ESv;kH om;udk ozef;yifay:rSm xm;cJo

h l

o[m, pmtkyfwdkuf

"r®o[m,ausmif;?rpdk;&drfwdkufopf?
r[matmifajrNrKdUe,f? rEÅav;NrKdU

rlyikd f - 0D&o (rpd;k &dr)f

o[m, pmtkyw
f u
kd f

1

2

0D&ol (rpd;k &dr)f

ykH ESy
d f rSwf wrf;
pmrlciG jUf yKcsuf
xkwaf 0onft
U Budrf
xkwaf 0onfUumv
rsufEmS zH;k yef;csD
rsufEmS zk;H ESiUf twGi;f 'DZikd ;f
twGi;f yef;csD
tzk;H zvif
twGi;f ESiUf rsufEmS zH;k
yHkESdyf

-

xkwaf 0ol

-

tkyaf &
wefz;kd
jzefcY sda&;

-

tkyfpk (1) uif;vGwfcGifh
yxrtBudrf?
2012? pufwifbm
rkwfoHk
jrwfrif;cefh
udkudkEdkif
Egale

a':0if;rm
pdwful;csKdcsKdyHkESdyfwdkuf
trSwf 67? 145 vrf; ? wmarG
OD;jrifUatmif (yÍö*Hpmay)
trSwf Z-8^57? NrKdYopf (4) &yfuGuf
csrf;jrompnfNrKdYe,f? rEåav;/
500
700
&efukef? yÍö*Hpmtkyfwdkuf?
167(at)? 35 vrf;? ausmufwHwm;NrKdYe,f/
zkef; 01 - 377061
rEåav;? xGef;OD;pmay?
trSwf 101? 84 vrf;? 29_30Mum;
zkef; 02 - 39891? 73502

xkwfa0onfUpmtkyf uwfwavmuftñTef;(CIP)
ol? 0D&? (rpdk;&drf)
ESvHk;om;udk ozef;yifay:rSmxm;cJhw,f
pmay? 2012/
56 pm ? 13 x21 pifwD
(1) 0D&ol (rpdk;&drf)

o[m, pmtkyw
f u
kd f

ESv;kH om;udk ozef;yifay:rSm xm;cJo
h l

pDpOfol Nidrf;opf

arG;arxHodkY at;apoH tdwfzGihaf y;pmrsm;

ESvHk;om;udk
ozef;yifay:rmS xm;cJo
U l
0D&ol (rpd;k &dr)f

o[m, pmtkyw
f u
kd f
"r®o[m,ausmif;wdu
k ?f rpd;k &drw
f u
kd o
f pf?
r[matmifajrNrKdUe,f? rEÅav;NrKdU
zke;f - 09 2004013

o[m, pmtkyw
f u
kd f

3

D 11 arwÅmxyf&pf cspx f ufcspo f l 21 ½ke.yifay:rSm xm.cJhol 37 aer0if bk&ifjzpfcsio f l 45 o[m.f 5 at.ol\ ud.f xGuv f hkd vGwaf jrmufEikd yf gap 29 ESvH. pmtkyw f u kd f .udk ozef.f 7 tMurf.k &dr)f rmwdum pma&.k om.4 0D&ol (rpd.apoHe'd ge.tusO.zufrm&fewf t"r®ppfonfehJ yg&rD&iS w f &hkd J Y cHwyfBu. k af &.

f.1991 (1353)ckEpS w f iG f ausmufqnfNrKUd rif.jzpf . k af &. H u l m omoemhabmifoYkd 0ifcjhJ cif.ausmufqnfNrKUd tru (6) ESihf txu (1) wdw Yk iG f ynmoifMum.rmvmax&D\ ypö.Bu.ol\ ud.D awmf bke.½HBk u.mufteuf 'kw. (xdpk Ofu pufrv I .tusO. pmtkyw f u kd f .f &Spaf .trd a':wifwifO.f 0D&ol (rpd.k &drw f u kd o f pfoYkd a&muf&dS .arG.D zGm.cJo h l 5 pma&.D b'´EÅ ynmomrdukd OyZÑm.csi.fjyKí oDv&Siq f &mBu.D wGif arG.1999 (1361) ckEpS üf y&d.f r[mpmoifwu kd f rS rEÅav.NrKUd rpd. d om.cifarmif0if.wGif oDwif.m0efxrf.cJh .ausmufqnfNrKUd a&TvaHS wmfausmif.mEk*c¾ .yifay:rSm xm.D .k onfh OD.zGm. .ESv.kH om.wåd omoe[dw (ouso[ D ) "r®mp&d.k &dr)f -26? 6? 1968 ck ausmufqnfNrKUd aq.1985 (1347) ckEpS rf mS omoemhabmifoYkd 0ifa&mufchJ .f Bu.tb OD.bGUJ &&Scd hJ o[m.udk ozef.oH. .uke.) .

aqmif .ü Mo0g'uxmESihf w&m.cktcgwGif .? Edik if aH &.wåw d m0efxrf.f jynf) pmtkyf a&.apmifw h &m.2001 (1363) ckEpS üf trsKd .13? 1? 2012 ( 1373) ckEpS üf jrpfBu. vSnv hf nfa[mMum.rIoifwef. a[mMum.yGrJ sm. em.2002 (1364) ckEpS w f iG f ]]y&d.tem. tcrf.D em.oH.rsm.xkwaf 0 .rsm.6 0D&ol (rpd.ausmif.k aexdik u f m omoemhwm0ef xrf.rsm.wåad &Tcsed cf iG }f }pmtkyf a&.axmifrS jyefvnfvw G af jrmuf ."r®o[m..rEÅav.om. pmtkyw f u kd f .utjzpf aqmif&u G f .aqmifvsu&f /dS o[m.rpd.utzG0YJ iftjzpf y&d.xkwaf 0 . ."r®rsm.&drfwdkufopf "r®o[m.k &drw f u kd o f pf em.ausmif.Ofaus.? w&m.k &dr)f .om.2000 (1362) ckEpS üf ax&0g'wdu k yf JG (ax&0g''dw Yk ikd .vsu&f dS .2003 (1365) ckEpS w f iG f 5(n) yHEk ydS f 17^20 tygt0if yk'rf 5 ck jzifh jypf'Pf 25 ESpf usc&H .NrKdU rpdk.? vlraI &.üyif jyefvnf oDwif.

om. w&m.ay. G af &.yifay:rSm xm.D zwf&Edik o f nf/ tweftoifah wmh tm.0ifo. pmtkyw f u kd f .jcif.frw S pfqifh tm.q l csujf zifh pmrlig.vQiu f m.raxmif&? TV rMunf&h aomfvnf.jzpfaMumif.pkMunf tif. pm? *sme. odom Edik o f nfjzpfaomaMumifh trnfwu kd ½f u kd o f .od&\/ *sme.f jcif.pum. r&S&d avatmif y&d.om.kH pGcJ iG hf &Edik o f nf[al om xifjrif.pdeaf *[mrSmaexdik u f m trI&ifqikd af e& cdu k f jzpfonf/ a&'D.cJo h l 7 at.yk'f a&.ekd m.? ay:vpDEiS hf Nipd eG .&So d mG .faqmifí a&. owif.Edik o f nf/ 'umrBu.udk ozef. f ufawm udpaö Mumifh a':atmifqef.ESv.m.fawmhzwf&onf[k uREykf w f Ykd Mum.apoH ed'ge.kH om.kH pGjJ cif.ajymvQif 'umrBu.D udk &nf&.cJah y onf/ o[m.f 2009 ckEpS af vmufu jzpfrnf/ *Re.

Edik w f Ykd pma&.Mujyefygonf/ q&mjroef.tke.Edik &f ef pDpOfxm.xGufvdkYvGwfajrmufEdkifygap/ (C) aer0ifbk&ifjzpfcsifol/ (i ) arwåmxyf&pf cspx f ufcspo f l [lí aqmif.f xGuv f Ykd vGwaf jrmufEikd yf gap}} ygcJzh .jcif.f qufar. toifjh yifqifxm.udk ozef. [eftwdkif.jcif.fawG tydwcf aH e&aomaMumifh rxnf0h ahH Mumif.om.mufxH a&.yifay:rSmxm.om.yg.rcH&ay/ zke.f rSm xnfhay.vdu k yf g/ 'DviId .pOfcí JG a&.jcif.cJhay/ aqmif.ftrSwf 4 ü ]]½ke.xm.quf aqmif.ig.fwu kd o f Ykd ydv Yk u kd af yonf/ tprf.D .f axmifukd armfpud[ k k wifpm. ajymrd&m ]] OD. pmtkyw f u kd f .k jyif qifxm.f onft h cg *sme.jzpfonf/ (u) tMurf.em. a&.wpfa.ck tcgü vpfb&. ]]e. Mujyef\/ topfawGa&mufvmavh&adS omaMumifh jzpfonfq\ kd / rdrd o[m.8 0D&ol (rpd. ( c ) ESvHk.udk acgif.*sme.f jyefygonf/ {&m0wDr*¾Zif.f BuKd iEf iS hf 'umawmf udrk sKd . .Mu\/ . xm.L.yg.apoH tdwzf iG ahf y.ydv Yk u kd u f m? toH.olwYkd a*[mjzpfav&um.um qufvufa&.jzpfygonf/ om.oabm jzifh oH.om.olxH a&mufvmavonf/ pum.k yk'af y. 0g&Siw f ef[k wif pm.rjcm.cJjh cif.f u tusO.pyfrí d þaqmif.mufu rdcif&if.f BuKd iu f olq Y yD aYkd y. ajymonfq\ kd / vufravQmb h J eD.&efvnf. taMumif.D OD.wpfa.yg.l.xHoYkd ydcYk ikd .fvv kd m.om.? uGeyf sLwm pmpDjcif.l \/ [dw k ek .cdik .vH.r.pmyHo k P²meftaejzifh a&.jzpf\/ wpfaeYaomtcg 'umBu.rsm. jcif.rsm.rsm.arxHoYkd at.wifw h u Ykd m.pyf&m N.udk tdwzf iG ahf y.jyKvyk u f m *sme.cJhol/ ( * ) ½kef.om.yk'f pDpOfxm.a.pm}}u@? tcef.k &dr)f uavmiftrnfajymif.vdkufayonf/ 'DvdIif.cJah yonf/ odaYk omf ta&G.tke.D rsm.muf}} [k wifpm.yg. .? ae&yfvyd pf mvTjJ cif.zufrm&fewf? t"r®ppfonfEiS ?hf yg&rD&iS w f \ Ykd cHwyfBu.ydzYk Ykd tm.k apvdak omaMumifjh zpf\/ odaYk omf xl.f}} qdkí ydkYay.k jyKvQif qufvufay.wd?Yk tifwmeufwrYkd mS oH.jzpf\/ ]]arG.

cJ\ h / olu tjyiftqif twiftcs tm.jzpfav&m ¤if.&drf) o[m.udk awmifw h aeaom pmzwfy&dowf twGuf Edik if aH &.jzpfaomaMumifh ]]acwå . pmayorm.aqmifrIaMumifh t&mcyford .ay. pmtkyw f u kd f . jzpfavonf/ rdr\ d pmayvuf&mrsm.yifay:rSm xm.½Hkom &Sdavonf/ ¤if.yg.rnfom jzpfavonf/ 0D&ol (rpdk.cJo h l 9 um. ol\vdt k yf csufudk jznfhqnf.pkí pmtkyx f w k &f vQiu f m.udk ozef.ig.tz\ pGrf.ESv.vH.0g&Siw f ef}} [k a0g[m&jyKxm.cefYu vnf.yk'u f kd aygif. jzpfav onf/ q&mNird .aqmif.í l aqmif&u G af y.\/ rdru d m.k wm0ef.kH om.wdkYom.\om. ydí k oifjh rwfrnfxifaomaMumifh pmtkyt f jzpf jyifqif&jcif.f tqifajyoGm. jrwfrif.f opfEiS ahf wGí Y rdrq d E´jynf0h oGm. 0g&Siw f efoYkd tvnfwpfacguf a&mufjcif.jcif.

pmtkyw f u kd f .10 0D&ol (rpd.k &dr)f o[m.

udk ozef.kH om.cJo h l ]tMurf. pmtkyw f u kd f 11 .} o[m.ESv.zufrm&fewf t"r®ppfonfehJ yg&rD&Sifwdkh&JY cHwyfBuD.yifay:rSm xm.

b0yJjzpfjzpf olaX. . . . . rif. o[m.b0yJjzpfjzpf odyfNyD.12 0D&ol (rpd. pmtkyw f u kd f .a&&mvSwm r[kwfygbl.fawmh b0qdw k m ork'&´ ma&rsuEf mS jyifay:rmS cPwmyGufwJU a&wpfyGufpmomjzpfygw.k &dr)f wu. .f .

k &dryf geJ?Y tcsed ef YJ tdy?f tcsed ef YJ pm. pmtkyw f u kd f .&wm tawmfeufeJ ygw.f/ rysupf .udk ozef.oifwef.H taeeJY arG.udk a&mufaewm MumygNy/D Edik if jH cm.fh arG.fh awG.awG tNrJ wrf. wufygw.} cspo f m.qk.arxHohkd at.apoH tdwzf iG aUf y.pm trSw(f 1) ]tMurf.yifay:rSm xm. 'DtywfrmS yxrOD. arG./ Ekid if jH cm.fqNkd y.D &JU rsuaf rSmufacwfukd xif[yfap wJh tqkH.arudak wmh arhvrYkd &ygbl.D awmh vnf. bmoma&.f/ o[m.zufrm&fewf t"r®ppfonfehJ yg&rD&Sifwdkh&JY cHwyfBuD.? tcsed ef YJ tvkyf vkyaf e&ygw.ESv.cJo h l 13 arG.usayr.rSm aew.rSm ae& ayr.f/ cspo f m.vdw k mu refvnfq&mawmfBu.awGyg/ a&S.ar rpd. Edik if jH cm.trav.kH om.arxH a&.D atmifvnf.

H t&if.&JU yg&rDawmf wefc. oAÁ nKwÓPfawmf&UJ wefc.bJ? rm&frif.fqkd wJh oabmaygh/ 'Dae&mrSm cspo f m. pmtkyw f u kd f .f awmfteEÅaMumifh r[kwf ao.kd awmfaMumifo h m jzpfygao.cHaevku d w f t hJ csed rf mS cHppfvaHk wmh&ef o[m.tjzpfodkY ra&muf&adS o./ rm&fewfrif.H cHppfonfyif taumif. b0aygif.oacsFeJY urÇmwpfodef.? vuf½.eJY tvG.dk tmEkabmfaMumifh bk&m.w. rm&fewfzsufqdkwJh twdik .ukeMf uwmygyJ/ pdw0f ifpm.Suu f if.BudK.uif.avmif.tjzpfodkY a&muf&Sd awmfryl gw.f/ taESmuft.k í? ppfx.pGmawGrSm qnf.eJaY jym&&if t&Hval wGeyYJ J upm. bk&m.rsm. k ?f EIw?f pdwq f w kd hJ uHo.k &dr)f taumif./ av.avmif.wmu rm&fewfvmNy.d pkeH YJ wdu k cf u kd v f mygw.em.Hk ud.D csw D ufvmNy.avmif.D bk&m.yl.Hk yg.qk.kd awmfteEÅ? bke.? ppfonfAv dk yf g tvk.ygwJh wyfrawmfBu.u rm&fewfeYJ taygif.d pku H kd ud.H eJY vk.H wdu k pf pf}} qdw k hJ tm.w f ul bk&m.zl Ykd vufeufrsK.qk.tjzpf odkY a&muf&Sdwmawmh r[kwfyg/ bk&m.D wdu k cf u kd cf sed rf mS od'w ¨ [ ¬ m &aoh &[ef.b0 bk&m.BuD.udk atmifawmfrw l m[mvnf.avmif.u wpfpw Hk pf&m rwkejYf yef&bJ rm&fewf&UJ ppfonfawG[m tvdv k edk rd yhf g.ygbl.H pum.jzpfcgeD.upm.kd vkum? r&pGmwnf/h (rC/ 259) r[mouú&mZf(103)ckEpS f uqkev f jynfah eYrmS bk&m.H cHppfonfyif taumif.? rjyKvSsif. od'¨w¬[m oAÁnKwa&TÓPfawmfudk&&SdNyD.avmif.xdik w f hJ a&Tyv’iu f kd vk.f yJ rm&fewfrif.avmif.qk.tyg wyfrawmfBu.cJw h hJ yg&rDawmf&UJ wefc.b0rSmyJ &Sdaeygao.f/ bk&m.14 0D&ol (rpd.aqmify'k yf gyJ/ bk&m.yif? a&Tyv’iu f ?kd vdck siftm.H 0rwkejYf yef rwku d f cdu k b f J wnfNird rf t I jynfeh YJ onf.&ao.vnfvu kd w f mu ]]taumif. p&maumif.D &JU ypfcwfwu dk f cdu k rf rI sK.w.qk.w.f/ 'gayrJh bk&m.f/ abmvk.vk.ygbl.&JU qif? jrif.H wku d pf pf yg&rDjznfjh cif.

al rG.wJh vlwpfa.f/ 'gaMumifh olaX.om. pmtkyw f u kd f .f/ N*Kd [o f mG .a&. rvdck siv f Ykd trIu d yf x Hk rJ mS pGeyYf pfcw hJ myg/ aemufajcmufBurd u f awmh arG.zl.Bu.vdkuf&jcif.ok.[m aocsmayguf olaX. k 0f eft&ift h rm vG.H tEdik u f sihf owfjzwf vk.kH om.oGm&wJh oabmyg/ bk&m.arar/ arG.fvYkd aA'ifta[m xGux f m.D jzpfvrd rhf .ygap qkawmif.HI ajy.ESv.r.Hk awmh tacsmiform.& ta&.N*Kd [v f m eu©wt f aetxm.f.zufrm&fewfBu.p csufBudK.D rSmvnf.a.EdkifapzdkY ta0.f/ aemufq.D 'DuaeY rD.&wJh olaX.wpfae&mrS owday.udk ozef.av.cJo h l 15 ol&UJ wdu k pf pfNyKd us ysupf .od'w ¨ \ ¬ yg&rDawmfcw H yfBu.&JU owif.al rG.Bu.vdu k yf gw.yg/ jynfw h efqmru om. jzpfyg w.muf&ydS gw.uawmfBu.f/ rD.t&if.zl Ykd tMurf.f/ &nf&.D u NrKd UxJvn S Nhf y.ar ESv.D wpfa. o[m.u vkyBf uHccH &hJ ol "r®y'vm omrm0wD0w¬KxJu aCmouolaX.x f m.&Ny.uwnf. t& 'DuaeYarG.Bu. G cf suu f olaX.taMumif.zcif ud.zuf tm.xkwcf w hJ .D [m yg&rDrjznfb h J yg&rD&iS af wG&UJ a&Tyv’iaf wmf udk tacsmifvckd sicf w hJ .uawmf Bu. k w f idk u f aCmouav.udk trIu d yf Hk xJuae aumuf.D y&rf.cJh ygbl.f ygw.D 0.D aCmouav.f/ Ny.D vdu k Mf unfch idk .pm.musmf .D apmifMh unfch yhJ gw.ywm xGuaf jy.rzGm.D Ny. tMurf.Bu.f/ ajym&&if aCmou[m jynfw h ef qmr&JU om.pm.Ny.yifay:rSm xm.uif.Ny.fu h av.D &JU pGr.pm. arG.fa&mufwJhtxd ckepfBudrfwkdif wdik f pGeyYf pfccH &hJ ? vkyBf ucH cH &hJ w.edrchf &hJ w.rSmaygh/ cspo f m.D [m olaX.uae t&G.rjzwfcifuwnf.awmh odyu f pkd w d 0f ifpm.ygw.Bu.f/ tJ'D rSmwif aCmouav.muf &Syd g w./ 'Dtcg olaX.D awmh tiftm.avmif.f/ rm&fewfBu.f/ olaX.mufqu D aiGwpfaxmifay.wmyJ/ arG.D rD.zGm.f &nfukd arG.udMk um.D wpfa.ar Mum. ud.f/ 'gudk qifjcif Munfyh g arG.D yJ ppf½.Hk oGif.u awmfBu.zGm.udk taoowfzYkd vkyBf ucH w hJ myg/ tjzpfu 'Dvydk g/ aumorÁND rKd UrSm olaX.

vkdY vGwfajrmufoGm.eif.om.yg/ tpfuBkd u. rSm ypfxm.k xde.NyD.r.D vSn.D td.udk bmvdkYowfypf&rSmvJqdkawmh olaX. om.avmif.? 0g.pm.f a&muf vmygw.D u om.f/ pwkw¬ tBurd af ygh/ 'DvkdeJY aCmouav.fh tpm.½kHay:usNyD.f/ aCmouav. ESpf a.f onfxH ra&mufcifrmS om. aoatmifvdkYyg/ 'gayrJh EGm. okomefcsKyH w k x f rJ mS ypfxm.k &dr)f &mrSm orD.k xde.cGrdk.[m 0g. cdik .f/ wwd.udk owfypfr.uawmfBu.ay.f? aCmouvnf..fNy.m..arG.jrifawmh EGm.f? td.ygw.onfu aCmoueJYrSm.jyefygw.Bu.cJhygw.vnf.f onfxH nDi.musmf .a.wpf aumifu um.t&if.D aoatmifvyYkd g/ qdwaf usmif.qDu aiGwpfaxmife0YJ .f 'd.D u aCmouudk td.av.f ygw.f/ acG.uroGm.al rG.udk vkyBu f zH ?Ykd raumif.f/ om.vm. o[m.f wJt h wdik .w.u aumufarG.wdYk bDv.csKH0g.f/ td.f/ 'kw.k xde.zGm. aqmhupm.jyefygw.Ny.f/ olaX.wwfwJht&G.H 0Munfrh &? rsupf pd yg.t&if.mufr&Sad pcsiv f ?Ykd om.eJY ay.vdu k yf gw.ygw.jc0H rSm pGeyYf pf xm.arG. d tBurd af ygh/ tJ'Daemuf vSnf.udk owfrdoGm.vdYk vGwo f mG .k xde. a&m aCmouav.cJhyg w.D awmifay:uae ypfcsvu dk yf gw. jyefygw.16 0D&ol (rpd.bJae&mrS vSnf.udo k m olaX.f oGm.av.jzpfou l ]]nDi. 0ifupm.om.fqdkwJh tMuHeJYyg/ om.f/ td.l wdYk tpm.fNy.ckid .f vrf.u aumuf.ausmif.jzpf&if aCmouav.k ypfwm½I.av.jzpf&if aCmouav.eif. umuG.zdx k x J nfzh Ykd pDpOfygw.jzpfapcsif vdyYk g/ 'Dvekd YJ olaX..D tpm.fay.udk pwifvyk Bf uaH wmhwmyJ/ yxr EGm.f/ rSm.pm.f/ EGm.aoatmifvdkYyg/ uav.f/ vSnf.orm.pl.yku H awmh .f onfeaYJ ygif.NyD.BuzH Ykd tNrt J m.fyJ omG .orm. td.k xde.olaX.D u vk.f puf rD.rdNyD.fNyD.f onfxH oGm.av.H aevdYk nDi. tBurd af ygh/ aemufwpfcg jyef0.k xdef.t&if.xm.vkdufvdkY vGwf oGm.ckwfawmifolawGvufxJ toufraobJ a&mufomG .pm.f/ EGm. rD.qDu aiGwpfaxmifeJY jyef0.BuD.Bu.wmeJY aCmouav. pmtkyw f u kd f .aMumif.ovdk jzpfae vdYk aCmouav.NyD.cH&Ny.xkwaf eygw.

ESv.f/ aCmouav.uawmh olYZeD.t&if.f/ aCmouav.aom om.ygw.vnf.f? cHwyfvjkH cKH zUkd twGuf tm.NyD.Bu.?Mur®mrsdK.rGefrGef? arG.vJ&mrSm rSm. oda&m tylwjyif.aCmouudk taqGawmf orD.lvmol ighom.fNyD.D vnf. om.af &mufygNy/D olaX.? xko d x l if&mS .Muw H hJ pdwf awGeJYyJ aooGm.u? ykntm. aMumifh olaX.taxmuftyHah wG jynfph zkH v Ykd w kd .l qdw k m&. aumif.eJY ay.D olUorD.tjzpfeYJ tarGqufc&H Ny.oGm.xJ xnfhypfzdkY}} rSmvdkufygw.D aCmoutay: raumif. pmtkyw f u kd f .f}} qkdNyD.ay.w.bGUJ cH xD.D u olUrdwf aqG awmolaX. q|rtBudrf aoab.&JUaus.f/ ]]'Dpm.jrLapmifha&Smufvdkufyg}} vdjYk yifa&.D wnf.ygawmhw.vd?k þvlu Y .a&pufaMumifh aCmouudk arwåm&S&d mrS pmzwfrNd y.f olUqDa&mufvmolukd owf&r.? repfrem? o[m.f/ b0a&S./ tdk.&JU orD.f/ cHwyfvjkH cKH &if &efou l kd jzKH p&mrvdb k .ESi?hf aumif.enf.D &JU wpfO.pm.BudK.jyefygNyD/ olaX.cGihf &oGm.usdK.udk owfr&d mrSpí 0rf.NyD.? uHBuD.xdef.onf tvkyu f ckid ./ aCmouav.vkdufygw. pm.udk ozef. wu.vkdufygao.rnfo h ?l jzpfbrd u l m. ]]aCmouudkowfNyD. u a&S.&Jwpfqpf? cdu k w f efjY zpfvnf.vdu k yf gw.ft h vkyf r[kwf vm.aumif. yÍörtBurd f yGwo f u D wfoaD v. tdrfomusif.u ckvdkrdefYqdkawmfrl cJhygw.D wJh taMumif.wmyg/ olaX.fudk aCmouav.u pmrzwfwwfawmh olUudak o aMumif.Zl.D ola|. refvnfq&mawmfBuD.f/ awmolaX.u oufaojyoGm.aomua&mufNy.MupH nfwphJ mudk .rm. vlpm.D pmudk jyifa&.frw S Nf y.jzLaqmif. vGwaf jrmuf oGm.BuD.bJ? raoNrJwnf?h qif.cJhygw.f/ rrDawmhygbl.jyefygNyD/ q|rtBurd rf mS awmh t&G.pm.eJY ay.í? aumif.vdu k w f myg/ awmolaX.yuf vufeYJ ylaqG.Bu.Bu.vnf.lomG .pm.ygw.rS vGwf ajrmufoGm.Bu.? raumif. kd üf ? ukov dk Of yxH? tcHw&m.cJo h l 17 vdkufygr.xHpma&.yifay:rSm xm.kH om.f/ 'gudk&nf&G.f wJt h wdik .f/ aCmouav.f qdk wm&.

D ]]xdak .f u? i.uk?d odMum.b0yJ jzpfjzpf odyfNyD.f ? ykcufwiG .ud}k } vdYk pyf qdw k myg/ a.f &Siu f &H iS f yg&rD&iS jf zpf&if odMum.usifrh a&r&mwnf./ rjzpfcifpyfMum.m.0raoap&bl.D u ckvkd rdeaYf wmfrcl yhJ gw./ (rC/236) wu.uk?d taMumif.wpfa.? rsm.? xdak . k 0f ef0rf./ tJ'gudk refvnf q&mawmfBu.vufxufu aumorÁo D al X./ 'gaMumifh rdk.EGm.18 0D&ol (rpd.&rSmygwJ/h 'Dae&mrSm cspo f m.f/ olaX. o[m.rudk r&r.ausmif.avmif. taemf&xmvufxufwkef.jzpfukd jzpf&r.f/ rif.f/ olaX.arowd&apzdYk trSww f & jyefajymae wmyg/ a&yGuyf rm b0wm 'Dae&mrSm bk&m.jzpf&r.wdkY yk*HjynfrSmvnf.&&ifvnf.k &dr)f 'ku©umG í? csrf.Bu.avmif.avmif.f rjzpfap bke.fh uHyg&if rif.D wJu h o k v kd u f H taxmuf tyHu h kd qdv k w kd myg/ aCmoud&k nf&. vrf. pmtkyw f u kd f .odvu kd w f mu .fr[kwv f m.rSm 'ku© cHpm.vGeaf tmif? ud. rjzpfbJ vH.wGi.mufsm.ñTev f u kd w f mygyJ/ 'gudk arG.r&rnfomwnf. G Nf y.D ½I.f/ rif.foif.omapom. aCmo uvdkyJ cspfom.taygif.muf? ay:rnfaMumufí? taxmufrwef? jypfav.D 'ku© cHpm./ rif.roif?h owfapvifo h nf? rif.usepf pfom.aumif.f/ rif.mufsm.rjzpfbJ vHk.fawmh b0qdw k m ork'&´ m a&rsuEf mS jyifay:rSm cPwm yGuw f hJ a&wpfyu G pf mom jzpfygw.jzpfudk jzpf&r.m.wkef. tcdu k t f wefo Y m cHpm.b0yJjzpfjzpf? olaX.jzpfap? rde.k 0raoap&bl.D u enf.u rif. vkyMf ucH cH &hJ w. (rC/249) 'DuAsmrSm ukov kd Of yxHqw kd m tm.ae&½keH YJ b0udk yHak orwGurf zd Ykd refvnfq&mawmfBu.jzpf&r.a&&mvSwm r[kwfygbl.fh uHyg&if olaX.mufsm.H edr½hf Hk ? .ay.

jim.pdrOf pömawG[m .f b0wpfavQmuf vHk.awG vmawmhrmS yg/ o[m.D u qH.ri.xkwf&Sif.f=wu.af y. awm aumif? awmaMumifawG uif.omokc? abm*oD&?d tvd&k w dS ikd .yifay:rSm xm.? ewfrsm. pmtkyw f u kd f .u acG.k rvdw k m jzpfrmS yg/ rkew f ikd .cHBuD.aevdYk pnf.f/ tJ'u D o k v dk u f aH Mumifh aCmouav.f? rsdK.fygeJ?Y rkew f ikd .bd? uH&o dS u l m.f/ toGm.f aemufu avjynfavnif.D wpfy'k f xkwjf yaerdwmyg/ ukov kd Of yxH? aMumif.u awmxJtxd toHay.f/ acG. ay.fruGm? xyfMuyfygí? csrf. tm.av.D oGm.wpfavsmufrmS vnf.BuD.ud.apmifr? rao&bl.u rCa'0 vuFmopfBu.D avhvmaewmrdYk wpfy'k Nf y. tppfvdkYqdkwmyg/ 'Dukodkvfapwemu udk.fvYkd qdv k w kd myg/ rkew f ikd .frh w d af qGtppf? wu.? aoab.b0wkef.uav.olMuG.fah qGrsKd .fvrkd S owfvYkd r&wmyg/ tJ'gukd r[mo[m.xdpw dä H tvd&k dS orSs jynfph akH e&ygw.Nl y.f Ny.D axmufr\/ (rC/253) aCmou[m twdwfb0wkef.D r&GmapzdYk refvnfq&mawmfBu. cspo f m.xdpw dä ?H MuHMuHorQ? cs.wpfaumif jzpfcJhw.f Bu.awmhrmS yg/ avjynfavnif./ 'gaMumifh ukov kd u f [ H m tm.vnf.w.udk b. armif.f/ wpfcgwpf&H acG.vif.fvYkd qdv k w kd myg/ arG.f ? .u tdrfudk<uvmwJh yapöuAk'¨gudk tvGef MunfnKd cw hJ .f/ jyef<uoGm.OD.D udk Major wpfct k jzpf.kH om.ESv.D u Ny.jzpfcJhwmyJ r[kwv f m.&if vdu k f ydkYw.NyD.arvnf.cJo h l 19 vSrd Nhf y.tjyef c&D. vkyfMuHcH&vdkY tNyD.k xdu k w f hJ wu.rSmawmh aCmou[m olaX.BuKd qw kd . k 0f . yapöu Ak'g¨ udk oGm.atmifa[mifNyD.yifw h .v f sS if? ud.udk ozef.fh rdwf aqGppfjzpfw.uav.fESifh xyfMuyfruGm vkdufvHapmihf a&Smuf tumtuG.D &if avjynfvmpNrq J w kd t hJ wdik .f/ tdr<f uvm&if c&D.? yknapwem? r[mo[m.

jzpfyu kH kd cspo f m.qkjyK&if.rsKd .20 0D&ol (rpd.pm ed*.ar&.t& taumif.Bu. arcspf w J h cspf o m.loifyh ?kH aCmouESihf usepf pf om.f arG.axG .0g&S i f w ef ) o[m.kH rCa'0vm qdck yhJ g uAsmpmyd'k rf sm.D eJY taemf&xm wd&Yk UJ 0efww kd hJ pdwx f m.a&. .odvu kd &f ygw...aq. pmtkyw f u kd f . arG .qH.k &dr)f ay.wpfcu k kd ajcajcjrpfjrpf avhvm&wJh tusKd .udk oHa0*.awG jynf0h aezdYk vdt k yfy?kH olaX.f/ bmomw&m. (acwå .k &mtppf rdw&f if.artwGuf tm.f tm.wd&Yk UJ yg&rDcw H yfEiS hf ukov kd u f o H nfom tm.wJh pmawG [m arG.k cHppfjzpf atmif twGi.awG jzpfygapvdYk awmif.ud.vdq Yk &kd rSmaygh/ cspo f m.

udk ozef. pmtkyw f u kd f 21 .kH om.yifay:rSm xm.cJo h l ]arwÅmxyf&pf cspx f ufcspo f }l o[m.ESv.

22

0D&ol (rpd;k &dr)f

avmurSm remvdw
k m
jiLplwmqdkwm
vlrdkufawG&JYtvkyfomjzpfw,f . . .
ynm&SdawG&JY tvkyfr[kwfbl; . . .
ynm&Sdqdkwm wnfNidrfaewJU
a&uefBuD;vdk wnfMunfw,f?
jzLpifw,f? at;jrw,f?
u½kPmw&m;? arwÅmw&m;
jynfU0w,fvdkh qdkvdkygw,f . . .

o[m, pmtkyw
f u
kd f

ESv;kH om;udk ozef;yifay:rSm xm;cJo
h l

23

arG;arxHohkd at;apoH
tdwzf iG aUf y;pm trSw(f 2)

]arwÅmxyf&pf cspx
f ufcspo
f }l
'Dwpfywf arG;arxH cspo
f m;a&;vdw
k mu wduedygwf? rPd
olu&Zmwfawmf taMumif;yg/ rPdqdkwm-ywåjrm;? olu&-qdkwm
0ufjzpfavawmh ywåjrm;&JU obm0eJY awm0ufawGtaMumif; a[m
xm;wJh Zmwfawmfjzpfygw,f/

ypöKyÜef 0w¬K
t½kPu
f si;f vdYk aerif;xGuaf y:vmwmeJw
Y pfNyKd ief uf wjcm;
N*dKvf eu©awG? Mu,fwm&mawG[m aea&mifatmufrSm ta&mifr
awmufEdkifbJ aysmufuG,foGm;&ovdk vlYavmurSm bk&m;&Sif yGifh
o[m, pmtkyw
f u
kd f

24

0D&ol (rpd;k &dr)f

xGe;f vmwmeJY wpfNyKd ief uf t&ifwek ;f u rif;rlaecJw
h hJ bk&m;trnfcH
wdwa¬d wG[m bke;f wefc;kd ndK§ ;rSed ?f tjct
H &Hqw
k ,
f w
k ?f vmbfvmbawG
&Sm;yg;ukeMf uygw,f/ 'DtcgrSm wdwa¬d wG[m jrwfpmG bk&m;udk remvdk
jzpfNy;D wefc;kd csi;f rNyKd iEf ikd v
f Ykd olc;kd usio
hf cl ;kd MuH MuyH gawmhw,f/
yxr - okE´&Dtrnf&wJh tysdK&G,f wynfhrav;udk bk&m;
ausmif;oGm;tdyNf y;D reuftapm jyefvmovdk ESp&f ufo;kH &uf vkycf ikd ;f
w,f/
'kw,
d - vlru
kd if mS ;Ny;D okE&´ u
D o
kd wfcikd ;f um bk&m;ausmif;xJ
ypfxm;cdkif;w,f/
wwd, - wdik cf suzf iG ?hf &SmazGa&;vky?f tavmif;xrf; NrKd UxJvn
S ?hf
owif;vTifhNyD; udk,fwdkiftykwfcsMu? toa&zsufMu vkyfMuw,f/
&nf&,
G cf suu
f awmh bk&m;[m okE&´ ED iS hf umr*kPcf pH m;aMumif;
bk&m;wynfh &[ef;awmfawGu okE&´ u
D o
kd wfNy;D EIwyf w
d yf pfaMumif;
xif&mS ;atmifvyk w
f mygyJ/ 'Dvv
kd yk rf v
S nf; bk&m;ESihf &[ef;awmfawG
tMunfnKd ysuNf y;D t&Suv
f nf;& vmbfvmbvnf; &Sm;yg;oGm;r,f
qdw
k hJ oabmyg/
olw&Ydk nf&,
G w
f t
hJ wdik ;f atmifjrifw,fq&kd rSmaygh? t&d,m
awGuvGv
J Ykd o'¨grcdik af o;wJh om0wdN¬ rKd UolNrKd om;awG[m wdwa¬d wG
qifwt
hJ uGux
f J 0ifa&mufomG ;MuNy;D &[ef;oHCmawGukd atmhEv
S ;kH
emukew
f ,f/ jrwfb&k m;eJY &[ef;oHCmrSmvnf; tMunfnKd rNhJ y;D vmbf
vmb &Sm;yg;oGm;Muygawmhw,f/ 'gayrJh tcdu
k t
f wefyY g/
aemufq;kH awmh vlowform;awG t&ufr;l Ny;D jiif;cHpk um;rsm;
&mrS vlowfraI y:Ny;D ? wdwa¬d wGvnf; ud,
k w
f ikd Nf rKd UxJvn
S Nhf y;D atmf[pf
0efcH&? t&SufwuGJ tusdK;enf;jzpf&eJY? axmifusoGm;ygawmhw,f/
'DtcgusrS NrKd UolNrKd Uom;awG[m Zmwf&nfvnfomG ;Ny;D jrwfpmG bk&m;eJY
&[ef;oHCmudk wd;k vdw
Yk ;kd vdYk MunfnKd Mu? vSL'gef;MuvdUk twdik ;f xuf
tvGeu
f kd bke;f wef;cd;k awG awmufyuke?f vmbfvmbawG aygrsm;ukef
Muygw,f/
'DtaMumif;eJYywfoufNyD; jrwfpGmbk&m;&JU *kPfaus;Zl;udk
o[m, pmtkyw
f u
kd f

jyKMuwmjzpfygw.rSev f pf ñGefrnpfvdkY qdk½dk.rSev f pf ñGerf npf bk&m.f atmif vkyMf uMH uygw.? ywåjrm.*l[m olwjYkd zpfcsif ovkd npfEGrf.Muygw.f/ tJ'jD caoF&h UJ t&dy[ f m ywåjrm.ocFr. wjcm.f teD. jcaoFhwpfaumif[m usufpm.Edik rf tdyEf ikd jf zpfNy.qdkwJh oabmrsdK.Muygawmhw. vm aeygw.f/ ywåjrm. xdwfvefYaMumuf&GHUae&vdkY rpm.D u ckvkd rdeq Yf akd wmfrcl hJ ygw.avmif.wk&Yd UJ oabmobm0 udk ajymjyNyD.*lxrJ mS awm0uftaumifo.yifay:rSm xm.kH q.f/ 'gudyk J ywåjrm.udk zsufqD.? jcaoFhtEÅ&m.kd xif&mS .avmif.*lrmS vmxifygw.cJo h l 25 &[ef.rSm ywåjrm.oGm.f/ awm0ufawG[m jcaoFh&dyfudkjrif&wdkif.kH om.D refvnfq&mawmfMu.usihf aeygw. ESifh bk&m.kH awmh 0ufawG[m bk&m.t&yfukd xGuaf jy.avmif.f/ aemufq.f/ ywåjrm.&JU ausmif.f aMumuf&if wpfae&majymif. G Nf y.vpf? opfxufopf\/ o[m.k od?Yk wefc.oGm.kH awmh awm0uf awG[m jcaoh&F yd rf xifatmif ywåjrm. ajymjyvdu k v f Ykd 0ufawGvnf.u ywåjrm.? a&mif0gwd.qdkwm wpf*dkPf.*l&JUteD.udk ozef.tMumif.roGm.wnf.xH tusKd .f/ aemufq.oifah Mumif.rSmvnf. Munfvifvm ta&mifawmuf vmygw.*lukd ñGeaf wGeyYJ ufMu vl.f/ bk&m.f ? oa&rn§Kd .xkwaf zmfMuwJt h cg jrwfpmG bk&m.avmif.f aexdik yf g w.vdP k *f w l pfck &Syd gw.[m &aohb0eJY [dr0EÅmawmxJrmS w&m.? yGm.ESv.D ydev f v DS mMuygw.bJ e*dkxufydkNyD.eJY 'DZmwfawmfudk a[mawmfrlcJhygw.D usL.vdkYr&aMumif.xufymG . avQmufxm.MueJY npfErG .f/ tJ'D ywåjrm.u ywåjrm.f/ ywåjrm.awmfawGu cs.f/ 'gayrJh ywåjrm.f/bk&m.*l? 0ufjiLplí? &TUH jrLnpfap? yGwaf vavwdik .f/ 'gud&k nf&. pmtkyw f u kd f .

vnfvu kd w f mu awm0ufawG[m ywåjrm.f? at.f wefc.f/ 'gayrJh ywåjrm.awG oHk.uta&mif ydak wmufvmw.? arwåmw&m.atmif raumif.kwfatmif taumufMuHMuw.em.f/ wdwa¬d wG[m bk&m. jynf0h w.vdv k el YJ 0ufvv kd l avmurSm remvdw k m jiLplwmqdw k m vlru kd af wG&UJ tvkyo f m jzpfw.*lrmS ay:vmwJh jcaoF&h yd u f ydNk y.f/ 'Dae&mrSmcspo f m.f wef.MunfrQpGm? u½kPmESi?hf arwåmxyf&pf? cspfxufcspf\/ (rC/266) ywåjrm.f/ (olwo Ykd m t&Suw f uGt J usKd .enf.ta&mifredS af tmif ñGeef yYJ ufcMhJ u w. usuo f a& &Sv d mw. [m bke.udk odu©musatmif t&SufwuGJtusdK.uydkNyD.kH rdvYkd &nf&.? rqlra0? tdik Bf uD.*lrmS jcaoF&h yd rf xifatmif vkyMf uMH uw.f/ wdwd¬awG[m bk&m.kd vmcJw h .kd ndK§ .D xif&mS .a&od?Yk taecdik u f snf? BuHUBuHUwnfí? at.f? u½kPmw&m.udMk unfnKd raI wG ydw k .cJhw.f/ wdwaåd wGvyk Mf urH S bk&m.vmw.f/ tJ'DvdkvkyfrS bk&m.udk tMunfnKd ysuaf tmif vkyMf ucH w hJ .f/ tJ'DvdkvkyfrS bk&m.enf.f/ wdwadå wG[m awm0ufawGvykd gyJ/ bk&m.wJAh sL[mudk usio hf .f? jzLpifw.D vdk wnfMunfw.enf.jzpf atmif atmufvrf.k ydak wmufvmcJw h .f/ wdwa¬d wG[m bk&m.f/) wdwadå wG[m bk&m.fvYkd qdv k ykd gw.MuH o[m. G w f m&JU qefu Y sib f uf awG jzpfay:vmcJw h .f/'gayrJh ywåjrm. jzpf cJw h .f/ awm0ufawG[m ywåjrm.udk usuo f a&.[m odum© awG ydw k ufvmcJw h .jrw.f/ tJ'v D v kd yk rf S bk&m. pmtkyw f u kd f .k &dr)f pdppfrw S yf u kd ?f þvlüvQif? olru kd u f om? jiLplpmG cJ?h ynm&So d ?l y@dvu l m.26 0D&ol (rpd.f/ awm0ufawG[m ywåjrm.udk bke.udk vmbfvmb&Sm.rSed af tmif vkyaf qmifcw hJ .l / ynm&Sq d w kd m wnfNird af ewJh a&uefBu.cd.f/ ynm&Sad wG&UJ tvkyrf [kwb f . tay:rSm vJrG mS .

f/ tJ'v D v kd yk rf S bk&m.a&.? jcaoFu h akd Mumuf &if rif.w k rf mpGm aumufuspf npfywfwwfMuw.m? tumapm 0dyak vm okabm/ emó ouúm od&ð[EÅKH ? tyuúrx olu&m/ [.yGm.0uftaygif.mifeYJ atmifjrifNyx D ifcMhJ uwmygyJ? aemuf qHk.onf aZmwd&oywåjrm.fy.? oifwo Ykd m.ESv.f/ EdkifiHwume.avmurSmyJjzpfjzpf? vlU avmu rSeforQrSm twdkuftcHqdkwmawG? tNydKiftqdkifqdkwmawG? qefu Y sib f ufqw kd mawG &Spd NryJ g arG.frsdK.Bu.\ ta&mift0gudk azsmuftahH omiSg rwwf aumif.f/ r[kwrf [wf vkyZf mwfawGeYJ txkyjf ywmawG tykwcf swmawG vkyf aqmifwwfMuw.wdo Yk m a&Smifajy.z.vmcJw h .cJo h l 27 cJw h .enf.avmurSmyJjzpfjzpf? pD.f/ *vdb k .fol[m ynm&Sd? b.rwJhtwdkif.pHkrSm awm0ufvdkvlawG awmfawmf o[m.f &Si.f/ jyóemudk ynmeJY arwåmtMuifemeJY rajz&Si.Muukeaf vmh/ ( Zm? X/ 2/ 376/ jyef/ 2/ 602 ) ywåjrm.&mrSm edrfhuswJh atmufvrf.k rcJh wm jzpfygw.nHhacsmarGUjyefYajymaom ta&mif&Sd\/ tvGefwifhw.f atmifvyk v f rYkd &bl./ t.? El.edrfhcJhMuwmyJ r[kwfvm.f vif.f awmufy\/ xdyk wåjrm. pmtkyw f u kd f .H rPd a0VK&da.MuvdYk bk&m.udk ozef.f/ Edik if aH &.yifay:rSm xm.fcmG xGuo f mG .D ay:vmwwfMuwmyg/ ynmrJah wG[m wdwa¬d wG awm0ufawGvykd gyJ? jyóemudk ajz &Sif.avmif.avmif.arar/ awGMY uKH vm&wJh jyóem tcuftcJawGudk &ifqdkifajz&Sif.wwfMuw.facwf? IT acwfjzpfavawmh cPwpf jzKwaf wmh [kwo f a.vif.awmh bk&m.u 0uftaygif.[m vmbfvmbawG ydak ygrsm.fo[ l m ynmrJq h w kd m &Si.wdYk þywåjrm.f bJ? yg0gawG? tmPmawG? rm.kH om.mifa.udk qH.u awm0ufawGudk qHk.udak wmh npfErG . olwdkUyJ ta&.mawGeYJ &ufpuf.wJhtcgusrS b.f. wnf.awGudk usifhoHk.

eJYaygh/ y&dowfvufckyfwD.rdu k af y.k jyvdu k o f vdyk gyJ arG.oHudk tjrefMum.l qdw k m rD.fr.vdkufygw.oGm.rSmaygh/ ay.D 0rf.axG.kd rSed af tmif vkyMf uv H Ykd r&ygbl. qefu Y sib f uftaeeJY trdu k cf H trke.zdYk vlMurf.k &dr)f rsm.0g&Siw f ef) o[m. awG&Y ygw.fqkd wm tm. qkawmif.tm.pm.vHk.f cHNy.xd.&JU &ufpufrt I aygif.udk cspo f m.udk ta&mifredS f atmif vkyMf uv H Ykd r&ovd?k bk&m.D yg&rD jznfhay.AsL[mu vrf.f/ Zmwfvrf.xkwo f mG .HkMunfMuygw./ awm0ufvdkvlrsdK.&JUacgif.f/ 'gaMumifhvnf.rsm.u .pmed*.kH bk&m.om.&ygapvdkY cspfom.qdw k m &S&d ygw. ynm&SdawG[m trdu k cf H trke. (acwå .vnfvu kd &f ygw.omtm.jzpfatmif BuKd .D csed rf a&mufcif tawmtwGi.&ovd?k qefu Y sib f uf awG&UJ &ufpuf.om.zdeYk YJ awm0ufvkd vlrsKd . wefc.udk u.w k rf mrIawG[m ynm&Sad wG aumif.em.ay:rSm o&zltjzpf ajymif.aexdkifoGm.Ny.udv k nf.rSerf a&muf apEdik b f .p&mowå0gtjzpf arwåmxyf&pf cspfxufcspfzdkY vdt k yfaMumif.om.qdw k m aZmwd&oywåjrm.arcspfwhJ cspfom.armif.cJw h mygyJ/ rif.wD.aewJh oem.om.aewJh awm0ufvkd vlawGukd u½kPmoufpmG eJY arwåmxyf&pf cspx f ufcspMf uygowJ/h wpfcak wmh &Sw d mayghav? y&dowf vufcyk w f .Muawmh wmygyJ/ rif. rjzpfatmif owdxm.f cHNy.arar/ olww Ykd awG owdcsyfygapawmhqdkwJh oabmrsdK. pmtkyw f u kd f .pm.ojzifh igeJrY wl igh&efol 0g'DawGtwGuaf wmh 0ufawG&UJ enf.vdyk ?J ywåjrm.pm.fo h l a&mufvm&ifyjJ zpfjzpf? rif.wpfcrk mS t"duZmwfaqmifawGjzpfwhJ vlMurf.zdkY? ywåjrm.f rSm awmh iHcYk aH e&OD.f/ arG.f/ vlMurf.vdk vlrsKd .eJY rif.awG[m rif.zdYk jzpfw.ay.28 0D&ol (rpd.f/ txl.ay.& tm.u o½kyaf qmifyjD yifav rif. eJY awGMY uKH &&ifvnf.om.udyk &dowfu ydck spaf vrdYk vlMurf.D tepfemcH ESyd pf ufay.aumif.om.u jyefcsciG hf &&ifyjJ zpfjzpf y&dowfawG[m vufcyk v f uf0g.

udk ozef. pmtkyw f u kd f 29 .kH om.ESv.yifay:rSm xm.f xGuv f hkd vGwaf jrmufEikd yf gap} o[m.cJo h l ]½ke.

. . .f . o[m. pmtkyw f u kd f . arsmufawG[m xGufaygufydwfrdaewJU Mum. .f . . .rSmyJjzpfjzpf? ppfa&.k &dr)f Edik if aH &.30 0D&ol (rpd.0r&Sdygbl.xGufEkdifcJUw.xJu ½kef. vGwfajrmufEkdifcJUw. .rSmyJjzpfjzpf xGuaf yguyf w d af eNyq D w kd m vkH.

f/ wdEK´ uqdw k m wnfo.f xGuv f hkd vGwaf jrmufEikd yf gap} 'DuaeY arG.vku d jf cif.avmif.&JU ynm yg&rDukd cs.&mrSm tawmf twef jynfph aHk eNyjD zpfwhJ arG.wJh Zmwfawmfaygh/ avmua&.wJh "r®a&.vdkwJhtaMumif.apoH tdwzf iG aUf y.pm trSw(f 3) ]½ke.yifay:rSm xm.arxH cspfom.&mawGukd rCa'0eJY .artwGuf wpfpkHwpf&m tusdK.ESv.&mawG[m arG.kH om.a&.f&ygw.f xifygw. pmtkyw f u kd f .D wnfyifvYkd t"dygÜ . jzpfygw.artwGuf cspo f m.*kPjf yKxm.rjyKawmif pdwftm[m& (odkY) A[kokwtwGufawmh vkdtyf r.f/ bk&m.odoavmuf azmuf onfjyefcsay.cJo h l 31 arG.odorQ "r®a&.D usL.f/ cspo f m.uawmh 'ku edygwf? uvsmP0*fvm wdEK´ uZmwfawmftaMumif.arxHohkd at.SOw f JG avhvmEdik zf Ykd rdwq f ufay.om jzpfygw.f/ o[m.udk ozef.

wmrdYk vGwf vyfaysmyf g. arsmufb0wpfcw k ek .fcsufuawmh reufvif.rSmvnf.f? av.D oGm.f/ wnfo.f/ wnfo.m.D oD.D wpfck jzpfygw.&yg.ygw.wJt h csed rf mS vlawGraeMuwmrsm.k &dr)f wdE´KuZmwf bk&m./ vl awG[m rm.f/ 'Dtcsed rf mS bk&m.D oGm.l / ]]bmrSrjzpfap&bl.avmif. ravQmb h .D tJ'n D rSm ae&majymif.u cGirhf jyKygbl.D oD.ausmf &SdwJh arsmufawG&JU acgif.pGmeJY pm.tdyfMuygw.jcif.D wnf oD.m&if jyefvmMuwJh oabmyg/ tJ'&D mG rSm wnfyifBu.facgifrmS &Sw d hJ wnfyifukd tkyv f u kd f 0dik .usa&m ajcrudkifrd vufrudkifrdjzpfNyD.& pm.Ny. &GmBu.Dtcku d t f wefo Y m em.pm.mrsm.32 0D&ol (rpd.MurSmyg/ pdwrf ylygeJ}Y } qkNd y.avmif.wmeJY arsmufawGukd zrf.f? vuf eufrsdK.D wpf&mG &Syd gw.pm.f/ nOfhoef.f? tkwcf yJ g w.k p&m o[m. tEÅ&m.avh&MdS uygw./ noef.f? cGygw.csed rf mS wnfo. acgif vlacsww d cf sed rf mS oGm. pmtkyw f u kd f .MuNyD.Muygawmhw. &moDOwkom.pm.wJt h cgusawmh arsmufrif./ vltNrrJ aebJ .ckMd uwJh &GmBu.f vnf.D &Gmv.ud.zdYk cGiahf wmif. aMumuf&GHUwkefvIyf ukeyf gawmhw.f uaygh/ &Spaf omif.f/ wnfyifBu.f/ &moDOwkMurf.f? vSaH wGygw.f/ tJ'D tcsed rf mS vlawGoo d mG .D [m wpf ESpw f pfcg wnfo.f/ arsmufawG[m wnfo.ygw.Muw.f/ ae&muawmh [dr0EÅmawmxJrmS yg/ [dr0EÅm awmpyfteD.MueJw Y /hJ arsmufawGuvnf.D oD.avh &Syd gw.Muwmyg/ &nf&G.uvGv J Ykd olwrYdk mS tm.D oD.f/ tJ'&D mG rSm vlawG[m twnfwus raeEdik Mf u ygbl.awGudk pdwfwdkif.rsm.f? oefvsuyf gw.aqmifb0eJY arsmufrif.D awG[m teYt H &omeJY tawmf jynfph yHk gw.csiv f yYkd gyJ/ arsmufawG[m wu.vkyfaecJhygw.f Muygawmhw.&if jyefoGm.pkHeJYudk 0kdif.acgif vlawGtdyfarmuscsdef a&mufawmh arsmufawG[m tvQKd tvQKd eYJ wnfyifay:wufNy.usatmif tm.f/ roGm.f/ vlawG&UJ vufxrJ mS ausmufcyJ gw.f/ arsmufawGu wnfo.D wpfyif&ydS gw.csed f rSmawmh &GmrSmvlawG&cdS sed ef YJ BuKaH eygawmhw.f/ 'Dwpfcg wnfo.fwef.

Bu.Bu.oli.f}} vdYk xyfrt H m. aMumifh aoab.jrifa&m &Gmom.pD o.awG[m arsmufupd u ö kd ypfxm. aoeuaus.mifaqmifNy.D oufom&m &ap cJhygw.vnf.wpf vkH. &Gmjyefajy.yifay:rSm xm.NyD. d 'Dvt dk cgrsK.MunfhvdkufwJhtcg u.u wm.Hk apNy.wdu k yf gawmhw.f.wGufrdoGm.ppfMunfyh gw.vdrYk &bl.Muygawmhw.muf &JUtcef.f rrDEikd w f hJ ta0.ygw.f 0ef.oGm.&JUwl aoeuarsmuf ygrvmwmudk awGU&wJt h cg arsmuf rif.f/ arsmufrif.pudk awGUoGm.f/ aoeuqdw k m arsmuf rif.udk 0dik . ajr§mif.d rSm wm.Ny.f/ tJ'aD emuf arsmufawGukd pk½.H trsm.uae vGwaf jrmufomG .fwifp&mvrf.tkBd u.Ny.f/ awmxJjyefwhJ tcgrSmvnf.fusa&mufaeNyDqdk wmudk csufcsif.r&wJt h qk.Zl.fvrd rhf .u@ ta&.omoGm. f muEd.ay.aqmifwpfa.udk ozef.D wJt h &m jzpfaevdYk arsmufrif. cJhNyD.cJo h l 33 r&Sad wmhreS .fBu.lajy.f/ 'geJY arsmufawGukd ]]bmrSrylMueJY aoeu vmu. acsmif.ygw.fqw kd m cspo f m.ESv.f/ avxufavnmuaeNy.wdu k w f myg/ rD. tEÅ&m.avmif.vdu k w f .odvu kd f &wmyg/ 'kw.D teD.D pm&if./ acgif.f/ aoeuarsmuf tdy.qE´ukd vku d f o[m.aqmifjzpfwo hJ u l jynfoal wG vufvrS .f/ arsmufawGvnf.k vdYk arsmuf awGudk rawGU&wJhtcg arsmuftaygif.f (vl) a.u@ 'DZmwfawmfrmS cspo f m.Muygw.aqmifwpfa.D ykyH gyJ/ yxr tEÅ&m.awmif.kH om.D &GmpGerf mS csnif ifaewJh &ufuef. pmtkyw f u kd f .ygw. arsmufawGukd ESpo f rd t hf m.f/ csucf si.u rD.&JU ppfoBl u.ygw.loGm.f/ 'geJY tjrefajy.D rD.f odvYkd bk&m.onftbGm.odvu kd w f mu acgif.avmif.rjyefbJ aoeutwGuf wnfoD.u 0rf.f/ acgif.d jzpfwwfMuw.yefMuygawmhw.f qdo k vdyk J aoeuarsmuf[m uav.f/ 'gayrJh arsmufawGu wm. vufAvmcsnf.wkww f pf ckukd .D &Gmudk rD.ygawmhw.vnf.D udk BuKd a&mufaewJt h cgrSm 'grsK.f/ bk&m.ay.muf&UJ tcef.D jzpfygw.

yJeh ?YJ aoG.f Mum. (odkY) tEÅ&m.xJu arsmufrif. rxdwv f ef?Y rwkefvIyfbJ umveJYa'oudk okH.yJo h u l usKd . raxmifvdkYqdkNyD.fukd BuKjd rifco hJ vdk tEÅ&m.cHolucH&? vufeufrSefvdkY aooluao? usKd .om tajrmftjrifrchJ &hJ if tm.rsm.[m olpY um.udpaö y:vm&if wdu Yk kd 0dik .BuD.wmeJY tzrf.bl.wwfMuw.u ouf aojyoGm.a&SmifomG .w.34 0D&ol (rpd.pGm [m arsmufrif.ESpo f rd hf rjyKEikd cf &hJ if &efoal wGMum.fusa&mufawmhvnf.f/ wwd.f/ arsmufjynfoal wGbufuae &J&0J 0hH hH &yfwnfay.wwfMu w. ypfy.f/ o[m./ 'Dtcsed rf mS arsmufrif.fqw kd hJ tcsuyf gyJ/ 'gayrJh arsmufrif.cJhygw.wJh taMumif.f/ wkev f yI af jcmufjcm.f/ rsupf yd su?f rsuEf mS ysuf eJY olrsm.favmuf ta&.xJrmS arsmufawG[m ESvkH.Muyg}} arsmufrif.f/ ]]arsmuftaygif.fvdkta&.D awmh arsmuftaygif. arsmufjynf olawGeYJ twl&adS ecJw h .EdkifcJhygw.f/ Ny.xGuo f .t f m.fh awmfMumonfhxuf ta&.ud. aooGm. reufvif.muf&JU tcef.f/ arsmufrif.d rSm tcsKd Uacgif.f/ 'grSr[kwf&ifvnf. rvkyfbl.xm.xm. oGm. pmtkyw f u kd f .MuawmhrmS r[kwyf gbl.aomarsmufawG&JU toufaygif.rSwpfyg.ygw.f cHae&wJh txJ rSm ygaew.tay:rSm rlwnfaeygw. ud.&m r&Sad wmhygbl. &Spfaomif.Edkifygw.xJu rdefYcGef.? rsufESmvTJcJypfvnf.udk ESpo f rd hf tm.NrpJ m.f? b./ 'g aMumifh tckcsed rf mS pdwcf svufcseo YJ m tvk&d o dS avmuf pm./ tEÅ&m.fMum.ay.avmif.aqmifwpfa.frxm.f jzpfygw.ay.oyfNyD. tjypfrwif &efov l ufxJ a&mufae&vkv Yd nf.u arsmufawG udv k nf.uJGNyD.k uG.xuf ydkaMumufaewwfMuw. H kd jzpfuek af wmhrmS jzpfygw.f/ acgif.u@[m b.f/ 'Dvkd ae&mrsK.fqdkwm bk&m.Edkifayr.f tm.w.f/ arsmufrif. tajctaet& aoeu vmrSmudk twwfoad ecJyh gw.BuD.aqmifawG[m acgif.f/ arsmufrif. em.&JU &J&aJ wmuf rdecYf eG .wdYk raMumufMuygeJ?Y vlawG[m tckcsed rf mS om wdkYukd 0dkif.k &dr)f avsm&w. k w f ikd f t0dik .&JU tEÅ&m.

udv k nf.frjyKEikd af wmhygbl.D usL.f vmay.?) o[m.vdu k Mf uwm vGeyf g a&m/ arsmufawGudk vSnfhawmif rMunfhtm. jzpfygw.kH om.f=enf.f/ &Hcgwpd? ta&.&Smawmhbl. k u f .udk ozef./ wu.pGm? BuHpnf&m\? ynma&SUxm.jzif?h ÓPfomG .Edik rf S tEÅ&m.fqw kd m ud. pmtkyw f u kd f .ESv.cJo h l 35 ½k e f .ray? xufjrufapavmh/ (rC/199) (uyd&mZm=arsmufrif.rsKd .f/ &GmrD. kd w f ikd f tEÅ&m./ 'gaMumifh tEÅ&m.vdkYom jzpfygw.vk./ 'gayrJh aoeu&UJ aus.f &if.&Su d ? uyd&mZm? 0ge&dE´? aoeuwd?Yk vk.rdcjhJ yefyg w. ckvkd rdeaYf wmf rlcJhygw.D refvnfq&mawmfBu.avmifawmhvnf.y&d.f? MuHaomhE.fwHrsOf=enf.H 0vGwaf jrmufomG .udk tEÅ&m.H vtm.aMumifh pdwo f uf om&m &cJyh gw.f qdw k hJ vGwaf jrmufa&.D uvnf.aMumifo h m vk.yifay:rSm xm.f xJ usa&mufaeolawG[m tEÅ &m.f awmh olrsm.? Oyg.f rus a&mufao.D jcif. G Nf y.& jcif.&ygr.AsL[mudk vnf. rMuKH cJ&h ygbl.fusa&mufNyD qd&k ifawmh olrsm.ynm? orÜZOf=qifjcifwkHw&m.Zl.fpufuiG .AsL[m? enf.olukd tEÅ&m.udk cspo f m.fjyKw.f/ udk. ysupf . oabmw&m.D jzpfol aoeuarsmuf&UJ enf. vlawGajy.qefcufrjzpfvv Ykd nf.Ekid rf .OS Bf uD.frS uif.? 0ge&dE=´ arsmufrif. tEÅ&m.fjyefay.fudk.a0.f/ 'gud&k nf&.f/ ½ke.fwrH sOf? orÜZOfEiS ?hf ÓPf. cs.? vk.H [m arsmufrif. xG u f v d k Y vG w f a jrmuf E d k i f c J h o l 'Dae&mrSm ppfoBl u. owdxm. S o f ?Ykd Oyg.m.fwkdif tEÅ&m.f/ arsmuftm.H vraygh? rarhavsmhb?J ravQmhpw d 0f .

zdYk vdt k yfygw.f/ Edik if aH &.rSmyJjzpfjzpf? ppfa&.yGm.[m arsmuf taygif.jcif.D aoeuvdk ol&aJ umif.ydwfrdaewJhtcg tjyifuae u.rSrygbJeYJ aoG.vkH.fh arsmuf ppfoBl u.D aoeuwdv Yk kd rsK.xJ u ½ke.f/ arG.fwifr.f xGuv f Ykd vGwaf jrmufEidk yf gapvdYk cspo f m.f/ 'DtcgrSm arsmuftrsK.xGuo f . d ? ZJ?G owå?d qifjcif wkw H &m.pGm vGwaf jrmufEikd af o.eJY arsmufppfoBl u.arcspfwhJ cspfom.vdk ½ke.wdu Yk akd wmh ydik q f ikd x f m.areJt Y wl tm.pHek YJ 0dik .f umydwq f x Ydk m. ay:aygufvmygap/ arG. (acwå-0g&Sifwef) twGJ 1? trSwf 4 'DvdIif.arar/ arG. cHae& w.H aom ydwrf ad eoltaygif.pmed*.H 0r&Syd gbl.Hk ? wkww f pfacsmif.d om.k &dr)f ay.f xGuEf idk cf w hJ .? enf.f/ tm.vk.ud.Hk &JU tusKd .arar/ wpfcak wmh&ydS gw. pmtkyw f u kd f . vGwfajrmufcJh&w.axG.f arG.rSmyJjzpfjzpf xGuaf yguf ydwaf eNyD qdw k m vk.ay. vdkufygw./ arsmufawG[m xGuaf ygufyw d rf ad ewJMh um.pmapmif o[m.f/ vGwaf jrmufEidk cf w hJ .&if vlqw kd m arsmufxuf todÓPfBu. qkawmif. H rkd I uif.yrf.udk tvd&k dS wJh u.d csppf w d "f mwf tajccHwhJ owd? 0D&.rIaMumifh wpfrsKd.f/ arsmufawGawmif vufeufqv kd Ykd cJwpfv.ynmeJY todw&m.fwif&Sif aoeuarsmuf&JU oufpGefYqHzsm.vkH.36 0D&ol (rpd.wpf&yfv. k w f ikd ef YJ arsmufjynfoal wG[m vufeufuikd f vlwpfp&k UJ vufeufrsKd . BuKd.Hk 'DZmwfawmfrmS arsmufrif.rsm.om.D ol jzpfygw.f? 'Dae&mrSm arsmufrif.pD.

yifay:rSm xm.cJo h l o[m. pmtkyw f u kd f 37 .ESv.kH om.udk ozef.

. 'gayrJU tJ'Dtiftm. pmtkyw f u kd f .Bu. 'gaMumifU tJ'Dvdk &efolrsdK.f .fygw. o[m.? ynmw&m.38 0D&ol (rpd. . .udk atmifEdkifzdkh&m odyfvG. .k &dr)f avmuxJrSm MuKH &wwfwmu &efo[ l m tiftm.eJhnDwJU todw&m.D wm trSefyg . . .awmh r&SdwwfMubl. .

t&mtm.yifay:rSm xm. arsmufrif.apoH tdwzf iG aUf y. arsmufb0wke. ZmwfawmfawGygyJ/ trSwrf xif &efoYl vufatmuf usa&mufcNhJ y.H pm. pmtkyw f u kd f .cJo h l 39 arG.arxH .avmif.fwrH sOef YJ owd? 0D&.yifay:rmS xm.vdo k l bk&m.i.&Sw d hJ um.arxHohkd at.udk ozef.kH om.&JU &efatmifaMumif.ESv.f yrmP&SNd y. d awGaMumifh toufraoyJ &efov Yl ufrS vGwaf jrmufvmch&J ykaH wG jzpfygw.pm trSw(f 4) ]ESv.D rS Oyg.D qifajymifwpfaumifavmuf tm.vk.f u jzpfygw.avmif.f/ 'D taMumif.cJo h }l arG.f t&G.aeYa&.vdkwJh taMumif.uawmh bk&m.H udk 'kuedygwf okork m&Zmwf? ukrv dÇ ZmwfeYJ pwkueú yd gwf 0ge&ZmwfawGrmS awGcY &hJ wmyg/ ESv.f/ jrif.udrk S ok.udk ozef.AvrsK.Hk om.d eJY tif o[m.Hk om.

D arT.aew.}} arsmufrif..Hk om.NyD.ae&wmvJ? [db k uf urf.f/ ]]arsmufrif.f/ [dr0EÅmteD.aomufcsed rf mS rdausmif.pygw.yefygawmhw. oifwu.rSm o&uf? ydEpJé wJh opfo.zdu k tckvq kd ufajymygw.f/ rdausmif.r&&if ao&ygawmhr.rdNyD rdausmif. kd w f nf. tckvkd jyefajymygw. jrpfxaJ &qif.yJ aexdik yf gw.Ny.w f . oGm.zdu k vnf.[m rdausmif. aeygw.k &dr)f rwefwifw h .f/ 'Dtcg rdausmif. pmtkyw f u kd f .fq&kd if igvdu k yf yYdk ghr.EdkifyghrvJ}} 'Dtcg rdausmif.fvdkvkyfNyD.f ay: wifNy.f/ bmaMumifh onft&yfrmS yJ onfvkd usupf m.uvnf.ygawmhvm.f/ rm.udk pm.f/ ]]arsmufrif. vdw k hJ csOjf cif.zdkeJY rdausmif.fvkdYudk wkdufwGef.yghr.awGuykd J tNrJ pm. **Fgjrpf[m a&rsm.zdu k kd zGiahf jym ylqmygw..fomG .mausmhuiG .rwdkYaexdkifygw.f/ **FgjrpfxJ rSmvnf. **FgjrpfauGY wpfck awmtkyw f pfcrk mS wpfu.f}} 'DvdkeJY arsmufrif.zdYk tuGuaf csmif.udk igb. arsmufrif.40 0D&ol (rpd.arsmufukd aeYpOfjrifawGU&awmh arsmufEv S .ay:wufpD.f/ ighausmuke.fwhJ arsmufb0udk &&Scd yhJ gw.zdk u pum.w.aomufNy.oif[m onft&yfrmS iSuaf ysmoD.awG tqk.avmif. vdkufoGm.f/ [dkbufurf.wpfck jzpfay:vmygw.f/ ]]rdausmif.l / tJ'b D ufomG .f/ wpfaeY arsmufrif.f/ jrpfjyifus.D pm.D usupf m. .udk vSnphf m.D ydaYk qmifay.D csKd opfo. rdausmif.f/ aemufqkH.H r&Sb d .f eif. awmif.csiw f .yg o[m.r[m bk&m.

Hk om.rSm&Sw d . jyefa&mufa&m rdausmif.rdkuf-owå0g wd&Yk UJ ESv.rSmawmh arsmufeJYrdausmif.wufraI Mumifv h Ykd ajzwJt h cgrS arsmufrif.fusa&mufNyDjzpfaMumif.&Sdr.udk ozef.vm&if.f/ ]]taqG&.ay.[m rdausmif.f omay.w.Hk om.f/ rdausmif.u ighujkd yefy&Ykd if ozef.ygawmhw. 'Dtyifckeful.foal jymvJ? wu.fqdkNyD. a&ozef.fom o[m.vdkY vSnfhpm.yifrmS csw d q f x GJ m. odoGm.f/ aemufqkH.f/ ESv.vnf.oGm.f/ ]]rdausmif.u olUudk [db k ufurf.r. pmtkyw f u kd f . udk jyefvn S phf m.Hk om.&if toufcsr. uwdjyefay. zdu k olrY .[efjyNy.f/ 'Dtcg arsmufrif.zdYk Mu&H .& avSmifajymifoa&mfygawmhw.D bmaMumifh a&ESpo f wf&wmvJvYkd ar.fajymNy.m.awGay: ajy.&yg.u tqdjk yKwt hJ cg arsmufrif.[m opfyifzsm.vnf.udk tm.om ac:oGm.D ]]Munfyh ghvm.ygw.rSef.u opfyifay:vnf.[m igh&ifxJrSm &Sw d . ykrYd .ygw.l vkyf&yg awmhw.ol arsmufrif.oifrodbl.wJh ESvkH.rSm aygh}} vdYk ajymwJt h cg rdausmif.D oGm.yifukd vufnKd§ .f}} vdkY ajymvdkufygw.frmS xm. tay.k jyNy. k o f mBuD.D a&ESpo f wf zdYk a&ikyaf jy.fqdk&if [dktyifckeful.udk ay.f/ rkdufrJolyJ? vSnfhpm.ovJ}} vdYk jyefar.&JU csOjf cif. rod? oif[m udk. rIerYf eI n Yf ufnufjzpfatmif aMurGysupf .fvYkd oifu h kd b.f/ ud.yifay:rSm xm.om.t.f/ rdausmif.eJY opfyifzsm.fvYkd rdausmif.f/ 'Dtcg arsmufrif.u eD.fqw kd mudk t[kwrf w S af ew. G yf gw.u opfyifay:rSm tajctaet&yf&yfukd &dyrf Nd y.D jzpfwhJ arsmufrif.[m tEÅ&m.yifrmS csw d q f x GJ m.? ighESvkH.Hk om.&mozef.kH om.fvYkd igh&ifxrJ mS om ighEv S .om.cJhygw.vTm.cJo h l 41 awmhw.ygawmhw.f/ ESv.r.vm. cPyef.udk b.xd..Hk om.u ]]'gqd&k if oifEh v S .ESv.í tcsderf pD.

forl qdk atmifEidk o f jl zpfrmS yg wJ/h 'DtaMumif.av.rvpf? rif.meJY jyefoGm.H 0udk r&So d yl /J tckcsed rf mS awmh csr.wdo Yk nf? oEÅd = &Su d ek \ f / aom = xdak v.D jyefvw tpm.qdkwJh 'Dw&m.? 0pDopömvnf.mufvdk ESvkH.f omom T w f t hJ cg rdausmif.rl&pfavmh? rif.? pGefYBuJay.f/ opöH "r®? 0D&.? ponft h m.aumif. pmtkyw f u kd f .ygawmhw. enf.ygw.om jynhpf rHk .folrqdk &efolUvufrS vGwfajrmufvdkolawGrSm &Sdoifh&SdxkdufwJh t&nftcsi.romr.av.yg.½IH.yg.urf.aumif.aumif.xkwjf cif.[m tavmif.D wm ynmusawmh vk.f/ &efoal tmifaMumif.[m rdausmif.k &dr)f Bu.ukeaf om? "r®m=w&m.ppf"r®wm? rcRwf&mbl. b.vnf.aumif.yg.vufrS vGwaf jrmufco hJ vdk wjcm.42 0D&ol (rpd.H v-vnf.? usifah umif.jzif?h w&m.jcif.yg. aom w&m.f csr.&Sad omolonf? 'd|H = &efou l ?kd twd0wåwd = vGeí f jzpfEikd \ f / (0g) atmifEikd \ f / (Zm? |? 2/ 189/ jyef/ 2/ 320/) 0pDopöm? ÓPfynm? vkH.? £wd = þod?Yk pwka&m = av.vrf. arsmufrif.udk refvnfq&mawmfBu. vk. jyefygavawmh}} 'Dvakd jymNy.? "Dwd = tm. d ESi?hf pm*[lonf? &efoal tmifaMumif.? "ar®m = ynmvnf.f/ opöH "ar®m "Dwd pma*g? 'd|aH om twd0wåw/d opöH = trSeu f q kd jkd cif.D u ckvrkd ed q Yf akd wmfrcl yhJ gw.v0D&d.? pma*g = pGeBYf ujJ cif./ (rC/ 222/) o[m.olwpfa.fq&kd if b.f awGukd ZmwfawmfrmS tckvkd azmfjyxm.aumif.

jzpfay:vmaom tajctaet&yf&yf jzpf&yftrIreS u f kd vsifpmG rod? xdo k o l nf &efoUl tvdo k Ykd vdu k &f \/ aemufüvnf.f/ o[m.yg/ oa&mfpum.feJYvkdufzufwJh ÓPfynmawmh r&Sb d .f odu &efojl yKorSs rcH&/ aemufaemifvnf. 'DZmwfawmfawGxJu arsmufrif.yifay:rSm xm./ 'gaMumifh tJ'v D kd &eforl sK. jzpfay:vmaom tajcaet&yf&yf jzpf &yftrIreS u f kd vsifpmG omvQif od\/ xdo k o l nf &efow l \ Ykd ESyd pf ufjcif.d rjzpf& rjzpfEikd v f Ykd qdv k ykd gw.d udk atmif Ekid zf &Ykd m odyv f .rS vGw\ f / aemufüvnf.D wm trSeyf g/ 'gayr.? ynmw&m.wm? cE¨mudk.l wJ/h avmuxJrmS MuKH &wwfwmu &efo[ l m tiftm.f/ &efoUl vufxaJ &mufwmeJY wpfNyKd if euf csucf si.f/ rdausmif. aemifwwpfzef ylyefrrI sK. G yf gw.k &dryf yl ef&\}} ]]tMuifolonfvnf.f/ aemifwwpfzefyyl ef&r.Bu.fuomBuD.f/ ]]tMuifoo l nfvnf.D rS ajymwJph um.cJo h l 43 &efov l ufxJ usa&mufreI YJ ywfoufvYkd 0ge&ZmwfrmS vnf.wpfckudk tawmf oabmusrdygw.udk ozef.pum.eJY nDwt hJ odw&m.fh tJ't D iftm.vdYk qd&k rSmaygh/ r[wD 0w aw aAmE´?d e p ynm w'lyu d m/ oif[m cE¨mudk.Hk om.kH om.ESv. pd. opfyifay:a&muf Ny. rylyef&}} (Zm? |/ 3? 122/ jyef? 2? 832/) &efov Yl ufxaJ &mufvrYkd S a&mufreS .f rod&if &efojl yKorQ Ek& r. pmtkyw f u kd f . tckvkd a[mawmfrcl yhJ gw.awmh r&Sw d wfMubl.vufxJuvGwfNyD.f/ jynf&h ifxu J ESv.

udk tpOftm.avmif.f/ 'gayrJh rif'v J m. pmtkyw f u kd f .aysmEf ikd yf gap/ bk&m.Ekdifygap/ arG .u jynfolU&ifxJrSmyg arG.rSmyg/ arG. qd&k if &efoUl vufxrJ mS (27) ESpaf wmif aecJ&h w.om.cJo h al wG&ydS gw.f/ ay.Hk om.rSmaygh}} wJ/h ]]ighEv S .vSnphf m. (acwå .wJhtcg rIerYf eI n Yf ufnuf aMurGysupf .ESvkH.pmed*.vkd ESv.44 0D&ol (rpd. aqmhupm.xm.muf tNrw J rf.udk &efov Yl ufxJ ta&mufrcHEikd b f .arsmufrif.l / 'gaMumifh olU ESvkH.vku d w f hJ pum.f}} wJ/h trSeyf gyJ/ cE¨mud.xm.av.arar/ wu.udk wpfae&mrSm xm.fu &efolUvufxJa&mufaeayr. jyKH .udk ozef.2009/ o[m.Hk om.udk awmiftmz&du jynfolawG&JU&ifxJrSm odrf.k &dr)f aemufwpfcu k arsmufrif. igh&ifxJrSm&Sd&if opfyifzsm.Hk cE¨mudk.fcJG& tESpfESpfq.D oGm.ygw.udk ozef.Ekid yf gap/ opö"H r®? 0D&.fh ESvkH. u olEY v S .yifay:rSm csw d f qJx G m.om. arcspf w J h cspf o m. tNrw J rf. rcJw G rf.Hk om.7.Hk om.arwpfa. yifay:rSm csw d q f x JG m.yg/ ]]ighEv S .fausmfaygh/ wu. d ESi?hf pm*[lonf? &efoal tmifaMumif.ypfcJh w.aysmo f mG .0g&S i f w ef ) ? 4.arajymwJh rif'v J m.yg.? usifhaumif. k u f &efov Yl ufxJ usa&mufaeayr.awGu ckeful.axG .fh ESv.fMumvS (27) ESpfaygh/ aemufqkH.f/ arG.Hk om.awmh cE¨meJY tonf. jyKH .

pmtkyw f u kd f 45 .yifay:rSm xm.kH om.udk ozef.cJo h l ]aer0if bk&ifjzpfcsio f }l o[m.ESv.

MuKww f eUJ nf.f wefc.f? &ufpufMurf.rSm odyrf rdu k Mf ueJ?h &ufpufMurf. wefcdk. . .k &mr&bJ epfrGef.46 0D&ol (rpd.wwfw. .ud.fxrJ mS avSysuo f vdk axmufwnf&m tm.&if yifv.k &dr)f bke.wJU tcdkuftwefhav.kd xGm. ysufpD.oGm.tmPmawGvnf.f .eJh &vmwJpU nf. .pdrq f w kd m a&&Snfr&Sdbl.MuKwfwJU tmPm&Siaf wG tmPmrJo U mG . o[m. .&wwfw. pmtkyw f u kd f .

u [m. jzpfygw.f&ygw.Awfwuúov kd f o[m.apoH tdyzf iG aUf y.udk ozef.avmif.f/ a0eomcqdw k m tcuftvufawG tNrJwrf.p&m aumif.f/ 'DZmwfawmfeYJ ywfoufNy.D &JU rdeq Yf ckd suaf wG? Mo0g'awGu rSwo f m.aewJh anmifyifvYkd t"dygÜ .ESv.u jzpfygw.fh taMumif.arxH arwåmvufaqmif ay.f/ b0avSeYJ yJu h ikd &f iS f bk&m.ydv Yk u kd jf cif.kH om.yifay:rSm xm. 'Domygarmu©q&mb0wkef.t&muawmh yÍöu edygwf? a0eomc ZmwfawmftaMumif.cJo h l 47 arG. vSwmrdYk arG.aeYa&.yJ jzpfygw. pmtkyw f u kd f .f u wuúov kd q f w kd m ckacwf tar&dum.D refvnf q&mawmfBu.arxH .f/ tJ'w D ek .pm trSw(f 5) ]aer0if bk&ifjzpfcsio f }l arG. &SifoefjyefYajympnfyif jzpfxGef.&r.arxHohkd at.

awG? olaX.&JU rif.awmfBuD.? csrf.\/ Edik x f ufuvl jyKwwf\/ Murf.zd?Yk yJu h ikd Mf urf.k r wJh Mo0g'uxmjzpfygw. MuKwf½kefY&if.pdrfOpömjynfhpHkjcif.wwfzYkd tckvkd qH.onfwpfa.vdYk b0avSarSmufomG .48 0D&ol (rpd.jzpfygw.f ? tEdik t f xuf jyKusiw hf wforl eS .f/ b0avSuakd vSmcf wf&mrSm yJu h ikd rf Murf.f/ 'g aMumifh pdwaf umif.om.om.zd?Yk Muifemoem.f/ ]]tarmif. a&muf&v dS mcJyh gw.l / ud.D wwf\/ xdMk urf.aevawmufyaecsdefrSm pnf.f wef. qH.vkaYd c:wGiMf uw. pmtkyw f u kd f .f/ ygarmu©q&mBu.awmf tdraf &Sph jH A[®'wfrif.&m ausmif.rSe. k rhf mS tmPmvufeuf rJo h mG .&if avmu"Hork'&´ mxJ epfjrKyo f mG . k v hf ufxufrmS rd.MuKw½f ek &Yf if.&JUom.k rawmfryl g w.k rvd&k if.frmS avSysuo f mG .k aumif.uGmjcif.f/ jA[®'wfrif.pdro f nf t&Snrf wnf/ tpd.om.onfrjzpfvifh}} bkef. .D rjzpfEikd b f .f/ wpfaeYrSm ygarmu©q&mBuD. wpfcsed rf mS awmh jA[®'wfrif.[m tdraf &SUpHb0rS &Sib f &k if jzpfvmygw. qdEk ikd yf gw.Edik af Mumif.mufvdk aqmufwnf&mr& jzpfwwfygw.jzpfygw.k &dr)f vdk jzpfrmS yg/ rif.wke.qdkwmawG[m tNrw J rf.wJh c&D. wdik yf iftrwfjzpfwYJ yka&m[dwf q&m&JUtrnfu ]]yd*v F }} yg/ yd*v F o[m.vTm awG ynmqnf.ñTeMf o0g'vdv Yk nf.om. oifonf Murf. .omokceJY jynfhpHkjcif.f/ jA[®'wfrif.yl.om.MuKwo f jzifh &aompnf.Zfyv’iaf y:u ocifah oG.f/ b0vrf.MuKwaf omolonf ork'&´ mü avS ysuaf omoluo hJ Ykd wnf&mudrk &onf jzpf\/ xdaYk Mumifh þuJo h Ykd Murf.f/ .xm.xH Am&mPoDrif.D [m t*F0Zd mÆ ynmwwfußG r.onf ysupf .f/ 'gaMumifh ud.odvu kd yf gw.f r&GmrdzYkd qH.rD.wmeJY wpf NyKd ief uf ork'&´ mtv.f oljzpfvYkd rif.awG? ynmwwf txufwef.? ab.b.Bu.mawG a0.MuKwf ½ke&Yf if.udjk rifvu kd w f meJY Murf.k &jcif.

f/ jA[®'wfrif.i.D wuúov kd jf ynfukd ppfcif.D wuúov kd jf ynfukd odr.&JU tMuHÓPfeJY wdkif.q&mjzpfrSmyJ}} yd*Fv trwfBu. .rSm&SdwJh rif..[m rif. {u&mZf bk&ifjzpf&if ig[mvnf.acwfu jynfrif.usif.udk oGm.kd ) ewfrif. jzpfygw.wke.lzYkd tm.fq&m bk&m.f ydu k Ef ikd rf .udk ozef.kH awmh ppfa&.? oDaygrif.eJrY edik v f Ykd tvG.wpfaxmifaoG.D [m ol {u&mZfrif.yg/ anmifyif apmifeh wf (½kup© .k pHaeolrsm.fvrkd S ppfwu kd o f rd .Deef.wpfaxmif jynfwpfaxmifukd tvG.awGukd vuf&zrf.eJY .wpfyg. csypfvu kd w f m rif.MwmvdYk qd&k rSmaygh/ trwfBu.ESv.w f ulord .om.cJo h l 49 trwfBu.vdkYyJ jzpfygw. olb Y &k ifvydk J Murf.f tqifh tkycf sKyw f hJ rif.D udk rif.aumif.[m **Fgjrpfem.uvmNyD.ud&k mS Muw H t hJ cg yd*v F trwfBu.MuKw½f ek &Yf if.u anmifyifBu. xGuaf yguf .wJaY e&m Edik x f uf uvl jyKwwfwaYJ e&mrSm ESpaf .D ajymwJh .Bu.jzpfatmif ajr§mufay.kH om.f/ tMuu H ek af wmh *VKeq f m.qdw k m c½dik t f qif?h wdik .Zfyal ZmfrS o[m.f/ ]]ZrÁL'dyf uRef. {u&mZfbk&if&JU rif.mufr&db S .csuq f w kd t hJ wdik .cdkif.f ydu k Ef ikd af yr.wJh .f/ ppfa&.? rif.awGudktukefzrf.f/ rif.Mwmu .D wpfyifatmufrmS .f/ jA[® 'wfrif.wdv Yk kd qdik &f mydik &f m pd.avmif.yifay:rSm xm.f aemufq.lord .aygif. odrf.D eef.wnfaqmufxm.f rif.awGyg/ a&S.ESit hf rwf tawmfh udk vdkufzufvdkYaeygw.vnf.w f ul zrf.udk {u &mZfrif.D [m tckvMkd uyH gw.Mwmenf.f/ jA[®'wfrif. rif.awmfwnfaqmufNy.wpfaxmifNc&H NH y.kH awmh wuúov kd jf ynfwpfcyk J useyf gawmhw.awGUygawmhw.fh wuúov kd u f akd wmh b.om./ bmaMumifv h q J akd wmh jA[®'wfrif.fh enf.f/ jA[®'wfrif.wpfaxmif jynfch yhJ gNy/D ya'o&mZfrif.f ydu k v f Ykd r&ygbl.f ydu k zf Ykd MupH nf aeygw.ygawmhw.vrf.om.lNy.Zfyal ZmfwehJ nf.f/ aemufq.eJY cif.m.ydkufvdkY r&atmif tpDtrHaumif.D ay..D uvnf. xkwyf gawmhw. pmtkyw f u kd f .l wJ/Y rif.f ya'o&mZfrif.av. 'domygarmu©BuD.r.f/ wpfaeYrmS yd*v F trwfBu.q&m jzpfcsiw f meJY jA[®'wfrif.fav. q&majymwJt h wdik .&JU i.

Oftyd rf ufqw kd hJ .D usomG .wpfaxmif&UJ tavmif.f/ tJ'v D kd .jzpfygw.awGu.ygw.D ajymwJt h wdik .d azmufypfvu kd w f hJ tukov kd u f [ H m aeYukd rul.D rS Adu k cf NJG y.awG paw.f/ jA[®'wfrif.k wpfacsmif.f rif.wJh wu.k awGukd pm.f ppfx.Zfyv’iaf y:rSm wdik .f/ tom.eJaY &.dk wufvYkd ac:wmyg/ o[m.csDa&. kd yl gw.&mxifatmif t½kyf a&.k wpfcu k kd pGeyYf pfvu kd yf gw.f/ Ny.wpfaxmif&UJ rsupf ad wGuakd zmufxw k Nf y.acsmif.[m trwfBu.D csuf csi.Zfyal Zmf&m anmifyifBu.D atmuf jyefvmNy.f/ rif.cGßex f ufaewJh t½d.f/ Vif.Bu.l . pmtkyw f u kd f .50 0D&ol (rpd.ygw.acsmif.f/ jA[®'wfrif.f/ 'gudyk J umv0dyguf aemufy.yef. Ed.xefwmaMumifh .k xJuae ewf bDv. aeYwiG .awGudk a&xJarQmypfygw.D armif.&JU nmbufrsupf u d kd xkw.udk toHk.vdYk ukew f t hJ cg t½d.k &dr)f tvG.cwfNy.D &JU userf supf w d pfzuf [m vSeH x YJ .kd oGm.k &m&m tom.fvYkd yd*v F trwfBu.Zfyal ZmfNy.kd wuf jA[®'wfrif.fbufrsupf d ay: wnfw h nfBh u.l wpfaumifxu G v f mNy.ygawmhw.ygawmhw. f l oGm.D uvDpmawGuEkd w k yf pfygw.wpf axmif&UJ rsupf ad wGukd xk.f/ rif.D rS rif.cHvu kd f &ygNyD/ ocifhaoG.D tdypf uf&m anmifyifay:rSm vlaoaumift½d.[m rif.&JU {u&mZfb&k if pdwu f .jyKjcif.awGeYJ anmifyifrmS vufig.f/ aumif.yef.w(v') wpfaumif[m rif.f vufiif.qGJcH&ygNyD/ anmifyifay:u vufig. Bu.aomuf aeygw.yHk t½kyaf wG[m aoG.csaD wGyg/ umv0dyguf aemufy.f csi.f aygufxu G o f mG .D ovGeaf y:rSm yufvuf vSef tdypf uftem.Zfyal ZmftNy.f/ aoG..w f uleYJ acsmacsmarmarm ppfatmifeikd rf .pm.D &JU b.Bu.f/ tlawGeYJ anmifyifukd &pfywfyal Zmf ygw.ygbl.fah oG.f/ rsupf 'd Pf&mu a0'em[m tvGejf yif.f jynfwpfaxmif&UJ ocifah oG.jyefay.kd cH&ovkd csucf si.ygw.f/ wuúov kd jf ynf NrKd U½d.ygawmhw.D rSm pnfw.f/ toGm.lvu kd yf gw.awGeJY aoG.[m .D owfypfygw.D u wifjyvdkY 'Denf.ao.D jA[®'wfrif.f yJ tusKd .k ay:rS jytd./ csucf si.

f yJ? .D u cspo f m.kH vH.f/ . aooGm.csed rf mS ckvdk idak <u.mufvdk ikad <u.MuD.f/ rif.wJhtwdkif. 'Danmifyif[m 'Dtwdik .udk ozef.a&mufr?S rdr.D refvnfq&mawmfBu.l jcm.udw k rf.fh iguawmh igjyKwhJ 'kuu © kd igud.wd?Yk ud. avQmufvkyfvdkY ckvdk ysupf .ürom? rvdu k ef mbJ? vd&k majr§mufjim.51 ESv.f azmufor®m? .[m q&mhpum.Zfyal Zmfvu kd v f Ykd anmifyifu bmrSx..wNy.ygawmhw.D rdz&k m.&Ny}D } tJ'aD emufyikd .f yJ? rowfcif rylaZmfcifwek .ZfylaZmfawmhvnf.f í½kw&f uf oabmFysuo f ?Ykd ud.k rjrifc?hJ ylyifvu Id v f ?JS yifv.k ? vTw½f ek .jrnfwrf.f rSm aemifw&aewJh rif.f/ rif.? olpY um.yifay:rSm xm.BuD.k ? vlru kd rf sdK.bl.? ab. pmtkyw f u kd f .qHk.D u aemifwwpfzef ylyefaMumif.&if. jA[®'wfrif.jrnfwrf.? vTr.D &w.rvmayr. wpfa.f rEdik ?f ysuq f .fxüJ ? aygufuaJG &>yrf.wpfaxmif&UJ toufukd owf cJhw. em.odcYk sdKNyD.rSe.f uvnf. rdz&k m. k w f ikd f jyefcpH m.lrpd ämESi?hf ynmrJo h ?l vl[o l rQ? vlAY mvwd?Yk rdbq&m? qH. wdkYudk trsm.cJo h l tJ'h v D dk tusKd .udk ckvkd rdeq Yf akd wmfrcI yhJ gw.jzpfwhJ raumif.kH wkid \ f / (rC/ 246) o[m.? wrmodcYk g.kH uef. k o f ufv.fqw kd hJ oabmrsKd .? emrNiD.Gi.f/ jA[®'wfrif.f/ 'g aMumifh rsupf Ed pS zf ufv.ay.fwí? xdAk mvqd.f vnf.zsuftrwf 'DZmwfawmfukd trSjD yKNy.Bu.k &mrxif? rd.? em.k rygvnf.D [m uav.u odygw.wm jzpfyg w. 'Danmifyif[m 'Dtwkid .f/}} ]]ig[m 'DanmifyifrmS rif.k rcJw h .awGudk owfNyD.rIurkd jyKzYkd ighukd qH.r axmifbJ trwfBuD.ajr§mufay.&JU tvS tyawGukd zGEYJ aYJG jymqd&k if.f/ ]]ighq&m ygarmu©Bu.rcJhygw.kH om.om? ysm.

D u yifv.fawmh olwUkd [m ppfb&k ifawGy?J ud.mudk xlaxmifcw hJ hJ zuf qpf? emZD? e.kH udk bk&m.mufrusef zrf.fhbufuMunfhawmhom ol&Jaumif.&wwfw.eJY tifyg.D &JU Mo0g'udk odyo f abmusrd k t f wefaY v.f aerSmyJvm.wJh enf. t½dk.rd.l / wef cd.qdkNyD. pmtkyw f u kd f .f/ &ufpufMurf./ [pfwvm? rlqv kd eD ?D eydv k .MuKww f hJ tmPm &Siaf wG tmPmrJo h mG .f qefw Y ef.fcsJUwmyJ/ udk.epf}} o[m.fvdkyHkpHeJY aocJhMuygovJ/tifrwef .csD.D awmfveS o f al wGukd qef wkww f u kd cf sovdk wpfa.awmh? 'DMo0g'udMk unfNh y.avmif.f vuf½ek .&mr&bJ epfrGef.D rvIyEf idk af tmif csKyf udik x f m.wJhenf.AsL [mawG jzpfvmcJyh g&JUvm.fqw kd hJ *&dwNf Aw d ed &f UJ aer0iftifyg.jzKwf tjywf&Sif.kH emp&m &efot l ppfy/J tmPm&Siw f &Ykd UJ b0ed*./ quf'rf[pl ed &f UJ rsKd .wJh tcdu pufMurf.awmh ygarmu©q&mBu.f wefc. enf.f udk jyefo.fvYkd qdEk idk w f m yg/ olYbufuMunfhawmh e. ysupf .MuKww f ehJ nf.w.f/ ]]wdik w f ef.vSygw.us xm0&atmifjrifa&. enf.Edik yf g&JUvm.kH oyfMunfh rdw.AsK[matmufu wnfNird af t. k b hf ufuMunfah wmhom bke.fxrJ mS avSysuo f vdk axmufwnf&m tm.onfawGeYJ OyrmjycJw h .D wwfw.&if yifv.rdwkdif.bk&m.Edkifwmyg/ olYbufuMunfh&if tm Pm&SifyJ? tEdkifusifholyJ/ awG.ygw.f}} cspo f m.kd xGm.k tmPmawGvnf.f/ wu.twGuf tmrcH csuf ay.f/ ]]bke.awG? tjrpfygrusefatmif ajrvSew f ehJ nf.AsL[muaum &mZyv’if cdkifNrJa&.fwrf.D ordik .wdYk udk *kP. aumif./ "m.fcsUJ wd&k UJ MuLyifcw k f MuLikwrf usef tjywf&iS .uscMhJ uw.52 0D&ol (rpd.wd[ Yk m taemf&xm? bk&ifah emif? tavmif. f t l m.pdrq f w kd m a&&Snrf wnfb.f wJeh nf.Ofaus.ematmif vkyfcJhwJh atmhEv S .f wnfah eqJyv J m. D pH wJh ppfb&k ifawG[m b.eJY &vmwJph nf.f/ &ufpufMurf.f? vlaerl tqift h wef.rSm odrrf rdu k Mf ueJ?Y &uf w. jrifrh m.m Bu./ cspo f m. ygarmu©q&mBu.csKyNf y.k &dr)f cspo f m.awG jyefrvSefEkdifatmif zdESdyf ESdrfeif.D uaum aer0ifbJ rGe.MuKww f ehJ nf.f rI[m a&&Snjf zpf xGe.awG[m wu.ay.k tkycf sKyNf y.fxrJ mS oabmFysuw f hJ c&D.udk.csr.

fcsUJ zdYk pdwu f .k rawmfrcl yhJ gw.\? qd.f tukev f yk cf rhJ w d .ygyJ/ rif.D ajrm§ ufyifah y.udzk suaf wmh trwfayghvYkd qd&k rSmyg/ atmifEikd af &.wpfaxmif ukd ½d.eJY anmifewfyal Zmfcikd .udak jrm§ ufNy.u vlawGajympum.qdw k o hJ al wG[m taMumif.udu k yfaygif.awGrjzpfzdkY ta&.[m &ufpufMurf.k \? pwmawGukd cGjJ crf.f vdu k v f yk w f hJ jA[®'wfrif.vkd cyfnn hH hH cyfwHk.D rif.em.MuKwo f jl zpfayr.f/ jA[® 'wfrif.a0zef raeawmhbJ jA[®'wfrif.rxifzdkY refvnfq&mawmfBuD.wkid .pm.tusKd . aomufaewJh yd*v F vdt k rwfawGaMumifh jA[®'wfvrkd if.rSswrI &Sd? r&S?d tusKd .k eJY aocJ&h w.[m q&mcdik .f/ &mZ0ifvlqdk. pmtkyw f u kd f .lMuzdkY ref vnfq&mawmfBu.udk t[kwfBuD.f rSm txift&Sm.udk atmifEikd zf t Ykd wGuf rif.yg.f/ rif.k cJw h . 0ifoGm.D owfwhJ &ufpufwehJ nf./ yd*v F trwfBu.ESv.wHk.wpfaxmifaoG.rjzpfatmif ab.f/ aemufq.ajrm§ ifzsuq f w kd phJ um.f cJw h .fh e.r.BuD.vsuf rif.em.kH awmh olom taoqd.f/ olaoawmh olq Y &m yd*v F trwf[m zaemifeh w YJ ifyg.udkawmif rcGJjcm.udzk suaf wmh 0g.Mwm 'DZmwfawmfrmS yd*v F trwfMu./ 'gaMumifh jynf&h iS rf if.wnf.awG ysupf .awmhwmyJ r[kwv f m.uvlawG ajym pum.? taumif.Ny.f/ &Siu f zkd suaf wmh "Z*fw?hJ "m.jrufw?hJ vluzkd suf awmh t&ufw/hJ tJ'h v D ykd gyJ rif. enf. .f/ rif.EkdifwJh qifjcifwHkw&m.D [m ppfatmifEikd af &.l r&Syd g bl.wJh ab.&Syd gw..D pm.usatmif ajy.u qHk.f wJt h wdik .D u ckvkd qH.kH awGux kd w k ?f Adu k u f ckd JG tlawGxw k Nf y.f/ o[m.&S\ d ? r&S\ d ? aumif.D &wmjzpfvYkd rif.yifay:rSm xm.udk t[kwx f if&if &mZ0ifrmS vlq.yifaumif.Mwm tjzpfeYJ rif.rcJhwm jzpfygw.wpfyg.vdYk {u&mZftmPm½l. jzpfc&hJ wm yg/ ab.udk ozef.k owfwmr[kwb f J rsuv f .udk oH.kd pm &if.w.k ½d.wpfaxmiftoufukd owfwm obm0us? rus? w&m.tqdk.fqdkwmudk oifcef. wpfom.kH om.cJo h l 53 [m ordik .uvlawG ajrm§ ufay.

f omvSsif? u½kPmuif.jzpfNy. d meH o[óH/ .csyf / / rCa'0ü rif.ZfylaZmfyGJ .edik cf w hJ myg/ 'gayrJh ]]qifajymifBu.[m jynfwpfaxmifudk odr.ray.jzpfzdkY wpfyg.csaD wGu oufaojyoGm.rSd .D usrw S pf}} qdo k vkd {u&mZfrif. d meH.D av.cwJh rsuf&nf jA[®'wfrif. Ny.miftrSm.rSm.ygonf/) ab.54 0D&ol (rpd.MwmacsrlawG jyKvkyfvdkuf csdefrSmawmh tukodkvf[m tvGefrwefBuD.MuLwftrl? jyKwwfou l m. rl&if.wpfaxmifv. .lcw hJ ek .cJyh gw.mifa.f .tvdkusrS xpfcHaecJhwmyg/ 'DrSmwifyJ t a.Hk udk vlrqefwehJ nf.rif.awmhwmygyJ/ o[m.fqw kd m ocifah oG. wmyg/ ynmrpGr.tMuif yanmifyifü? cwå.qD.f u tukov kd af wG[m odyNf y.Ny. zrf.f yrdomG .bl.D ? wpfrif.ð .f/ wu. csufcsif.umowfí? anmifewfwifb?d jyKacsrdaMumifh?rsufpda[mufawmuf? þrsufarSmufyif? aygufícsufjcif.rSd Cmw./ 0Dpq d if.eJaY &.ygw.pD.f .MwmeJpY rf.awG&JU aygaMumif aMumifEikd v f w S hJ pdwx f u G af yguf wpfcjk zpfw.D wpfrif.wd\ Yk / o[óH.f Bu.D wpfyg.jim.wpf&m[k qdak omfvnf.vkd cyfnhHnHhrif.owfNy[ D k rif.ð? cwå.ay.D tNr.? roem.f u tvG.k &dr)f rudik "f r®? rdu k 0f g'ESi?hf Amvvu©Pm? xifwikd .cJh wJh aoG. .f/ wpfyg.Zfyal Zmfyu JG kd usi.? xdUk wlrcGßwf? cH&wwf\/ jA[®'wf&mZm? rif./ rif.\/ (rC/ 246) (pum.Muwmrsm.f olawG[m .yef.wmaMumifh csucf si.wpfaxmifukd owfaMumif.D aoG. .Mwmqdkwm jA[®'wfrif.aygif.acsmif.leikd Nf y. pmtkyw f u kd f .D tusKd .eJY &uf &ufpufpuf owfjzwfNyD.lwek .f awmh .wpf&mud?k zrf.Ny.udk tusdK.NyD.D rBu.rm.cJyh gbl.D zrf. wef.Zmwfawmfü .D wpfjynf odr.f wulygyJ/ wpfjynfNy.? olt Y m.BuD.z½ko?f Murf.wpfaxmifukd Cmw.

m.? jzpfwwfjim.udw k Ny.rd.D aemifwrsu&f nfus vmcJw h myg/ 'g ayrJh 'Drsuf&nfawG[m aq.vdk om.bufr0ifawmhygbl.? rjcm.kH om.rvSb.k wd? jypfusdK.½IH.D &JU Mo0g'tqH.udk em.mrrsdK./ ab.tvm.l / ed.\/ bk&m.? aumif.qdw k hJ tmPm&r®uaf Mumifh b0ysucf &hJ wJh jA[®'wfrif. twGuef YJ twdu k t f cHujkd zpfap? tNyKd it f qdik u f jkd zpfap? atmufvuf i.ESpjf zm? þvl&Y mG 0.? aphpu kd yf sdK.ESpyf g.yifay:rSm xm.od?Yk om.cJo h l aemufqHk.aygif.usdK.u? xdrk sdK.tmPmav.udk oifcef.lz?Ykd ud.tmPmtwGuef UJ wdik .raxmifc&hJ aumif. k &hf mxl.k ? yrmEI.f/ 0dyguf[o l nf? Mumr&Sncf if? jyefvnfwwfrsdK.udjk zpfap? jynfov l l xkujkd zpfap? tMurf.usKd .MuD.d rl? cg.zGcYJ yhJ gw.awG pdwf ESv.udk ozef.&r.udk a&SmifMuOfz?Ykd jA[®'wfrif.f? raumif.aomfr?S rvGw&f bl.wmvky&f if raumif.csdefusrS q&mhpum.k tkycf sKyjf cif.k trudk refvnfq&mawmfBu./ (rC/ 246) ay.kH rom.f}} pwJh ygarmu©q&mBu.vm.? cg. pmtkyw f u kd f . rsufvkH.kH a0eomcZmwfawmfukd rCa'0vuFmeJ.cwJh rsu&f nfawG jzpfomG .&r.D u ckvkd a&.ESpfzufvHk. qHk.k aumif.f oljynfom.ESi?hf vlErS .ygNy/D ]]aumif.qdNk y.r.pm.ysdK? rSwyf u kd o f akd vmh/ olu Y o kd &rf.? raumif.pmed*.? taMumif. k yf sufwwfpmG ? olx Y ufom&Si?hf apwemqd.qdw k hJ wpfb0? wpfeyfpm &mxl.tqd.wljyD.MuKwf wJh owfjzwfru l kd a&SmifMuOfz?Ykd ppfratmifwt hJ jyif tvum. o[m.kd vdu k w f uf? olUudzk sufu? ud.cHpm.rzuf r&ufpufrzd ?Ykd {u &mZfrif.wmvky&f if aumif.cHpm.D avhvmvdu k f &wJt h wGuf jynf&h iS rf if.55 ESv.jzif?h aemufy.D ao&wJt h jzpfrsKd .usKd .ae&if.rif.? raMumhMurf.ra&mufatmif &ufpufMurf.csdKoD. Y OS Nf y.f udp?ö usdK.fom.matmif "m.f? "r®wmt½d.csdKrsdK.rsdK.

vdkufygw. 2009 o[m.f/ arG. (acwå .rvkyfrdzdkY todw&m.f/ arG. &vdkufygw.k &dr)f toufwpfaxmif tacsmifao&wJh ocifah oG.0g&Siw f ef ) 21 .vSefEdkifygapvdkY qkawmif.vdk jA[®'wf rif.BuD.axG.MwmudkifwmrsdK.arcspfwhJ cspfom.ay. 6 .muf wuúov kd jf ynf&h iS rf if.56 0D&ol (rpd.&efudk wGef. pmtkyw f u kd f .Zfyal ZmfwhJ rqDrqdik f .awGtrsm.wpfyg.ar&.arwpfa.eJY .f arG.

kH om.yifay:rSm xm.udk ozef.cJo h l o[m. pmtkyw f u kd f 57 .ESv.

58 0D&ol (rpd. pmtkyw f u kd f .k &dr)f o[m.

yifay:rSm xm.udk ozef. pmtkyw f u kd f 59 .cJo h l o[m.kH om.ESv.

60 0D&ol (rpd.k &dr)f o[m. pmtkyw f u kd f .

kH om.udk ozef.yifay:rSm xm.cJo h l o[m. pmtkyw f u kd f 61 .ESv.

pmtkyw f u kd f .62 0D&ol (rpd.k &dr)f o[m.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful