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Vertical Drain Piles|Views: 20|Likes: 0

Published by saeed-21

Vertical Drain Piles

Vertical Drain Piles

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https://www.scribd.com/doc/134501251/Vertical-Drain-Piles

07/24/2014

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-319-

7.3.2 Determination of Height and Width of Fill

[1] Height and Width of Fill Required for Soil Improvement

The height and width of fill shall be determined by considering the strength increment of soil required for

stability of sutructures to be constructed as well as the allowable settlement, influence on the surrounding

area, and others.

[Commentary]

It is desirable to set the fill top width larger than

the width required for soil improvement (see Fig.

C- 7.3.1).

[2] Height and Width of Fill Required for

Stability of Fill Embankment

Stability of fill embankment itself shall be

confirmed by a circular arc analysis or other

appropriate methods for the dimensions of

height and width of fill determined.

[Technical Notes]

The strength increment of soil and the settlement

due to fill may be determined using equations (7.3.1) and (7.3.2).

(7.3.1)

(7.3.2)

where

h fill height (m)

H thickness of clay layer (m)

m

v

coefficient of volume compressibility (m

2

/kN)

p

c

preconsolidation pressure (kN/m

2

)

S settlement (m)

U degree of consolidation

coefficient of stress distribution (ratio of vertical stress distributed inside subsoil to fill pressure)

' effective unit weight of fill material (kN/m

3

)

increment of undrained shear strength (kN/m

2

)

/ p rate of strength increase

Since surcharge is usually applied in several stages in the vertical drain method, the degree of consolidation U to be

substituted in equations (7.3.1) and (7.3.2) differs at each surcharge stage. However, strength increment may often be

calculated by assuming a uniform degree of consolidation of approximately 80%.

7.3.3 Design of Drain Piles

In designing drain piles, consolidation process shall be calculated by taking account of drain pile interval,

drain pile diameter, and drainage conditions at the top and bottom of clay layer as well as the

characteristics of drain materials and sand mat, and thickness of sand mat.

[1] Drain Piles and Sand Mat

Drain piles and sand mat shall have the required drainage capacity.

[Technical Notes]

(1) Consolidation Rate and Drain Pile Diameter

Consolidation rate is approximately proportional to drain pile diameter and inversely proportional to the square

of drain pile interval. Generally, the amount of drain pile materials can be reduced by using sand piles of small

diameter with a small interval rather than using those of large diameter with a large interval. However, the small

diameter sand pile may suffer from clogging with clayey particles and breaking failure of the pile caused by

deformation due to surcharge and consolidation. According to case histories, a diameter of approximately 40 cm

is prevaling, while the diameter generally varies between 30 and 50 cm. The fabri-packed drain method, in

which sand piles wrapped by geotextile with a diameter of 12 cm are drived in, has often been used for

extremely soft subsoil in land construction works. Usually, a set of four sand piles are installed simultaneously

Fig. C- 7.3.1 Fill Width for Vertical Drain Method

c c p h p

c

U

S m

v

h p

c

HU

TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN

-320-

by a small size pile driving machine. In marine works, fabri-packed drains with a diameter of 40 cm or more

have been commonly used to improve extremely soft subsoil.

(2) Sand Used for Sand Piles

Sand used for sand piles should have high permeability as well as suitable particle sizes to prevent clogging with

clayey particles. The particle size distribution of sand used in past works are shown in Fig. T- 7.3.1. Sand with

slightly higher fines content have also been used in recent years.

Fig. T- 7.3.1 Examples of Sand Used in Sand Piles

(3) Materials for Plastic-Board Drain

In lieu of sand piles, strip type drains with materials such as plastic-board drains are sometimes employed. In the

design of the strip type drains, the strip is converted to a sand pile with a diameter that produces the perimeter

equal to that of the strip type drain in order to apply the conventional design method. By setting the safety factor

at a value higher than that of the conventional method, the design has been conducted by assuming that a strip

type drain of 10 cm wide and 5 mm thick is equivalent to a 5 cm-diameter sand pile. When the drainage capacity

is low, it should be considered that a possibe delay of consolidation could occur especially at the tip of the

vertical drain: i.e, at the bottom of the consolidation layer.

(4) Sand Mat

Thickness of sand mat is usually set to be approximately 1.0 m to 1.5 m for marine works and 0.5 m to 1.0 m for

land works. A thick layer of sand mat may cause troubles in drain pile driving, while a thin layer of sand mat

may lose its permeability partially due to infiltration of clayey particles. When the drainage capacity of sand mat

is low, a delay in consolidation may occur due to the head loss within drains. In such a case, the delay in

consolidation is more noticeable around the center of the area spreaded with the sand mat. Thus, the sand mat

materials must have high permeability. For a case that the delay is anticipated because of low permeability of

sand mat or large area of soil improvement work, an approximate solution may be employed to evaluate the

delay.

[2] Interval of Drain Piles

Interval of drain piles shall be so determined that the required degree of consolidation can be obtained

during a given construction period.

[Technical Notes]

(1) General

The vertical drain method is applied when the rate of one-dimensional consolidation by the preloading method is

too small under the constraint of time limit of the construction period. Figure T- 7.3.2 shows the relationship

between the required consolidation time t

80

(day), drainage distance H (m), and coefficient of consolidation c

v

(cm

2

/min), which is calculated for the condition of 80% consolidation of a clayey layer for the preloading

method or the vacuum consolidation method without vertical drains.

(2) Determination of Interval of Drain Piles

The interval of drain piles should be determined by means of Fig. T- 7.3.3 and equation (7.3.3). If the interval of

drain piles is too small, consolidation may be delayed due to the effect of smear (the disturbance of clay layer by

the process of drain pile driving) and others

2)

.

Silt Eine sand Coarse sand Gravel

Japan

New York

Particle size

PART V FOUNDATIONS

-321-

Fig. T- 7.3.2 Required Days for 80% Consolidation of Clay Layer

(7.3.3)

where

D : interval of drain piles (cm)

: factor ( = 0.886 for square grid pattern, and = 0.952 for triangular grid pattern)

n : diameter ratio of D

e

/D

w

(n is read off from Fig. T- 7.3.3)

D

e

: effective diameter of drain area (cm)

D

w

: diameter of drain pile (cm)

T

h

: parameter similar to time factor (T

h

= c

vh

t/D

w

2

)

c

vh

: horizontal coefficient of consolidation (cm

2

/min)

t : consolidation time (min)

Note: the time t used in Figs. T- 7.3.3 and 7.3.4 is expressed in the units of days.

Fig. T- 7.3.3 Calculation Chart for n

(3) Calculation of the Degree of Consolidation

After determining the interval of drain piles, the accurate value of the degree of consolidation U

h

is calculated by

equations (7.3.4) and (7.3.5) and Fig. T- 7.3.4.

D nD

w

TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN

-322-

(7.3.4)

(7.3.5)

where

T

h

: time factor of horizontal consolidation

c

vh

: horizontal coefficient of consolidation (cm

2

/min)

t : elapsed time from start of consolidation (min)

D

e

: effective diameter of drain area (cm)

D

w

: diameter of drain pile (cm)

Fig. T- 7.3.4 Horizontal Consolidation Calculation Chart

(4) Effective Diameter

The effective diameter of drain area D

e

is the diameter of an equivalent circle that has the same area as the soil

being drained by a sand pile. The relationship between D

e

and interval of the drain pile D is as follows:

D

e

= 1.128D for square grid pattern.

D

e

= 1.050D for equilateral triangular grid pattern.

7.4 Deep Mixing Method

7.4.1 Principle of Design

[1] Scope of Application

(1) The design method described in this section shall be applied to improvement of subsoil beneath

gravity type structures such as breakwaters, quaywalls, and revetments.

(2) The design method shall be applied to the block type and the wall type improvement works.

[Commentary]

(1) The deep mixing method dealt with in this section is the one in which the soil in situ is mixed mechanically with

cement.

(2) Large-scaled soil improvement with the deep mixing method in port and harbor construction works have been

mostly applied to the subsoils for caisson type breakwaters, quaywalls, or revetments. There are few cases of

application to other types of structures. Thus, the sope of this section is set as specified above.

(3) When applying the deep mixing method to port and harbor structures, a rigid underground structure is formed by

overlapping stabilized soil columns treated by mixing machines. The pattern of improvement is selected

depending on the superstructure or the properties of the subsoil. The block type and the wall type shown in Fig.

C- 7.4.1 are typical improvement patterns in port and harbor construction works. In this section, these two

patterns are discussed.

T

h

c

vh

t

D

e

2

n

D

e

D

w

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