This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Quality Control Aspects Of Garment Exports
Quality is ultimately a question of customer satisfaction. Good Quality increases the value of a product or service, establishes brand name, and builds up good reputation for the garment exporter, which in turn results into consumer satisfaction, high sales and foreign exchange for the country. The perceived quality of a garment is the result of a number of aspects, which together help achieve the desired level of satisfaction for the customer. Therefore quality control in terms of garment, pre-sales service, posts -sales service, delivery, pricing, etc are essentials for any garment exporter. For every industry or business, to get increased sales and better name amongst consumers and fellow companies it is important to maintain a level of quality. Especially for the businesses engaged in export business has to sustain a high level of quality to ensure better business globally. Generally quality control standards for export are set strictly, as this business is also holds the prestige of the country, whose company is doing the export. Export houses earn foreign exchange for the country, so it becomes mandatory to have good quality control of their products. In the garment industry quality control is practiced right from the initial stage of sourcing raw materials to the stage of final finished garment. For textile and apparel industry product quality is calculated in terms of quality and standard of fibres, yarns, fabric construction, color fastness, surface designs and the final finished garment products. However quality expectations for export are related to the type of customer segments and the retail outlets. There are a number of factors on which quality fitness of garment industry is based such as - performance, reliability, durability, visual and perceived quality of the garment. Quality needs to be defined in terms of a particular framework of cost. The national regulatory quality certification and international quality programmers like ISO 9000 series lay down the broad quality parameters based on which companies maintain the export quality in the garment and apparel industry. Here some of main fabric properties that are taken into consideration for garment manufacturing for export basis: Overall look of the garment.
Page 2 of 48
Right formation of the garment. Feel and fall of the garment. Physical properties. Color fastness of the garment. Finishing properties Presentation of the final produced garment.
Sourcing of Fabrics There are certain problems that could be faced by garment manufacturers when sourcing for certain fabrics, so precautions should be taken for it beforehand to minimize the problems. The garment exporters source cotton fabrics mainly from handloom sectors, power looms and mills. Each of these sectors presents their own unique set of problems to the garment exporters. Sourcing cotton from handloom sectors might present some set of problems like color variation, missing ends and picks, irregular weaves and unreliable supplies. However, the handloom sector is significant source of heavier cotton. Common problems faced in power loom cotton sourcing are broken ends and reed marks, thick and thin places, difference in width and massive variation in costing. The major problem in mill-made fabric sourcing is to meet huge demands from the mills. Fabrics have to be ordered well in advance in mills and the long time taken for producing the fabric is a matter of concern for garment exporters. Mills generally hesitate to take small orders which pose a problem for small scale exporters. It is not that sourcing problem which only confined to cotton fabrics, but also to other fabrics as well. In silk garment industry there are some sorts of problems faced by silk garment exporters. Some of the problems that could be faced by silk garment exporters are as follows: . Shortage of imported silk yarns in the quantities required, as a result delivery is delayed. . Silk material is very vulnerable to stains during manufacturing process as well as stocking, staining results in rejection so a lot of care has to taken during these procedures. . Roll length of the silk yarn is often insufficient.
Page 3 of 48
. Color fastness of dyed silk material is sometimes not satisfactory. . There are also chances of warp breakage. Basic Thumb Rules for Garment Exporters For a garment exporter there are many strategies and rules that are required to be followed to achieve good business. The fabric quality, product quality, delivery, price, packaging and presentation are some of the many aspects that need to be taken care of in garment export business. Some rules that are advisable for garment exporters are listed below: Quality has to be taken care by the exporter, excuses are not entertained in international market for negligence for low quality garments, new or existing exporters for both it is mandatory to use design, technology and quality as major up gradation tools. Apart from superior quality of the garment, its pricing, packaging, delivery, etc has to be also taken care of. The garment shown in the catalogue should match with the final garment delivered. It is important to perform according to the promises given to the buyer, or else it creates very bad impression and results in loss of business and reputation. In international market, quality reassurance is required at every point. Proper documentation and high standard labels on the garment are also important aspects as these things also create good impression. Timely delivery of garments is as important as its quality. If your competitor has the better quality of garment in same pricing, it is better to also enhance your garment quality. Before entering into international market, garment exporters have to carefully frame out the quality standards, or else if anything goes wrong it could harm the organization. And after that strictly follow it. The garment quality should match the samples shown during taking the orders. The garment exporters should know to negotiate a premium price after quality assurance is done.
Page 4 of 48
Quality is a multi-dimensional aspect. There are many aspects of quality based on which the garment exporters are supposed to work. Quality of the production. Quality of the design of the garment. Purchasing functions' quality should also be maintained. Quality of final inspection should be superior. Quality of the sales has to be also maintained. Quality of marketing of the final product is also important as the quality of the garment itself. See to it that...... There are certain quality related problems in garment manufacturing that should not be overlooked: Sewing defects - Like open seams, wrong stitching techniques used, same color garment, but usage of different color threads on the garment, miss out of stitches in between, creasing of the garment, thread tension and raw edges are some sewing defects that could occur so should be taken care of. Color effects - Color defects that could occur are - difference of the color of final produced garment to the sample shown, accessories used are of wrong color combination and mismatching of dye amongst the pieces. Sizing defects - Wrong gradation of sizes, difference in measurement of a garment part from other, for example- sleeves of 'XL' size but body of 'L' size. Such defects do not occur has to be seen too. Garment defects - During manufacturing process defects could occur like faulty zippers, irregular hemming, loose buttons, raw edges, improper button holes, uneven parts, inappropriate trimming, and difference in fabric colors. Conclusion Quality is ultimately a question of customer satisfaction. Good Quality increases the value of a product or service, establishes brand name, and builds up good reputation for the garment exporter, which in turn results into
Page 5 of 48
consumer satisfaction, high sales and foreign exchange for the country. The perceived quality of a garment is the result of a number of aspects, which together help achieve the desired level of satisfaction for the customer. Therefore quality control in terms of garment, pre-sales service, posts sales service, delivery; pricing, etc are essentials for any garment exporter.
Necessity Of Quality Control On Garment
There are main three factors for our garment sector. They are as follows: I) II) III) Price Lead-time Quality
From those we cannot control price and lead time. But we can control one thing “Quality”. If we make high quality product then we may have a chance to increase the price, and expend the lead-time from buyer. Quality is the key to survive in this high competitive world market. That is why Quality is important.
QC refers to the measures that must be included during each assay run to verify that the test is working properly.
QA is defined as the overall program that ensures that the final results reported by the laboratory are correct. “The aim of quality control is simply to ensure that the results generated by the test are correct. However, quality assurance is concerned with much more: that the right test is carried out on the right specimen, and that the right result and right interpretation is delivered to the right person at the right time”
Total Quality Management (TQM)
An integrated effort designed to improve quality performance at every level of the organization. Quality in each and every section of an organization both in
product and service is called Total Quality Management. Page 6 of 48
Name of the factory : Interfab Shirt Manufacturing Ltd.
A Sister Concern of Viyellatex Group of Industries. Location Establishment Basic products Product Category : : : : Borobari, Gazipur. 1998 Shirt & Blouse Men’s dress, casual shirt, ladies blouse, school wear
& Fashion wear. Building Structure Working areas Production : : : Six (6) storied 250,000 sqf. 600,000 Pecs per month.
Supposed by their washing, printing, and embroidery section. One stop service for all trims and accessories except cartooning.
Interfab Shirt manufacturing Ltd. is an export oriented oven shirts garments factory. Now it has 30 production lines. It supplies to the world’s famous brand retailers like Marks & Spencer, PVH, Tesco, TU, Adams, and H&M etc. This factory has fully automated cutting section supported by Gerber with multi work station Computer Aided Design (CAD), multi spreader and leaser guided cutter. Around 1000 oil-free stitch programmable Japanese sewing machines with various type fusing machines and auxiliary facilities are installed there for the purpose of full non- iron shirt production. Conveyor system with 24 Vacuum Tables and 26 automatic Folding Tables are also installed there
Page 7 of 48
Present working Status
Management Staff : 58 280 2412 2750
Non-Management Staff : Workers Total Manpower : :
Yearly Turn over
2000-2001 2001-2002 2002-2003 2003-2004 2004-2005 2005-2006 2006-2007 2007-2008 2008-2009 : : : : : : : : : 3.2 million 4.05 million 5.75 million 7.00 million 8.93 million 9.11 million 14.00 million 17.5 million 20.7 million 24.00 million
2009-2010 (Projected) :
Page 8 of 48
Overview of Factory
Designed as a State of art Readymade Garments factory. Ensure productive under ethical, legal and humane condition. High professional and experienced work force. Having very strong sourcing capabilities both local and external.
Values of the factory
Their dreams inspire them. Their plans drive them. Their customers make them thrive. Their team is buyer. Their innovation energizes them. Their standards keep rising.
Strength of the factory
They are compliance with GSP, ETI, BSCI & local law. On time delivery on quality garments. Low rate of migration. Happy working environment.
Their entire business is being arranged by world’s renowned ERP solution SAP. -
They are using Fast React software for their production planning. They are using GSD for workout the SMV of all articles.
Page 9 of 48
Organogram of Quality Control of Factory
Major Fateh-UL-Islam, Psc(Retd.) Chief Operating Officer Interfab Shirt Manufacturing Ltd
Store & Sample
Pattern, Marker & Cutting
In-Line Quality Inspector
They have 30 sewing line every line have in-line quality inspector and end-line inspector.
Page 10 of 48
Buyers of Interfab Shirt Manufacturing Ltd
Byuer Name Marks & Spencer Logo
Page 11 of 48
Section wise quality control of Interfab Shirt Manufacturing Ltd
To insure quality of the product, quality control personal check each and every different section of the factory.
Every material comes in the store first. It makes store very important in
quality control. In store the factory quality people check inventory, fabric quality, the correct fabric is imported or not, the color, other material, trims and accessories. The inspection team can perform a visual inspection of products as available at the beginning of the production cycle against a client's instructions and Purchase Order specifications. The "Initial Production Check" when combined with a "Final Random Inspection" and any other on-line production checks, helps in taking corrective actions at an early stage of production cycle. The inspection team will send out intermediary reports to
Page 12 of 48
the client and keep them informed about the production progress relative to the delivery terms. Product development and approval We ask factories to develop each fabric, each garment and each item before starting a bulk production run to make sure that the supplier masters all aspects of the production for a specific item. All quality aspects have to be approved: shrinkage, gsm, M/m defaults, measures, look, pH, colorfastness, pilling,… Approving all accessories ensures that the whole consignment will not be delayed because of failure to supply one accessory -> sewing thread, labels, buttons, zip, boxes, shipping notice, polybags, sealing tape,… Yarn Yarn is checked upon delivery. We check the report about the quality of the raw material delivered with the yarn. This report tell us mainly the staple length of the raw material fibres, the micronaire (diameter of fibres), shape of fibres,...the count of the yarn, its contamination-free performance, evenness of the yarn (thick & thin places, neps…), roughness, elongation performance. Weaving At the knitting and weaving stage, we can already obtain a fair idea about finished fabric: gsm, fabric appearance, fabric composition, density (number of ctheirse per cm or inch) even if we know that the dyeing process will have a strong impact on all these parameters. Other tests consist of removing any knitting defects.
Page 13 of 48
Dyeing Fabric is washed, bleached, dyed, put through a calendering machine and a bath of softener or other kind of bath to give specific characteristics to the fabric (ignifuge, bacteria free, …) compacted and dried. This process has a strong impact on the shrinkage of the fabric, its softness, resistance and its pH (important for the skin). Before sending the fabric for cutting, we check and approve the most important aspects at this stage: constant color matching based on their standard but also with previous productions. For this we use light boxes and the SPM. Other crucial aspects to be checked are pilling and colorfastness. CMT At that making stage we start the garment production as such. Here, after 24 htheirs of fabric relaxation (to reduce the risk of shrinkage, twist or skewage), we cut, stitch, trim, iron, fold and pack the garments. Each of these steps has an influence on various quality aspects such as shrinkage, spots, measurements, general aspect of the garment. At the end of sewing lines, each garment is individually checked. Main quality aspects here are: measurements, the design, cut and look of the whole garment (we also check the patterns used by the workers to cut the fabric parts) Major/minor defaults (holes, spots, threads,..), garment accessories (button, zip, eyelet, stoppers, cords, stud,…) have been checked upon delivery and is now checked again once on the garment.
Page 14 of 48
Accessories The difference can be located in terms of certain details. The look, the design, the technical performance of the accessories that we use for their garments are of utmost importance. The resistance of a zip, the practical nature of a button and luminosity of high-visibility strips… this is what makes their garments really theirs. Sewing threads Specification no: date: Needle thread for o/lock, cover seams and L/S tabbing and finishing Fiber Structure Designation Shade Other requirements Color fastness Bobbin thread for lockstitch Same as the needle thread Tapes Specification Location Width Structure Shade Color fastness Zips Specification no
Page 15 of 48
Location Length Tapes Shade Color fastness Stability Other requirement They do the shade variation of the fabric in here. They have lots of space in store. They have fixed a rack for a buyer. They never put the fabric of buyer to other’s rack. Materials are tested from the store before using. In here different materials are gone through different tests. Like the tearing test of fabric, breaking test of button etc. Process specification – example fabric References spec no Fabric description Product specification nos. relating Specification no date Machine gauge dam feeders Speed Width roll length finished:
Page 16 of 48
Min. useable roll weight finished: Doffing revs: Doffing time Technical manufacturing requirements Stitch length ground Composition fabric ground (Off m/c) inlay Width (off m/c) Finishing requirements Processes Finished fabric parameters C/3cm W/3cm wt/sq.m Width overall Process specification - example Make-up order References spec no Make-up order for Specification no Product specification no. relating: Manufacturing requirement
Page 17 of 48
Operation Seam Spec. Ref. Extras/seam finish Process specification - example Seam specification References spec no Specification for Specification ref. no: date Make-up order nos.: Sewing threads Manufacturing requirements Stitch Bight s/5cm Run-in Needle Tension Fabric Examination Specification For examination to be a success it is vital that the examiner has an examination specification. This should include items along the lines of the following:Length Width Weight
Page 18 of 48
Incorrect colors Incorrect pattern Bow and Skew Number of parts Fault rate Dye listing or tilt Stains and marks They are fully equipped Testing Lab accredited by M&S and PUMA. They use 4 Point system for inspecting fabric.
Inspection of fabric
Fabric Defect Askewed or Bias : condition where filling yarns are not square with warp yarns on woven fabrics or where ctheirses are not square with wale lines on knits. Back Fabric Seam Impression : backing fabric is often used to cushion fabric being printed. If there is a joining seam in the backing fabric, an impression will result on printed fabric. Barre : occurs in circular knit. Caused by mixing yarn on feed into machine. Fabric will appear to have horizontal streaks. Birdseye : caused by unintentional tucking from malfunctioning needle. Usually two small distorted stitches, side by side. This term should not be confused with birdseye fabric which is in fact created intentionally. Bowing : Usually caused by finishing. Woven filling yarns lien in an arc across fabric width: in knits the ctheirse lines lie in an arc across width of goods. Critical on stripes or patterns and not as critical on solid color fabrics.
Page 19 of 48
Broken Color Pattern : Usually caused by colored yarn out of place on frame. Color Out : the result of color running low in reservoir on printing machine. Color Smear : The result of color being smeared during printing. Crease Mark : differs from crease streak in that streak will probably appear for an entire roll. Crease mark appears where creases are caused by fabric folds in the finishing process. On napped fabric, final pressing may not be able to restore fabric or original condition. Often discoloration is a problem.
Crease Streak : Occurs in tubular knits. Results from creased fabric passing through squeeze rollers in the dyeing process. Drop Stitches : results from malfunctioning needle or jack. Will appear as holes or missing stitches. Dye Streak In Printing : Results from a damaged doctor blade or a blade not cleaned properly. Usually a long streak until the operator notices the problem. End Out : Occurs in Warp knit. Results from knitting machine continuing to run with missing end. Hole : caused by broken needle. Jerk-in : caused by an extra piece of filling yarn being jerked part way into the fabric by the shuttle. The defect will appear at the selvage. Knots : caused by tying spools of yarn together. Missing Yarn : Occurs in warp knit. Reuslts from wrong fiber yarn (or wrong size yarn) placed on warp. Fabric could appear as thick end or different color if fibers have different affinity for dye. Mixed End (yarn) : Yarn of a different fiber blend used on the warp frame, resulting in a streak in the fabric.
Page 20 of 48
Mottled : Color applied unevenly during printing. Needle Line : Caused by bent needle forming distorted stitches. Usually a vertical line. Open Reed : results from a bent reed wire causing warp ends to be held apart, exposing the filling yarn. Will be conspicuous on fabrics that use different colored yarns on warp and shuttle. Pin Holes : Holes along selvage caused by pins holding fabric while it processes through tenter frame. Press-Off : results when all or some of the needles on circular knitting fail to function and fabric either falls off the machine or design is completely disrupted or destroyed. Many knitting needles are broken and have to be replaced when bad press-off occurs. Bad press-offs usually start a new roll of fabric. Printing Machine Stop : Dye or ink smudged along width of fabric as a result of the printing machine stopping. Print Out of Repair : Caused by print rollers not being synchronized properly. This results in various colors of the design not being printed in the proper position. Puckered Selvage : Usually caused by selvage being stretched in finishing or by uneven wetting out in sanforization process. Runner : caused by broken needle. The runner will appear as vertical line. Most machines have a stopping device to stop the machine when a needle breaks. Sanforize Pucker : Results from uneven wetting out on sanforize; usually caused by defective spray heads. Fabric will appear wavy or puckering when
Page 21 of 48
spread on cutting table. Difficult to detect while inspecting on inspection machine with fabric under roller tension. Scrimp : the result of fabric being folded or creased when passing through tenter frames. Slub (woven fabric) : usually caused by an extra piece of yarn that is woven into fabric. It can also be caused by thick places in the yarn. caused by fly waste being spun in yarn in the spinning process. Slub (Knit fabric) : Usually caused by a thick or heavy place in yarn, or by ling getting onto yarn feeds. Smash : caused by a number of ruptured warp ends that have been repaired. Soiled Filling or End : Dirty, oily looking spots on the warp or filling yarns, or on packaged-dyed yarn. Stop Mark : when the loom is stopped, the yarn elongates under tension; when the loom starts again, the slack is woven into the fabric. Straying End : Warp Knit. Caused when an end of yarn breaks and the loose end strays and is knit irregularly into another area. Thin Place: often caused by the filling yarn breaking and the loom continuing to run until the operator notices the problem. Water Spots : Usually caused by wet fabric being allowed to remain too long before drying: color migrates leaving blotchy spots. If anyone want to produce high quality garments, you need high quality piece goods. When a sewing factory receives fabric from the mill, it is difficult to conduct a full 100% inspection of the fabric. Apparel Search recommends a minimum 10% inspection of all piece goods prior to spreading the fabric. Many factories attempt to inspect the fabric during the spreading, but this is probably unrealistic to depend on the spreader to control the
Page 22 of 48
fabric quality evaluation. The fabric should be inspected prior to the fabric reaching the cutting tables. Inspection system of fabric The defect classification works as follows. Size of Defect: 3 inches or less = 1 point penalty Over 3 inches but not over 6 inches = 2 point penalty Over 6 inches but not over 9 inches = 3 point penalty Over 9 inches = 4 point penalty Note: a maximum of 4 points should be charged to one linear yard. Also, note that only "major" defects are charged. The acceptable score varies. Many companies use 40 points per 100 yards as acceptable defect rate. However, others may find this not acceptable. Here is some math to show you an example. Total Yardage received: 5400 Acceptance Point-count: 40 per 100 yards Total Yards Inspected : 540 Total penalty points found in the sample inspection: 150 points 150 divided by 540 times 100 = 27.77 points per 100 yards (because the allowance is 40 points per 100 yards, this shipment would be acceptable).
Page 23 of 48
Above are only a few examples of fabric testing procedures? In fact, above is only a short summary of the processes. If you are responsible for inspecting fabric, you really will need to do more research on this subject
Page 24 of 48
They are fully equipped Testing Lab accredited by M&S and PUMA
Marks & Spencer
10% of all materials comes to the store are inspected randomly. To issue anything from store they use software named SEP.
2. Sample making:
Sample is the reflection of any factory to the buyer. It is the sample who represents the factory in front of buyers. Unlike any other factory Interfab is very much careful about their quality of sample. The points they consider to check a sample are; whether the samples is as per buyer’s specification or not, style description, sketch, measurement sheet etc. They have a Product development section along with the sample section.
Page 25 of 48
They create different types of new design here and give presentation to buyer.
3. Cutting section:
Pattern & Marker: At first the patterns are made according to the size set sample approved by the buyer. Then the sample is checked. The measurement curved spaces like; arm hole, seam allowances, notch or cut mark, drill mark, gradation, allowances, pattern part missing, mixed parts, direction of the pattern in marker, overlapping, etc are carefully checked here. Then the marker goes to marker. The people in marker section set pattern in different ways to get the maximum efficiency. This factory has a CAD section. All the markers are done here by CDA. So they get butter, efficient maker in lowest possible time. The efficiency of their shirts is 88 to 90% varies on styling. Spreading: During spreading they check; fabric relaxation, incorrect tension of plies, wrong direction of piles, mismatching of checking of checks and stripes, narrow fabric, shaded fabric. Over all they check if there are any faults on the fabric. Here spreading is done in two ways:
Page 26 of 48
Auto spreader Manual spreading
Auto spreader is more accurate, efficient and time consuming than manual. Effective inspection requires random examination of cutting operations. The inspector should not develop a set routine. You do not want the workers to be in the habit of knowing when and how you will conduct their inspection. You should make every effort to get a fair representation of the cutting production by making random checks on the cutting room floor. When checking spreaders, make certain to check for marker placement, shading, table marks, etc. Here are a few issues to check. Marker Placement: check that the marker is placed on the spread with the edge parallel to the selvage of the piece goods. Verify that all cut pieces will be complete. Shading: unless all parts are ply marked, it is essential to have a system to control shading. Table marks: check the table marks as they table is marked. tolerance for the splices. Markers: ensure that no markers are creased, damaged, or have overlapped parts. Splices: after completion of the spread, check splice laps to see that both piles extend past the marked splice by no less than 1/2 inch and no more than 1 inch. Narrow Goods: after completion of the spread, check the far edge of the spread to see that all plies extend beyond the marker line. Tension: check tension during spreading. This is very important on knit fabrics.
Page 27 of 48
Allow no minus
Count: check the count after completion of spreading, and before cutting. Count all plies at both ends. There should be no tolerance. Leaning: check carefully to ensure that one edge of the fabric is square to table top. Visually inspect the alignment of the edge with the table top. Record the spreading defects by the quantity of defects found for each checkpoint. Any defective work discovered by the inspector should be immediately corrected. Do not only record the problem. Make sure to fix the problem immediately. One of the keys to producing good quality merchandise is an in-process quality control program. Although it is possible to control their outgoing quality with only a good final audit, it is NOT recommended to simply rely on that approach. Unless you install an effective in-process quality control program, their cost of excessive seconds and repairs may be high. It is far more effective to correct the problem at the operator level, then after the garment is completely assembled, pressed, packages and prepared for shipping. Being able to deliver their merchandise on time is important to their customers. Good in-process controls help assure that the final audit runs smoothly and allows for timely delivery. You certainly do not want to learn in their final audit about problems that could have easily been fixed if detected earlier. The primary purpose of the in-process auditing is to identify problems as early as possible. A problem may be caused by the operator, the machine, or other factors. The inline audits will help you find specific problems in production. The only way to fix a problem is to find the problem. It is important to find errors as quickly as possible so that they can be corrected as fast as possible. Cutting Cutting could be done in two different ways:
Page 28 of 48
With marker. Without marker.
When cutting is done manually, there has to be a marker. But cutting is done by auto spreader and auto cutter, no marker is needed there. But to insure the perfection of cutting a marker is put on the fabric. Interfab can cut more than 30,000 Pecs of garment in a day. Bundling, Numbering, Cut panel checking After cutting the cut parts are bundled together. It is done to prevent missing parts, shave variation etc. Every part of a lair is given a unic number. Numbering is done to make a garment from a lay. Numbering is done by sticker, pen and machine, depends on the fabric. On every bundle the cut piece of marker is put on. 8 to 10% of the bundles are checked called cut panel checking.
As we know that, we can have maximum quality if the fusing section is under the cutting section. In this industry fusing, printing, embroidery is controlled by cutting.
4. Sewing Section:
There are some systems are practice in the sewing floor. Interfab takes Traffic Light System.
Page 29 of 48
Seam Control checks
These checks should be made on a regular basis usually by the quality control staff; to ensure that the seams being produced are meeting the technical specification laid down. An example for a Seam control check card is given below: Fabric strength Needle thread strength Bight Seam stitches per unit length
Page 30 of 48
Affect strength across seam Fabric stiffness Needle thread extensibility Needle thread tension Seam stitches per unit length Affect seam grinning and gaping Seam stitches per unit length Needle thread extensibility Fabric extensibility Combined thickness of fabric plies Cover thread thickness Needle thread tension DIAGRAM Presser foot pressure Affect seam extensibility Stitches per inch There is a minimum below which a seam will not hold without gaping and grinning, and the stitches will ride prominently on the fabric surfaces. There is a maximum above which the seam jams with sewing thread, the base fabric is damaged, and the seam puckers and is thick and rigid.
Page 31 of 48
Fault analysis card
FAULT APPEARANCE Split Stitch on Linking Half stitch or part Of stitch
CAUSE EFFECT Failure to place whole stitch on point Weak part in seam which under pressure will break away
RESPONSIBILITY ACTION Operative Remove fabric from points and run on
PREVENTION Check each stitch is on a constructive point when fabric is run on
There are some systems are practice in the sewing floor. Interfab takes Traffic Light System. General faults are, for example, those resulting from machine or operative defects, which may be common to any garment in the workroom. They may include such as: 1. Skip stitches 2. Unbalanced seams 3. Careless handling faults 4. Seam breakaway 5. Incorrect tensions Job faults are those which are specific to a given garment e.g. 1. Bad pattern match 2. Wrong measurement 'Fault Analysis' is the name of a well tried technique in which all facets of each fault are recorded under appropriate headings. Together with an example
Page 32 of 48
or examples of each fault the analysis provides an invaluable teaching aid. The headings are indicated below with an explanation of each
a. Stitches per cm. and thread run-in ratio checked to be within tolerance of specification. b. Evenness, balance and correct bight, no stitching missed c. Extensibility and security correct (i.e. no cracking or laddering). d. Absence of skip stitching. e. Accountability of machinist.
In-Process Quality Check (IPQC)
The in-process quality check is designed to provide early warning of quality or other problems arising during production and which may delay shipment. In other words, it is intended to provide a snapshot of the status of production at a factory. During production, semi-finished parts must be inspected based on AQL or percentage according to the company policy and inspection plan. There are perfections charts in the sewing line and end line.
Checks carried out include stocks of raw materials, production rates, estimated production completion date, production bottlenecks, etc.
Page 33 of 48
End line Quality Check
After sewing an end line inspector check 8 to 10% of the finished product.
At the end of the line there is a counting board. It counts the production of every hour. It helps to fulfill the target production. If the fabric is light colored or white they use a protective cap on collar top. Any spot or dirt on these sensitive parts, it is very difficult to remove. Control of quality in garment assembly 1. Components of an Effective System The requirements of an effective system are: i. Specification - i.e. that parts of the total specification which is required by the making-up supervisor.
Page 34 of 48
Monitoring of a. the product to ensure conformity with the specification b. The machinists to determine where non-compliance with the specification arises.
Collection of data - from supervisor's sample checks. Analysis of data. Corrective action a. short term- fault correction b. long term - fault prevention
Garment check by Supervisor The sample of garments checked by the Supervisor must be representative of the total production. Sample size is a function of the fault rate and the degree of confidence required. Typically, at a confidence level of 95% and a fault rate of around 5% the sample size would be 54 dozen or 648 garments. In the case of a complex garment this would almost certainly absorb a disproportionate amount of the supervisor's time - bearing in mind her other duties. The solution is firstly to concentrate the check on the less dependable and skilled machinists, checking the others mainly at a major change, such as a change of style. Secondly, by checking those critical faults which are currently at an unacceptable level or are showing an upward trend. By this procedure a sample of meaningful size can be take in the critical areas.
Page 35 of 48
Where it is not possible to take the optimum sample, bear in mind the square-law, i.e. that a their garment, sample is 4x4=16 times better than 1 garment, and eight garment sample is 8x8=64 times better than a single garment and so on.
The sample should be truly random i.e. of a number of garments, which have passed through a given operation each one, should have an equal chance of being selected. Checking a given machinist at precisely the same times each day will not produce a meaningful sample. 1. Data Service for action by Supervisor
Data arising from final examination is invaluable to the sewing room supervisor. Typically findings are recorded on a chart as shown below and the rate for each fault calculated.
5. Finishing section:
Finishing section is the final section to make the product to sellable condition.
Page 36 of 48
They control the finishing section to achieve the maximum quality possible. Wash garments are 100% checked here. Pressing, folding, tagging, packing are main operations of finishing. Those operations are checked carefully. Sequence of final inspection of garments: To perform a reasonable inspection we have to maintain sequences of different steps of the inspection are as follows: 1. Packing list verify/ compare with P.O. sheet: Before starting inspection we have to check the final status of the lot with p.o. sheet & packing list. Checkpoints are as follows: a) Quantity b) Color c) Size d) Packing 2. Inspection preparation: To get the accrete result we must have well preparation for final inspection are as follows: a) required facilities are: 1 Sufficient space a. Shade correct and not varying from one part of garment to another. b. Cut is correct - e.g. neck, collar and sleeves balanced, pockets correct. c. Measurements within tolerance of specification, weight correct. d. Appearance correct, patterns matching.
Page 37 of 48
e. Seams finished correctly, absence of miss stitching, cracking and laddering. f. Accessories correctly applied and working. g. Absence of fabric faults and stains. h. Correct labeling. i. Accountability of making-up (volume of work unsatisfactory; break-down under various fault categories.) Recovery Inspection a. Check whether remedial works satisfactory. b. Check on volume of work successfully recovered. c. Avoidance of work recycling. Yarn Checks 1. Count Tests on Staple Fiber Yarns: Check on count variability, within cones and between deliveries: to be within tolerance of specification. If coarse, yarn utilization impaired. Check on running average. 2. Bulking Tests on Continuous Filament Textured Yarns: Check on consistency, and on filamentation 3. Condition Checks: Check on incorrect condition 4. Yarn wrapping: Levelness of yarn (also User levelness). Further Yarn Checks (2nd order priority)
Page 38 of 48
1. Fiber analysis: As specified for correct labeling 2. Fiber quality: As required 3. Yarn twist: On new deliveries and on demand for fault diagnosis. To be within specified tolerance 4. Co-efficient of friction: Test and compare to specification 5. Oil content: When records of finishing loss, yarn utilization, count, grey weights, or finished weights abnormal, oil content checked; and also if yarn running abnormally. Content figure to be within tolerance of specification. 6. Accessories Checks: Shade and size checked to be correct (e.g. buttons) Stability (e.g. linings and trims and zip tapes) within tolerance of specification. Extensibility and modulus (e.g. binding and elastic) within tolerance of specification. Items work properly (e.g. zips) Sewing threads, correct shade, ticket number and sews normally 7. Boxed Stock Audits Goods in warehouse - sample checked for quality and faults. Goods rejected - check to see if correctly rejected.
Page 39 of 48
8. Machine Efficiency Ratio of knitting time or goods produced compared with basis if no downtime. Provides measure of machine performance - analyzed against knitter, machinist, fabric quality, garment style and yarn. 9. Yarn Utilization 10. Fabric Utilization As with machine efficiency, checks on process performance. Analyzed against operation section, style, fabric or yarn. During Production Check (DUPRO) The DUPRO provides the on-line inspection, DQC qualified inspectors will check that the corrections and improvements suggested during the IPC were implemented, examine the existing productions, advised the manufacturers of any further corrections or improvements to be made. The DUPRO should be carried out when 30-50% of the merchandise has been produced (minimum 50 pieces) in this services, inspector will on-line check the production materials, process, semi-finished and finished products. During Production Inspection (DUPRO) is used for to guarantee uniformity of the actual production and specification.
Audit can be performed in the sewing floor as well as in the finishing section or whatever required.
Every day the products made by Interfab are checked. Each and every shirt is inspected here.
Page 40 of 48
In Interfab before final inspection they perform three per-final inspections. They are as follows: I) II) III) After 25% garment produced are made and pecked. After 50% garment produced are made and pecked. After 75% garment produced are made and pecked.
The Factory assessment is performed by our Auditor following a general framework designed after SA 8000 standard and completed, when requested, with the client's specific requirements. The audit takes at least one full day and begins with a request for documentation. The factory management is assembled. One of the documents reviewed is the Quality Certification. The grantor of the certificate is scrutinized as are the periodic reviews. The factory is required to submit documents for a part similar to the part being considered for production. Documents requested include: Process Flow Chart Control Plan Dimensional Layout Capability Study Production Failure Effects Mode Analysis
The auditor inspects the factory beginning with raw material storage and inspection. Tooling workshops are inspected. The auditor then "walks" the Control Plan through every manufacturing process. The last steps of the factory inspection are final test, packaging, and laboratory areas. By the end of the auditing day, the auditor knows if the quality systems claimed by the factory are in practice and if the management is committed to constant improvement.
Page 41 of 48
Quality control records
The above data, immediately on being generated, is automatically entered on records as continuity charts, either in tabular, graphical or computerized form. This action takes very little time, and enables the current data to be compared with previous data and with other related Q. C. data. The visual impact of the presentation is immediate and creates rapid feed-back of vital information to production and other interested management personnel. The essential features of the standard are contained in the following basic requirements:1. Quality System 2. Organization 3. Review of Quality System 4. Documentation/Records 5. Equipment 6. Purchased Materials and Services 7. Manufacturing Control 8. Work Instructions/Workmanship 9. Corrective Action 10. Completed Item and Inspection and Test 11. Sampling Procedures 12. Control on Non-conforming Material 13. Alternative Inspection Procedures and Equipment
Page 42 of 48
14. Indication of Inspection Status 15. Protection and Preservation of Product Handling, Storage and Delivery 16. Training.
Pre shipment Inspection (PSI) or Final inspection:
To select sample Interfab Shirt Manufacturing Ltd follows some certain rule. The rules are given as below:
Special Inspection Levels Lot or batch size S-1 A A A A B B B B C C C C D D D S-2 A A A B B B C C C D D D E E E S-3 A A B B C C D D E E F F G G H S-4 A A B C C D E E F G G H J J K General Inspection Levels I A A B C C D E F G H J K L M N II A B C D E F G H J K L M N P Q III B C D E F G H J K L M N P Q R
2 ~ 8 9 ~ 15 16 ~ 25 26 ~ 50 51 ~ 90 91 ~ 150 151 ~ 280 281 ~ 500 501 ~ 1200 1201 ~ 3200 3201 ~ 10000 10001 ~ 35000 35001 ~ 150000 150001 ~ 500000 500001 and over
TABLE II SINGLE SAMPLING PLANS FOR NORMAL INSPECTION:
Page 43 of 48
Acceptable Quality Levels(normal inspection) Sample size code letter 0.25 0.40 0.65 1.0 1.5 Ac Re Ac Re Ac Re 2.5 Ac Re 4.0 Ac Re 6.5 Ac Re 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 2 1 2 2 3 1 2 2 3 3 4 1 2 2 3 3 4 5 6 1 2 1 2 2 3 2 3 3 4 1 2 2 3 3 4 5 6 1 2 2 3 3 4 5 6 1 2 2 3 3 4 5 6 7 8 10 Ac Re
Ac Re 2 3 5 8 13 20 32 50 80 125 200 315 500 800
A B C
D E F G H J K L M N P
7 8 10 11
7 8 10 11 14 15 21 22
2 3 3 4 5 6 7 8 10 11 14 15 3 4 5 6 7 8 10 11 14 15 5 6 7 8 10 14 15 21 11 22 21 22 21 22
3 4 5 6
14 15 21
7 8 10 11 14
Page 44 of 48
10 11 14 15 15 21 22
Usually the AQL of this factory is 2.5. The Interfab team performs a final random inspection comprising of a detailed visual inspection of goods before shipment. It is generally conducted on the premises of the manufacturer, on samples selected according to defined sampling procedures. The inspection criteria covering quality, quantity, marking and packing are based on the client's specifications and reference samples, as provided. Upon completion of the final random inspection a detailed inspection report is sent to the client and the inspection certificate issued to the supplier if all findings are positive.
The top management of Interfab performs the final inspection. They have so good relation to its entire buyer that the buyer don not need to send their representatives or third party inspection team. Interfab does not take any charge for the final inspection.
Some of the various inspection options available to you are listed below. Buyer can choose which options you would like to have completed or not. 1. Quantity 2. Master Carton Markings 3. Master Carton Weight & Dimension 4. Master Carton Content Verification 5. Product Packaging Comparison 6. Packaged Product Weight 7. Packaging Dimension 8. Product Packaging/ Remailer Description 9. Sample/ Product Comparison
Page 45 of 48
10. Workmanship 11. Product Functional Verification 12. Master Carton Transportation Drop Test 13. Packaged Product Transportation Drop Test 14. Instruction Sheet/ Booklet
Interfab Inspection provides product shipment inspection services for buyers purchasing item. Their qualified inspection personnel will take any available samples and/or product related requirements, and inspect shipments thoroughly before they depart Bangladesh. They offer product testing and quality verification and report their findings so that buyer can make the decision to have the shipment sent or returned to the manufacturer. They know how stressful it can be to worry whether the items buyer purchased will be of the quality and design you want them to be. Their inspection personnel have years of experience and can give buyer a quality inspection of the products buyer have purchased before they leave Bangladesh.
In the factory they have every floor palned. It is a sign of TQM.
Page 46 of 48
Interfab has world class machines, skilled work force, all over that they are intended to achieve the maximum possible quality. That makes them one of the leading Garment manufacturing factories in our country.
After all of that it is clear that Interfab Shirt Manufacturing Limited is a
Page 47 of 48
Model Total Quality Management factory. It is a kind of factory that is working forward to enhance business among the developing nations and making us proud of it. If three shirts are sold in UK one of them is made by Interfab Shirt Manufacturing Limited. At last we want to thank our Honorable teacher, Kazi Shamsur Rahman for giving us a chance to see such a nice factory like it.
Page 48 of 48
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.