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"As much as 95% of quality related problems in the factory can be solved with seven fundamental quantitative tools." - Kaoru Ishikawa
By Zaipul Anwar Business & Advanced Technology Centre, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia
What are the Basic Seven Tools of Quality?
Fishbone Diagrams Histograms Pareto Analysis Flowcharts Scatter Plots Run Charts Control Charts
Where did the Basic Seven come from?
Known for “Democratizing Statistics”
The Basic Seven Tools made statistical analysis less complicated for the average person
Good Visual Aids make statistical and quality control more comprehendible.
The Basic Seven (B7) Tools of Quality Fishbone Diagrams No statistics involved Maps out a process/problem Makes improvement easier Looks like a “Fish Skeleton” .
Fishbone Diagram Overview (1 of 2) Definition Uses Ishikawa benefits Use within organizations Creation of the Diagram Steps 1-9 .
Fishbone Diagram Overview (2 of 2) Example Service example Ham Industries Exercise .
Fishbone (Cause and Effect or Ishikawa) Diagrams (1 of 4) Named after Kaoru Ishikawa Japanese Quality pioneer Resembles skeleton of a fish Focus on causes rather than symptoms of a problem Emphasizes group communication and brainstorming Stimulates discussion .
Fishbone (Cause and Effect or Ishikawa) Diagrams (2 of 4) One of Seven basic tools of Japanese Quality Leads to increased understanding of complex problems Visual and presentational tool .
Fishbone (Cause and Effect or Ishikawa) Diagrams (3 of 4) Typically done on paper or chalkboard Recently some computer programs have been created to make Fishbone Diagrams Ishikawa Environment .
Use in Organizations (1 of 2) Can be used to improve any product. or service Any area of the company that is experiencing a problem Isolates all relevant causes . process.
and the relationships between them .Use in Organizations (2 of 2) Helps bring a problem into light Group discussion and brainstorming Finds reasons for quality variations.
Problem becomes the “head” of the fish -draw line to head (“backbone”) .Creating Fishbone Diagrams (1 of 4) • As a group: 1. Establish problem (effect) -state in clear terms -agreed upon by entire group 2.
by brainstorming . Connect major causes to backbone of the fish with slanting arrows .Creating a Fishbone Diagram (2 of 4) 3.if the effect or problem is part of a process the major steps in the process can be used 4. Decide major causes of the problem .
Creating a Fishbone Diagram (3 of 4) 5. Repeat steps 5 & 6 for sub-causes dividing with increased specificity . Brainstorm secondary causes for each of the major causes 6. Connect these secondary causes to their respective major causes 7.usually four or five levels .
and graphical tools 9.Creating a Fishbone Diagram (4 of 4) 8. Decide and take action . analytical. Analyze and evaluate causes and sub-causes -may require the use of statistical.
Example (1 of 4) Step 1 & 2: (“backbone”) Poor Service (“head”) .
Example (2 of 4) Step 3 & 4: Appearance Responsiveness Poor Service Attention Reliability .
& 7: Appearance equipment personnel Responsiveness time facility Poor Service accuracy One on one service dependability Reliability courtesy Attention . 6.Example (3 of 4) Step 5.
and graphs Statistical analysis for causes in processes Use fishbone diagram.Example (4 of 4) Step 8 & 9: Use tools to analyze and evaluate causes Pareto diagrams. charts. analysis and evaluations to find causes that can be fixed Take action to eliminate and fix problem causes Decide and take action .
and their relationships .identifies the causes of a problem (effect).resembles fish skeleton .Summary (1 of 3) • Fishbone Diagrams .visual diagram .created by Kaoru Ishikawa for Quality Management .
Summary (2 of 3) Organizational Uses Increases communication about problems Used to improve any product. process. or service Important part of quality management .
and attach to backbone identifying relationships Analyze and Evaluate results Act to fix the problem(s) . secondary and tertiary causes.Summary (3 of 3) Creation of Fishbone diagrams Problem or effect is head of fish Identify major.
Ishikawa) Diagram for the following: Management at Ham Industries has noticed that the productivity of its workers is well below the standard.Exercise Create a Fishbone (cause and effect. Include all possible causes to at least the secondary level. . After interviewing its employees. it was noticed that a vast majority felt dissatisfied and unhappy with their work. Your boss has asked you and a group of your peers to find the causes of worker dissatisfaction .
ht ml Foster.uk/mbp/bpgt/m9ja00001/m9ja0000110.t-online. Managing Quality: An Integrative Approach.unizh.html www.htm www.de/home/kfmaas/q_ishika.ch/software/unix/statmath/sas/sasdoc/qc /chap17/sect1.Bibliography //home.dti. Thomas.zi. Prentice-Hall . 2001.gov. S.
The Basic Seven (B7) Tools of Quality Histograms Bar chart Used to graphically represent groups of data .
An exercise.Overview 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) What is a Histogram? What are some possible uses for a Histogram? Where did the Histogram come from? How do Histograms work? A real world example. .
. This grouping allows you see how frequently data in each class occur in the data set.What is a Histogram? A Histogram is a variation of a bar chart in which data values are grouped together and put into different classes.
) Higher bars represent more data values in a class. .What is a Histogram (cont. On the next slide is an example of what a Histogram looks like. Lower bars represent fewer data values in a class.
Example of a Histogram .
Uses for a Histogram A Histogram can be used: to display large amounts of data values in a relatively simple chart form. . to easily see the distribution of the data. to see if there is variation in the data. to tell relative frequency of occurrence. to make future predictions based on the data.
Where did the Histogram Come From? The Histogram was first implemented by Kaoru Isikawa. Isikawa spent his life trying to improve quality in Japan. . one of Japans’ most renowned experts on quality improvement.
Where did the Histogram Come From? (cont. Included in his basic seven tools of quality is the Histogram. .) His major contributions to quality improvement are known as the basic seven tools of quality.
Then.How do Histograms Work? First. you need to assemble a table of the data values that you collected with regards to frequency of data values. you need a large amount of data. at least 100 data values so that patterns can become visible. you need need to pick a process to analyze. Next. .
class width. number of classes. including: mean. skewness. and kurtosis.How do Histograms Work? (cont) Next. Then. maximum. you actually create the Histogram using these statistics. you need to calculate some statistics for the Histogram. . standard deviation. minimum.
How do Histograms Work? (cont) After you have created a Histogram. it will take one of five shapes: Normal Distribution: .
How do Histograms Work? (cont) Positively Skewed: Negatively Skewed: .
How do Histograms Work? (cont) Bi-Modal Distribution: Multi-Modal Distribution: .
This analysis will help you to make better decisions toward quality improvements. as well as the statistics that you came up with. you can analyze its shape.How do Histograms Work? (cont) Once your Histogram is complete. .
Constructing a Histogram From a set of data compute sum mean (x) Max Min Range (max-min) .
Constructing a Histogram Use range to estimate beginning and end Calculate the width of each column by dividing the range by the number of columns Range # of Columns = Width .
Acme Pizza Example Let’s say the owner wants a distribution of Acme’s Thursday Night Sales 02122413121224341432232122122142212122121212121 21222121211222314223222123224224412223221224212 421721223121121222122121222424 Data Set from last Thursday(slices) .
Acme Pizza Example Mean = 2.032258 Max = 7 Min = 0 Range = 7 Question For 7 columns what would the width be? Range/Columns=7/7=1 slice .
Acme Pizza Example Histogram 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 12 0 0 1 33 65 Slices of Pizza .
Constructing a Histogram How is this helpful to Acme? 2 slices of pizza most common order placed Distribution of sales useful for forecasting next Thursday’s late night demand If you were an Acme manager how could you apply this information? .
The Basic Seven (B7) Tools of Quality Pareto Analysis Very similar to Histograms Use of the 80/20 rule Use of percentages to show importance .
2. Rank the contributions to the problem in order of frequency. Review the chart – if an 80/20 combination is not obvious. Gather facts about the problem. using Check Sheets or Brainstorming. It can also be helpful to add a line showing the cumulative percentage of errors as each category is added. facts. how to use it 1. This helps to identify the categories contributing to 80% of the problem. you may need to redefine your classifications and go back to Stage 1 or 2. 4. etc) as a bar chart.Pareto Analysis. 5. depending on the availability of information. Draw the value (errors. 3. .
3 .79 3.09 25.Acme Pizza (Example 1) Slices 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Frequency 1 33 65 8 12 0 0 1 % .17 4.76 0 0 .3 13.
Acme Pizza (Example 1) The completed Pareto Analysis results in the following graph: 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1 2 2 1 3 4 4 3 5 7 6 5 7 6 Slices of Pizza .
Acme Pizza (part 2) Critical Thinking How does the Pareto Analysis differ from the Histogram? How can this be a useful tool to the Acme boss? .
8 91.1 92.1 4 5.5 54.4 8 14.6 100.5 2 3.8 36.3 97.A series of Pareto charts drill down to more detail (Example 2) : Fault by Main Cause 100 70 60 80 Percent 50 Count 60 40 20 40 30 20 10 0 t en on mp Co 1st level Analysis gives “Design” as main cause of failure 2nd level Analysis gives breakdown of “Design” 0 ild Bu er Oth Design Faults 100 Defect Count Percent Cum % n s ig De 57 75.3 96.0 .0 75.5 5 8.0 82.8 10 17.0 13 17.2 3 5.5 100.0 50 80 40 Percent t ec nn Co le du Mo s tor Mo ue q r To t uc tar sd ld S Tran Co le du Mo er IC AS n atio libr Ca IOP n Imo Count 60 40 20 0 30 20 10 0 Defect Count Percent Cum % 21 36.4 8 14.0 68.4 2 2.
The Basic Seven (B7) Tools of Quality Flowcharts A graphical picture of a PROCESS Process Decision The process flow .
Flowcharts Don’t Forget to: Define symbols before beginning Stay consistent Check that process is accurate .
Acme Pizza Example (Flowchart) Window (start) Take Customer Order Money? no Lockup Put More in Oven 2 Pies Get Pizza yes noAvailable? yes Time to close? no Take to Customer yes .
How can we use the flowchart to analyze improvement ideas from the Histogram? Window (start) Take Customer Order Money? no Lockup Put More in Oven 2 Pies Get Pizza yes noAvailable? Time to close? yes no Take to Customer yes .
Want some practice? Make a flowchart for: Taking a shower Cooking dinner Driving a car Having a party Creating a Flowchart Any other processes you can think of? .
The Basic Seven (B7) Tools of Quality Scatter Plots 2 Dimensional X/Y plots Used to show relationship between independent(x) and dependent(y) variables .
you can find the existing relationship without much difficulty but… .Acme Pizza (Scatter Diagram) Minutes Cooking 10 45 30 75 60 20 25 Defective Pies 1 8 5 20 14 4 6 In this simple example.
•Easier to see direct relationship
25 20 15 10 5 0 0 20 40 60 80
Time Cooking (minutes)
As a quality tool What does this tell Acme management about their processes? Improvements?
25 20 15 10 5 0 0 20 40 60 80
Time Cooking (minutes)
The Basic Seven (B7) Tools of Quality Run charts
Time-based (x-axis) Cyclical
Look for patterns
AM Thursday Week 3 .AM Thursday Week 1 PM.AM Thursday Week 2 PM.Run Charts Slices/hour 8 9 10 11 12 1 2 3 4 8 9 10 11 12 1 2 3 4 8 9 10 11 12 1 2 3 4 Time PM.
The Basic Seven (B7) Tools of Quality Control Charts Deviation from Mean Upper and Lower Spec’s Range .
Control Charts Upper Limit X Lower Limit Unacceptable deviation .
Control Charts Acme Pizza Management wants to get in on the control chart action •Average Diameter = 16 inches •Upper Limit = 17 inches •Lower Limit = 15 inches .
Acme example Control Charts Upper Limit 17 inches 16 inches= X Lower Limit 15 Inches Small Pie .
Acme example #50 Control Charts •Pies within specifications were acceptable •One abnormally small pie is “uncommon” •Should be examined for quality control .
Logical Order for B7 Tools Big Picture Data Collection Data Analysis Problem Identification Prioritization Flow Chart Check Sheet Histograms Cause & Effect Pareto Analysis Scatter Diagrams Control Charts .
Summary Basic Seven Tools of Quality Measuring data Quality Analysis “Democratized statistics” .
” Internet “http://www. Upper Saddle River : Prentice Hall. An IntegrativeApproach. Managing Quality. Stevenson.dti.html. . “Dr Kaoru Ishikawa.” Quality Progress October 2000: 51-55.htm.Bibliography Foster.ncl. “http://lorien.ac. “Chemical and Process Engineering. “Supercharging Your Pareto Analysis.” 16 February 2001.gov. William. 2001.uk/ming/spc/spc8.” 17 February 2001.uk/mbp/bpgt/m9ja00001/m9ja0000110.” Internet. Thomas.
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