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Vertical Drain Piles

Vertical Drain Piles

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Vertical Drain Piles
Vertical Drain Piles

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PART V FOUNDATIONS

-319-
7.3.2 Determination of Height and Width of Fill
[1] Height and Width of Fill Required for Soil Improvement
The height and width of fill shall be determined by considering the strength increment of soil required for
stability of sutructures to be constructed as well as the allowable settlement, influence on the surrounding
area, and others.
[Commentary]
It is desirable to set the fill top width larger than
the width required for soil improvement (see Fig.
C- 7.3.1).
[2] Height and Width of Fill Required for
Stability of Fill Embankment
Stability of fill embankment itself shall be
confirmed by a circular arc analysis or other
appropriate methods for the dimensions of
height and width of fill determined.
[Technical Notes]
The strength increment of soil and the settlement
due to fill may be determined using equations (7.3.1) and (7.3.2).
(7.3.1)
(7.3.2)
where
h fill height (m)
H thickness of clay layer (m)
m
v
coefficient of volume compressibility (m
2
/kN)
p
c
preconsolidation pressure (kN/m
2
)
S settlement (m)
U degree of consolidation
coefficient of stress distribution (ratio of vertical stress distributed inside subsoil to fill pressure)
' effective unit weight of fill material (kN/m
3
)
increment of undrained shear strength (kN/m
2
)
/ p rate of strength increase
Since surcharge is usually applied in several stages in the vertical drain method, the degree of consolidation U to be
substituted in equations (7.3.1) and (7.3.2) differs at each surcharge stage. However, strength increment may often be
calculated by assuming a uniform degree of consolidation of approximately 80%.
7.3.3 Design of Drain Piles
In designing drain piles, consolidation process shall be calculated by taking account of drain pile interval,
drain pile diameter, and drainage conditions at the top and bottom of clay layer as well as the
characteristics of drain materials and sand mat, and thickness of sand mat.
[1] Drain Piles and Sand Mat
Drain piles and sand mat shall have the required drainage capacity.
[Technical Notes]
(1) Consolidation Rate and Drain Pile Diameter
Consolidation rate is approximately proportional to drain pile diameter and inversely proportional to the square
of drain pile interval. Generally, the amount of drain pile materials can be reduced by using sand piles of small
diameter with a small interval rather than using those of large diameter with a large interval. However, the small
diameter sand pile may suffer from clogging with clayey particles and breaking failure of the pile caused by
deformation due to surcharge and consolidation. According to case histories, a diameter of approximately 40 cm
is prevaling, while the diameter generally varies between 30 and 50 cm. The fabri-packed drain method, in
which sand piles wrapped by geotextile with a diameter of 12 cm are drived in, has often been used for
extremely soft subsoil in land construction works. Usually, a set of four sand piles are installed simultaneously
Fig. C- 7.3.1 Fill Width for Vertical Drain Method
c c p h p
c
U
S m
v
h p
c
HU
TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN
-320-
by a small size pile driving machine. In marine works, fabri-packed drains with a diameter of 40 cm or more
have been commonly used to improve extremely soft subsoil.
(2) Sand Used for Sand Piles
Sand used for sand piles should have high permeability as well as suitable particle sizes to prevent clogging with
clayey particles. The particle size distribution of sand used in past works are shown in Fig. T- 7.3.1. Sand with
slightly higher fines content have also been used in recent years.
Fig. T- 7.3.1 Examples of Sand Used in Sand Piles
(3) Materials for Plastic-Board Drain
In lieu of sand piles, strip type drains with materials such as plastic-board drains are sometimes employed. In the
design of the strip type drains, the strip is converted to a sand pile with a diameter that produces the perimeter
equal to that of the strip type drain in order to apply the conventional design method. By setting the safety factor
at a value higher than that of the conventional method, the design has been conducted by assuming that a strip
type drain of 10 cm wide and 5 mm thick is equivalent to a 5 cm-diameter sand pile. When the drainage capacity
is low, it should be considered that a possibe delay of consolidation could occur especially at the tip of the
vertical drain: i.e, at the bottom of the consolidation layer.
(4) Sand Mat
Thickness of sand mat is usually set to be approximately 1.0 m to 1.5 m for marine works and 0.5 m to 1.0 m for
land works. A thick layer of sand mat may cause troubles in drain pile driving, while a thin layer of sand mat
may lose its permeability partially due to infiltration of clayey particles. When the drainage capacity of sand mat
is low, a delay in consolidation may occur due to the head loss within drains. In such a case, the delay in
consolidation is more noticeable around the center of the area spreaded with the sand mat. Thus, the sand mat
materials must have high permeability. For a case that the delay is anticipated because of low permeability of
sand mat or large area of soil improvement work, an approximate solution may be employed to evaluate the
delay.
[2] Interval of Drain Piles
Interval of drain piles shall be so determined that the required degree of consolidation can be obtained
during a given construction period.
[Technical Notes]
(1) General
The vertical drain method is applied when the rate of one-dimensional consolidation by the preloading method is
too small under the constraint of time limit of the construction period. Figure T- 7.3.2 shows the relationship
between the required consolidation time t
80
(day), drainage distance H (m), and coefficient of consolidation c
v
(cm
2
/min), which is calculated for the condition of 80% consolidation of a clayey layer for the preloading
method or the vacuum consolidation method without vertical drains.
(2) Determination of Interval of Drain Piles
The interval of drain piles should be determined by means of Fig. T- 7.3.3 and equation (7.3.3). If the interval of
drain piles is too small, consolidation may be delayed due to the effect of smear (the disturbance of clay layer by
the process of drain pile driving) and others
2)
.
Silt Eine sand Coarse sand Gravel
Japan
New York
Particle size
PART V FOUNDATIONS
-321-
Fig. T- 7.3.2 Required Days for 80% Consolidation of Clay Layer
(7.3.3)
where
D : interval of drain piles (cm)
: factor ( = 0.886 for square grid pattern, and = 0.952 for triangular grid pattern)
n : diameter ratio of D
e
/D
w
(n is read off from Fig. T- 7.3.3)
D
e
: effective diameter of drain area (cm)
D
w
: diameter of drain pile (cm)
T
h
: parameter similar to time factor (T
h
= c
vh
t/D
w
2
)
c
vh
: horizontal coefficient of consolidation (cm
2
/min)
t : consolidation time (min)
Note: the time t used in Figs. T- 7.3.3 and 7.3.4 is expressed in the units of days.
Fig. T- 7.3.3 Calculation Chart for n
(3) Calculation of the Degree of Consolidation
After determining the interval of drain piles, the accurate value of the degree of consolidation U
h
is calculated by
equations (7.3.4) and (7.3.5) and Fig. T- 7.3.4.
D nD
w
TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN
-322-
(7.3.4)
(7.3.5)
where
T
h
: time factor of horizontal consolidation
c
vh
: horizontal coefficient of consolidation (cm
2
/min)
t : elapsed time from start of consolidation (min)
D
e
: effective diameter of drain area (cm)
D
w
: diameter of drain pile (cm)
Fig. T- 7.3.4 Horizontal Consolidation Calculation Chart
(4) Effective Diameter
The effective diameter of drain area D
e
is the diameter of an equivalent circle that has the same area as the soil
being drained by a sand pile. The relationship between D
e
and interval of the drain pile D is as follows:
D
e
= 1.128D for square grid pattern.
D
e
= 1.050D for equilateral triangular grid pattern.
7.4 Deep Mixing Method
7.4.1 Principle of Design
[1] Scope of Application
(1) The design method described in this section shall be applied to improvement of subsoil beneath
gravity type structures such as breakwaters, quaywalls, and revetments.
(2) The design method shall be applied to the block type and the wall type improvement works.
[Commentary]
(1) The deep mixing method dealt with in this section is the one in which the soil in situ is mixed mechanically with
cement.
(2) Large-scaled soil improvement with the deep mixing method in port and harbor construction works have been
mostly applied to the subsoils for caisson type breakwaters, quaywalls, or revetments. There are few cases of
application to other types of structures. Thus, the sope of this section is set as specified above.
(3) When applying the deep mixing method to port and harbor structures, a rigid underground structure is formed by
overlapping stabilized soil columns treated by mixing machines. The pattern of improvement is selected
depending on the superstructure or the properties of the subsoil. The block type and the wall type shown in Fig.
C- 7.4.1 are typical improvement patterns in port and harbor construction works. In this section, these two
patterns are discussed.
T
h
c
vh
t
D
e
2
n
D
e
D
w

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