3 ways of cancer occurences  Sporadic cancer- Occurs by chance in individuals who have no known genetic risk factors and

no significant family history.  Familial cancer- Caused by variance in multiple genes and the environment all working together.  Hereditary cancer- Associated with a change in a single cancer susceptibility gene. -Large epidemiologic studies support the observations that certain tumors occur more frequently with certain families -Certain malignant tumors were found to be transmitted from parent to offspring -Chromosomal studies of malignant cells have demonstrated a wide variety of chromosomal aberrations, both numerical and structural -Some fixed patterns of chromosome abnormality are associated with certain tumors -Some genetic disorders predispose to cancer development -Genes seem to have 2 major roles in cancer. Some, called oncogenes, can cause cancer. Others, known as tumor suppressor genes, stop cancer from developing or growing. Oncogenes -mutations of certain normal genes called proto-oncogenes -Natural mammalian genes which, on activation by a variety of factors, trigger malignant transformation of normal cells Oncogene Activating Mechanisms -Viral infections e.g. HPV -Chromosomal breakage and rearrangement e.g. Burkitt Lymphoma -Environmental agents e.g. Chemical carcinogens Tumor suppressor genes -normal genes that slow down cell division -repair DNA mistakes -tell cells when to die Normal, nonmutated states - Negative regulation of cellular multiplication Mutated states - Permit uncontrolled cellular proliferation Mutations gene defects abnormal changes in the DNA of a gene involve changes in the arrangement of the bases that make up a gene Hereditary mutations also called germline mutations are gene defects that are passed from a parent to child present in the egg or sperm that join during fertilization and develop into a fetus can be passed from generation to generation a major factor in about 5% to 10% of all cancers Acquired mutations also called acquired, sporadic, or somatic mutations caused by DNA changes that happen during the person's life caused by things in the environment such as exposure to radiation or toxins, but for most acquired mutations, no specific cause can be found start in one cell of the body and are found only in the offspring of that cell