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Presenters: Elbert Davis Rebecca Prokity

For CI 703 Dr. Calvin Meyer

As with behaviorism, can be traced back to the ancient Greeks, Plato and Aristotle. In the early 1920s people began to find limitations in the behaviorist approach to understanding learning.

Behaviorists were unable to explain certain social behaviors.

The acquiring of information and the processing of information leading to certain outcomes An attempt to explain what was occurring in the mind during learning Shift towards information processing paradigm

Developed major aspects of this theory in 1920s Two main functions: 1. Organization 2. Adaptation (assimilation and accommodation)

Humans go through several distinct stages of cognitive development

1. Sensorimotor (0-2 years) 2. Pre-operational (2-7 years) 3. Concrete operational period (7-11 years) 4. Formal operational period (11+ years)

Four principles
The importance of readiness experience does not simply happen to a child, rather it must always be assimilated to current cognitive structure 2. Motivation for cognitive activity content that is either too advanced or too simple is unlikely to be interesting 3. Awareness of what level the child has reached and the information of what can be expected at that level and what not 4. Emphasis on intelligence as an action

Bruners ideas are based on categorization There are two prime modes of thought
The narrative mode The paradigmatic mode

Extended Piagets theory. Identified three ways in which learners make sense of input.
1. Enactive level action based 2. Iconic level objects are represented by visual

images and are recognized for what they represent 3. Symbolic Level learning can take place using symbols, objects and mental images. Language is used to represent thoughts and experiences

Stressed the importance of active mental participation in meaningful learning tasks Learning must be meaningful to be effective and permanent Makes a distinction between meaningful learning and rote learning

Meaningful Learning relates to what one already knows so it can be easily integrated in ones existing cognitive structure Rote Learning the material to be learned is not integrated/subsumed into an existing cognitive structure but learned as isolated pieces of information

Theory that children learn through their interactions with their surrounding culture Known as the Social-cultural perspective it states that the cognitive development of children and adolescents is enhanced when they work in their Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD for short).

A task would be best learned by following a specific sequence of nine events:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

gaining attention; informing the learner of the objective; stimulating recall of prerequisite learning; presenting new material; providing learning guidance; eliciting performance; providing feedback about correctness; assessing performance; and enhancing retention and recall.

5 Major Categories of Learning

Verbal information
Intellectual skills Cognitive strategies Motor skills Attitudes




1886- 1959

believed individuals do more than just respond to stimuli individuals act on beliefs, attitudes, and changing conditions individuals strive toward goals (Cooper, 2009, 1)



Advance & Graphical Organizers Expository - describe the new content.

Narrative - presents the new information in the form of a story to students.

Skimming - used to look over the new material and gain a basic overview.
Graphic organizer - visuals to set up or outline the new information. Concept mapping

1915- (hes still alive!!!)

Enactive, Iconic, and Symbolic Levels

The narrative mode The paradigmatic mode

Red Spade Experiment YouTube - Red Spade Experiment, Jerome Bruner & Leo Postman





Sensorimotor stage: from birth to age 2 Preoperational stage: from ages 2 to 7 Concrete operational stage: from ages 7 to 12

Formal operational stage: from age 12 onwards


1925-(still alive too)

People learn by observing others, with the environment, behavior, and cognition all as the chief factors in influencing development. These three factors are not static or independent; rather, they are all reciprocal. For example, each behavior witnessed can change a person's way of thinking (cognition). Similarly, the environment one is raised in may influence later behaviors, just as a father's mindset (also cognition) will determine the environment in which his children are raised

Social Cognitivist:
YouTube - Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory

1949-still rockin


Even though the scenario describes Joses situation from an outside observers perspective, the cognitive model would focus on the processing that goes on inside Joses head and the inferences that can be made from observations. (Jackson, 1996, pp8)

To the cognitivist, the pictures and graphs that Jose made would be clues to the kind of schemes he used to process information. Rereading material becomes rehearsal, and outlines give indications to the encoding necessary for cognitive learning to take place. (Jackson, 1996, pp8)

The brain makes maximum connections when risk taking is encouraged and supported; however, it "downshifts" (helplessness) when under perceived threat. Joses learning was inhibited due to the stress of the tests.

Learning happens only in terms of what is observed, outside the learner, in the form of stimulus and response. There is the discriminative stimulus of tests being presented, Joses operant behavior towards those tests, and the contingent stimulus that is the result of Joses performance. (Jackson, 1996, pp6)

Joses behavior is thus shaped into what the instructor considers to be a more "correct" test taking behavior through successive trials of S-R-S conditioning. Things like interacting with other people or making pictures and graphs would be treated as confounds or ignored as random behaviors and extraneous environmental stimuli, but in any case, not relevant to the learning. (Jackson, 1996, pp6)

The constructivist view of Joses situation would focus on the creation of new realities as he interacted with the people and things in his environment. (Jackson, 1996, pp14)

The humanist would look at Josethe personand discuss his interpersonal relations with the other students, his selfdirected approach of study techniques and his motivation toward actualizing his goals. (Jackson, 1996, pp12)

Any deep processing; exploring, organizing, synthesizing content The importance of providing opportunities for learners to be actively engaged in making sense of language input through meaningful tasks Providing opportunities for learners to develop the ability to analyze the language, make generalizations about rules, take risks in trying the language and to learn from errors

Catering for interaction of learner with curriculum material and the learning environment. Catering for the three modes of thinking (Bruner)

The need to organize and structure learning activities. The requirements of the task must be appropriate to the developmental stage (Piaget, Bruner) and the conceptual (Bloom) stage of the learner. The cumulative nature of learning requires frequent opportunities for reviewing previously learnt materials

Teacher has to enhance the meaningfulness of new material to increase the chances of its being anchored to what is already known New material must be organized to be easily relatable to what is already known New material must be properly sequenced to facilitate integration

Use of advanced organizers. These facilitate the learning process by providing ideas to which the new knowledge can be attached
Introductory material presented in advance of the

new material Information that activates relevant background knowledge

Material that orients the learners to the subject

matter and relates to the material already known Can take the form of textual material, pictures, titles, topic summaries, and questions


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Cooper, S. (2009). Theories of Learning in Educational Psychology: Edward C. Tolman: Sign Theory and Latent Learning Theory. Accessed from tml on 2/18/10.

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