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Crack Initiation Analysis of a Plate Assembly
To calculate the life to crack initiation of a plate assembly made of SAE1045_450_QT material undergoing a simple loading with a peak load of 22 KNewtons. To investigate design alternatives to achieve the desired design life of 10,000 operations. The alternatives considered are geometric and material changes.
PATRAN 318 Exercise Workbook - Release 1.2
6-2 PATRAN 318 Exercise Workbook .Release 1.2 .
The bar does not apply any loading itself and is a clearance ﬁt in the elliptic hole. For proper execution of this exercise.000 operations of the loading cycle depicted in Figure 1. An elliptical connecting bar passes through the centers of the connecting parts. Step 1 Problem Description Exercise Procedure Enter PATRAN 3.) Enter PATRAN 3 and read the plate1.LESSON 6 Problem Description: The component we are designing is a bracket assembly which holds together two components. The FE analysis was carried out to simulate the load applied to the plate during normal operation.txt also. A crack initiation calculation analysis must be carried out to ensure that the component meets the design life of 10. which again must be translated from plate1. make sure you are in the ex06 directory of your PAT318 account.2 6-3 . The P3⁄FEA results are stored under plate1. Q1: A1: At what node does the highest stress lie and what is the stress? PATRAN 318 Exercise Workbook . (While you are at it.txt using RESTXT.Release 1.out Neutral ﬁle. read in the neutral ﬁle and look at the stresses. convert plate2.res. You will be using it later also. (a force of 30 kN was applied in the Y direction).
Database Manager Enter X-Y points This puts you in the data record creation window. 6-4 PATRAN 318 Exercise Workbook . Create by inputting X-Y points. The following are the steps it will take to create the time history. The results are static The results code is P3⁄FEA Shell Surface is not applicable. Loading Time History. Use the Enter XY points option on the Add sub-menu.: Step 2 Time History Information FIGURE 6. From the P3⁄FATIGUE main form: Loading Info… Static P3/FEA N/A plate1 Open the Loading Information form. Set the equivalent units to 1 operation and call the time history PLATELOAD.Time History Information The fatigue loading consists of a time history as shown in FIGURE 6. This will spawn the PTIME module. Select the P3/FEA job with the stress values for the fatigue analysis. Then input the following data: Filename Description 1 Description 2 PLATELOAD EX6 Optional.Release 1.2 . Create this loading history using PTIME.
enter the value of one. Plot the PLATELOAD time history. Press F1 key to accept the data. 5th Y value. 6th Y value.2 6-5 . 3rd Y value. 0 22000 22000 8000 17000 17000 0 1st Y value. exit from PTIME back to the P3⁄FATIGUE loading information form in PATRAN. Note that the time (X values) are not important.0 Operations 1 Press F1 to accept the data then enter the Y values. Load case number in P3⁄FEA job. In the Load Magnitude databox. to verify that it is correct. The ﬁrst choice of material is SAE1045_450_QT since it is already used for another component in the assembly.Release 1.LESSON 6 Load type Units # of fatigue units Fatigue equiv unit Sample rate Force Newtons 1. 2nd Y value. When you are satisﬁed with this step. it can be easily machined and it may be heat treated. Click on the OK button to close the form. Last Y value. 4th Y value. Enter the modiﬁed version of the SAETRN time history with the type of Force and Units of Newtons. 1 1 PLATELOAD Set the Number of Static Load Cases to one. The 450 Step 3 Materials Information 30000 OK PATRAN 318 Exercise Workbook . if you so desire.
Step 4 Setting up the P3⁄FATIGUE job Crack Init. we may set up the P3⁄FATIGUE job by ﬁlling out the P3⁄FATIGUE main form. The Action option menu should be set to Full Analysis. S-T-W 50 Now the job setup is complete. 6-6 PATRAN 318 Exercise Workbook . Submit the job as follows: Step 5 Submitting the P3⁄FATIGUE job Job Control Click on the Job Control button in the P3⁄FATIGUE form. Set the Mean Stress Correction option menu to Smith-Topper-Watson. At this point. (E-N analysis of the plate assembly) Nodal Stress MPa plate Solution Params… Click on the Solution Params button in the P3⁄Fatigue form. Note that various processes will be executed and the whole job is not complete until the Fatigue analysis completed successfully message appears.Release 1. Click on the OK button to close the form.2 . Set the Design Criterion (%) to 50. Stress Units as prescribed from the P3⁄FEA job are MPa Enter the jobname Use the Title to give a description of the job. the materials database manager. There is no surface treatment. The Analysis type that we are performing is Strain Life or crack initiation analysis Use stress Results at nodes. Since the material already exists in the materials database it is not necessary to actually run PFMAT.Setting up the P3⁄FATIGUE job signiﬁes that the Brinell hardness number and the QT stands for quenched and tempered. The surface ﬁnish from the machining is GOOD MACHINED. Submit the analysis job. Full Analysis Apply The job is now submitted and the job progress can be monitored using the Monitor Job option. Use stress Tensor of the results.
Q4: A4: What scaling factor will meet our design life of 10. Plot Q3: A3: What options are there to improve the life? We can carry out an investigation of alternative geometries by suggesting that the local stress concentration could be reduced by a given factor. you must click on the Results toggle in the Main Window.000 repeats of the loading? Do you remember what option will do this for you. Go back the P3⁄FATIGUE main menu and select the Optimize option. Click on the Apply button. Read the results ﬁle in by changing the Action option menu to Read Results. This will start the design optimization program for strain life or crack initiation analysis. Log of Life. Operations from the Select Results listbox.000 repeats met? Step 6 Reviewing Results We can examine the extent of the damage zone by carrying out a contour plot. you must ﬁrst click on the results button and then select List Results option. Step 7 Design Optimization PATRAN 318 Exercise Workbook .2 6-7 . Exit PFPOST. This shows the damage zone is concentrated around the notch.Release 1. Make the fringe plot.000 Operations when the P3⁄FATIGUE module PFPOST appears and then display the Most damaged nodes as done in previous exercises. Enter the design life of 10. Q2: A2: What is the life of node 12? Is our design life of 10. To view a fringe plot of the life estimates. Ops Pick Log of Life.LESSON 6 To review results.
db File/Import plate2.Submitting the P3⁄FATIGUE job We have already modiﬁed the notch geometry. New database name.out and the P3⁄FEA results are stored under plate2. The Action option menu should be set to Full Analysis. The PATRAN Neutral ﬁle for the new model is plate2. We will be using the existing job setup with some minor changes. The node with the highest stress in now Node 13. You may see this by opening the menus at this same menu level. type plate and use the existing parameters. P3/FATIGUE Enter P3⁄FATIGUE menus.res.txt as done before with plate1. Begin the analysis submit. Note that various processes will be executed and the whole job is not complete until the Fatigue analysis completed successfully message appears. Invoke neutral ﬁle utility. You may look at the stress results again if you wish.txt ﬁles must be translated by PATRAN’s utility program RESTXT form the ﬁle plate2. Quit from DESOPT and close this database.out Initialize new database. 6-8 PATRAN 318 Exercise Workbook . replacing the elliptic notch with a circular one. Step 8 Submitting the P3⁄FATIGUE job Job Control Full Analysis Apply The job is now submitted and the job progress can be monitored using the Monitor Job option. The *.res. Examine this model and the stresses computed. plate2 The only entry that needs to be changed is the ﬁle name containing the FE results. If the default jobname is plate. File/New Database Plate2. Deﬁne Job menu. Neutral ﬁle name. Open the new database and import the neutral ﬁle. Click on the Job Control button in the P3⁄FATIGUE form. All job setup parameters are already deﬁned. If no default is available and it asks you to deﬁne a job name.txt.2 . use it. The new ﬁle for results is denoted as plate2.Release 1. A new P3/FATIGUE analysis should be setup and submitted.
These materials are hot rolled. the design optimization module. not heat treated and are cheaper then SAE1045_450_QT. plate1. Can you determine this node without contouring or listing results? The estimated life is signiﬁcantly above the design life so that we will now consider options available to reduce the cost of manufacture. Note that the results from the previous fatigue analysis have been overwritten. Try the materials SAE1561_234_HR and SAE1018_106_HR. Using DESOPT. Q6: A6: How do you accomplish this using DESOPT. Then answer the following: Q7: What is the effect on life of an AVERAGE machining surface finish (machining defect) for material SAE1045_450_QT? How do you get DESOPT to tell you this? A7: PATRAN 318 Exercise Workbook .Release 1. Reset all the original parameters by selecting the Original parameters option from the main menu.2 6-9 . If you do not wish to do this then you should use separate jobnames.LESSON 6 Look at the results as you did with the previous model. It has been suggested that the machining will not always be of the highest quality. re-analyze using an alternative material. Q5: A5: What is the life at the critical node? What is the node ID. Are both of these materials suitable for this plate? Try using the search for a Worse material option under the Material optimization main menu pick to see other possible materials that will meet the design life.
e.fnf. (. nitriding will be used.fpp.sta) 6-10 PATRAN 318 Exercise Workbook . .Submitting the P3⁄FATIGUE job Q8: A8: Use the BACK life calculation facility to obtain the largest Kt that is permissible for the design life. Note that number of ﬁles have been created under your job heading. . .2 . .fes. Q9: A9: What is the effect of nitriding on fatigue life? How do you get DESOPT to do this? Quit from DESOPT and from PATRAN when you are through. i. .Release 1. They are essentially the same for crack initiation as for the total life method. . to improve the wear characteristics in the notch..msg. Use an AVERAGE machined surface.fef.ﬁn. How is this done? Just to be safe.
1. and this time simply select Change Parameters from the main menu and select surface Finish and change it to AVERAGE. Approx. A stress concentration factor of 1. Press the F1 key when the ﬁrst screen is ﬁlled out properly. then do the same thing and select surface Treatment this time and change it to NITRIDED.000. NOT ENOUGH! (design life is 10.2 6-11 . Note that the same answer is given. This is small enough for us to consider reducing the stresses by changing the geometry.000 operations. From here you can select Parameter optimization. stress = 2085 MPa (Max Principal). but still well above the design life. After resetting all the original parameters. Reset the original parameters.000 operations.000 Operations and have the program automatically extract the worst case node. Alternative geometry at the notch.000 operations. The safety factor is low when considering the scatter in fatigue failures. Select Material optimization from the main menu and then Material change from the resulting submenu and type in the new material or use the list mechanism by pressing F3 or click on OK on the top header bar. different surface ﬁnish and/or treatment. Don’t forget to Recalculate. a defect probably could not easily reduce the life to an unacceptable level. 3500 operations of the loading history. SAE1018_106_HR has a critical node life of approx. 8000 operations which is below the design life and therefore not suitable. The critical node is node 13 and the life is approx. Press the return key and you are put into the DESOPT main menu. ﬁrst enter the design life of 10. Using this back calculated scaling factor we ﬁnd the factor would be approximately 0. and then Recalculate. You can determine this by using DESOPT directly and have it automatically pick the worst node and do the re-analysis. 349. An average machined ﬁnish which could occur as the cutting tool wears will reduce the life by more than half to approx. different material. Scaling factor. In other words.LESSON 6 A1: A2: A3: Node 12. Again reset the original parameters and then pick Parameter optimization and then Scaling factor.Release 1.68 would reduce the life estimate to 10.000 operations) There are a number of modiﬁcations which we can investigate. use the Sensitivity analysis option and turn on all surface Finishes.85. When the DESOPT module appears. Nitriding the component with an average machined surface ﬁnish extends the life which is an attractive option since Exercise 6 Solutions A4: A5: A6: A7: A8: A9: PATRAN 318 Exercise Workbook .
As a matter of fact it gives it an inﬁnite life (beyond cutoff). 6-12 PATRAN 318 Exercise Workbook .Submitting the P3⁄FATIGUE job we are well within the design life.Release 1.2 .
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