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A Report on RGTPP Khedar

(Division of HPGCL)

Submitted To

Submitted By xyz University Roll NO. : 1234567890 Training Period : 13 June 2011 8 July 2011 (4 weeks)

Guru Jambheshwar University Of Science and Technology Hisar

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Firstly I would like to thank my University & equally to chairperson of our Mechanical Engineering department, Dr abc , who has given me a chance to learn something new

practically by means of adding practical training as one of our subject. Then I would hereby like to express my profound sense of gratitude to Chief Engineer, Haryana Power Generation Corporation Ltd. for giving me the opportunity to carry out my industrial training at Rajiv Gandhi Thermal Power Plant Hisar ( RGTPP ) under their

experienced and highly qualified staff. Equally I am thankful to Mr. axzpqr ( AE BMD-I ) for his invaluable guidance during the training period from 13th June to 8th July , who despite of their busy schedule and workload , were able to find some time for us and impart us the knowledge that paved a way for better understanding of the fundamentals and their applications alike. I duly acknowledge the help, direct or indirect of whole department and staff members of the organization for providing all the facilities for the training. The knowledge gained herein and the practical experience learnt will be invaluable in the long run.

Contents
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Plant Profile4 Salient Features of the RGTPP Hisar..5 Training Schedule...6 Different Sections of Plant..7 General Equipments Used In Thermal Stations..8 Thermal Power Station9 Coal Handling Plant...10 Feed Water Heating and Deaeration..11 Air circulation....12 Boiler.....13 Bottom Ash Collection and Disposal16 HP Heaters.16 Economiser16 Superheater16 Air Preheater..17 Electrostatic Precipitator (ESP).17 Turbine Stages...18 Condenser..19 Cooling Towers.20 Chimney20

Rajiv Gandhi Thermal Power Plant, Hisar


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Plant Profile
Rajiv Gandhi Thermal Power Plant Khedar Hisar A division of Haryana Power Generation Corporation Ltd. ( HPGCL )
ISO: 9001, ISO: 14001 and OHSAS: 18001 Haryana Power Generation Corporation Limited (HPGCL) is the electricity generating company of the Government of Haryana in India. It has been entrusted with the responsibility of setting up of new generating stations in state of Haryana. RGTPP

Name and Address

Units

Capacity
600 MW

Rajiv Gandhi Thermal Power Project Unit-I (RGTPP), Khedar, 20 K.M mile

stone from Hisar city NH 65 Hisar Phone: 01693Fax: 01693-243555

Unit-II

600 MW

The work for turnkey implementation of 1200 MW Hisar Thermal Power Project was awarded during January, 07. The total estimated cost of the project is Rs.4512 crores. The cost of Rs. 3.19 crore per MW for this project is the lowest in the Country and is being talked about as a new benchmark .The Power Project was awarded to M/s Reliance Energy Ltd.

Salient Features of the RGTPP Hisar


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This is the first project in the Northern Region to be awarded Mega Project status with attached benefits under the Mega Project policy of Govt. of India

Very low per MW EPC cost - Rs. 3.19 Crore per MW.

Haryana State is able to provide additional 288 lac units per day to its consumers from this Project, while operating at rated capacity.

Brief Information of the Project


Installed Capacity Available Land Location EPC Contractor EPC Cost Administrative approval Project Consultancy 2 X 600 MW 989 acres Khedar, Hisar M/s Reliance Energy Ltd, Rs 3775.428 crore (total estimated cost Rs.4512 crore) 31.12.2005 M/s Desein was appointed Project Consultant and CEA were engaged as Review Consultants Coal Sources Equity contribution M/s Mahanadi Coalfields Ltd., Orissa State Govt. is contributing 20% equity for the project vide letter dated 10.10.2002. Balance 80% has been arranged through PFC. Issue of LOI Issued to M/s REL vide letter dated 29.01.2007

Training Schedule
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Training Period Department Assigned Supervisor

13 June 2011 8 July 2011 ( 4 Weeks ) Boiler Maintenance Department I (BMD- I) Mr. Ashok Kumar (AE BMD I)

Sites Visited During Training


Coal Handling Plant ( CHP )

Coal Mills

Boiler Furnace

Boiler Drum

Turbine Section

Boiler Feed Pump

Economiser & Air Preheater Section

Fans( ID & FD)

Chimney

Different Sections of Plant


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Demineralised Water Plant ( DM Water Plant) Coal Handling Plant Boiler Maintenance Department I (BMD I ) Boiler Maintenance Department II (BMD II ) Turbine Generation I (TG I ) Turbine Generation II (TG II ) Electrical maintenance Department I (EMD I ) Electrical maintenance Department II (EMD II ) Switching Room

General Equipments Used In Thermal Stations

Typical diagram of a coal-fired thermal power station


1. Cooling tower 2. Cooling water pump 3. Transmission line (3-phase) 4. Step-up transformer (3-phase) 5. Electrical generator (3-phase) 6. Low pressure steam turbine 7. Condensate pump 8. Surface condenser 9. Intermediate pressure steam turbine 10. Steam Control valve 11. High pressure steam turbine 12. Deaerator 13. Feed water heater 14. Coal conveyor 15. Coal hopper 16. Coal pulverizer 17. Boiler steam drum 18. Bottom ash hopper 19.Superheater 20.F.D. Fan 21.Reheater 22.Air Intake 23.Economiser 24.APH 25.Precipitator 26.I.D.Fan 27.Flue gas stk. 8

Thermal Power Station


A thermal power station is a power plant in which the prime mover is steam driven. Water is heated, turns into steam and spins a steam turbine which drives an electrical generator. After it passes through the turbine, the steam is condensed in a condenser and recycled to where it was heated; this is known as a Rankine cycle.

Rankine Cycle flow with reheat

Rankine Cycle
1. Heat is added in a water boiler, where the water becomes steam. 2. Steam is fed to a steam turbine, which generates mechanical energy. 3. After turbine the steam becomes water again in a condenser.

Coal Handling Plant


Here Coal used is of F grade imported from M/s Mahanadi Coalfields Ltd., Orissa by the railway Plant have special provision for the rail to directly come inside the plant to coal handling plant. Where coal is automatically taken off from train by magnetic trimpler which is mechanical system work with electricity. After removing coal it is taken to the Coal storage house with the help of conveyor belt system. From storage house coal when need is taken to crusher which crushes the coal in pieces of 2-3 cm. From crusher coal is taken to bunkers which work as temporary storage for unit. In plant eight ( 8 ) bunkers are installed for a single unit .

View of transmission of coal through conveyor belts Here the coal used is peat, which is a poor quality of coal. To make it good, we blend it with Indonesian coal of highly superior quality. This coal is then passed into 8 mills of boilers which crushes the coal in fine particle of about 7080 known as pulvarisation of coal. The temperature of pulvarised coal is maintained by proper supply of hot and cold air. Primary seal air is regularly passed on the periphery of mills so that the coal does not cause blockages in bearing and valves of the mills.

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Feed Water Heating and Deaeration


The feed water used in the steam boiler is a means of transferring heat energy from the burning fuel to the mechanical energy of the spinning steam turbine. The total feed water consists of recirculated condensate water and purified makeup water. Because the metallic materials it contacts are subject to corrosion at high temperatures and pressures, the makeup water is highly purified before use. A system of water softeners and ion exchange demineralizers produces water so pure that it coincidentally becomes an electrical insulator, with conductivity in the range of 0.31.0 microsiemens per centimeter. The makeup water in a 500 MWe plant amounts to perhaps 20 US gallons per minute (1.25 L/s) to offset the small losses from steam leaks in the system. The feed water cycle begins with condensate water being pumped out of the condenser after traveling through the steam turbines. The condensate flow rate at full load in a 500 MW plant is about 6,000 US gallons per minute (400 L/s). The water flows through a series of six or seven intermediate feed water heaters, heated up at each point with steam extracted from an appropriate duct on the turbines and gaining temperature at each stage. Typically, the condensate plus the makeup water then flows through a deaerator that removes dissolved air from the water, further purifying and reducing its corrosiveness. The water may be dosed following this point with hydrazine, a chemical that removes the remaining oxygen in the water to below 5 parts per billion (ppb) It is also dosed with pH control agents such as ammonia or morpholine to keep the residual acidity low and thus non-corrosive.

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Air circulation
FAN Used Primary Air Fan FD Fan ID Fan

Primary AIR circulation Primary Air

APH FD Fan FD Fan ID Fan Circulation Furnace Exhaust To Economiser APH Furnace

To Mills ( As seal air )

APH

ID Fan To Chimney

Boiler Specification
Type : Water Tube ( Critical) Boiler Rating : 64712 Mt. Sq. Working Pressure : 19.79 MPa Boiler Feed Pump Rating : 9 MW

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Boiler
The coal enters from the 4 corners of boilers through 8 pipes arranged at each elevation. At first the LDO & HFO are used to ignite the coal but once the burning starts the air is sufficient to continue it. The water from the boiler drum goes along the boiler in 6 pipes and circulate it in through motors as the natural siphon is not sufficient. These are then passed to super heater tubes.

Pulverised coal feeding in furnace at all corner by a single mill The boiler is a rectangular furnace about 50 feet (15 m) on a side and 130 feet (40 m) tall. Its walls are made of a web of high pressure steel tubes about 2.3 inches (58 mm) in diameter. Pulverized coal is air-blown into the furnace from fuel nozzles at the four corners and it rapidly burns, forming a large fireball at the center. The thermal radiation of the fireball heats the water that circulates through the boiler tubes near the boiler perimeter. The water circulation rate in the boiler is three to four times the throughput and is typically driven by pumps. As the water in the boiler circulates it absorbs heat and changes into steam at 700 F (371 C) and 197 bar .It is
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separated from the water inside a drum at the top of the furnace. The saturated steam is introduced into superheat pendant tubes that hang in the hottest part of the combustion gases as they exit the furnace. Here the steam is superheated to 1,000 F (500 C) to prepare it for the turbine.

Inside view of furnace showing Fire Ball Once water inside the boiler or steam generator, the process of adding the latent heat of vaporization or enthalpy is underway. The boiler transfers energy to the water by the chemical reaction of burning some type of fuel. The water enters the boiler through a section in the convection pass called the economizer. From the economizer it passes to the steam drum. Once the water enters the steam drum it goes down to the lower inlet water wall headers. From the inlet headers the water rises through the water walls and is eventually turned into steam due to the heat being generated by the burners located on the front and rear water walls (typically). As the water is turned into steam/vapor in the water walls, the steam/vapor once again enters the steam drum. The steam/vapor is passed through a series of steam and water separators and then dryers inside the steam drum. The steam separators

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View of Boiler Shape and dryers remove water droplets from the steam and the cycle through the water walls is repeated. This process is known as natural circulation. The boiler furnace auxiliary equipment includes coal feed nozzles and igniter guns, soot blowers, water lancing and observation ports (in the furnace walls) for observation of the furnace interior. Furnace explosions due to any accumulation of combustible gases after a trip-out are avoided by flushing out such gases from the combustion zone before igniting the coal. The steam drum (as well as the super heater coils and headers) have air vents and drains needed for initial start up. The steam drum has internal devices that removes moisture from the wet steam entering the drum from the steam generating tubes. The dry steam then flows into the super heater coils.

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Bottom Ash Collection and Disposal


At the bottom of the furnace, there is a hopper for collection of bottom ash. This hopper is always filled with water to quench the ash and clinkers falling down from the furnace. Some arrangement is included to crush the clinkers and for conveying the crushed clinkers and bottom ash to a storage site.

HP Heaters
Water is then passed into HP heaters before they are delivered to economizers so that proper heating of feed water should be possible.

Economiser
Economizers (US), or economisers (UK/international), are mechanical devices intended to reduce energy consumption, or to perform another useful function like preheating a fluid. In simple terms, an economizer is a heat exchanger. Economiser is an auxiliary for the boiler as it increases the efficiency by utilizing flue gases for increasing the temperature of feed water.

Superheater
A superheater is a device used to convert saturated steam or wet steam into dry steam used for power generation or processes. There are three types of superheaters namely: radiant, convection, and separately fired. A superheater can vary in size from a few tens of feet to several hundred feet (a few metres or some hundred metres).A convection superheater is located in the path of the hot gases.

Simple Super Heater view


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Air Preheater
An air preheater (APH) is a auxiliary designed to heat air before, combustion in a boiler)with the primary objective of increasing the thermal efficiency of the process. They may be used alone or to replace a recuperative heat system or to replace a steam coil. The purpose of the air preheater is to recover the heat from the boiler flue gas which increases the thermal efficiency of the boiler by reducing the useful heat lost in the flue gas. As a consequence, the flue gases are also sent to the flue gas stack (or chimney) at a lower temperature, allowing simplified design of the ducting and the flue gas stack. It also allows control over the temperature of gases leaving the stack In the plant rotary type of Air Preheater is used.

Electrostatic Precipitator(ESP)
An electrostatic precipitator (ESP), or electrostatic air cleaner is a particulate collection device that removes particles from a flowing gas (such as air) using the force of an induced electrostatic charge. Electrostatic precipitators are highly efficient filtration devices that minimally impede the flow of gases through the device, and can easily remove fine particulate matter such as dust and smoke from the air stream.In contrast to wet scrubbers which apply energy directly to the flowing fluid medium, an ESP applies energy only to the particulate matter being collected and therefore is very efficient in its consumption of energy (in the form of electricity). ESPs continue to be excellent devices for control of many industrial particulate emissions, including smoke from electricity-generating utilities (coal and oil fired), salt cake collection from black liquor boilers in pulp mills, and catalyst collection from fluidized bed catalytic cracker units in oil refineries to name a few. These devices treat gas volumes from several hundred thousand ACFM to 2.5 million ACFM (1,180 m/s) in the largest coal-fired boiler applications. For a coal-fired boiler the collection is usually performed downstream of the air preheater at about 160 C (320 deg.F) which provides optimal resistivity of the coal-ash particles. For plant applications with low-sulfur fuel hot-end units have been built operating above 371 C (700 deg.F).

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Turbine Stages
The turbine generator consists of a series of steam turbines interconnected to each other and a generator on a common shaft. There is a high pressure turbine at one end, followed by an intermediate pressure turbine, two low pressure turbines, and the generator. Steam fed at pressure of about 150 -175 bar and temperature about 560 C. As steam moves through the system and loses pressure and thermal energy it expands in volume, requiring increasing diameter and longer blades at each succeeding stage to extract the remaining energy. The entire rotating mass may be over 200 metric tons and 100 feet (30 m) long. It is so heavy that it must be kept turning slowly even when shut down (at 3 rpm) so that the shaft will not bow even slightly and become unbalanced. This is so important that it is one of only five functions of blackout emergency power batteries on site. Other functions are emergency lighting, communication, station alarms and turbogenerator lube oil.

View of multi stage Turbine Superheated steam from the boiler is delivered through 1416-inch (360410 mm) diameter piping to the high pressure turbine where it falls in pressure to (4.1 MPa) and to 600 F (320 C) in temperature through the stage. It exits via 2426-inch (610660 mm) diameter cold reheat lines and passes back into the boiler where the steam is reheated in special reheat pendant tubes back to 1,000 F (500 C). The hot reheat steam is conducted to the intermediate pressure turbine where it falls in both temperature and pressure and exits directly to the long-bladed low pressure turbines and finally exits to the condenser. The generator, 30 feet (9 m) long and 12 feet (3.7 m) in diameter, contains a stationary stator and a spinning rotor, each containing miles of heavy copper conductorno permanent magnets
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here. In operation it generates up to 21,000 amperes at 24,000 volts AC (600 MW) as it spins at 3,000 rpm, synchronized to northen the power grid. The rotor spins in a sealed chamber cooled with hydrogen gas, selected because it has the highest known heat transfer coefficient of any gas and for its low viscosity which reduces windage losses. This system requires special handling during startup, with air in the chamber first displaced by carbon dioxide before filling with hydrogen. This ensures that the highly explosive hydrogenoxygen environment is not created. The power grid frequency is50 Hz across India. The electricity flows to a distribution yard where transformers step the voltage up to 200 KV AC as needed for transmission to its destination. The steam turbine-driven generators have auxiliary systems enabling them to work satisfactorily and safely. The steam turbine generator being rotating equipment generally has a heavy, large diameter shaft. The shaft therefore requires not only supports but also has to be kept in position while running. To minimize the frictional resistance to the rotation, the shaft has a number of bearings. The bearing shells, in which the shaft rotates, are lined with a low friction material like Babbitt metal. Oil lubrication is provided to further reduce the friction between shaft and bearing surface and to limit the heat generated.

Condenser
Surface condenser is the commonly used term for a water-cooled shell and tube heat exchanger installed on the exhaust steam from a steam turbine in thermal power stations. These condensers are heat exchangers which convert steam from its gaseous to its liquid state at a pressure below atmospheric pressure. Where cooling water is in short supply, an air-cooled condenser is often used. An air-cooled condenser is however significantly more expensive and cannot achieve as low a steam turbine exhaust pressure as a water cooled surface condenser. Surface condensers are also used in applications and industries other than the condensing of steam turbine exhaust in power plants.In thermal power plants, the primary purpose of a surface condenser is to condense the exhaust steam from a steam turbine to obtain maximum efficiency and also to convert the turbine exhaust steam into pure water (referred to as steam condensate) so that it may be reused in the steam generator or boiler as boiler feed water.
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Cooling Towers
Natural draught cooling tower is used which is hyperbolic in nature. The water from condensers is circulated through it so that it may be cooled. The height of each cooling tower is 175 m.

Chimney
Draft Type: Induced Height: 275 m

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