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Research Methodology unit 3

Research Methodology unit 3

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Published by Rahul Mandal
Research Methodology
Research Methodology

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UNIT- 3

RESEARCH DESIGN
1Research Design is the “framework” or “blueprint” for
collecting the information needed for your project in
the best possible way (Malhotra et al., 2002).

1Research Design is the conceptual structure within
which research is conducted; it constitutes the
blueprint for the collection, measurement and analysis
of data.
DEFINITION
FUNCTIONS OF RESEARCH DESIGN
According to Black and Champion (1976-77), the
three important functions of research design are:

+It provides blueprint.

+It limits boundaries of research activity.

+It enables investigation to anticipate potential
problems.


FEATURES OF A GOOD RESEARCH DESIGN

-It should be flexible.

-It should be appropriate.

-It should be efficient.

-It should be economical.

-It should minimize bias.

-It should maximize the reliability of data collected.

-It should give the smallest experimental error.

FEATURES OF A RESEARCH DESIGN
- It should yield maximum information.

-It should provide the opportunity for considering different
aspects of the problem.

-It should provide the means of obtaining information.

-It should be appropriate with respect to the availability and
skills of the researcher and his staff.

-It should be related to :
· the objective of the problem,
· the nature of the problem being studied,
· the availability of time and money for the research
work.

DIFFERENT TYPE OF RESEARCH DESIGNS
• DESIGN OF EXPLORATORY OR FORMULATE STUDIES. MAJOR
EMPHASIS IS IN THOSE STUDIES IS THE DISCOVERY OF NEW
INSIGHTS OR IDEAS. FOLLOWING METHODS ARE ADOPTED
BEFORE THE INITIATION: -
– SURVEY OF LITERATURE.
– EXPERIENCE SURVEY.
– ANALYSIS OF INSIGHT STIMULATING CASES.
• DESIGN OF DESCRIPTIVE STUDIES. MAY INVOLVES
FOLLOWING STEPS: -
– FORMULATING THE OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY.
– DEFINING THE POPULATION AND SELECTING SAMPLE.
– DESIGNING THE METHODS OF DATA COLLECTION.
– ANALYSIS OF THE DATE.
– EXAMPLE – A DESCRIPTIVE STUDY MAY BE CONCERNED WITH
THE ATTITUDES OR VIEWS TOWARDS ANYTHING.
• DESIGN OF DIAGNOSTIC STUDIES. AIM IS TO FIND THE
SOLUTION OF SPECIFIC PROBLEM BY THE DISCOVERY OF
THE RELEVANT VARIABLES.

TYPES OF RESEARCH DESIGN
O Design of investigation should stem from the
problem.
O Based on the fundamental objectives or purposes,
research design has been classified into:
a)Exploratory or Formulative Research Design.
b)Descriptive and Diagnostic Research Design.
c)Experimental Research Design (Causal
Research Design).
EXPLORATORY / FORMULATIVE
RESEARCH DESIGN
-Exploratory studies are carried out to explore a
subject.

-Exploratory research is unstructured, informal
research undertaken to gain background information
about the general nature of the research problem.
-Designed to generate basic knowledge, clarify relevant
issues, uncover variables associated with a problem,
uncover information needs, and/or define alternatives for
addressing research objectives.
Uses/Objectives of exploratory research:

+Gain background information
+Define concepts more clearly
+Develop operational definitions
+Clarify and formulate a more precise
research problem and hypotheses
+Achieve new insights or ideas into a
phenomenon
+Establish research priorities

Methods of conducting exploratory research:

• Survey of related literature / Secondary data
analysis
• Experience surveys
• Case analysis
EXPLORATORY / FORMULATIVE
RESEARCH DESIGN
+Survey of Related Literature
• Refer conceptual literature,trade literature and published
statistics (secondary sources).
• Hypothesis stated by earlier researchers may be reviewed
and their usefulness be evaluated as a basis for further
research.
• In cases where hypothesis have not been formulated, review
the available material for deriving hypothesis from it.
• In this way the researcher should review and build upon the
work done by others.

EXPLORATORY / FORMULATIVE
RESEARCH DESIGN
+Experience Surveys ( depth interviews)
• Survey of people who have practical experience
with the problem to be studied.
• Knowledgeable people with varying points of
view.
• Unstructured and informal interviews.
• It reflects an attempt to get all available
information from the people who have some
knowledge of subject under investigation.

EXPLORATORY / FORMULATIVE
RESEARCH DESIGN
+Analysis of Selected Cases
•Intensive study of related cases or examples or past
activities.
•It provides clues as to how other units or
companies have dealt with similar issues.
•It is suitable for areas where there are few or no
experienced persons to provide necessary
information.
EXPLORATORY / FORMULATIVE
RESEARCH DESIGN
• Descriptive research provides answers to
the questions of:
– Who
– What
– Where
– When
– How
• We cannot answer the question Why?
conclusively
DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH DESIGN
=Descriptive Research is designed to provide further
insight into the research problem by describing the
variables of interest.

=The major purpose of descriptive research is the
description of the state of affairs as it exist at present.



DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH DESIGN
-Descriptive research studies are aimed at
describing or portraying the characteristics of a
particular individual, group or a situation.
e.g. users of a product with different age, education, etc.

-It is also concerned with specific predictions, with
narration of facts and characteristics concerning
individual, group or situation.
e.g. sales of a company's product in each of the next five
years

OBJECTIVES OF DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH DESIGN
-The study offers the researcher a profile or
description of relevant aspects of the phenomenon.

-To estimate the proportion of people in a specified
population who behave in a certain way
e.g.: persons who buy from a particular shop.

-To determine whether certain variables are associated
e.g.. income and usage of a product.

OBJECTIVES OF DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH DESIGN
OClassification of descriptive research studies:

– Cross sectional studies: they measure the
population at only one point of time.

– Longitudinal studies: they repeatedly measure the
same population over a period of time.
DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH DESIGN
Cross-Sectional Descriptive Studies

;Most common and most familiar.

;Uses a representative sample of elements from a
population, often a sample survey.

;Characteristics of the elements are measured once, i.e. it
provides a snapshot of the variables under investigation.


Cross-Sectional Descriptive Studies

Disadvantages of sample surveys are:

-High level questions, not very deep, which allow for
statistical analysis.
-Expensive in terms of time and money.
-Technical skills are required for the researcher.
-Data may be outdated.
-It may draw an artificial picture of what was going on at a
particular point of time.
-It is possible that respondents were observed or questioned on a
bad day.
Longitudinal Descriptive Studies

·Involves panel, i.e. a fixed sample of elements or respondents,
which are repeatedly measured over time, i.e. it provides a movie
of the variables under investigation.

·Panel members are relatively constant over time.
·Panel may be of two types:

·True panel
·Omnibus panel

·Main disadvantage of panels is that they are non-
representative.
-Diagnostic research studies are carried out to determine the
frequency with which something (variables) occurs or its
association with something else.

-All the studies that are aimed to find out whether certain
variables are associated by testing the hypothesis is diagnostic
in nature.

DIAGNOSTIC RESEARCH DESIGN
-The design concentrates on in-depth analysis of data to
identify the factors that contributed to the problem and
examine their interrelationships from various angles by
bringing as many relevant variables as possible.

-The diagnostic design is concerned with the case as well as
the treatment.

DIAGNOSTIC RESEARCH DESIGN
CHARACTERISTICS OF
DESCRIPTIVE AND DIAGNOSTIC
RESEARCH DESIGN
-Existence of a pre-planned research design,

-Design should be carefully planned,

-Design must be rigid and not flexible,

-It should ensure minimization of bias and
maximization of reliability of the data collected.
- Done using rigid methods with clear
specifications of who, what, when, where,
why and how of the research.

-Frequently use pilot studies to test the data
collection tool and analysis techniques.

- Data collection often done through structured
interviews or questionnaires.
CHARACTERISTICS OF
DESCRIPTIVE AND DIAGNOSTIC
RESEARCH DESIGN
EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH DESIGN
eExperimental research design is concerned with making
experiments to find out the cause-effect relationship of
variables under study.

eThe main purpose of exp. design is to test a causal
hypothesis. Causal hypothesis is a statement that states
the cause and effect relationship between two or more
variables.

eThus experimental research design is also known as
hypothesis-testing or causal research design.

eThe premise of the design is that something (an
independent variable) directly influences the behavior of
something else ( the dependent variable).

eThe presumed cause is called the independent variable
and the presumed effect is called the dependent variable.

eAn independent variable causes or explains variations in
the dependent variable.

EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH DESIGN
e In experimental design, besides the terms control
and experimental groups, some other terms are also
important.
1) Experimental treatment: alternative manipulations of the
independent variable that is being investigated or the
different conditions under which experimental groups are
put.
2) Test units: subjects which are exposed to experimental
treatments or subjects whose response to the experimental
treatment is measured or observed.


EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH DESIGN
3) Extraneous variables: those independent variables that are
not related to the purpose of the study, but may affect the
dependant variable. It is therefore, essential that,
extraneous variables should be controlled.
4) Randomization: It refers to the random selection of
experimental units or subjects from the larger population
without any bias. According to this technique, each
member of the population or universe has an equal and
independent chance of being selected as sample.
5) Repeated measure: When the same subjects are exposed
to all experimental treatments, the experiment is said to
have repeated measure.

EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH DESIGN
• DESIGN OF EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES. PURPOSE OF EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES IS TO
TEST A HYPOTHESIS OF CAUSAL RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN VARIABLES. BASIC
PRINCIPLES OF EXPERIMENTAL DESIGNS GIVEN BY PROF FISHER.

– PRINCIPLE OF REPLICATION. IT IS REPEATED MORE THAN ONCE. REPLICATION IS
INTRODUCED IN ORDER TO GET OR INCREASE THE ACCURACY.
– PRINCIPLE OF RANDOMIZATION. PRINCIPLE INDICATES THAT WE SHOULD DESIGN OR
PLAN THE EXPERIMENT IN SUCH WAY THAT THE VARIATIONS CAUSED BY EXTRANEOUS
FACTORS CAN ALL BE COMBINED UNDER THE GENERAL HEADING OF ‘CHANCE’.
– PRINCIPLE OF LOCAL CONTROL. WE FIRST DIVIDE THE COMPLETE EXPERIMENT INTO
THE MANY PARTS (HOMOGENEOUS PARTS KNOWN AS BLOCKING).

©The Principle of Replication:

The term replication has been derived from the fusion of
two words – „repetition‟ and „duplication‟.

Replication refers to the deliberate repetition of an
experiment, using identical procedure, which may
sometimes be with a set of subjects in a different setting and
at different time periods.

BASIC PRINCIPLES OF EXPERIMENTAL
RESEARCH DESIGN
BASIC PRINCIPLES OF EXPERIMENTAL
RESEARCH DESIGN
©The Principle of Randomization:

Randomization refers to a technique in which each member
of the population or universe has an equal and independent
chance of being selected as sample.

BASIC PRINCIPLES OF EXPERIMENTAL
RESEARCH DESIGN
©The Principle of Local Control:

A design to be statistically and experimentally sound must
possess the property of local control.
According to this principle, we first divide the field into
several homogeneous parts, known as blocks (blocking) and
then each such block is divided into parts equal to the
number of treatments. Then the treatments are randomly
assigned to these parts.
Causality tested through…

Lab experiments – Festinger and Katz (1953) have
defined a laboratory experiment as one in which the
investigator creates an artificial situation with the exact
conditions he wants to have and in which the researcher
controls some variables and manipulates other variables.

• All variables are controlled
• Influence of external variables minimized
• Internal validity maximized

TYPES OF EXPERIMENTS
Field experiments – It is a study carried out in a more or
less realistic situation or field where the researcher
manipulates one or more independent variables under
maximum possible controlled conditions.

• Most credible results
• Influence of „real world‟ settings taken into account
• External validity maximized
TYPES OF EXPERIMENTS
Concomitant & Extraneous Variable
• Extraneous Variable :
The variables selected for analysis are called explanatory
variables and all other variables that are not related to the
purpose of the study but may affect the dependant variable are
extraneous.
An almost infinite number of extraneous variables exists that
might conceivably affect relationship. Some can be treated as
independent variables, but most must either be assumed or
excluded from the study. The infinite number of variables has
little or no effect on a given situation. Most can be safely
ignored. Others may be important, but their impact occurs in
such a random fashion as to have little effect.

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