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Gender neutrality in writing

How do you write around the outmoded usage of the pronoun he or him when a male is not necessarily the subject of the reference? Here are five strategies none ideal in every circumstance for achieving gender neutrality in your writing. 1. Use he or she Before: Ask the student whether he is prepared to give a presentation. After: Ask the student whether he or she is prepared to give a presentation. This solution is stiffly formal and is awkward in repetition; use sparingly. 2. Omit the pronoun Before: Ask the student whether he is prepared to give a presentation. After: Ask whether the student is prepared to give a presentation. This revision does not clearly indicate whether the student or another person is being asked; writers must recognize and respond to such lack of clarity if it affects comprehension. 3. Change to the plural Before: Ask the student whether he is prepared to give a presentation. After: Ask the students whether they are prepared to give their presentations. Employing a plural noun and a plural pronoun may change the meaning somewhat; writers must look out for any other nouns that should be made plural as well. 4. Replace the pronoun with an article Before: Ask the student to prepare his presentation. After: Ask the student to prepare a presentation. 5. Revise the sentence to use the pronoun who Before: A student is more likely to succeed if he does sufficient research. After: A student who does sufficient research is more likely to succeed.