand and realize their growth potential. a. E. or paying dividends. Are the company’s resources being stretched too thinly by the resource requirements of one or more of its businesses? . 5. CORE CONCEPT A cash cow generates cash flows over and above its internal requirements. thus providing a corporate parent with funds for investing in cash hogs. Does the company have (or can it develop) the specific resource strengths and competitive capabilities needed to be successful in each of its businesses? 4. a cash hog requires cash infusion to provide additional working capital and finance new capital investment. high-growth markets and high levels of profitability and are often the cash cows of the future. 1. Star businesses have strong or market-leading competitive positions in attractive. 4. Business units with leading market positions in mature industries may be cash cows—businesses that generate substantial cash surpluses over what is needed for capital reinvestment and competitive maneuvers to sustain their present market position. CORE CONCEPT A cash hog business generates cash flows that are too small to fully fund its operations and growth. b. financing new acquisitions. Other Tests of Resource Fit. Business units in rapidly growing industries are often cash hogs—the annual cash flows they are able to generate from internal operations are not big enough to fund their expansion. Viewing the diversified group of businesses as a collection of cash flows and cash requirements is a major step forward in understanding what the financial ramifications of diversification are and why having businesses with good financial resource fit is so important. Do any of the company’s individual businesses not contribute adequately to achieving companywide performance targets? 3.

5. It is a short step from ranking the prospects of business units to drawing conclusions about whether the company as a whole is capable of strong. A Company’s Four Main Strategic Alternatives after it Diversifies) a. 6.5. or weak performance. G. profit growth. and resource fit. 3. a. 2. Restructuring the company’s business lineup and putting a whole new face on the company’s business makeup 2. 4.6. The strategic options boil down to four broad categories of actions: (pictured in Figure 8. they can opt for any of the four strategic alternatives listed above. Step 5: Ranking the Performance Prospects of Business Unites and Assigning a Priority for Resource Allocation 1. Figure 8. . contribution to company’s earnings. Sticking closely with the existing business lineup and pursuing the opportunities it presents b. shows the chief strategic and financial options for allocating a diversified company’s financial resources. and the return on capital. Business subsidiaries with the brightest profit and growth prospects and solid strategic and resource fits generally should head the list for corporate resource support. The industry attractiveness/business strength evaluations provide a basis for judging a business’s prospects. Divesting certain businesses and retrenching to a narrower diversification base d. strategic fit.F. Once a diversified company’s strategy has been evaluated from the perspectives of industry attractiveness. Sticking Closely with the Existing Business Lineup makes sense when the company’s present businesses offer attractive growth opportunities and can be counted on to generate good earnings and cash flow. Step 6: Crafting New Strategic Moves to Improve Overall Corporate Performance 1. Broadening the company’s diversification base by making new acquisitions in new industries c. competitive strength. The most important considerations in judging business-unit performance are sales growth. In the event that corporate executives are not entirely satisfied with the opportunities they see in the company’s present set of businesses and conclude that changes in the company’s direction and business makeup are in order. The rankings of future performance generally determine what priority the corporate parent should give to each business in terms of resource allocation. the next step is to rank the performance prospects of the businesses from best to worst and determine which businesses merit top priority for new investments by the corporate parent. The diagnosis and conclusions flowing from the five preceding analytical steps set the agenda for crafting strategic moves to improve a diversified company’s overall performance. The Chief Strategic and Financial Options for Allocating a Diversified Company’s Financial Resources. mediocre.

Discuss the view held by Johnson & Johnson’s corporate management about the benefits of collaboration with others in its various business lines. and pharmaceuticals businesses. To complement and strengthen the market position and competitive capabilities of one or more of its present businesses. either because it’s a cash cow or it is weakly positioned in the industry. 4. Vulnerability to seasonal or recessionary influences or to threats from emerging new technologies c. Answer: J&J’s corporate management believes close collaboration among people in diagnostics. . Illustration Capsule 8. where numerous crossbusiness strategic fits exist.1. A diversification move that seems sensible from a strategic-fit stand-point turns out to be a poor cultural fit. Market conditions in a once-attractive business have badly deteriorated c. Divesting Some Businesses and Retrenching to a Narrower Diversification Base: a. d. Managing Diversification at Johnson & Johnson— The Benefits of Cross-Business Strategic Fits Discussion Question: 1.3 Broadening a Diversified Company’s Business Base—Motivating factors to build positions in new industries a. will give it an edge on competitors. The potential for transferring resources and capabilities to other related or complementary businesses d. e. To complement and strengthen the market position and competitive capabilities of one or more of its present businesses. medical devices. legislative or new product innovations e. Rapidly changing conditions in one or more of a company’s core businesses brought on by technological. most of whom cannot match the company’s breadth and depth of expertise. b. A business lacks adequate strategic or resource fit. Sluggish growth the makes the potential revenue and profit boost of a newly acquired business look attractive b. Retrenching to a narrower diversification base is usually undertaken when top management concludes that its diversification strategy has ranged too far afield and that the company can improve long term performance by concentrating on a smaller number of core businesses and industries.

Selling a business outright requires finding a buyer.f. a corporate parent may elect to spin the unwanted business off as a financially and managerially independent company. Restructuring a Company’s Business Lineup through a Mix of Divestitures and New Acquisition. there is the issue of whether or not to retain partial ownership. Selling a business outright to another company is far and away the most frequently used option for divesting a business. 5. In such cases. This can prove hard or easy. Sometimes a business selected for divestiture has ample resource strengths to compete successfully on its own. Liquidation is obviously a last resort. . When a corporate parent decides to spin off one of its businesses as a separate company. Restructuring strategies involve divesting some businesses and acquiring others to put a whole new face on the company’s business lineup. depending on the business.

. or otherwise unattractive industries 2. Companywide restructuring can also be mandated by the emergence of new technologies that threaten the survival of one or more of a diversified company’s important businesses or by the appointment of a new CEO who decides to redirect the company.4. In 2009 VF was the most profitable apparel firm in the industry. acquired brands that connected with the way people lived. low-margin. Ongoing declines in the market share of one or more major business units that are falling prey to more market-savvy competitors 4. Ill-chosen acquisitions that have not lived up to expectations b. The Corporate Restructuring Strategy that Made VF the Star of the Apparel Industry Discussion Question: 1. Describe the restructuring strategy which made VF the leader in profits and innovation in its industry Answer: VF divested itself of slow-growing businesses. An excessive debt burden with interest costs that eat deeply into profitability 5. declining. CORE CONCEPT Companywide restructuring involves divesting some businesses and acquiring others so as to put a whole new face on the company’s business lineup. VF made a practice of leaving management of acquired companies in place. Performing radical surgery on the group of businesses a company is in becomes an appealing strategy alternative when a diversified company’s financial performance is being squeezed or eroded by: 1.Illustration Capsule 8. a. Too many businesses in slow-growth. Too many competitively weak businesses 3. did years of research before acquiring companies and developed a relationship with the acquisition candidates chief managers before closing the deal. each company was able to keep its long standing traditions that shaped culture and spurred creativity.

especially in the development. L’Oréal Professional. especially in the administrative functions. Kiehl’s. Lancôme. you should consider whether there are cross-business opportunities for (1) transferring skills/technology. and/or (3) leveraging the use of a wellrespected brand name or other resources that enhance differentiation. OSI Restaurant Partners • • • • • Outback Steakhouse Carrabba’s Italian Grill Roy’s Restaurant (Hawaiian fusion cuisine) Bonefish Grill (market-fresh fine seafood) Fleming’s Prime Steakhouse & Wine Bar Answer 1: The student should identify the company’s overall strategy is to differentiate its restaurants by emphasizing consistently high-quality food and service. Helena Rubinstein. and distribution functions. and Shu Uemura cosmetics L’Oréal and Soft Sheen/Carson hair care products Redken. and Kerastase Paris professional hair care and skin care products Ralph Lauren and Giorgio Armani fragrances Biotherm skincare products La Roche–Posay and Vichy Laboratories dermocosmetics Answer 2: The student should identify the company’s overall strategy is to differentiate its restaurants by emphasizing high-quality cosmetics delivered via retail distribution networks. generous portions at moderate prices and a casual atmosphere. L’Oréal • • • • • • Maybelline. This is a good example of two strategic fit opportunities: transferring skills and combining the related value chain activities to achieve lower costs. Matrix.ASSURANCE OF LEARNING EXERCISES 1. This is a good example of two strategic fit opportunities: transferring skills and combining the related value chain activities to achieve lower costs. production. . Garner. (2) combining related value chain activities to achieve economies of scope. See if you can identify the value chain relationships that make the businesses of the following companies related in competitively relevant ways. In particular.

allowing each to focus on their specific customer base and market opportunities. repurchase shares. and Romanoff caviar Candle-lite brand candles marketed to retailers and private-label customers chains.lancastercolony. Sister Schubert’s rolls. the largest and fastest growing division.com) to obtain additional information about its business lineup and strategy. which is that any company that can be acquired on good financial terms and that has satisfactory growth and earnings potential represents a good acquisition and a good business opportunity for the diversifying enterprise. Reames egg noodles. The groups operate autonomously. In a recent Financial Release (09/09). oil.Johnson & Johnson • • • • • • • • • Baby products (powder. and matting products marketed to the food service and lodging industry. Monistat) Prescription drugs Prosthetic and other medical devices Surgical and hospital products Acuvue contact lenses Answer 3: The student should identify the company’s overall strategy is to supply a broad range of personal hygene and medical products to a wide range of customers. Motrin. Mylanta. this description of the company indicates it is pursuing an unrelated diversification strategy. acquire good-fitting food businesses. shampoo. A defining characteristic of unrelated diversification is few cross-business commonalities in terms of key value chain activities. especially in the product development and distribution functions. . Marzetti and Chatham Village croutons. visit the company’s Web site (www. Marzetti. and grow cash dividends. Jack Daniels mustards. and see if you can confirm that it has diversified into unrelated business groups. Glassware. and Glassware and Candles. Girard’s. plastic ware. Based on information provided on the Web site. • • If need be. 2. Pepcid AC. Carefree. Answer: The student should indicate an understanding of the basic premise of unrelated diversification. coffee urns. This is further evidence that Lancaster Colony is concentrating on unrelated diversification. Thus. Sure & Natural) Neutrogena and Aveeno skin care products Nonprescription drugs (Tylenol. Lancaster Colony provided four initiatives related to shareholder returns: grow existing businesses. lotion) Band-Aids and other first-aid products Women’s health and personal care products (Stayfree. This is a good example of two strategic fit opportunities: liveraging the use of a well respected brand name and combining the related value chain activities to achieve lower costs. New York and Mamma Bella garlic breads. Lancaster Colony is a diversified marketer and manufacturer for two product groups: Specialty Foods. Lancaster Colony’s business lineup • Specialty food products: Cardini. and Pheiffer salad dressings. T. Peruse the business group listings for Lancaster Colony shown below. Inn Maid noodles.

The Walt Disney Company is in the following businesses: • • • • • • • • • • • • Theme parks Disney Cruise Line Resort properties Movie. Toon Disney. between movie production. and A&E networks) Radio broadcasting (Disney Radio) Musical recordings and sales of animation art Anaheim Mighty Ducks NHL franchise Anaheim Angels major league baseball franchise (25 percent ownership) Books and magazine publishing Interactive software and Internet sites The Disney Store retail shops Based on the above listing. Disney Channel. or a combination of related and unrelated diversification? Be prepared to justify and explain your answer in terms of the extent to which the value chains of Disney’s different businesses seem to have competitively valuable cross-business relationships. and theatrical productions (for both children and adults) Television broadcasting (ABC. There are some strong links. unrelated diversification. Publishing and ownership of Internet sites and software are also related in terms of the editing function. video. Lifetime. Disney’s ownership of companies like ESPN and ABC gives it another avenue for pursuing the entertainment industry in broad terms. and resorts all build off the Disney brand name. would you say that Walt Disney’s business lineup reflects a strategy of related diversification. Answer: Students are likely to choose related diversification in one broad category: the entertainment industry. E!.3. and administrative functions. cruise line. radio broadcasting. Lastly. the sports franchises provide Disney with another means to generate growth and revenues from the day-today entertainment needs of the public. ESPN and ESPN2. . TV broadcasting. Classic Sports Network. also. and musical recordings. including marketing as a value chain activity. The theme parts.

corporate level executives delegate considerable strategy-making authority to the heads of each business. the task of crafting a diversified company’s overall or corporate strategy falls squarely on the shoulders of top-level corporate executives. . Picking new industries to enter and deciding on the means of entry b. 2. Initiating actions to boost the combined performances of the corporation’s collection of businesses. In most diversified companies. However. Introduction 1. The chapter also examines the techniques and procedures for assessing the strategic attractiveness of a diversified company’s business portfolio and surveys the strategic options open to already-diversified companies.CHAPTER 8 UNIT 8 CORPORATE STRATEGY: DIVERSIFICATION AND THE MULTIBUSINESS COMPANY CHAPTER SUMMARY Chapter 8 moves up one level in the strategy-making hierarchy. d. The chapter begins with a description of the various paths through which a company can become diversified and provides an explanation of how a company can use diversification to create or compound competitive advantage for its business units. Pursuing opportunities to leverage cross-business value chain relationships and strategic fits into competitive advantage c. Devising a corporate strategy has four distinct facets: a. LECTURE OUTLINE I. Establishing investment priorities and steering corporate resources into the most attractive business units. usually giving them the latitude to craft a business strategy suited to their particular industry and competitive circumstances and holding them accountable for producing good results. from strategy making in a single business enterprise to strategy making in a diversified enterprise.

Diversification moves that satisfy all three tests have the greatest potential to grow shareholder value over the long term. Diversification must do more for a company than simply spread its risk across various industries. The industry attractiveness test – The industry chosen for diversification must be attractive enough to yield consistently good returns on investment. The cost of entry test – The cost to enter the target industry must not be so high as to erode the potential for profitability. 2. . 2. When it spots opportunities for expanding into industries whose technologies and products complement its present business. Diversifying into new industries always merits strong consideration whenever a single-business company encounters diminishing market opportunities and stagnating sales in its principle business. When it can leverage existing competencies and capabilities by expanding into businesses where these same resource strengths are key success factors and valuable competitive assets. Building Shareholder Value: The Ultimate Justification for Diversifying 1. There are four other instances in which a company becomes a prime candidate for diversifying: a.an outcome known as synergy. When to Diversify 1. b. c. When diversifying into additional business opens new avenues for reducing costs or the transfer of competitively valuable resources and capabilities. b. Diversification moves that can pass only one or two tests are suspect. CORE CONCEPT Creating added value for shareholders via diversification requires building a multibusiness company where the whole is greater than the sum of its parts . For there to be reasonable expectations that a diversification move can produce added value for shareholders.II. the move must pass three tests: a. 3. c. d. When it has a powerful and well-known brand name that can be transferred to the products of other businesses and thereby used as a lever for driving up the sales and profits of such a business. III. The better-off test – Diversifying into a new business must offer potential for the company’s existing businesses and the new business to perform better together under a single corporate umbrella than they would perform operating as independent stand-alone businesses.

There is ample time to launch the business c. Acquisition of an Existing Business 1. Entry into new businesses can take any of three forms: a. Joint ventures/strategic partnerships A. 2.IV. more powerful rivals e. CORE CONCEPT An acquisition premium is the amount by which the price offered exceeds the preacquisition market value of the target company. Generally. f. Acquisition b. CORE CONCEPT Corporate venturing is the process of developing new businesses as an outgrowth of a company’s established business operations. 3. It is also referred to as corporate entrepreneurship or intrapreneurship since it requires entrepreneurial like qualities within a larger enterprise. using internal development to enter a new business has appeal only when: a. Achieving diversification through internal development involves building a new business subsidiary from scratch and is often referred to as corporate venturing. Acquisition is the most popular means of diversifying into another industry. Strategies for Entering New Businesses 1. 2. Internal Development 1. B. The targeted industry is populated with many relatively small firms such that the new start-up does not have to compete head-to-head against larger. This entry option takes longer than the acquisition option and poses some hurdles. Internal entry has lower entry costs than entry via acquisition d. Internal start-up c. Adding new production capacity will not adversely impact the supply-demand balance in the industry Incumbent firms are likely to be slow or ineffective in responding to a new entrant’s efforts to crack the market . The big dilemma an acquisition-minded firm faces is whether to pay a premium price for a successful firm or to buy a struggling company at a bargain price. The parent company already has in-house most or all of the skills and resources it needs to piece together a new business and compete effectively b.

and so on. culture clashes.C. However. . partnering with another company has significant drawbacks due to the potential for conflicting objectives. Joint ventures are generally the least durable of the entry options. Are there entry barriers to overcome? c. To pursue an opportunity that is too complex. usually lasting only until the partners decide to go their own ways. D. disagreements. and the costs of completing the transaction. Which is the least costly mode of entry given the company’s objectives? CORE CONCEPT Transaction costs are the costs of completing a business agreement or deal of some sort. Joint ventures typically entail forming a new corporate entity owned by the partners. Choosing a Mode of Entry 1. the costs of evaluating its worth. 4. uneconomical. 2. A strategic partnership or joint venture can be useful in at least three types of situations: a. bargaining costs. Is speed an important factor in the firm’s chances for successful entry? d. Joint Ventures 1. over how to best operate the venture. The choice of entry mode depends on the answer to four important questions: a. over and above the price of the deal. or risky for a single organization to pursue alone b. To diversify into a new industry when the diversification move entails having operations in a foreign country 3. Does the company have all the resources and capabilities it requires to enter the business through internal development or is it lacking some critical resources? b. They can include the costs of searching for an attractive target. When the opportunities in a new industry require a broader range of competencies and knowhow than any one organization can marshal c.

Transferring specialized expertise. looks at related businesses and strategic fits. VI. e. Choosing the Diversification Path: Related Versus Unrelated Businesses A. d. unrelated businesses have very dissimilar value chains and resource requirements. Figure 8. 1. and cross-business collaboration to build new or stronger competitive capabilities. . Engaging in cross-business collaboration and knowledge sharing to create new competitively valuable resource strengths and capabilities CORE CONCEPT Strategic fit exists when the value chains of different businesses present opportunities for cross-business resource transfer.1. Once the decision is made to pursue diversification. A related diversification strategy involves building the company around businesses whose value chains possess competitively valuable strategic fits. 2.V. Strategic Fit and Diversification into Related Businesses A. such as relationships with suppliers or a dealer network. Strategic fit exists whenever one or more activities comprising the value chains of different businesses are sufficiently similar as to present opportunities for: a. Related Businesses Possess Related Value Chain Activities and Competitively Valuable Strategic Fits. or some mix of both. unrelated businesses. CORE CONCEPTS Related businesses possess competitively valuable cross-business value chain and resource matchups. Businesses are said to be related when their value chains possess competitively valuable cross-business value chain matchups or strategic fits. technological know-how. or other competitively valuable capabilities from one business to another b. the firm must choose whether to diversify into related businesses. Businesses are said to be related when their value chains possess competitively valuable cross-business relationships that present opportunities for the businesses to perform better under the same corporate umbrella than they could by operating as stand-alone entities. Sharing other resources that support corresponding value chain activities of the businesses. with no competitively important cross-business relationships at the value chain level. cross-business use of a potent brand name. Combining the related activities of separate businesses into a single operation to achieve lower costs c. Exploiting common use of a well known brand name that connotes excellence in a certain type of product range. lower costs through combining the performance of related value chain activities.

Distribution-Related Strategic Fits: Businesses with closely related distribution activities can perform better together than apart because of potential cost savings in sharing the same distribution facilities or using many of the same wholesale distributors and retail dealers to access customers. in supply chain activities and relationships with suppliers. It allows a firm to reap the competitive advantage benefits of skills transfer. Strategic Fits in Supply Chain Activities: Businesses that have supply chain strategic fits can perform better together because of the potential for skills transfer in procuring materials. and/or stronger competitive capabilities and still spread investor risks over a broad business base. CORE CONCEPT Related diversification involves sharing or transferring specialized resources and capabilities. common brand names. There may be competitively valuable opportunities to transfer selling. Cross-business strategic fits can exist anywhere along the value chain – in R&D and technology activities. in sales and marketing. Identifying Cross-Business Strategic Fits Along the Value Chain 1. exploiting the full range of business opportunities associated with a particular technology and its derivatives. and/or added leverage with shippers in securing volume discounts on incoming parts and components. After-sale service and repair organizations for the products of closely related businesses can often be consolidated into a single operation c. Opportunities include: a. Sales costs can be reduced by using a single sales force for the products of both businesses rather than having separate sales forces for each business b. Specialized resources and capabilities have very specific application and their use is limited to a restricted range of industry and business types. in contrast to generalized resources and capabilities that can be widely applied and can be deployed across a broad range of industry and business type. advertising. Manufacturing-Related Strategic Fits: Cross-business strategic fits in manufacturing-related activities can represent an important source of competitive advantage in situations where a diversifier’s expertise in quality manufacture and cost-efficient production methods can be transferred to another business. and product differentiation skills from one business to another . 6. merchandising. B. 2. Related diversification thus has strategic appeal from several angles. the benefits of added collaboration with common supply chain partners.3. or in administrative support activities. 3. Strategic Fits in Sales and Marketing: Various cost-saving opportunities spring from diversifying into businesses with closely related sales and marketing activities. or transferring technological knowhow from one business to another has considerable appeal. Strategic Fits in R&D and Technology Activities: Diversifying into businesses where there is potential for sharing common technology. 4. in manufacturing. 5. greater bargaining power in negotiating with common suppliers. lower costs. in distribution activities.

Strategic Fits in Customer Service Activities: Businesses can cut costs by consolidating aftersale service and repair organizations for closely related products. and retailers. 8.7. distributors. Distribution-Related Strategic Fit: Businesses with closely related distribution activities can perform better together than they can independently due to the cost savings associated with sharing facilities. .

Economies of scope stem directly from cost-saving strategic fits along the value chains of related businesses. and Competitive Advantage 1. Whether the business is an industry with attractive growth potential . 3. 1. The basic premise of unrelated diversification is that any company that can be acquired on good financial terms and that has satisfactory earnings potential represents a good acquisition and a good business opportunity. sharing a common sales force or distributor/dealer network. Diversification Into Unrelated Business A. thus providing a clear avenue for boosting shareholder value. 2. Diversifying into related businesses where competitively valuable strategic fit benefits can be captured puts sister businesses in position to perform better financially as part of the same company than they could have performed as independent enterprises. whereas economies of scale accrue from a larger-size operation. or using the same established brand name and/or sharing the same administrative infrastructure. Most usually. Companies that pursue a strategy of unrelated diversification generally exhibit a willingness to diversify into any industry where there is potential for a company to realize consistently good financial results.B. From Competitive Advantage to Added Profitability and Gains in Shareholder Value: Armed with the competitive advantages that come from economies of scope and the capture of other strategic fit benefits. 2. Such companies are frequently labeled conglomerates. the greater the potential for a related diversification strategy to yield a competitive advantage based on lower costs. CORE CONCEPT Economies of scope are cost reductions that flow from operating in multiple businesses. economies of scope are the result of two or more businesses sharing technology. a. Economies of Scope: A Path to Competitive Advantage: One of the most important competitive advantages that a related diversification strategy can produce is lower costs than competitors. b. The company spends much time and effort screening new acquisition candidates and deciding whether to keep or divest existing businesses. Whether the business can meet corporate targets for profitability and return on investment b. b. VII. Related businesses often present opportunities to consolidate certain value chain activities or use common resources and thereby eliminate costs. What makes related diversification an attractive strategy is the opportunity to convert the strategic fit relationships between the value chains of different businesses into a competitive advantage. using common manufacturing or distribution facilities. The greater the economies associated with cost-saving strategic fits. using such criteria as: a. Economies of scale are cost savings that accrue directly from a larger-sized operation. Such cost savings are termed economies of scope a. performing R&D together. Strategic Fit. A company with a portfolio of related businesses is poised to achieve a 1+1=3 financial performance and the hoped for gains in shareholder value. Economies of Scope.

Whether the business is big enough to contribute significantly to the parent firm’s bottom line d.c. . Most importantly. whether the business passes the better-off test by growing profits as well as revenues.

There are three principle ways in which the parent company contributes to success of its unrelated businesses: a. Do an excellent job of negotiating favorable acquisition prices c. Do a superior job of corporate parenting. and otherwise improving the productivity and profitability of a company. creative strategy suggestions. Building Shareholder Value via Unrelated Diversification – In the absence of cross-business strategic fits by which to grow shareholder value. 4. c. . CORE CONCEPT Restructuring refers to overhauling and streamlining the activities of a business – combining plants with excess capacity. then restructuring their operations in ways that improve profitability. the company must look for unrelated avenues. Judicious Cross-Business Allocation of Financial Resources – The parent corporation can serve as an internal capital market and allocate surplus cash flows from some businesses to fund the capital requirements of others. and first rate advise. general oversight. Do a superior job of diversifying into new businesses that can produce consistently good earnings and returns on investment b. and other corporate-level contributions. The Path to Greater Shareholder Value through Unrelated Diversification: Building shareholder value via unrelated diversification ultimately hinges on the business acumen of corporate executives. reducing unnecessary expenses. Astute Corporate Parenting – The parent corporation must nurture its component businesses through top management expertise. this means that corporate level executives must: a. expert problem solving. In more specific terms. b. CORE CONCEPT A diversified company has a parenting advantage when it is more able than other companies to boost the combined performance of its individual businesses through high-level guidance. Acquiring and Restructuring Undervalued Companies – The parent corporation can search out weak performing companies and purchase them at bargain prices.3. selling off underutilized assets. Those that are able to create more value in their businesses have what is called a parenting advantage.

the harder it is for corporate managers to: 1. a. The Drawbacks of Unrelated Diversification 1. Stay abreast of what is happening in each industry and each subsidiary and thus judge whether a particular business has bright prospects or is headed for trouble 2. Growth – pursuing growth for the sake of growth. The greater the number of businesses a company is in and the more diverse those businesses are. Inadequate Reasons for Pursuing Unrelated Diversification 1. a. Very demanding managerial requirements b. b. Risk reduction – reducing perceived risk by spreading the company’s investments over a set of truly diverse industries whose technologies and markets are largely disconnected. Managerial Motives – unrelated diversification that results only in benefits to managers such as higher compensation and reduced employment risk. Rationales for unrelated diversification that are not likely to increase shareholder value include: a. Unrelated diversification strategies have two important negatives that undercut the positives: a.B. Without the competitive advantage potential of strategic fits. . the more corporate executives are reduced to ―managing by the numbers. Stabilization – offsetting market downtrends in some businesses by upswings in others. Be able to tell the difference between those strategic proposals of business-unit managers that are prudent and those that are risky or unlikely to succeed 4. d.‖ 6. B. Limited Competitive Advantage: Unrelated diversification offers limited potential for competitive advantage beyond that of what each individual business can generate on its own. consolidated performance of an unrelated group of businesses stands to be little or no better than the sum of what the individual business units could achieve if they were independent. Know enough about the issues and problems facing each subsidiary to pick business-unit heads having the requisite combination of managerial skills and know-how 3. c. Demanding Managerial Requirements: Successfully managing a set of fundamentally different businesses operating in fundamentally different industry and competitive environments is a very challenging and exceptionally difficult proposition for corporate level managers. As a rule. b. Relying solely on the expertise of corporate executives to wisely manage a set of unrelated businesses is a much weaker foundation for enhancing shareholder value than it a strategy of related diversification. Know what to do if a business unit stumbles and its results suddenly head downhill b. the more unrelated businesses that a company has diversified into. Limited competitive advantage potential 2.

Ranking the business units on the basis of performance and priority for resource allocation 6. VIII.VIII. Narrowly diversified – 2 to 5 related or unrelated businesses c. There is nothing to preclude a company from diversifying into both related and unrelated businesses. Calculating Industry Attractiveness Scores for Each Industry into Which the Company Has Diversified: A simple and reliable analytical tool involves calculating quantitative industry attractiveness scores. 2. Checking for resources fit 5. Assessing industry attractiveness individually and as a group 2. which can then be used to gauge each industry’s attractiveness. The procedure for evaluating a diversified company’s strategy and deciding how to improve the company’s performance involves six steps: 1. Step 1: Evaluating Industry Attractiveness 1. Checking the competitive advantage potential of cross-business strategic fits 4. rank the industries from most to least attractive. unrelated businesses.2. and make judgments about the attractiveness of all the industries as a group. Strategy Alternatives for a Company Pursuing Diversification. How appealing is the whole group of industries in which the company has invested? 2. Which of the company’s industries are most attractive and which are least attractive? c. Answers to several questions are required: a. Crafting new strategic moves to improve overall corporate performance A. Indeed. or a mixture of both 3. provides guidance on what strategy might be most effective in various situations. Evaluating the Strategy of a Diversified Company A. in actual practice the business makeup of diversified companies varies considerably: a. Dominant-business enterprises – one major core business accounts for 50 to 80 percent of total revenues and a collection of small related or unrelated businesses accounts for the remainder b. Combination Related-Unrelated Diversification Strategies 1. Broadly diversified – wide ranging collection of related businesses. A principal consideration in evaluating a diversified company’s business makeup and the caliber of its strategy is the attractiveness of the industries in which it has business operations. Figure 8. Does each industry the company has diversified into represent a good business for the company to be in? b. Assessing competitive strength of each business-unit in its industry 3. .

. The Difficulties of Calculating Industry Attractiveness Scores a. The second hurdle is gaining sufficient command for the industry to assign accurate and objective ratings b. The following measures of industry attractiveness are likely to come into play for most companies: a. Seasonal and cyclical factors c. One is deciding on appropriate weights for the industry attractiveness measure. Resource requirements 4. political. Despite the hurdles.1.0) and each industry should be ranked between 1 and 10 for each factor.0 probably do not pass the attractiveness test. provides a sample calculation. Emerging opportunities and threats h. 1. Market size and projected growth rate e. Interpreting the Industry Attractiveness Scores: Industries with a score much below 5. There are two hurdles to calculating industry attractiveness scores. f. Industry uncertainty and business risk d. regulatory. The presence of cross-industry strategic fits i. For a diversified company to be a strong performer. 5. Multiplying the rank by the weight provides the score for each factor for each industry. a substantial portion of its revenues and profits must come from business units with relatively high attractiveness scores. and environmental factors b. Table 8. Social. Industry profitability The intensity of competition g. calculating industry attractiveness scores is a systematic and reasonably reliable method for ranking a diversified company’s industries from most to least attractive. Calculating Weighted Industry Attractiveness Scores.3. Each factor should be given a weight (with all weights adding up to 1. 2.

A Nine-Cell Industry Attractiveness-Competitive Strength Matrix. Ability to match or beat rivals on key product attributes Brand image and reputation Other competitively valuable resources and capabilities Ability to benefit from strategic fits with sister businesses g. c. A nine-cell grid emerges from dividing the vertical axis into three regions and the horizontal axis into three regions.2. Profitability relative to competitors 4. The nine-cell attractiveness-strength matrix provides clear. 3. Calculating Competitive Strength Scores for Each Business Unit: Quantitative measures of each business unit’s competitive strength can be calculated using a procedure similar to that for measuring industry attractiveness by looking at factors that impact competitiveness. Step 2: Evaluating Business-Unit Competitive Strength 1. The location of the business units on the attractiveness-strength matrix provides valuable guidance in deploying corporate resources to the various business units.7 on a rating scale of 1 to 10 are strong market contenders in their industries. provides a sample calculation. The following measures of competitive strength are likely to come into play for most companies: a. Each business unit is plotted on the nine-cell matrix according to its overall attractiveness score and strength score and then shown as a ―bubble. In general. The second step in evaluating a diversified company is to appraise how strongly positioned each of its business units are in their respective industry. Using a Nine-Cell Matrix to Simultaneously Portray Industry Attractiveness and Competitive Strength: The industry attractiveness and business strength scores can be used to portray the strategic positions of each business in a diversified company. Relative market share b. Caliber of alliances and collaborative partnerships with suppliers and/or buyers i. Figure 8. Industry attractiveness is plotted on the vertical axis and competitive strength on the horizontal axis. Costs relative to competitors’ costs c. strong logic for why a diversified company needs to consider both the industry attractiveness and business strength in allocating resources and investment capital to its different businesses.0) and each industry should be ranked between 1 and 10 for each factor.‖ b. 5. a diversified company’s prospects for good overall performance are enhanced by concentrating corporate resources and strategic attention on those business units having the greatest competitive strength and positioned in highly attractive industries. Calculating Weighted Competitive Strength Scores for a Diversified Company’s Business Units. f. 2. Each factor should be given a weight (with all weights adding up to 1.B. a.3. . Table 8. Multiplying the rank by the weight provides the score for each factor for each industry. depicts this tool. 6. Interpreting the Competitive Strength Scores: Business units with competitive strength ratings above 6. Ability to exercise bargaining leverage with key suppliers or customers h. d e.

C. illustrates the process of searching for competitively valuable cross-business strategic-fits and value chain matchups. 2.4. technology. Step 4: Checking for Resource Fit 1. or intellectual capital from one business to another c. Opportunities to combine the performance of certain activities thereby reducing costs b. 2. either financially or strategically b. Figure 8. More than just strategic fit identification is needed. Opportunities for sister businesses to collaborate in creating valuable new competitive capabilities CORE CONCEPT Sister businesses possess resource fit when they add to a company’s overall resource strengths and when a company has adequate resources to support their requirements. 3. Opportunities to share the use of a well-respected brand name d. Businesses add to a company’s resource strengths. Identifying the Competitive Advantage Potential of Cross-Business Strategic Fits. CORE CONCEPT A diversified company exhibits resource fit when its business add to a company’s overall resource strengths and have matching resource requirements and/or when the parent company has adequate corporate resources to support its businesses’ needs and add value. As discussed previously. A portfolio approach to managing the diversified firm focuses on two general categories of businesses. . The businesses in a diversified company’s lineup need to exhibit good resource fit. A company has the resources to adequately support its businesses as a group without spreading itself too thin 3. cash hogs and cash cows.. The real test is what competitive value can be generated from these fits. Opportunities to transfer skills. Step 3: Checking the Competitive Advantage Potential of Cross-Business Strategic Fits 1. Checking the competitive advantage potential of cross-business strategic fits involves searching and evaluating how much benefit a diversified company can gain from four types of value chain matchups: a. a diversified firm must have a healthy internal capital market. D. Financial Resource Fits: A diversified company must generate sufficient cash flows to fund the capital requirements of it business while remaining financially healthy. Resource fit exists when: a.

1. Viewing the diversified group of businesses as a collection of cash flows and cash requirements is a major step forward in understanding what the financial ramifications of diversification are and why having businesses with good financial resource fit is so important. E. Do any of the company’s individual businesses not contribute adequately to achieving companywide performance targets? 3. Business units with leading market positions in mature industries may be cash cows—businesses that generate substantial cash surpluses over what is needed for capital reinvestment and competitive maneuvers to sustain their present market position. Other Tests of Resource Fit. Does the company have adequate financial strength to fund its different businesses and maintain a healthy credit? 2. CORE CONCEPT A cash hog business generates cash flows that are too small to fully fund its operations and growth. Are the company’s resources being stretched too thinly by the resource requirements of one or more of its businesses? . CORE CONCEPT A cash cow generates cash flows over and above its internal requirements. a. or paying dividends. Does the company have (or can it develop) the specific resource strengths and competitive capabilities needed to be successful in each of its businesses? 4. 4. Star businesses have strong or market-leading competitive positions in attractive. thus providing a corporate parent with funds for investing in cash hogs.CORE CONCEPT A strong internal capital market allows a diversified company to add value by shifting capital from business units generating free cash flow to those needing additional capital to expand and realize their growth potential. Business units in rapidly growing industries are often cash hogs—the annual cash flows they are able to generate from internal operations are not big enough to fund their expansion. 5. financing new acquisitions. a cash hog requires cash infusion to provide additional working capital and finance new capital investment. b. high-growth markets and high levels of profitability and are often the cash cows of the future.

Sticking closely with the existing business lineup and pursuing the opportunities it presents b. mediocre. a. competitive strength. The industry attractiveness/business strength evaluations provide a basis for judging a business’s prospects. Figure 8. Business subsidiaries with the brightest profit and growth prospects and solid strategic and resource fits generally should head the list for corporate resource support. 2. 5.5. The diagnosis and conclusions flowing from the five preceding analytical steps set the agenda for crafting strategic moves to improve a diversified company’s overall performance. Step 5: Ranking the Performance Prospects of Business Unites and Assigning a Priority for Resource Allocation 1. . Broadening the company’s diversification base by making new acquisitions in new industries c. In the event that corporate executives are not entirely satisfied with the opportunities they see in the company’s present set of businesses and conclude that changes in the company’s direction and business makeup are in order. they can opt for any of the four strategic alternatives listed above.F. and the return on capital. 3. 4. Sticking Closely with the Existing Business Lineup makes sense when the company’s present businesses offer attractive growth opportunities and can be counted on to generate good earnings and cash flow. A Company’s Four Main Strategic Alternatives after it Diversifies) a. contribution to company’s earnings. Step 6: Crafting New Strategic Moves to Improve Overall Corporate Performance 1. shows the chief strategic and financial options for allocating a diversified company’s financial resources. strategic fit.6. Once a diversified company’s strategy has been evaluated from the perspectives of industry attractiveness. The Chief Strategic and Financial Options for Allocating a Diversified Company’s Financial Resources. The rankings of future performance generally determine what priority the corporate parent should give to each business in terms of resource allocation. 6. It is a short step from ranking the prospects of business units to drawing conclusions about whether the company as a whole is capable of strong. The strategic options boil down to four broad categories of actions: (pictured in Figure 8. Restructuring the company’s business lineup and putting a whole new face on the company’s business makeup 2. Divesting certain businesses and retrenching to a narrower diversification base d. and resource fit. The most important considerations in judging business-unit performance are sales growth. or weak performance. the next step is to rank the performance prospects of the businesses from best to worst and determine which businesses merit top priority for new investments by the corporate parent. profit growth. G.

Discuss the view held by Johnson & Johnson’s corporate management about the benefits of collaboration with others in its various business lines. b. Retrenching to a narrower diversification base is usually undertaken when top management concludes that its diversification strategy has ranged too far afield and that the company can improve long term performance by concentrating on a smaller number of core businesses and industries. Market conditions in a once-attractive business have badly deteriorated c. Vulnerability to seasonal or recessionary influences or to threats from emerging new technologies c. To complement and strengthen the market position and competitive capabilities of one or more of its present businesses. either because it’s a cash cow or it is weakly positioned in the industry. where numerous crossbusiness strategic fits exist. A business lacks adequate strategic or resource fit.3 Broadening a Diversified Company’s Business Base—Motivating factors to build positions in new industries a. most of whom cannot match the company’s breadth and depth of expertise. Divesting Some Businesses and Retrenching to a Narrower Diversification Base: a.1. . Sluggish growth the makes the potential revenue and profit boost of a newly acquired business look attractive b. d. A diversification move that seems sensible from a strategic-fit stand-point turns out to be a poor cultural fit. To complement and strengthen the market position and competitive capabilities of one or more of its present businesses. Rapidly changing conditions in one or more of a company’s core businesses brought on by technological. legislative or new product innovations e. Illustration Capsule 8. and pharmaceuticals businesses. The potential for transferring resources and capabilities to other related or complementary businesses d. 4. Managing Diversification at Johnson & Johnson— The Benefits of Cross-Business Strategic Fits Discussion Question: 1. medical devices. Answer: J&J’s corporate management believes close collaboration among people in diagnostics. e. will give it an edge on competitors.

there is the issue of whether or not to retain partial ownership. When a corporate parent decides to spin off one of its businesses as a separate company. Restructuring strategies involve divesting some businesses and acquiring others to put a whole new face on the company’s business lineup. depending on the business. Selling a business outright requires finding a buyer. Liquidation is obviously a last resort. Restructuring a Company’s Business Lineup through a Mix of Divestitures and New Acquisition. Sometimes a business selected for divestiture has ample resource strengths to compete successfully on its own. In such cases. . a corporate parent may elect to spin the unwanted business off as a financially and managerially independent company. Selling a business outright to another company is far and away the most frequently used option for divesting a business.f. This can prove hard or easy. 5.

4. Ongoing declines in the market share of one or more major business units that are falling prey to more market-savvy competitors 4. acquired brands that connected with the way people lived. Companywide restructuring can also be mandated by the emergence of new technologies that threaten the survival of one or more of a diversified company’s important businesses or by the appointment of a new CEO who decides to redirect the company. Too many businesses in slow-growth. Describe the restructuring strategy which made VF the leader in profits and innovation in its industry Answer: VF divested itself of slow-growing businesses. a. or otherwise unattractive industries 2. CORE CONCEPT Companywide restructuring involves divesting some businesses and acquiring others so as to put a whole new face on the company’s business lineup.Illustration Capsule 8. In 2009 VF was the most profitable apparel firm in the industry. Ill-chosen acquisitions that have not lived up to expectations b. Too many competitively weak businesses 3. low-margin. The Corporate Restructuring Strategy that Made VF the Star of the Apparel Industry Discussion Question: 1. did years of research before acquiring companies and developed a relationship with the acquisition candidates chief managers before closing the deal. declining. An excessive debt burden with interest costs that eat deeply into profitability 5. each company was able to keep its long standing traditions that shaped culture and spurred creativity. VF made a practice of leaving management of acquired companies in place. . Performing radical surgery on the group of businesses a company is in becomes an appealing strategy alternative when a diversified company’s financial performance is being squeezed or eroded by: 1.

generous portions at moderate prices and a casual atmosphere. Lancôme. and Kerastase Paris professional hair care and skin care products Ralph Lauren and Giorgio Armani fragrances Biotherm skincare products La Roche–Posay and Vichy Laboratories dermocosmetics Answer 2: The student should identify the company’s overall strategy is to differentiate its restaurants by emphasizing high-quality cosmetics delivered via retail distribution networks. Garner. L’Oréal Professional. In particular. and Shu Uemura cosmetics L’Oréal and Soft Sheen/Carson hair care products Redken. OSI Restaurant Partners • • • • • Outback Steakhouse Carrabba’s Italian Grill Roy’s Restaurant (Hawaiian fusion cuisine) Bonefish Grill (market-fresh fine seafood) Fleming’s Prime Steakhouse & Wine Bar Answer 1: The student should identify the company’s overall strategy is to differentiate its restaurants by emphasizing consistently high-quality food and service. (2) combining related value chain activities to achieve economies of scope. Matrix.ASSURANCE OF LEARNING EXERCISES 1. you should consider whether there are cross-business opportunities for (1) transferring skills/technology. especially in the administrative functions. See if you can identify the value chain relationships that make the businesses of the following companies related in competitively relevant ways. and distribution functions. and/or (3) leveraging the use of a wellrespected brand name or other resources that enhance differentiation. Helena Rubinstein. L’Oréal • • • • • • Maybelline. This is a good example of two strategic fit opportunities: transferring skills and combining the related value chain activities to achieve lower costs. production. . especially in the development. This is a good example of two strategic fit opportunities: transferring skills and combining the related value chain activities to achieve lower costs. Kiehl’s.

Lancaster Colony provided four initiatives related to shareholder returns: grow existing businesses. Reames egg noodles.Johnson & Johnson • • • • • • • • • Baby products (powder. . Motrin. and matting products marketed to the food service and lodging industry. allowing each to focus on their specific customer base and market opportunities. Jack Daniels mustards. Based on information provided on the Web site. Sister Schubert’s rolls. The groups operate autonomously. This is a good example of two strategic fit opportunities: liveraging the use of a well respected brand name and combining the related value chain activities to achieve lower costs. this description of the company indicates it is pursuing an unrelated diversification strategy. and see if you can confirm that it has diversified into unrelated business groups. Girard’s. Thus. coffee urns. Pepcid AC. T. Sure & Natural) Neutrogena and Aveeno skin care products Nonprescription drugs (Tylenol. Glassware. Monistat) Prescription drugs Prosthetic and other medical devices Surgical and hospital products Acuvue contact lenses Answer 3: The student should identify the company’s overall strategy is to supply a broad range of personal hygene and medical products to a wide range of customers. visit the company’s Web site (www. New York and Mamma Bella garlic breads. acquire good-fitting food businesses. plastic ware. and grow cash dividends. oil. repurchase shares. lotion) Band-Aids and other first-aid products Women’s health and personal care products (Stayfree. • • If need be. Marzetti and Chatham Village croutons. Lancaster Colony’s business lineup • Specialty food products: Cardini. and Glassware and Candles. especially in the product development and distribution functions. Carefree. and Romanoff caviar Candle-lite brand candles marketed to retailers and private-label customers chains. In a recent Financial Release (09/09). Marzetti. This is further evidence that Lancaster Colony is concentrating on unrelated diversification. the largest and fastest growing division. Inn Maid noodles. 2. shampoo. Answer: The student should indicate an understanding of the basic premise of unrelated diversification.com) to obtain additional information about its business lineup and strategy. Peruse the business group listings for Lancaster Colony shown below. and Pheiffer salad dressings. A defining characteristic of unrelated diversification is few cross-business commonalities in terms of key value chain activities.lancastercolony. Mylanta. Lancaster Colony is a diversified marketer and manufacturer for two product groups: Specialty Foods. which is that any company that can be acquired on good financial terms and that has satisfactory growth and earnings potential represents a good acquisition and a good business opportunity for the diversifying enterprise.

or a combination of related and unrelated diversification? Be prepared to justify and explain your answer in terms of the extent to which the value chains of Disney’s different businesses seem to have competitively valuable cross-business relationships. and administrative functions. unrelated diversification. video. radio broadcasting. Lastly. . and resorts all build off the Disney brand name. TV broadcasting. and A&E networks) Radio broadcasting (Disney Radio) Musical recordings and sales of animation art Anaheim Mighty Ducks NHL franchise Anaheim Angels major league baseball franchise (25 percent ownership) Books and magazine publishing Interactive software and Internet sites The Disney Store retail shops Based on the above listing. Disney Channel. Publishing and ownership of Internet sites and software are also related in terms of the editing function. E!. The theme parts. There are some strong links. between movie production. Disney’s ownership of companies like ESPN and ABC gives it another avenue for pursuing the entertainment industry in broad terms. Answer: Students are likely to choose related diversification in one broad category: the entertainment industry. cruise line. Toon Disney. ESPN and ESPN2. would you say that Walt Disney’s business lineup reflects a strategy of related diversification. The Walt Disney Company is in the following businesses: • • • • • • • • • • • • Theme parks Disney Cruise Line Resort properties Movie. also. including marketing as a value chain activity.3. the sports franchises provide Disney with another means to generate growth and revenues from the day-today entertainment needs of the public. Lifetime. and theatrical productions (for both children and adults) Television broadcasting (ABC. Classic Sports Network. and musical recordings.