You are on page 1of 11

THEOFANIS MALKIDIS The Genocide of the Greeks: A Case Study of the Region of Thrace

Introduction The beginning of the Greek presence in Thrace starts from the age of mythology and up to the present historical narrative. The myth continues with Frixos and Elli, who carried the Golden Fleece to the area and became the reason for the trip of the Argonauts. Having Jason as their leader, and representatives from all the Greek cities as payment, the Argonauts reached Kolhida and transformed the axenos (unfriendly) sea to Euxeinos (friendly) Pontus, and the ancient Greek cities, makes new colonies – cities of major importance since the 8th century B.C.. The evidence for the wealth, prosperity and the Greek essence of those colonies is proved through the descriptions of many both Greek and other scientists and philosophers. The great Greek historian Herodotus writes for the nation of Thracians, second in the world after the Indians. The Greek King Filippos ΙΙ, reorganized Thrace as a prefecture, whereas the empire of his son, Alexander the Great included the Thrace and great fighters. During the Roman period, Christianity is spread through the teaching of St Paul and his students. Moreover, the monasteries and churches become cradles of faith and ethnic consciousness. Christianity, using the Greek language, became widely spread throughout Thrace. Constantine the Great gave great attention to Thrace, with the transfer of the capital of Eastern Roman Empire (Byzantine Empire) in Constantinople (ancient Greek colony of Megara, Byzantium) Generally during the era of the Byzantine Empire, Thrace was signified as an important centre of Hellenism. As a result of the conquest of Constantinople came slaughtering, plunder, flee towards Western Europe and the Balkan countries, as well as forcible islamification. Among the peoples that were forced to change faith the phenomenon of crypto-Christianity was noticed, as well as the maintenance of the Greek language, a phenomenon that is also noticed in current times, too. Since the beginning of the 18th century the Greeks of Thrace are re-capturing their lost identity and are mobilizing once again their spirit and abilities. The Greeks of the area are regaining their lost faith to freedom and are longing for their ethnic liberation. The establishment of “Filiki Eteria”, that promoted the Greek Revolution, takes place in a powerful economical and political centre, Odissos, with the Thracian mayor G. Maraslis. In a very short time, the Thracian Hellenism regained the commerce mobility of the entire Thrace. Thus, the economic prosperity in the wider area had as a result the intellectual and artistic renaissance, as well as a demographic boom. As mentioned above, the Thracian Hellenism, since the fall of the Byzantine Empire (1453) encountered constant persecutions and efforts towards mass forcible islamification and turkification, having an outmost peak the extremely well organized, planned, and scheduled in a systematic way and efficiently promoted genocide in the very beginning of the 20th century. The Headquarters the Ministries of External Affairs of Europe and the U.S.A. are still undeniable witnesses for the conviction of the crimes that were committed by the Ottoman state against the Greeks of Pontus, Thrace, Ionia (Asia Minor), Cappadocia, crimes that resulted in the violent expatriation of millions of Greeks, abandoning their fortunes and the civilization of their creative and evolutionary presence in those areas. The first phase of the Genocide of the Thracian Greeks is traced in 1908 and lasts until the beginning of World War I, when the Eastern issue, the rise of the Young -Turks in powerful positions in the ottoman empire, the Balkan Wars and Germany’s assistance as a strategic ally of the Ottoman state, created the right conditions for the initiating the expulsions of the Thracian Greeks. During that period, there are no longer declarations by the Young- Turks about fair and equal treatment of all in the state; on the contrary the Greeks are to be exterminated. Major part in this extermination has the “Special Organization”, which, having a Para-military structure makes the Greeks and the Armenians a target. The second period started in 1914, when the conflicts that arose during World War I, promoted the genocidal policies[1]. The Young -Turk government orders a number of actions taken in order to further continue the extermination of the Greeks, together with the genocide of the Armenians[2]. In December 1916 the majors Enver, Cemal and Talat, leaders of the Young- Turks party, advanced an extermination project against the non-combat Greek civilians of Thrace, that aimed at the immediate extermination of men only, aged 16-60 years old, and general exile of all men, women and children from the villages in the inner Anatolia, having a master plan of slaughtering and extinction”. At that time, genocide was already taking place, the Armenian genocide, with 1.500.000 victims. The Ottoman state is at war with the Entente Forces and the realization of the structured genocide plan appears easier than ever. The extinction plan is realized through the participation of both military and paramilitary forces and targets towards the murder or deportation of the men in concentration camps, and the total extinction of women, children and the elderly. The era 1919-1923 is the third, last and more intense face of the genocide, as the establishment of Mustafa Kemal (Ataturk) in the interior of the Ottoman state which is coincident with the establishment of the Soviet Union and the aid provided towards the nationalistic movement of Kemal, the Greek establishment in Ionia and Thrace, as well as the change of course in the exterior policy affairs of the great European forces. The Ottoman, Young-Turks, and Kemalist authorities pre-planned and realized the genocide. The orders for the deportations of the Greek populations to Kurdistan, Syria and elsewhere, either in the form of governmental decisions, either as a bill of the National Assembly, such as 1041 of the 12th June 1921 and 941 of the 16th June in the same year, had been signed both by the Young-Turks and Kendal himself. Consequently until 1923, the Young-Turks and the Kemalists, having taken harsh measures against the Greeks of Thrace, through the means of expel, rape, slaughtering, deportations and hangings, exterminated hundreds of thousands of Greek in Pontus, as well as in Ionia (Asia Minor) and in Thrace.

just like the Armenians. Through these testimonies / sources. should look longingly to the day when their territory should be part of the fatherland was to be expected. He specifically reports that Greeks resided in the whole south plain of Thrace and at the coastline of Euxeinus Pontos. This can be verified through the reports and documentations of the foreign ambassadors. and throughout the world wants justice to be attributed in the name of their ancestors that were murdered during the genocide from the Ottoman State. Assyrians and Armenians. A genocide that consists part of a greater crime committed against that cost the life of 2. signed both by Greece and Turkey in 1923. The Greek element is everywhere: in Raidestos.074 Christians[13]. hunger. All in all. It was only a matter of state policy. prosperity and contribution of a historical nation. The second affected those living in Thrace and in the territories surrounding the Sea of Marmora. Dydimotichon. and Greek men and women were beaten and tortured just as were their fellow Armenians. Phillipoupolis[9]. Ortakoy.A. embassies. that saved these Greek subjects of Turkey from all the horrors that befell the Armenians. consuls. The prominent French geographer Auguste Viquesnel (1800-1867) also noted the numerical domination of Greeks in the most important urban centres of the Thracian littoral from Constantinople to Ainos. and in other many places.000 up to 1. were accused of disloyalty to the Ottoman Government.000. The genocide forced the surviving Greeks of Thrace. that the Greeks. The Turks adopted almost identically the same procedure against the Greeks as that which they had adopted against the Armenians.028 Turks are mentioned in contrast to 123. groups of the Greek population that consisted of a particular plan of the extermination plan.011 Christians. churches. to abandon their homeland.000 Greeks. where one can find references on the acts of slaughtering and brutality[3]. the Greeks of Thrace. Adrianople. Dydimotichon. and a wholesale massacre of Greeks in Asia Minor would unquestionably have produced such a state of mind in Greece that its pro-German king would have been unable longer to keep his country out of the war.. the estimates varying anywhere from 200. had a government which was vitally interested in their welfare. in Canada.805 Turks and 30. the uprooting of the Thracian Greeks from their land is completed. underlined the Greek character of Eastern Thrace and the statistical domination of the Greek element in the entire vilayet (province) of Adrianople[8]. These latter.000.[15] . Lititsa and other places. died by thousands from cold. merely to plundering on a wholesale scale. Violently abducting the women and holding them against their will in Turkish residencies. using them to build roads in the Caucasus and other scenes of action. Former ambassador of USA in Constantinople Henry Morgenthau says: «The martyrdom of the Greeks. The Greeks of Thrace nowadays in Greece. in the sanjak of Thracian Callipolis 12. just like the Armenians. which amounted in their case. Heraclea. the larger part on foot. into the interior. Just how many were scattered in this fashion is not definitely known. in Europe. It is significant to note that the English diplomatic representative Steven Francis . But their sufferings are still terrible. in the U. their families and their adoption by Turkish families. the violent rapes and pregnancies by force. unlike the Armenians. These Greek soldiers. The Turks. the Dardanelles. we have the statistics of the province of Andrianople in 1873 in which the Greek predominance the whole South of Thrace is underlined. and a culture of world wide appeal. The Greeks had to submit to the same forced requisitions. and this is probably the reason why the outside world has not heard so much about them. and contrasting the corresponding Slavic domination with Ainos as a border[14]. one can easily come to the conclusion that the Ottoman Army and the Para-military forces actually pre-planned and practiced policies of extermination against the women and children[5]. In confirmation of the above. and constitute another chapter in the long story of crimes for which civilization will hold the Turk responsible»[4]. abandoned the land of their ancestors. Everywhere the Greeks were gathered in groups and.750.Among the victims of the genocide there were a great number of women and children. who lived in the Ottoman state in the beginning of the 20th century[6]. seized upon this as an excuse for a violent onslaught on the whole race. Greek girls. who disagreed with the language criterion for the determination of the national identity of the populations in this part of the Ottoman state. Evros. and others. The ethnic composition of Thrace in the 18th and 19th century Numerous Western European travellers in this period confirmed the predominant Greek character of the area and the persecutions of the Greeks in Thrace[7]. the murdering of the pregnant women. Eski-Zagra. closing the issue of one of the bloodiest mass murders in the History of mankind. and other privations. Raidestos. The Greeks. here had been violent detachment. The Greeks. Cappadocia. The French traveller and economist Adolphe Jérôme Blanqui (1778-1854) reached similar conclusions. violently subjecting them to islamification. The Turks also declared that the Greeks were not loyal to the Ottoman Government. but they were not submitted to general massacre as were the Armenians.401 Christians and in the sanjak of Raidestos 11. Ganochora.S. as in the case of the Armenians. even infants from their mothers. in Australia.removal of young children from one ethnic group to another. These caravans suffered great privations. were stolen and taken to Turkish harems and Greek boys were kidnapped and placed in Moslem households. graves. The first affected chiefly the Greeks on the seacoast of Asia Minor. The Turks attempted to force the Greek subjects to become Mohammedans. just like Armenian girls. under the so-called protection of Turkish gendarmes. The German geographer and physician Ami Boué (1794-1881). and that which began in the early part of 1915. Hellenism[10]. The same house-to-house searches for hidden weapons took place in the Greek villages. the violent abduction of young children. after suffering for five centuries the most unspeakable outrages at the hands of the Turks. Hence. The final chapter of this mass murder deals with the forcible removal of the survivors from their homeland. speaking about the statistical pre-domination of Greeks over the Turks with the Rhodopes Mountains as a natural border. Clair [ wrote on the 20th of August 1863 in a letter that the Bulgarians at the coast of Euxinos Pontos were completely assimilated to the Greeks and that they had been Hellenized[11]. These latter charges were unquestionably true. their homes.286 Turks and 42. therefore. At this time there was a general apprehension among the Teutonic Allies that Greece would enter the war on the side of the Entente. The rare presence of the Muslim element in Eastern and Western Thrace is pointed out by the German botanic August Heinrich Rudolf Grisebach (1814-1879) who reported that he had met unmingled Turkish villages only in the area of Ainos and that the whole area from the South and South-East of Andrianople to Propontis and the Straits was actually Greek[12]. and that they also looked forward to the day when the Greeks inside of Turkey would become part of Greece. were sent to the interior of Asia Minor. comprised two periods: that antedating the war. They began by incorporating the Greeks into the Ottoman army and then transforming them into labour battalions. Saranta Ecclesiae and Xanthi 50. Ionia (Asia Minor). After 27 centuries of presence. With the treaty referring to the population exchange. they were transported. therefore. the Turks accused them of furnishing supplies to the English submarines in the Marmora and also of acting as spies. and the coast of the Black Sea. The Turks showed them this greater consideration not from any motive of pity. for example in the districts (“kazas”) of Adrianople. to the extent of several hundred thousand. the Bosporus. Sylebria. as in the case of the Armenians. as well as those of Pontus. which is one of the greatest issues of committing genocide.

in reality. except for the Greek populations of Constantinople. The entire Eastern Thrace from Bosporus to Andrianople and from the Dardanelles to the Gulf of Pyrgos comprised an integral part of the Greek character. Pyrgos. The ethnographic map of Edward Stanford (1877) points out the absence of a stable Slavic population at the south of Phillipoupolis and identifies the dominant presence of the population in Eastern and Western Thrace and in every urban center from Constantinople to Evros[21]. beatings.000 . In the meantime (1886-1906) two plans were put into effect: the first was the policy of the Bulgarization of the Greek populations in East Rumelia with the obligatory introduction of the Bulgarian language in Greek schools and the subsequent abolition of the Greek language. equal rights for Greeks. such as schools. was the biggest trade center of the littoral of Euxinos Pontos where about 15. where Greek and Bulgarian populations were mixed and aggravated the antagonisms between Greeks and Bulgarians in Macedonia and Thrace[32].had been expropriated by the Bulgarian state without . by its presence. that led to a split from the Ecumenical Patriarchate. From the summer of 1906.000. where Greek trade distinguishes.the province of Adrianople .[23] [The French geographer Jean Baptiste Lechevalier (1752-1836) reports that Sozopolis was inhabited exclusively by Greeks and that it exported rural products. In Eastern Thrace. Kavakli. who were in most cases old people or children.a boarding house for female students. Raidestos and Dede-Agach (named later Alexandroupolis). The occupation of East Rumelia by the Bulgarian army in 1885 worsened Greek-Bulgarian relations. unions etc. Indicative is a report of the Greek consul in Thessaloniki. taking place in the last quarter of the 19th century and the early 20th century[31]. was divided into the vilayet of Constantinople and the vilayet of Andrianople[34]. With the establishment of the Bulgarian Exarchate (1870) by the Ottoman authorities. The first included the administrative parts of the larger province of Constantinople. Particularly relevant was the trade of nuts while the Greeks in Varna were responsible for the production of wine[26]. Turks. including the 68. numbered over 100. in Slavonic language komitatsi: a member of a secret revolutionary organisation. Greek rural population dominated. preventing. the national awakening of Bulgarians. Similar conclusions were reached by the French archaeologist Albert Dumont (1842-1884). Callipolis. Agathoupolis. and Artaki. establishing the Bulgarian Exarchate.000 and the Bulgarian is only 2. causing high tensions in the area. Article 10 of the Ottoman firman. [22] In the late 18th century. from the end of the 18th century. the Preliminary Treaty of San Stefano (1878) and the subsequent Berlin Peace Conferenfce (1878). Mesembria and Sozoagathoupolis[20]. Kavakli.000 Bulgarians. and Kouklena by the Bulgarians. apart from the districts (“sanjaks”) of Philippopolis and Selimnos and a part of sanjak of Andrianople that constituted East Rumelia. Sozopolis was then a remarkable trade center with a good port and a rich import trade made by numerous ships. which finally withdrew on August 1879 thus facilitating the dominance of the Bulgarian element in Northern Thrace. Especially after the Revolution of Iliden (1903) the Bulgarians unleashed a ferocious paramilitary army which tried to incorporate Northern Greece into Bulgaria. The persecution reached the Greek cities of Stenimachos.000 Euro) . who wrote on the 1st of October 1885: “Hellenism resents the news that are transmitted by telegraphs from Europe.. which reached its apex in 1906 after anti-Greek persecutions that broke out in the most important urban centers of this province. who by presenting many statistical data regarding the demographic and ethnological composition of the biggest and smallest urban centres of Eastern Thrace.000 Greeks[27]. Mesembria the property stolen from the Greeks was estimated at more than 2.000 Greeks of Eastern Rumelia that came under the metropolis of Phillipoupolis[19]. the Bulgarian population and the Bulgarian state/ destroyed Greek institutions. which are trying to eliminate the rightful desires of Greeks. refugees Northern Thrace (Eastern Rumelia): At the end of the 19th century the Bulgarians were trying to dominate the area since they had two important advantages: the first was that they bordered Thrace and the second was that Turkey was unable to counter the infiltration of Bulgarian guerillas (komitadji. were burnt in their homes. Constantinople. Saranta Ecclesiae. the Greeks and Bulgarians of Macedonia and Thrace were confronting each other through vicious battles.000 Greeks.[35] In East Rumelia.20. This persecution started from Varna and expanded to the entire East Romulia with attacks against eminent teachers and priests taking the form of beatings and even assassinations. churches.16.47 % and Bulgarians 11 %.000. as 380. at least theoretically. trace with analytical data the ethnic composition of Ottoman Thrace. estimates the Greek residents of Thrace. and Armenians[29] and this information is confirmed by Thielen. the power of the Bulgarians would be counterbalanced by the large Greek and Turkish elements. After 1885 the countdown for Greeks begain in East Rumelia. Anchialos. Sozopolis. P.[24] Élie de la Primaudaie speaks about Greek Mesembria while undoubtedly Varna. Gioumoultzin (Komotini). Logothetis. it paved the ground for the eventual incorporation of this province into Bulgaria. Venice. Turks 42 . where Greek education excels with great unique institutions. a Greek schoolmaster of Constantinople. Varna. the Marseillan Peyssonel refered analytically to the trade of Euxinos Pontos and to the offshore urban centers. an autonomous rule was foreseen after the withdrawal of the Russian army. the dioceses Derka and Varna. noted that the entire littoral from Constantinople to Callipolis was resided exclusively by Greeks. and uprooted all Greeks in Thrace and Macedonia. Mesembria. With the signing of the Treaty of Berlin (1878). The Maraslios School was set on fire and its library was destroyed while another 66 schools were destroyed including the Zariphios School .000 Greeks.[30] Thrace during the period 1875-1924: Persecutions. Peran and Catalza. a rebel) in Thrace. stole by Bulgarian authorities their belongings and forbade the Greek language at schools. the Greek element represented 37 – 39 % of the total population. Turks. the British altered their plans. France. according to Ludwig von Stürmer while the US representative Henry Alexander Scammel Dearborn (1783-1851)points out that Sozopolis was resided exclusively by Greeks who were exporting wood and wine[28]. despite his attempts to secure Greek interests. arson. The slain Greeks. Smyrna.included the sanjaks of Adrianople.000 gold francs (approximately 20. and Armenians lived and had trade shops[25] Varna was the biggest trade storage of rural products of Euxinos Pontos that were transported every year by 300 Greek and Turkish ships to Constantinople. Bulgarians. 88 Greek communities were decimated and their fortune . in the hope that with the establishment of a self-governing province in Eastern Rumelia. the map of A. tortures. Although the Law for autonomy of East Rumelia secured. Pyrgos was one of the most important trade centers of Euxinos Pontos where products from Russia. and Turks.000. hospitals. During the Berlin Peace Conference (1878) the Russian plans were revised and Ottoman Rule was maintained in Macedonia and Thrace.[17] In his Nouvelle Geographie Universelle of 1876. where the Greek population is 250. In Philippoupolis the Greek Orthodox cathedral was damaged as were 113 houses of worship in the area. Elisée Reclus (1830-1905) points out that the population of the villages and of the plain in the interior of Thrace were constituted by Greeks. For instance. Athanasios Matalas.[18] The ethnographic maps of European Turkey that were issued during the last quarter of the 19th century. In Pyrgos.000 . Synvet. During the second decade of the 19th century there was much activity in Rouchstouk which was then inhabited by 18. assassinations and vandalism. The second was the occupation of the Greek commercial element and the occupation of the Greek Orthodox churches and monasteries in Stenimachos. and Brussa were stored. According to Lechevalier. In July 1906 terrorism was intensified through robberies. was of immeasurable value. most of them members of paramilitary groups. Thus. Regarding Eastern Rumelia. confiscated on 6/8/1906. suspected that East Rumelia sooner or later would become part of Bulgaria[33]. expanded the jurisdiction of the Exarchate to Ottoman regions. the ethnic composition changed in 1885 after theexpulsion of the Turkish population and the domination of the Bulgarians. At the same time. The property belonging to the community of Philippoupolis. He estimates the population of Varna at 16. Cairo. Philippoupolis. the eventual settlement of Turkish refugees. On August 1905 Anchialos was set on fire after a battle with 12.of great value .[16].000”[36].The French discoverer and geographer Guillaume Lejean (1828-1871) pointed out that along Evros and in the whole Eastern Thrace and Bosporus. The second . Even the Greek consul in Philippoupolis. Greek educational and ecclesiastical institutions were oppressed in all East Rumelia. Thessaloniki. the entire region of Thrace.

Mesembria. and their physical destruction by exhaustion and tortures. Thus. Komotini. who tried in vain. The continuing aggravation of the situation and the tyrannic behaviour of the komitadji towards the Greeks of Thrace led to the organization of a Greek counterguerilla. Ottoman Turkish military. Kouklena. The same happened in the areas of Ganou. Charioupolis. in particular from wealthy centres (Vizye. Despite the fact that the Greek army was dominant at that period in Xanthi. Loule-Bourgaz [Arkadioupolis]. the Turkish authorities allowed Greeks to take up arms to defend themselves. for the same reason. and Alexandroupolis. Moreover. and Makra Gephyra. whereas according to the Ecumenical Patriarchate.000 were displaced[47]. they stole relics. the additional taxation and the languishing of trade and industry. with the uprising of Iliden of June 1903. according to the Ottoman pre-war census of 1912 there were 253. Soufli. Eastern Thrace was occupied again by the Turks and many Greek villages were completely destroyed by the Ottoman army.999 Greeks were deported from East Thrace. Uzun Köprü [Makra Gephyra] and others). arsons. Bulgarian gangs invaded Eastern Thrace by robbing. civil and judicial officials and irregulars with the help of the Turkish army.362 people. while in February 1914 began the shooting at the rural Greek population. So.000 deportees. which terminated the Balkan Wars. and outright slaughter against Greeks. left approximately a million Thracians outside of the Greek borders and under Bulgarian or Ottoman rule. Pyrgos. Bulgarian violence was observed during the first Balkan War (1912) in Adrianople. Vodena. force labour and deceases. the Grand Vizier Said Halim Pasha (12 May 1914)[49]. intense paramilitary activity against Greek refugees. The recruitment of Greeks from Eastern Thrace into army battalions of forced labour (amele tamburu). Approximately 200.[37] The last flow of Greek refugees from East Rumilia arrived in Greece in May 1914 after further anti-Greek persecutions that occurred in the aftermath of the Second Balkan War (1913). repression of Greek Orthodox religious practices. clothing and tools as well as the rural production had to be abandoned by the displaced and dispossessed Greeks[50].000 people – perished during their exile from exhaustion.)[45]. In spring 1914 the Turkish authorities executed the mayors of Samokovo and Skopos.700. the fields were not compensated. Their destruction must be an article of faith for all Bulgarians . the Treaty of Constantinople (16/19 September 1913) ceded Western Thrace to Bulgaria while Eastern Thrace stayed under Ottoman rule. Bulgaria withdrew its forces from Eastern Thrace. The deportation of Greeks from Eastern Thrace was implemented in various ways: Intimidation of the main bodies of the Greek resistance. Varna. that even Bulgarians started to protest. which was set up in 1905 under the leadership of Georgios Kondylis (1879-1936) in Agathoupolis[40]. the continuous requisitions. Anchialos.734[55]. laid the foundations of the Greek resistance movement against the persecutions in the region of Thrace[41]. Dervenaki etc. the Turks moved with violence against the Greeks of Eastern Thrace.000 residents of Greek villages of the area of Vizye were expatriated. In winter 1913 Ottoman paramilitaries laid siege to Greek villages. The Treaty of Bucharest (10/8/1913). Kessani. Heraclea. comprise the tragedy of Hellenism of Eastern Thrace during World War I[52]. and the Greek communities of Northern Thrace. Sozopolis. Heraclea. Therefore. 30. Alexandroupolis. which was then re-occupied by the Turks. in 1911 they were 331. the Ottoman authorities legalized theft since the assets were evaluated up to 5 percent of their value. which were the first to be occupied by Turkish troops. They immediately expelled residents of ten villages in the districts of Saranta Ecclesiae and Vizye. Mobile property such as furniture. The Young Turks initiated an unprecedented campaign in Thrace in order to Turkify the Greek population through the introduction of compulsory education of the Turkish language in Greek schools. Philippoupolis. expatriation and any form of intimidation[44]. After many decisive actions and steps. The movement of the Young Turk revolution (1908) renewed the sufferings of the Greek population of Eastern Thrace. With the outbreak of the Second Balkan War in summer of 1913.compensaton.000 came as refugees. to shake off the traces of the Turkish army in West Macedonia and in the vilayet of Andrianople[39]. the teachers. when these regions were occupied by the Bulgarian army. the restrictions on Greek-Orthodox churches and the application of the law for obligatory national service. Dydimoticho. Raidestos. While proclaiming equality for all ethnic minorities under Ottoman rule. curtailing circulation and communication. Tyroloe. Xanthi. In Western Thrace. with the help of the Greek consular officers and the Pan-Hellenic Organization (founded in 1908). Panio. From 1907 on. Stenimachos. Since autumn 1913 plans for the expulsion and annihilation of the Greeks in Eastern Thrace were put into effect.[48] Ecumenical Patriarch Germanos had sent a letter to the Russian Czar Nicholas II and to the German Ministry of Foreign Affairs asking for intervention to rescue the Christian population of East Thrace while he met. Greeks of East Rumelia.[54] In 1906 the total figure of Greeks in that area were 349. only 54. and scientists. Callipolis. threats against individuals or communities and expulsion.000 returned after the Ottoman war capitulation (30 Otober 1918). terrorism. Komotini. the houses. But the most important impulse for the organization of the national resistance of the Greeks in Thrace and the revival of nationalism came with the presence of Stilianos Gonatas in 1907. During the First Balkan War.530[56]. It is estimated that in 1913 232. especially in Malgara. With the outbreak of World War I (1914-1918) the conditions of the Greeks had worsened and the plans for the cultural destruction of the Greek population of Eastern Thrace were implemented by deporting the Greeks to remote and inaccessible areas in the East[51]. where the policy of the Young Turks forced the Greek element to endure deportation. the policy of the Bulgarian occupation aimed at the vitiation of Hellenism with the impoverishment of its educational and ecclesiastical activity[43]. The other half – 46. the latter turned against the Greeks[46].[58] . Kavakli. Bulgarian vandalism and violence against Greeks were such. as the Bulgarian army attacked the Turks. The real estate. icons and manuscripts from various places (Heraclea. The Greek victims during the re-occupation of Eastern Thrace were 15.[53] Of those approximately 100. The methods used were: attacks. Tyroloe. Kessani. East Rumelia.000 Greeks in East Thrace[57]. Vizye etc. deportation from the interior. killing and forcing the population to join the Bulgarian Exarchate. deportations and sale of belongings at discreditable prices. An even worse situation was faced by the Greeks of Eastern Thrace. violence. Malgara. Charioupolis. and elsewhere were destroyed[38]. Involved in these intimidations were rangers. In response the semi-official newspaper Vetcherna Poshta commented: ”Only one tribe must dominate the Aimos peninsula and that is the Bulgarian. which had been sent into the interior of Asia Minor (Central Anatolia). while the post-war data submitted to the peace committee in Paris reported 367. The Turks tortured and slaughtered many Greeks especially in the villages of Alepli.[42] The sufferings of the Thracian Greeks were without end. and Ganochora. while in the coastal regions 120. while in Raidestos alone they killed 60 Greeks. began the persecutions. Accompanying the violent action of the Bulgarian guerrillas. Sylebria. Thrace and Macedonia must be destroyed or exterminated. and Sylebria. who. and compulsory deportation to the coastal cities of Raidestos. Saranta Ecclesiae. siege of villages. The persecutions against the Greeks of Eastern Thrace The Greek element of Eastern Thrace suffered immensely as a result of Turkish violence. While the Bulgarians directed their violent actions against the Turks.

.338 residents (of which 193. At the beginning of September 1920 South-Western Thrace was unified with Eastern Thrace and subsequently two more prefectures were added: that of Rhodope and Evros. While the population of Thrace. the Greeks of Thrace were represented by 30 representatives. 4. the overthrow of the resistance of the Ottoman rebel Tzafer Tagiar[66]. The 103 villages that were evacuated according to this treaty were colonized mainly by Muslim refugees from Bulgaria. On the demand of the Hellenic Ministry of Foreign Affairs. and would contribute to the direct repatriation of the expelled Greeks. On the contrary. In accordance with the terms of the Sèvres Treaty. 3. But the problems were tremendous. However. the Greek Thracians were asking for the security of Hellenism and the protection from further sufferings until the implementation of their repatriation[59]. Secondly. On October 1919. On the 29th of September 1918 the first meeting of Thracians took place in Thessaloniki and issued a resolution. To this number we can add 23 more villages that were evacuated during the Balkan Wars[64]. Callipolis. With this resolution. and the Turkish officials of the offices in Andrianople and of the administrations of Raidestos. while the rest of Western Thrace would remain with Bulgaria. Charisios Vamvakas[60].114 residents. Roma (Gypsies) etc. who settled here after the Russian-Turkish war (1877-78) and the Balkan Wars (1912-13). according to the official statistics of 1906. the occupied area of Smyrna would be incorporated into Greece. and Albania. five years later. Greece also occupied the Aegean islands Imbros and Tenedos as well as the whole area of Smyrna according to earlier decisions of 1919. According to the Treaty of Sèvres of 28 July 1920. had to move to Bulgaria. the average was 16 people per km2. whose incorporation was impossible at that time. 2. The proposals of the President of the USA. Christians from Asia Minor and on-Muslims from Asia Minor on 14 October 1918 in the Omonoia Square of Athens. At least sixty thousand people participated. The Greek population was partly destructed and partly expatriated. they sought to prepare a diplomatic campaign for those who would defend their rights. The Hellenic troops in Thrace found a region totally wasted by continuous oppression during the past decade. In Smyrna the population had a relative Greek majority and an absolute Non-Muslim majority. The long term aim was the union of the whole of Thrace.923 resided outside the area that belonged to Greece).Thrace after World War I Before the conclusion of peace treaties that would end World War I. Şevket. It was then that the centre of Bulgarian-Turkish activity was discovered in Arkadioupolis. Although the Greek side struggled hard. a suburb of Adrianople. The conference forwarded two demands: The first related to the unification of Western Thrace with Greece and to the autonomy for Eastern Thrace. according to the Bulgarian-Ottoman Treaty of 1915 for the exchange of populations. The American proposal was finally rejected by the Great Britain and France. Native Greeks. the Hellenic army occupied the area of Xanthi with the agreement of the Peace Conference and the French military authorities settled in Western Thrace. The economic difficulties for the population of Eastern Thrace resulted in miserable conditions while the circumstances were critical due to the general turmoil. the Thracian issue was not resolved according to Greek wishes. while the rest of Thrace along with Eastern Thrace would be part of the state of Constantinople (a part of the Ottoman Empire controlled by the Sultan’s government and under the Entente Monitoring. undertook the administration of “Inter-allied Thrace” with the collaboration of the former Greek deputy of the Ottoman Parliament.143 square kilometers the average was approximately 24 people per km2. Saranta Ecclesiae and Callipolis were forced to concede to their Hellenic colleagues all the regular protocols. The Inter-Allied occupation lasted until May 1920 when it was substituted. Bulgaria. the Muslim by 20. Those who were guilty were arrested and sent to the military special court of Saranta Ecclesiae. and would pardon the crimes that had been committed. Saranta Ecclesiae. Romania. had a leading role. Eastern Thrace was divided into four prefectures (Adrianople. beyond the Western bank of the river Evros[61]. Woodrow Wilson concerned the incorporation of the area of Xanthi-Komotini to Greece. which an impressive figure is considering that the population of Athens then numbered only some hundreds of thousands. If we subtract those who lived in cities. in February 1921. Venizelos. despite the horrors they had endured under the Young Turks[65]. this irredentist – from the point of view of Bulgaria or the Ottoman Empire . Sachtouris. In the Hellenic Parliament. Those Bulgarians who resided in East Thrace.106. On 9 August 1920. in 1920 the population was reduced to 671. and Raidestos). under the leadership of the previous colonel of the Turkish army. the Greeks of Thrace did not remain indifferent. Commerce and local markets were destroyed while a general feeling of insecurity prevailed. the commander-in-chief of Entente forces in Western Thrace. the mufti of Adrianople and former mayor. as it was supposed to. Native Muslims of various ethnicities: Pomaks. Bosnia. Mahmut Bey. they hold a demonstration with the support of Greeks from. by the Greek army under the leadership of lieutenant general Emmanouil. At the Peace Conference in Paris (1919) the issue of Thrace arose again. the Greek element was still dominant despite the persecutions it had endured[62]. would ensure autonomy and equality. there was a real decrease of 241. most of whom had been expelled by the Bulgarians or the Turks. the Jews and the Armenians by one each. recommended the enforcement of substantial measures for the re-organization of the new Greek territories and the application of a plan that would bring tranquillity to each community. thus preserving with only a few modifications the Ottoman administrative units. In the area of Thrace that was under Hellenic administration. on 28. Native Muslims from Crimea.decisions were not publicised. After the discovery of weapons and the arrest of Şevket’s son. Immediately after its liberation. which was sent to the French marshall Franchet d’Espery. was 1. the political balance was disturbed. the break-up of the Ottoman army and the attempt of the Bulgarian guerrillas (“komitadji”). Adamantios. In the entire area of Thrace that used to be Greek. In the election to the Hellenic parliament on 1st November 1920 the population of free Thrace participated. after a referendum. who managed to occupy almost the entire Eastern portion of Thrace reaching till Karagach. who sided with Turkish rebels to influence the Muslim population of Bulgaria[67]. Greece occupied Eastern Thrace until Catalza within a distance of 20 kilometres from Constantinople and the peninsula of Gallipoli. in which Kypseli (Ipsala) and Ainos belonged to Evros and in 1922 came under the Turkish domination. The basic aim of the Hellenic administration was autonomy for all ethnic minorities and the development of peaceful relations with the Muslim element. its population consisted of: 1. rumours about an imminent rebellion by that movement were rampant. Serbia. For the achievement of this aim a decisive role was played by the moderate stance of the Greek population. and who had started to repatriate after 1918.301. Such was the disaster that some repatriated were unable even to locate the boundaries of their local estate[63]. in his telegram to the Hellenic High Commissioner in Thrace. Zimvrakakis. Bulgarian new-settlers (only in South-Western Thrace). The day that Thrace was occupied by the Greek army (14/5/1920). Gradually Hellenic administrative authorities were installed in Thrace. When at the same time the authority of the “Thracian committee” was significantly expanded.

000 . With the passage of time. On 8th October the Greek church of Agios Demetrios was destroyed by the Turkish army. were excluded from the exchange with the status of a religious minority[71].000 residents.000 Muslims of this zone (including the present Bulgarian side) moved to Eastern Thrace while an unidentified number – not higher than 15 -20. From 1913. comprised more than 40% of the population. deportation. this demand was rejected by the conference as unacceptable. approximately 65. the Muslim element was to be reduced from 65 percent . about 55. expatriation?) of Bulgarian residents – settled there in a dramatic fashion after the enforcement of the Bulgarian domination. the Asia Minor Catastrophe. The last Hellenic officials made appeals to be allowed to stay on. Unilateral Turkish / Mutual ethnic cleansing and the “exchange of populations” The triple partition of Thrace brought about radical changes to the demographic composition of the area. the catalytic facts that took place in the area – Balkan Wars. It is worth mentioning that with the same treaty. Within the frameworks of the same Treaty. and Muslims that have changed their place of residence. With the expulsion of Eastern Thrace by the Greek population and the withdrawal of the Hellenic forces. expropriation of belongings and land.000. after the settlement of refugees.000 Muslims had been compelled to abandon areas of Thrace that fell under Bulgarian domination. After the application of the bipartite convention about “voluntary immigration of the tribal minorities from Greece and Bulgaria”. were forced to abandon their houses and settle as refugees in Greece (especially in Macedonia and Thrace). It is worth mentioning here that an important number of Greeks of Northern Thrace and a corresponding number of Turks of South-Western Thrace preferred to stay in their homes. Among them.000 followed the Bulgarian authorities in their obligatory withdrawal. thus confirming the tragic irony. as it happened with East Thrace to Turkey. Only in this way. 49. Arkadioupolis was transformed into an abandoned area after the withdrawal of the Hellenic army.06. The demographic picture of Thrace.000. i. World war I. Their number clearly decreased when probably more than 30. Order could not be restored. The next exchange of populations happened between Bulgaria and Greece: In 1919-1920 within the framework of the Treaty of Neuilly on ’voluntary exchange of populations’.000[74].The mission of the Hellenic administration in the united region of Thrace and the hopes of thousands of Greeks remained unfulfilled.123. is estimated at around 2. After the signing of the protocol. Aleksandar Stabomliyski (1879-14. Muslims who had settled around Evros River and Bulgarians who had settled within a 15 kilometres zone from the river had to leave their homes. applied the method of ethnic cleansing that included persecutions. Conclusions The protocol of Moudania that was signed in October 1922 was the coup de grace for Thracian Hellenism. according to A. The radical change of the balance of populations.300. transfers of populations. The last part of the Hellenic army left Adrianople on 18 October 1922[69]. Therefore. Ottoman citizens of Greek-Orthodox religion who resided in Constantinople were exempted.000 Bulgarians abandoned South Thrace – especially its Western part . Murders of refugees. The French president of the inter-allied committee identified Thrace as Greek. these Thracians were Bulgarified or Hellenised without any further direct persecutions. according to credible sources of the period. urging that West Thrace will have to come under an autonomous regime as a neutral zone under the protection of the Allied Great Powers. In October of the same year Greeks who settled in Eastern Thrace and who. the number of Greeks. Turks would excel continuously and Pomaks and Gypsies would follow[78]. Before the enacting and with the simultaneous application of the decisions for the exchange of populations. This occurred because the national states. The decision of 30 January 1923[72] for the mandatory exchange of populations (which was hastily recommended by Venizelos in order to counterbalance the violent expatriation of Ottoman Greeks from Turkey with the corresponding expatriation of Muslims from Greece) defined an exception: in order to secure a Greek presence in Constantinople – a distant part of Thracian space – a corresponding exemption of Muslims in Western Thrace was accepted. Natives and refugees fled in panic. which under contemporary legal conditions was highly doubtful at least and under the legal understanding of today would be considered as crime against humanity[73]. Allied troops had undertaken the task to transfer the political power to the Turkish authorities 30 days after the evacuation of Eastern Thrace. which surrounds Greek Thrace.after its incorporation to Greece in 1920. Turkish armed groups began to repeatedly attack the Hellenic police. Thus. Pallis there were more[75]. at least half of the 25. expulsion and deportation if millions of people. The same happened in the Greek district of Makra Gephyra (Uzun Köprü) in front of Hellenic officials. numbering about 90. theft of property.000 . .000.092 out of the 196. For the last time. severe administrative measures etc. The events of the Asia Minor campaign directly affected the Greek presence in Eastern Thrace. Bulgarians.000 refugees in 1928[77]. the Hellenic army was forced to evacuate Eastern Thrace within 15 days and to retreat to the West of Evros.191. just before the signing of the protocol of Moudania (28 September/ 11 October 1922)[68]. into which the three parts of Thrace were incorporated. The method of “population exchange” had been applied in Thrace for the first time already after the Balkan Wars: According to an agreement that was signed between Bulgaria and Turkey in Constantinople on September 1913. after the massive departure of Bulgarians. about 50. reached approximately 170.had caused major situations outside of any conventional expectations.1923) spoke for the Bulgarian side. Their population figures. since the Hellenic army was ordered to evacuate Eastern Thrace within 15 days and withdraw to the west of Evros. however.e. telegraph and telephone sabotage were also observed. was formed under the pressure of massive transfers of populations – in reality the forced expatriation. in their attempt to ensure ’ethnic homogeneity’.to 39% .500. at the end of the period 1912-1923. North Thrace. On October 24 the Hellenic administration of Saranta Ecclesiae was handed over to the inter-allied committee. From the end of 1919 until the entry of Hellenic forces into the area. The abandonment of Eastern Thrace by the Greeks was confirmed by the bilateral treaty that brought about the mandatory and asymmetric exchange of populations that was signed in Lausanne on 30 January 1923 between Greece and Turkey.000 to 100. one day after the exchange. On the contrary. the method of the “population exchange” was applied in Thrace in 1922. It is very characteristic that in the south zone of the Balkan Peninsula. first of all the movement (flight.000 Greeks of East Rumelia. From mid-October 1922 the transfer of power in the biggest urban centres of Eastern Thrace to French representatives of the inter-allied committee began. there would remain less than 84. The official Turkish claims at the Lausanne conference were articulated by Mustafa Ismet Inönü: transfer of all territories East of Evros to Turkey.000 in population while the corresponding Greek element. according to the statistics of the French allied authorities after the re-establishment of the Greek administration – to 54. the only Greek elements left behind were the Hellenic civil authorities and the Hellenic police.2. the Bulgarian access to the Aegean Sea would be secured without having to transit through Greek or Turkish territory. of not returned to Bulgaria. 150 Greek families that stayed in Saranta Ecclesiae were forced under these circumstances to expatriate on March 1924. Eastern Thrace was lost and in 1922 the number of Greek refugees increased to 350.000 according to an estimation[76] this is a number that was going to be exceeded in the following years reaching 303. Thus.000 in population .000 East Thracian Greeks became refugees and settled in Western Thrace or Macedonia[70]. more than 220. were forced to abandon their ancestral houses. In a similar way. after the Turkish-Bulgarian convention for the exchange of populations.000 of Slavophones or Bulgarophones that had remained there followed the same route. Muslims who lived in the Greek part of Thrace.from Eastern Thrace moved towards South-eastern Bulgaria. In the first fortnight of November (1922) the transfer of Callipolis to the commander of the French troops was completed.

Among the victims lie foreign enemies. the first step has to be made towards the recognition of the Greeks in Thrace. accordingly we ask Turkey to recognize the genocide that they have committed against the Greeks. March 1918). Attila and Abdul Hamit. compared to the millions of people deliberately murdered in Turkey. compensate for the enormous psychological damage that they have suffered. is realized today.S. and a sincere apology by the part of Turkey. The official estimation of the years 1920 and 1928 respectively show an arithmetic difference that comes to the 50 percent . that will not be based on lies but on the truth. The greater the crime. The International offence of the Genocide indicates certain obligation not only to the country that has committed the crime. the same way that other countries that have committed massive crimes. Every people have the right to memory.c. without turning to propaganda and constantly projecting lies aiming to get rid of the accusations. The consolidation of the Greeks would comprise the prerequisite and the basis for the security of the national preponderance in connection with the evident augmentative stress that became clear to Greek Thrace just after the signing of the Treaty of Lausanne. This is an obligation that Turkey has to the victims of the genocide that it has committed and cost the life of thousands of people. This would be an act to make amends regarding history and to give justice. the countries and the institutions. according to the International Law. and having full recognition by the part of those countries and reconciliation with their history. to recognize the crime of the genocide committed against the Greek people in Thrace. who chose as a place of settlement Macedonia or Thrace according to the treaty about the exchange of populations[79].(Henry Morgenthau. [2] The reporter of the newspaper “The Morning Post” states that «All crimes committed by Nero. prisoners of war. and regard the Genocide of the Greeks. would consist a presupposition for an also sincere friendship and brotherhood between the two peoples. the official records of the Turkish National Assembly’s secret sessions (Türkiye Buyük Millet Meclisi) which were exposed in 1985. thus being able to move ahead.000 life insurance policies issued to Greeks in the Ottoman Empire prior to 1915. This model of Europe and also this type of international community that we are trying to create. not nourishing feelings of hatred and revenge. [4] Amb. The recognition. the greater the urge for the according recognition becomes. Taking into consideration the current international situation. a crime that primarily aimed at the extermination of the Greek element in the territories that were under the ottoman rule. XXIV. as well as a part of refugees – 60. as well as from other private sources. The genocide of the Greek people in Thrace is a current issue with multiple dimensions." ch. It is an obligation of the victimizer towards the victims. it is the obligation of every people. that other peoples are subjected to genocides by racist regimes. its institutions and its laws. committed by the Young-Turks and the Kemalist status and also the organized Para-military Turkish gangs. Henry Morgenthau. but also to the entire international community. [3] The presentation of the sources. For example see the resolution from International Association of Genocide Scholars for the Genocide (December 2007)[80] and the announcement from New York Life Insurance Co for a program to locate and compensate heirs of approximately 1." Red Cross Magazine. This number includes the majority of the thousands of residents that abandoned the area after the Balkan Wars and during World War I. An ecumenical struggle for the quest and demonstration of truth will certainly find a number of peoples accordant.Along with the transiently decreased but gradually re-strengthened Muslim the Greek nation was emerging steadily and amplified. but on the contrary the recognition of the crimes committed against the Greeks of Thrace.000 from South Russia who settled in the greater geographical zone of Northern Greece as well as Greek residents of Bulgaria. We need to seek the truth and present it to the public opinion that is a judge beyond any kind of interests.303. the genocide constitutes. dignity. equal and harmonic world. » (The Morning Post.443 residents eight years earlier.264. A comparison of the data shows that the Greek population increased between 1920 and 1928 by 96. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------[1] «The anti-Greek persecutions carried out in Turkey since the beginning of the European War are but the continuation of the plan of extermination of Hellenism practiced by the Young Turks. It is a political issue and its international extension refers to the obligation of all estates of the international community.1918). i) not to acknowledge as legal. Today the Genocide of the Greek Thracian people is an issue that has been left aside for many years. Turkey has to take responsibility for the Genocide of the Greeks. Today. London 6. the recognition which consists a confirmation of a people’s right to have one’s existence respected and provides an apotropi of new crimes.[81] In order not to have the crimes ever repeated we need to indicate the ones responsible and the reasons that lead them towards that direction. through the creation of a liberal. promote it as a modern issue of major importance regarding democracy.t. Arabs. Sr. in order not to have such massive crimes repeated again. an issue of historical truth. and generally in former Ottoman Empire so through this. The prospect of creating a new Europe and a new peaceful planet that will be much more democratic and realistic. the U. in peaceful and creative deeds. the international community is obliged not to acknowledge an illegal status emerging from genocide. Moreover. are part of official archives from the European countries. freedom.12.A. Yet. Greeks. but having sincere intentions of friendship and co-operation. the right to persistently demand official recognition by the authorities of the crimes that have been committed on his expense. "The Murder of a Nation. which is a meaningful way of resisting against the universal plague of genocide. some of which are presented to the open public for the first time. The effort to project the massive crime against the Greeks is not an act merely seeking in the past. a status that emerges from an international crime. "The Greatest Horror in History.. having governments and countries guilty for massive crimes. the recognition of the genocide itself. On the other hand. similar to the ones that Turkey has committed against the Greeks. in . just. ii) not to facilitate the executor of such a crime to preserve the illegal status and iii) to help other countries regarding the application of the above commitments. the thing that is of major importance for the documentation of this massive crime are the evidence we draw from the Turkish sources and in particular. Turkey. Armenians. the longer the facts have been neglected. during the last four years”. Thus. since 1913». showing hatred.171 residents against 209. are equal to nothing. to demand the official recognition of the crimes committed against him. it is a contribution of the international community. Caligula. have also done. e. which through the events that occur in Europe as well as in the world-wide arena. can not face with indifference and hypocrisy their own selves and history overall.

29. Claude. pp. p.34. Leonidas. p. 1919.O. Haimimontos). Paris 1877. p. Italie. 225(In Greek).: Greece and the Eastern Crisis. p. p. Pesth 1817. p. Athens 1975.123. p. Kalliopi.98. [13] Papathanasi-Mousioupoulou Kalliopi:. Paris 1861. p. Vol. William. p.78. p. XVIIIe-XXe s. p. Paris. p.the extermination of the Christian element from Turkey». : Ιστορία της Φιλιππούπολης ( History of Fillipoupolis).: Voyage dans la Turquie d’Europe. [19] Apostolidis. : Narrative of a Journey from Constantinople to England. [24] Lechevalier. Bianconi. Fifth series.45. Paris 1876. [31] Meiningen. p. 2 vols. 157 1922) [6] « The anti-Greek and anti-Armenian persecutions are two phases of one -.: Voyage de Vienne a Routchouk par le Danube. Rodope. 1991.cit.114.63.464). Paris 1854. :Cartes Commerciales. 222) Pauly Real–Encyclopädie: Thracia. p. F. de la par terre a Varna. Konstantinos: Θράκη (Thrace). Volume I : L'Europe méridionale (Grèce. Leipzig 1914.56. Ami: La Turquie d’Europe. Lepsius) [7] For the word Thrace see Ομήρου Ιλιάδα (Homer Iliada. op.76. London 1872. [10] Synvet. et de Varna a Constantinople par le mer Noire. p. p. Paris 1840. Smith. [14] Blanqui. Paris 1800. Athens 2000 (In Greek ).45. Description physique e géologique de la Thrace. L.Mousiopoulou.187. British Prime Minister. women and Children were expelled and dying. Organise par Institut des Etudes Balkaniques de Thessaloniki et l'Institut d'Etudes Balkaniques de L'Académie Bulgare des Sciences a Thessaloniki et Jannina. Roumanie. [32] Reclus. 27-31 Mars 1988.67 [11] Steven Francis Clair ( (F. “Extermination” is not my word.234. (In Greek). Athens. Evagelos. [5] « . Medlicott.67.286. p.2. Élie:. Thessaloniki. [17] Dumont. Soustal. p. Auguste: Voyage dans la Turquie d’Europe. Paris 1868. [29] Dearborn. p. N. London 1828. p. Greek Parliament. Madison 1972.64. August Heinrich Rudolf: Reise durch Rumelien und nach Brussa im Jahre 1839. p. [25] Primaudaie. (In Greek) [36] Papathanasi. Wien: Östereichische Akademie der Wissenschaften.32.thousands of (Greek) men. Élie. With a Foreword by W.(31 July 1915: German priest J. House of Commons Parliament Debates. de la: Études sur le Commerce au Moyen Age. (In Greek) . p. [27] Walsh. George. [28] Stürmer. Paris 1843.56 (In Greek). Province de la Thrace. 1852. Athens 1959 . [12] Grisebach. Wien 1828. Thessaloniki 1993. Paris 1885. [18] Reclus. Paris 1868. vol.: A dictionary of Greek and Roman geography. 1875-1878. Paris 1848. Mirtilos. Bd. (Lloyd George. p.45 [9] Relations et influences reciproques entre Grecs et Bulgares. /195/901/f. T. [23] Peyssonel. Henry Alexander Scammel: A Memoir on the Commerce and Navigation of the Black Sea and the Trade and Maritime Geography of Turkey and Egypt.52.. Serbie. p. Arts et literature: Linguistique. 283 [35] Vakalopoulos. Peuples et Nations des Balkans a la veille du Congrès de Berlin 1878. [26] Sestini. Travels to and from Constantinople in 1827. [15] Viquesnel. [22] Lejean. [16] Lejean. Peter: Thrakien (Thrake. Guillaume: Εthnographie de la Turquie d’Europe. p.Morgenthau.98. in den letzten Monathen des Jahres 1816. herausgegeben von Joseph Goluchowski. Maximilian Friedrich: Die europäische Türkei. Cinquième Colloque. Boston 1819. 1977. p.: Ignatiev and the establishment of the Bulgarian Exarchate 1864-1872. Amsterdam 1787. Elisée: Nouvelle Géographie Universelle. Αugoustos: Table ethnographique de la Turquie d’Europe et dénombrement et la population Grecque de la Turquie d’ Europe de l’ Empire Ottoman. Jean Baptiste: Voyage de la Propontide et du Pont Euxin.67. Kyriakidis bros editions. 1992. Guillaume: Εthnographie de la Turquie d’Europe.Η απελευθέρωση της Θράκης από το αρχείο του Χαρίσιου Βαμβακά (The freedom or Thrace from Harisios Vamvakas file). p.178. Histoire du Commerce de la Mer Noire et des Colonies Génoises de la Crimée.56. Ambassador Morgenthau's Story. p. Lubker. A.: Reallexikon des klassischen Altertums. Kamperidis.. Ralph. Albert: Le Balkan et l’Adriatique. It was clearly a deliberate extermination. p. Turquie. [20] Synvet.: The view of Thrace from Sir Henry Blount.45. p. [21] Viquesnel. p. Idées Politiques et Structures Sociales. p. Thessaloniki 1991.p. Espagne et Portugal. 213 (In Greek). Paris 1873. Göttingen 1841. [30] Thielen. Thessaloniki 1975. George. Francis. Thracian Archive 19 (1945).56.67 [8] Boué. Paris 1861. Ludwig von: Skizzen einer Reise nach Konstantinopel des Freyherrn Ludwig von Stürmer. Tozis. [33] Thrace. London 1830.134. It is the word being used by the American mission». p.Charles de : Traité sur le Commerce de la mer Noire.: Τα εληνικά μοναστήρια της Σωζόπολης (The Greek Monasteries of Sozopolis). Leipzig editions.1.97. Paris 1980. 52-53. and Frankland Ch. 1. A.8 [34] Kofos.: Ελληνικά προξενεία στη Θράκη (Greek consulates in Thrace). Adolphe Jérôme: Voyage en Bulgarie pendant l’année 1841.

p.: A History of Greece. Thessaloniki. 260-284. Vol. Paris 1919. 263.. London 1853. 1878:78. 17. 6-7.Ο Ελληνισμός της Βόρειας Θράκης και ο Θρακικός Εύξεινος Πόντος σύμφωνα με το αρχείο του Γιώργου Γκιουμουρσδεδάνη (The Hellenism of Northern Thrace and the Thracian Euxinos Pontos according to the file of George Gioumousderdani). pp. Andreas. George. First. M. 140 [55] Belia. 17 (In Greek).4. Münster 2006. Macedonia. p. Thrakika. Vol. 112-1922]. Institute for Balkan Studies. Princeton 1956. p. Charalambos. Antonios.2. Thessaloniki: Institute of Balkan Studies. Augsburg 15. Mamelis.: Ο ελληνικός πληθυσμός το 1921 The Greek population in 1921. Andreadis. p.000 .1905. Rossidis. Kyriakidis. 234. Kyriakidis bros editions 1995. 201/22. Η ελληνική καταγωγή των σύγχρονων Θρακών Οι πόλεις Ξάνθη και Κομοτηνή (For the History of Thrace: The Greek Origin of the Modern Thracians: The Towns of Xanthi and Komotini. 2nd ed. Konstantinos A.5.: Έλληνες και Βούλγαροι (Greeks and Bulgarians). E.000 (Statistics of Ecumenical Patriarchate. 1878: 415. (In Greek) [43] Abbott. History Archive of Greek Ministry of Foreign Affairs (AYE).: Για την ιστορία της Θράκης.: Η Δυτική Θράκη και οι Βούλγαροι (West Thrace and the Bulgarians). Eleni. Proceedings). See also Vakalopoulos. 447 (In Greek) [45] Mamoni. 271/17. [51] Kiakidis. . pp. Ε.1903) [37] Plencef Ivan.5. Tessa (ed. 287-341 (In Greek). cit. 3 (1962). p. [58] Psaltis.: Ιστορία του Σαμάκοβου και των γειτονικών ελληνικών κοινοτήτων History of Samakovo and the neighborhood Greek communities. 1995 (In Greek). 1918: 367. Thessaloniki: Institute of Balkan Studies. E.Grigoriou. (In Greek). Johan. Kotzageorgi. (1962). Petsalis-Diomidis.: Νεώτερη και σύγχρονη Ιστορία της Θράκης. Michael. Thrace. “Thracian Archive”. London 1922. Second Third and Fourth Folklore Symposium on Northern Greece: Epirus.5. Sofia 13/7/1906. : Ο βουλγαρικός αγώνας στη Θράκη (The Bulgarian struggle in Thrace). Xanthopoulou. Nikolaos. Βιβλιογραφικός οδηγός (Modern and Contemporary History of Thrace. Stilpon. pp. p. 1975. p. Vol. Thrace. Vol. (In Greek ).1905. No 156/5. Thessaloniki 1974. f’.4.1914. Konstantinos. p. René: La deportation et la rapatriement des Grecs en Turquie. Thessaloniki 1953.45-56.: Τα βόρεια εθνολογικά όρια του Ελληνισμού (The Northern Ethnological Boundaries of Hellenism). p.Εκπαίδευση και εθνική πολιτική: (Education and national Policy: The Case of Thrace. Athens 1919 (In Greek).2.163-172 (In Greek ) [57] Pallis. expulsion and annihilation of the Christians in the Ottoman Empire. 26. pp. Thessaloniki 1978. 9. Alexandros. Thessaloniki 1960 (In Greek). 2.: Η συνθήκη του Νειγύ και η ανταλλαγή των μειονοτήτων μεταξύ Ελλάδας και Βουλγαρίας The Treaty of Neuilly and the Exchange of Minorities between Greece and Bulgaria. 1861-1922 (The Associations in Thrace and Eastern Rumelia. A.263-264. 1993 (In Greek) [46] Ladopouloy Aimilia.1896). Stilianos. 24 (1981). Ecumenical Patriarchate: The Black Book of the sufferings of the Greek people in Turkey from the armistice to the end of 1920. 1861-1922).: Greece at the Paris Peace Conference 1919.See also the numbers of Greek population of East Roumelia. Hurewitz. Thessaloniki: Institute of Balkan Studies. N. p. 9 [50] Sophocles. Rumelie. Thessaloniki 1968 [53] Puaux. 1908-1922]. pp.6. p. 1971.: Diplomacy in the Near and Middle East: A documentary report. George. 10. 38 (In Greek) [56] Sarantis.1905 [41] Gonatas.): Verfolgung. pp. [38] See the Greek population of East Thrace. vol.144. (In Greek). Constantinople 1920. Α/21 e’. 20-23.000 (“Allgmeine Zeitung”. and Berlin. pp. yesterday and today. Thessaloniki: Educational Union of Adrianopolis. Steven. Konstantinos A.: Ιστορία της σύγχρονης Θράκης History of modern Thrace.: Vertreibung und Genozid an den Griechen Ost-Thrakiens (1908-1922) [Expulsion and genocide against the Greeks of Eastern Thrace. also: Belia. Vertreibung und Vernichtung der Christen im Osmanischen Reich 1912-1922 [Persecution. Athens 1919.: Greece at the Paris Peace Conference 1919. (1992).78.: La Thrace interaliée. 1955. Michalis.: Η θράκη και ο ελληνικός πληθυσμός Thrace and the Greek population. 280-290. In Greek).) Thessaloniki 1979. (In Greek ) [54] Vakalopoulos.183-219 (In Greek) [42] Vakalopoulos. p. cit. Herbet.56 . 24. 53. 1856-1912).: Οι Ενώσεις στη Θράκη και στην ανατολική Ρωμυλία.:. pp. Bulletin of Historical and Ethnological Union of Greece. Miliotis.220-254 (In Greek) [39] Spencer. pp . 1982. George.1. See Also AYE/ B 1895-1896. [61] Antinoff. “Thrakika” 23 (1955). (In Greek ). “Thrakiki Epetirida”. [40] AYE. Pallis.. George. 228/23. Bd..: Αναμνήσεις από τη Θράκη (Memories from Thrace). 343. Thessaloniki: Institute of Balkan Studies. p. Belia. op.: The Eastern Question.. “Thrakika”. Mazarakis-Ainian. 84/18. “Vetcherna Poshta”. p. p. Athens 1925. Thessaloniki 1996.: Η ελληνική φροντίδα για τους πρόσφυγες The Greek care about refugees. In: Hofmann. “Balkan Studies”. 1979.: Greece and the Allies. 5. Michalis.1878). (In Greek ) [59] Koukkidis.56 (In Greek) [47] Kyriakides.:. Elianos. Thessaloniki 1992. 1914. 1903:40744 (Statistics of General Consulate of Filippoupolis.Η εκπαιδευτική Ένωση της Αδριανούπολης (1872-1996) The Educational Union of Adrianople (1872-1996). Steven. 1995 (In Greek). 56 (In Greek) [48] Kyriakidis.: Κείμενο του Γονατά για τη Θράκη Paper of Gonatas for Thrace. Bibliographic Guide). A. Antonios. Sofia 1921. pp.1905.: The Balkan Wars.: Στατιστική της μετανάστευσης από τη Μακεδονία και τη Θράκη (1912-1924) Statistics for the immigration of Macedonia and Thrace (1912-1924). p. Anderson. Kiriaki..45. op. Constantinople 1878. Xanthippi. Harry. Stilpon.: Travels in European Turkey. Stilpon. 25 (1956). 330-336 (In Greek ) [60] Petsalis-Diomidis. p. Thessaloniki 1961.: The Eastern Question: The Last Phase: A Study in Greek-Turkish Diplomacy. London 1970. Panagiota.cit. 409. Thessaloniki 1962. [52] Psomiades.: op. Konstantinos A.: Η Αδριανούπολη στην περίοδο της οθωμανικής κατοχής (Adrianoupolis in the period of Ottoman occupation). E. Thessaloniki 1978. : La Grèce devant le Congres de la Paix. (1967) pp. Paris 1919.: Αναμνήσεις (Memoirs. Politisches Archiv des Auswärtigen Amtes (PA/AA) Türkei Nr 175b. J. Frafistas. [44] Kofos. [49] ΑΥΕ. Athens 1921.

" It "calls upon the government of Turkey to acknowledge the genocides against these populations. Thessaloniki 1998. The resolution passed with the support of fully 83 percent of IAGS members who voted. Andrianoupolis 1922 (In Greek) .: The Greek Census of 1928. pp.78.: Τούρκοι και Βούλγαροι στη Θράκη Turks and Bulgarians in Thrace. enshrining impunity for the perpetrators of genocide.89: Ladas. p.97. New York. Jones paid tribute to the efforts of "representatives of the Greek and Assyrian communities . who still ignore or deny outright the genocides of the Ottoman Christian minorities.: Για τη σύγχρονη Θράκη For modern Thrace. “Thracian Yearbook”. p. for example.67. p. and lobbied for it along with fellow member Thea Halo.345 (In Greek). especially in present-day Turkey. p. and Jacobites.. Αδριανούπολη. Assyrians..: Muddle. the IAGS officially recognized the Armenian genocide. “History”. London 1922. in July 2007.): Ο μετασχηματισμός της ταυτότητας των Πομάκων The transformation of the Pomacs identity. Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Paris Le Seuil. Popular Council of Kurdistan in Switzerland. Athens 2000. The current resolution notes that while activist and scholarly efforts have resulted in widespread acceptance of the Armenian genocide.113. Lausanne 2006.. Ηarry. Ρentzopoulos." Jones said on December 15. Since 2003.: Greece and the Greek refugees. Paris 1930." Assyrians. 5 (2003). pp. Kokkas.76. remains highly vulnerable to genocidal attack. p.56. Macedonia.456. cit. : Θράκη 1920-1922 Thrace 1920-1922. including mass executions. S. The umbrella term "Assyrians" includes Chaldeans.. In an address to the membership at the IAGS conference in Sarajevo. Eastern Orthodox Syrians. 20-23. p.67 [75] Pallis. Greece and Turkey.67 Pallis. 20-22 November 1987. pp. Kalliopi. (Ed. p. Vakalopoulos. Les génocides au XXe siècle. . 5-33 [73] [73] Horowitz Ian.cit. p. 1980. p. p. p. [70] Andreadis. [67] Papathanasi-Mousiopoyloy. Nikolaos. 34-56 (In Greek) [68] Geragas. the International Association of Genocide Scholars (IAGS) has voted overwhelmingly to recognize the genocides inflicted on Assyrian and Greek populations of the Ottoman Empire between 1914 and 1923. whose mother Sano survived the Pontian Greek genocide. [65] Curtright. to issue a formal apology. Thessaloniki 1969.: The Greeks of Ottoman State. and Pontian and Anatolian Greeks. p. p. 1995. the genocide of Greeks of Pontos and the treaty of Lausanne. New York 1932. [64] Papeygeniou. 73 (1929).92. Malkidis Theofanis : Οι πρόσφυγες του 1922 στη Θράκη The refugees of 1922 in Thrace. Bosnia.and by much the same methods. p. T. André: L’échange Greco-Bulgare des minorités ethniques. [74] Wurfbain.: op. p. it is believed that up to half the Assyrian population has fled the country.. Kalliopi. Taking lives: Genocide and State power. Miller. Athènes 1922.cit. Indecision and Setback: British Policy and the Balkan States.90. (In Greek).. Athens 1934. Thessaloniki 1986 (In Greek). Thessaloniki. Thessaloniki 1926 (In Greek). and demonstrably paving the way for future genocides.75. Centre Cultural de Kurdistan in Lausanne. Nestorians. NJ Transaction Books 1980. Leon. The Treaty of Lausanne.: Exchange of Minorities: Bulgaria.: The Balkan Exchange of Minorities and its impact upon Greece. Η. Athens 1923: Aigidis. p. and starvation. Athens1962.86.: Ιστορία της Θράκης History of Thrace. Thessaloniki 1986. Ladas. Theofanis. p. Malkidis. Athens 1919.89.125 (In Greek ) [80] In a groundbreaking move.: Η ελευθερία της Θράκης το 1920 και οι διώξεις ενάντια στον ελληνικό πληθυσμό The freedom of Thrace in 1920 and the perceptions against the Greek population. [78] Malkidis. [69] Daviskas. The resolution (text below) declares that "it is the conviction of the International Association of Genocide Scholars that the Ottoman campaign against Christian minorities of the Empire between 1914 and 1923 constituted a genocide against Armenians. Genocide: Its political use in the twentieth century.: Α history of the Greek people (1821-1921). were killed on a scale equivalent in per capita terms to the catastrophe inflicted on the Armenian population of the empire -. signée a Neuilly le 14/27 Novembre 1919.: The Eastern Question during the last phase. 1981. Αlexandros. [76] Eythimiadis A. 472 (In Greek) [71] Germidis. A. Administration of Thrace. pp.. pp. London 1923.: Greece without the refugees.56. [77] Statistics Yearbook of Greece. Psomiades. Fifth Folklore Symposium on Northern Greece: Epirus.84. New Brunswick. op. Convention entre la Grèce et la Bulgarie relative a l’émigration réciproque et volontaires des minorités ethniques. Alexandroupolis 2001. "It will also act as a powerful counter to those. along with Pontian and Anatolian Greeks. 546-572." The resolution stated that "the denial of genocide is widely recognized as the final stage of genocide.67. death marches. p. there has been "little recognition of the qualitatively similar genocides against other Christian minorities of the Ottoman Empire. Andreas. "The overwhelming backing given to this resolution by the world's leading genocide scholars organization will help to raise consciousness about the Assyrian and Greek genocides. [72] Lausanne Conference on Near Eastern Affairs 1922-1923: Records of Proceedings and Draft Terms of Peace. William. p. Athens 1928. p. Athens 1992 (In Greek). p. 214. p.[62] Papathanasi –Mousiopouloy. Aramaens. Thessaloniki 1989.98. "Geographical Journal".: Η ελληνική και η τουρκική πολιτική για τη Θράκη The Greek and the Turkish policy for Thrace. Malkidis.39.. A. Andreas.: Αναμνήσεις από τη Θράκη 1920-1922 Memories from Thrace 1920-1922. Theofanis. IAGS member Adam Jones drafted the resolution. Η ιστορία της Θράκης (1361-1920) The history of Thrace (1361-1920). 1985 (In Greek )." which had made Asia Minor their home for millennia. Syriacs. [73] Kuper Leon. Vol A. 97. : Appels des Femmes de Thrace et d’ Asie Mineure.65. [63] Basileiou. Iraqi Assyrians have been exposed to severe persecution and "ethnic cleansing". Thrace. Athens 1931.89. p." The Assyrian population of Iraq. Proceedings). A. p. Xanthi 2006 (In Greek). to publicize and call on the present Turkish government to acknowledge the genocides inflicted on their populations. Thessaloniki. Ternon Yan. Dimitris." In 1997. L’Etat criminel. In: Proceedings of the Conference for the Kurdish Question in the 83rd year of Lausanne treaty. Penguin books. p.56 [79] Eddy.. August 1914 to the Inception of the Dardanelles Campaign. op. S. Athens 1925 (In Greek).87.: Διοίκηση Θράκης. Konstantinos. Dimos. Konstantinos. Konstantinos: Οι διώξεις ενάντια σους Έλληνες της Θράκης Persecutions against Greeks of Thrace. and to take prompt and meaningful steps toward restitution. [66] Eythimiadis Apostolos. Εdmud. p.

We will offer heirs to the Greek policies the same benefits as those provided to persons claiming under the Armenian policies. “As with the Armenian policies. However. for his personal involvement in assisting with various aspects of the voluntary program. and to take prompt and meaningful steps toward restitution. WHEREAS the Ottoman genocide against minority populations during and following the First World War is usually depicted as a genocide against Armenians alone. Individuals who want to learn more can do so by visiting the program’s website at www. FULL TEXT OF THE IAGS RESOLUTION: WHEREAS the denial of genocide is widely recognized as the final stage of genocide. “In the course of research associated with another historical matter regarding policies sold to Armenians who perished after 1914. involving benefits paid to heirs of 2. In Greece the toll-free number is 00 800 33 311144. New York Life expressed gratitude to Archbishop Demetrios. since descendants of many of those displaced from their ancestral homelands are now members of the Archdiocese.Extensive supporting documentation for the Assyrian and Greek genocides was circulated to IAGS members in the months prior to the vote.greekinsuranceclaims.htm. New York Life paid those benefits to heirs in the months and years immediately following the violence of 1915.000 other Greek policies. As part of the Greek Life Insurance Policy Program. the leader of the Greek Orthodox Church in America. to issue a formal apology. and is available at http://www. records confirm that the company succeeded in paying benefits in nearly half of the Greek policies.000 life insurance policies issued to Greeks in the Ottoman Empire prior to 1915. a spokesman for New York Life. a company of responsible action that believes in setting the record right. “The events in the Ottoman Empire and after led to the loss of countless lives and the expulsion of 1. New York Life is one of those rarest of companies today. 2009. even if it means reaching back to the beginning of the Twentieth Century. which will be used to enlighten people about the long and rich history and culture of Hellenism in Pontus and Asia Minor. Our company’s value system is rooted in humanity and integrity. With these funds the Archdiocese plans to establish an endowed chair for the study of Hellenism in Pontus and Asia Minor at its Holy Cross Theological School in Brookline. New York Life Insurance Company has been headquartered in New York City since its founding in 1845. New York Life received no claims and thus paid no benefits or cash value on 1. New York Life will publish notices in national and international newspapers about the claims review process so that heirs can submit claims relating to these policies. and Pontian and Anatolian Greeks. including administrative and other costs. MA. enshrining impunity for the perpetrators of genocide.genocidetext. In addition to providing benefits to heirs of its Greek insureds. Descendants of persons insured under any of the Greek policies may submit claims for benefits for a six month period ending on February 28. [81] New York Life Launches Voluntary Program to Reach out to Heirs of Greek Policies from 1914. and demonstrably paving the way for future genocides. to develop the voluntary program relating to Greek policies. one of the attorneys involved in the Armenian insurance settlement.300 Armenian policyholders. New York Life conducted additional archival research and verified that there are Greek policies that may remain unpaid from 1915. The company began selling policies in the Ottoman Empire in 1882 and withdrew from the region during World War I.net/iags_resolution_supporting_documentation. including a multiplier of ten times the original face amount for those who can demonstrate that they are the rightful heirs to the policy proceeds. The public notices will commence in September.” The voluntary program uses the same criteria used to resolve the Armenian policy matter. Assyrians. . and our willingness today to resolve these policies from 1915 shows that we still adhere to these values today. the company became aware that Greek policyowners were evidently victims of the same violence in the Ottoman Empire.000 Greeks from their ancestral homelands. The company said it will also contribute $1 million to the Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America.” The company said it worked with attorney Vartkes Yeghiayan. Archbishop Demetrios said. The total value of the voluntary program is $12-15 million. BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that the Association calls upon the government of Turkey to acknowledge the genocides against these populations.500.” said William Werfelman.com or by calling toll-free 1-800-922-2973. The Greek Orthodox community gratefully applauds New York Life for establishing the Greek Life Insurance Policy Program and its very generous contribution of $1 million. BE IT RESOLVED that it is the conviction of the International Association of Genocide Scholars that the Ottoman campaign against Christian minorities of the Empire between 1914 and 1923 constituted a genocide against Armenians.New York Life Insurance Company announced an outreach program to locate and compensate heirs of approximately 1. with little recognition of the qualitatively similar genocides against other Christian minorities of the Ottoman Empire. With the Armenian policy matter now successfully completed. New York Life will contribute $1 million to the Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America.