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A film director is a person who directs the making of a film. Generally, a film director controls a film's artistic and dramatic aspects, and visualizes the script while guiding the technical crew and actors in the fulfillment of that vision.
Film directors create an "overall vision" through which a film gets eventually "born". Realizing this vision includes to oversee "the cinematography and the technical aspects" as well as directing the shooting timetable and meeting deadlines. This means organizing "the array of people working under him on how to best capture his artistic vision for the film".  This requires "good leadership and motivational skills" as well as "the ability to stay calm in stressful situations". Moreover it is necessary to have "an artistic eye to frame shots" and to give precise feedback to cast and crew. Subsequently excellent communication skills are a must. Since he depends on a successful cooperation of a lot of different creative individuals with possibly strongly contradicting artistic ideals and visions, he also needs "to be a diplomat" in order mediate whenever necessary . Thus he makes sure all assembled talent "blends into a single consciousness". The set of varying challenges he has to tackle have been described as The film director, on the right, gives last minute "a multi-dimensional jigsaw puzzle with egos and weather thrown in  direction to the cast and crew, while filming a for good measure". It adds to the pressure that the success of a film costume drama on location in London. can influence when and how they will work again.  Always omnipresent are the boundaries of his budget. He might also have to ensure an intended age rating. Theoretically the director has "to answer only to executive producers".   Still a "real-life brawl" between a film director and an actor can possibly cause that the film director gets fired if the actor is a major film star. Even so, "from the first day of brainstorming to the final release" directors often spend more working hours on films than "any actor, technician, or editor" and consequently the profession can be "physically, mentally, and emotionally draining". It has been said that "20-hour days are not unusual".
Becoming a film director
Some film directors started as actors, film editors or screenwriters. Other film directors have visited a film school to "get formal training and education in their craft".  Film students can study "the basic principles, techniques and procedures of film direction and production" This includes for example "preparation, shot lists and storyboards, blocking, protocols of dealing with professional actors, reading scripts, the construction of film". Some film schools are equipped with sound stages and "extensive post-production facilities" Besides "organizational and technical skills" students also achieve "insights into social contexts and relationships" Students are led to explore their own creativity and moreover they are introduced in "ways of working that foster the important exchange of ideas". They are finally supposed to be fit to deal with all forms and genres. A full degree course can be designed for upt to five years of studying. Future directors usually complete short films during their enrolment. The National Film School of Denmark has the student's final projects presented on national TV.  Some film schools retain the rights for their students' works. Many directors successfully prepared for making feature films by working in televison. The German Film and Television Academy Berlin consequently cooperates with the
Terrence Malick. Wim Wenders. Andy Warhol. Alejandro Jodorowsky. In the USA there is also an "Assistant Directors Training Program" sponsored by the Director’s Guild of America. Christopher Guest. On its homepage he explained that because he wasn't given the chance to attend a film school he had to go very long way and "carried tons of gear". Guillermo del Toro and Matthew Robbins. Kenneth Anger. Peter Jackson. Russell. the Coen brothers. Alexander Payne and Jim Taylor. director William Eubank performs multiple instructions precisely. Orson Welles. Tony Kaye. Notable examples include David Lean. screenwriter and film producer Luc Besson founded his own film school "Ecole de la Cité" for directing and screenwriting in 2013. Edward Burns. • Appear in their films. Judd Apatow. the Coen brothers. Notable examples include Ingmar Bergman. Paul Haggis. Peter Hyams. Michelangelo Antonioni/Tonino Guerra. Barry Levinson. Diamond. Mel Gibson. George A. Robert Rodriguez. Jean-Luc Godard. Quentin Tarantino. George Lucas. Kevin Smith. Robert Zemeckis and Bob Gale. M.  2 Characteristics of film directors Different directors can vary immensely amongst themselves. Spike Lee. Martin Scorsese. John Carpenter. Ingmar Bergman. Francis Ford Coppola. John Cassavetes. Ed Wood.A. Kevin Costner. George Lucas. Martin Scorsese and Nicholas Pileggi/Paul Schrader/Jay Cocks. Sergio Leone and Federico Fellini. Kurosawa. David Lean.  The trainee gets paid and receives HMO. Todd Field. Sofia Coppola. Rainer Werner Fassbinder. Hayao Miyazaki. Night Shyamalan. Steven Spielberg. • Write their own screenplays. James Wong. Stanley Kubrick. David Lynch. Lawton. F. Several examples are: • Outline a general plotline and let the actors improvise dialogue. Rainer Werner Fassbinder. Akira Kurosawa.Film director Berlin/Brandenburg TV station RBB (Berlin-Brandenburg Broadcasting) and ARTE. • Control every aspect. Orson Welles. Gaspar Noe. Billy Bob Thornton. Yasujirō Ozu and Kôgo Noda. Akira Kurosawa. Steven Spielberg and Sidney J. Tyler Perry. Sergio Leone and Sergio Donati. Sergio Leone. Luis Buñuel and Jean-Claude Carrière/Luis Alcoriza. under various characteristics. Billy Wilder. Terry Gilliam and Charles McKeown/Tony Grisoni. Romero. David Fincher. Krzysztof Kieślowski/Krzysztof Piesiewicz. Elia Kazan and Tennessee Williams. Steven Soderbergh. Josef von Sternberg. and occasionally Robert Altman. Jay and Mark Duplass. Christopher Nolan. Victor Fleming. David Cronenberg. Cameron Crowe. Takeshi Kitano. Spike Lee. John Singleton. • Be the cinematographer and/or editor. Akira roles on-set as both director and camera operator. Charlie Chaplin. Christopher Nolan. Notable examples include Woody Allen. Miklós Jancsó. and demand that the actors and crew follow Here. James Cameron. Peter Jackson and Fran Walsh. Director. Werner Herzog. Ed Wood. Oliver Stone. and Christopher Nolan/Jonathan Nolan/David S. . Edgar Wright and Simon Pegg. Notable examples include Alejandro González Iñárritu and Guillermo Arriaga. Gus Van Sant. Stanley Kubrick.L. Tyler Perry. Wong Kar-wai. Sidney Lumet. James Cameron. Wes Anderson and Owen Wilson/Noah Baumbach. Nick Park. Shinya Tsukamoto. Notable examples include Nicolas Roeg. Pedro Almodóvar. Satyajit Ray. Billy Wilder/I. • Collaborate on screenplays with long-standing writing partners. Spike Lee. Guillermo del Toro. J. Mike Leigh. John Waters. Frank Capra/Robert Riskin. Robert Rodriguez. Guillermo del Toro and Alfred Hitchcock. Eli Roth. Joss Whedon and David O. Oren Peli. Notable examples include Clint Eastwood. James Cameron. Furie have written screenplays for a small number of their films. Paul Thomas Anderson. John Hughes. Don Coscarelli. Goyer. He started at the bottom of the ladder as an unpaid intern on a short film and is still grateful to the technicians who have given him "kindly and patiently" training on the job.
the Federation of European Film Directors. Edgar Wright and Spike Jonze made cameo appearances in their films. Billy Bob Thornton. Michael Bay. Roman Polanski. The Canadian equivalent is the Directors Guild of Canada. 3 Professional organizations In the United States. Ben Stiller. Mel Brooks. David Lynch. Sam Raimi. Eli Roth. In the UK. Abel Ferrara. FERA. Alfred Hitchcock. Kevin Smith. Kenneth Branagh and Ed Wood. Clint Eastwood. Warren Beatty. Satyajit Ray. M. directors usually belong to Directors UK or the Directors Guild of Great Britain. Harold Ramis. • Compose a music score for their films. Sylvester Stallone. Robert Rodriguez. Shawn Levy. Quentin Tarantino. Alejandro Jodorowsky. Tom Tykwer and Vishal Bhardwaj. Alejandro Amenábar. directors usually belong to the Directors Guild of America. John Woo. In Europe. Jon Favreau. represents 37 national directors' guilds in 30 countries. Terry Jones.Film director Kenneth Anger. Charlie Chaplin. Alejandro Jodorowsky. Woody Allen. Notable examples include Charlie Chaplin. Night Shyamalan. Notable film directors • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Ben Affleck Woody Allen Pedro Almodóvar Robert Altman Lindsay Anderson Michael Anderson Paul Thomas Anderson Wes Anderson Theodoros Angelopoulos Jean-Jacques Annaud Sathyan Anthikad Michelangelo Antonioni Judd Apatow Andrea Arnold Dario Argento Darren Aronofsky Dorothy Arzner Richard Attenborough Kailasam Balachander Mario Bava Ingmar Bergman Bharathan Bharathiraja Kathryn Bigelow Brad Bird John Boorman Danny Boyle Robert Bresson • Mel Brooks • Tod Browning . John Carpenter. Edward Burns. Robert De Niro.
Film director • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Luis Buñuel Tim Burton James Cameron Jane Campion Frank Capra John Carpenter John Cassavetes Liliana Cavani Nuri Bilge Ceylan Gurinder Chadha Charlie Chaplin Yash Chopra Henri-Georges Clouzot Coen brothers Chris Columbus Francis Ford Coppola Sophia Coppola Roger Corman Wes Craven David Cronenberg Alfonso Cuaron Stephen Daldry Joe Dante Frank Darabont Julie Dash Guillermo del Toro Brian De Palma Vittorio De Sica Andrew Dominik Stanley Donen Carl Theodor Dreyer Guru Dutt Clint Eastwood Sergei Eisenstein Roland Emmerich Nora Ephron Víctor Erice Rainer Werner Fassbinder Federico Fellini Todd Field David Fincher Victor Fleming John Ford Miloš Forman John Frankenheimer 4 • William Friedkin • Lucio Fulci .
W. Griffith Michael Haneke Renny Harlin Hal Hartley Howard Hawks Amy Heckerling Werner Herzog George Roy Hill Walter Hill Alfred Hitchcock Tobe Hooper Tom Hooper Ron Howard John Hughes John Huston Kon Ichikawa Miklós Jancsó Peter Jackson Jean-Pierre Jeunet Rian Johnson Joe Johnston Chuck Jones Connor Osoro Elia Kazan Buster Keaton Abbas Kiarostami Krzysztof Kieślowski Masaki Kobayashi Stanley Kramer Stanley Kubrick Akira Kurosawa Emir Kusturica Fritz Lang John Lasseter David Lean Ang Lee Spike Lee Sergio Leone Barry Levinson Ken Loach 5 • Joseph Losey • George Lucas .Film director • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Samuel Fuller Ritwik Ghatak Lewis Gilbert Terry Gilliam Jean-Luc Godard D.
Murnau Mira Nair Christopher Nolan Frank Oz Yasujirō Ozu Padmarajan Park Chan-Wook Sergei Parajanov Alan Parker Sam Peckinpah Arthur Penn Dadasaheb Phalke Roman Polanski Sally Potter Otto Preminger Powell and Pressburger Priyadarshan Sam Raimi Harold Ramis Ranjith Mani Ratnam Nicholas Ray Satyajit Ray Rob Reiner Ivan Reitman Jason Reitman Jean Renoir 6 • Alain Resnais • Leni Riefenstahl .Film director • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Sidney Lumet Ernst Lubitsch David Lynch Maria Maggenti Samira Makhmalbaf Terrence Malick Louis Malle Joseph L. Mankiewicz Michael Mann Rob Marshall Steve McQueen Deepa Mehta Georges Méliès Sam Mendes Márta Mészáros Anthony Minghella Hayao Miyazaki Kenji Mizoguchi F. W.
Schaffner Martin Scorsese Ridley Scott Tony Scott Shankar V.Film director • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Éric Rohmer George A. Night Shyamalan Don Siegel Robert Siodmak Kevin Smith Steven Soderbergh Paolo Sorrentino Steven Spielberg George Stevens Oliver Stone John Sturges Preston Sturges István Szabó Quentin Tarantino Andrei Tarkovsky Bela Tarr Jiří Trnka Jacques Tourneur François Truffaut Jon Turteltaub Agnès Varda Gore Verbinski Paul Verhoeven King Vidor Luchino Visconti Lars von Trier The Wachowskis James Wan Peter Weir Orson Welles Wim Wenders James Whale Joss Whedon Billy Wilder 7 • Robert Wise • Ed Wood . Romero Roberto Rossellini Eli Roth Bimal Roy John Sayles Franklin J. Shantaram M.
htm) Films101 The best directors picked by critics and filmmakers (http://www. Second Edition. ISBN 977-424-943-7 • Roy Armes: Dictionary of African Filmmakers.dga. American University in Cairo Press.com) Directors Guild of Great Britain (http://www. 1999 • International dictionary of films and filmmakers.uk.gov.screenaustralia.php?id=100) Directors UK (http://www. 2008. vol. Stone Bridge Press. James Press.org) A comprehensive collection of interviews with a century's worth of European film directors (http://zakka.htm) Assistant Directors Training Program (http://www.films101.html) Film directing. Visible Ink Press. Donald Richie: A Critical Handbook of Japanese Film Directors: From the Silent Era to the Present Day.html) Getting started in film.Film director • • • • • • • • Edgar Wright William Wyler David Yates Peter Yates Karel Zeman Robert Zemeckis Mai Zetterling Fred Zinnemann 8 Bibliography • Spencer Moon: Reel Black Talk: A Sourcebook of 50 American Filmmakers. ed. ed. the director's job (http://preproduction. James Women Filmmakers Encyclopedia: Women on the Other Side of the Camera.html) Career and Salary (http://degreedirectory. Greenwoood Press 1997 • The St.org/jobdescription.trainingplan.]: St. by Yoram Allon Del Cullen and Hannah Patterson. Detroit [etc.youth. 2: Directors • Contemporary North American Film Directors: A Wallflower Critical Guide (Wallflower Critical Guides to Contemporary Directors).org/articles/Film_Director_Career_and_Salary_FAQs.html) . 2005. ISBN 1-933330-53-8 • Rebecca Hillauer: Encyclopedia of Arab Women Filmmakers.hk/en/special/innoaction/video07.com/contents/directors/index.au/documents/ SA_publications/IG/GettingStarted. Scarecrow Press. 4 volumes. by Tom Pendergast.4filmmaking.dggb. TV and interactive digital media (http://www. 2008.dk/ euroscreenwriters/interviews/interviews.htm) Senses of Cinema . 4th edition 2000.gov.com/directors-job. ISBN 0-253-35116-2 • Philippe Rege: Encyclopedia of French Film Directors.ca/page.org) Directors Guild of Canada (http://www.Great Directors (http://archive.dgc. Columbia Univ Press 2002 • Alexander Jacoby.directors.eu/) Directors Guild of America (http://www. Indiana University Press.filmdirectors. 2009 Notes External links • • • • • • • • • • • • • Federation of European Film Directors (http://www.pdf) How to become a film director (http://www.sensesofcinema.com/direcr.
provided a forum for Auteurism to flourish. camerawork. Truffaut and the members of the Cahiers recognized that movie-making was an industrial process. However. simplified and compromised many of the great works of French literature in order to support the political agenda of their day. Truffaut provocatively said: "(t)here are no good and bad movies. as if they were the primary "auteur" (the French word for "author"). he references the director . In law. only good and bad directors". Alfred Hitchcock. the film director is considered the author or one of the authors of a film. An auteur can use lighting.Auteur theory 9 Auteur theory In film criticism. According to Truffaut. and. precisely the screenwriting duo Jean Aurenche and Pierre Bost. as the creator of the film. Auteur theory was developed a few years later in the United States through the writings of The Village Voice critic Andrew Sarris. and Jean Renoir are known as absolute 'auteurs' of their films. 1957). Andre Bazin and Roger Leenhardt presented the theory that it is the director that brings the film to life and uses the film to express their thoughts and feelings about the subject matter as well as a world view as an auteur. The championed filmmakers such as Akira Kurosawa. when it was advocated by film director and critic François Truffaut. Howard Hawks. they proposed an ideal to strive for. imprint his or her vision on the work (minimizing the role of the screenwriter). largely as a result of the influence of auteur theory." which encourages directors to wield cameras as writers use pens and to guard against the hindrances of traditional storytelling. This tradition suggests that the screenwriter hands the script to the director and the director simply adds the performers and pictures. Truffaut's development In his 1954 essay "Une certaine tendance du cinéma français" ("A certain tendency in French cinema"). Origin Auteur theory draws on the work of a group of cinema enthusiasts who wrote for Cahiers du Cinéma and argued that films should reflect a director's personal vision. One might see it as the policy of treating any director that uses a personal style or a unique world view as an Auteur. Although André Bazin. In Truffaut's article. Auteur theory has influenced film criticism since 1954. Satyajit Ray. Under European Union law. Sarris used auteur theory as a way to further the analysis of what defines serious work through the study of respected directors and their films. auteur theory holds that a director's film reflects the director's personal creative vision. through the mise en scène. Recognizing the difficulty of reaching this ideal. they valued the work of directors who came close. Another element of Auteur theory comes from Alexandre Astruc's notion of the caméra-stylo or "camera-pen. is the original copyright holder. he explained his concern about its excesses in his article "On the Auteur Theory" (Cahier # 70. the auteur's creative voice is distinct enough to shine through all kinds of studio interference and through the collective process. François Truffaut coined the phrase "la politique des Auteurs". Truffaut's article. asserting that the worst of Jean Renoir's movies would always be more interesting than the best of the movies of Jean Delannoy. it involves a conscious decision to value and look at films in a certain way. In spite of—and sometimes even because of—the production of the film as part of an industrial process. who. dealt primarily with scenarists or screenwriters. staging and editing to add to their vision. this means that the director is only a metteur en scene. Truffaut believed. The definition of an Auteur was debated upon since the 1940s. "Politique" might very well be translated as "policy" or "program". a "stager". and the auteur. co-founder of the Cahiers. encouraging the director to use the commercial apparatus as a writer uses a pen. Truffaut criticized the Cinema of Quality as "Scenarists' films". which are works that lack originality and rely on literary classics. This method of film analysis was originally associated with the French New Wave and the film critics who wrote for the French film review periodical Cahiers du Cinéma. by his own admission. the film is treated as a work of art.
personal style in terms of how the movie looks and feels. Later in the decade. originated. Much of the writing of Truffaut and his colleagues at the film criticism magazine Cahiers du cinéma was designed to lambaste not only the post-war French cinema but especially the big production films of the cinéma de qualité ("quality films"). when French film critics were finally able to see the 1940s U. the auteur theory dealt with the nature of literary adaptations and Truffaut's discomfort with the screenwriters Aurenche's and Bost's maxim that any film adaptation of a novel should capture the spirit of the novel and deal only with its "filmable" aspects. Truffaut's theory maintains that a good director (and many bad ones) exerts such a distinctive style or promotes such a consistent theme that his or her influence is unmistakable in the body of his or her work. 10 Impact The auteur theory was used by the directors of the nouvelle vague (New Wave) movement of French cinema in the 1960s (many of whom were also critics at the Cahiers du Cinéma) as justification for their intensely personal and idiosyncratic films. citing the problem that the book pre-dated the Second World War. he used the film version of Georges Bernanos's Diary of a Country Priest. One reason for the backlash is the collaborative aspect of shooting a film." Criticism Starting in the 1960s. Andrew Sarris introduced it in the essay. Truffaut et al. the break-up of the Hollywood studio system during the 1950s was ushering in a period of uncertainty and conservatism in American cinema. old-fashioned cinéma de papa (or "Dad's cinema").Auteur theory Claude Autant-Lara's characterization of his adaptation of Raymond Radiguet's Devil in the Flesh as an "anti-war" book. although they also produced some shrewd appreciations of actors. In Kael's review of Citizen Kane. "Notes on the Auteur Theory in 1962". a classic film for the auteur model. the latter not being described as inferior directors making inherently poor films. However later Truffaut wrote: the auteur theory "was started by Cahiers du Cinema and is forgotten in France. In 1946. During the Nazi occupation. at the very moment Truffaut was writing. with the result that fewer of the sort of films Truffaut admired were actually being made. a director must accomplish technical competence in their technique. Max Ophüls. Sarris published The American Cinema: Directors and Directions. Pauline Kael and Sarris feuded in the pages of The New Yorker and various film magazines. wrote the screenplays or worked on the writing of screenplays of their films. just lacking the authorial signature. In the UK. who. at times. Éric Rohmer—wrote mostly about directors.. films such as The Maltese Falcon and Citizen Kane. she points out how the film made extensive use of the distinctive talents of co-writer . has become more important than the movie itself).S. and Robert Bresson. To support this assertion. aside from exerting their distinct style. 1929–1968. In its embryonic form.S. The auteurist critics—Truffaut. movies. Truffaut applied the term "auteur" to directors like Jean Renoir. according to Sarris. Truffaut's circle referred to these films with disdain as sterile. and in the theory's privileging of the role of the director (whose name. and interior meaning (although many of Sarris's auterist criteria were left vague). Claude Chabrol. Jacques Tati. Movie adopted Auteurism. The "auteur" approach was adopted in English-language film criticism in the 1960s. but still discussed in American periodicals. they were enamoured with these films. Jean-Luc Godard. which quickly became the unofficial bible of auteurism. Truffaut believed that film directors like Robert Bresson were able to use the film narrative to approach even the so-called "unfilmable" scenes. "Auteur theory". Jacques Becker. One of the ironies of the Auteur theory is that.S. while in the U. To be classified as an "auteur". Truffaut himself was appreciative of directors whose work showed a marked visual style (such as Alfred Hitchcock) as well as those whose visual style was less pronounced but whose movies reflected a consistent theme (such as Jean Renoir's humanism). made the distinction between auteurs and 'metteurs en scene'. the Vichy government did not allow the exhibition of U. This essay is where the term. some film critics began criticising auteur theory's focus on the authorial role of the director.
New Critics argued that information or speculation about an author's intention was secondary to the words on the page as the basis of the experience of reading literature. nytimes. Round up the Usual Suspects. based on the author's personality or life experiences.  Kipen.edu. referring to the creative input of producers and studio executives in classical Hollywood.uk/dna/h2g2/A22928772) • Teachers guide to auteur theory pdf (http://www. External links • BBC guide Auteur Theory in Film Criticism (http://www. Raising Kane. com/ books?id=_PqJYG9ihusC& pg=PA153& lpg=PA153)  A Survivor of Film Criticism’s Heroic Age (http:/ / www. Autumn. February 20. a school of literary criticism. In Capra's Shadow: The Life and Career of Screenwriter Robert Riskin  William Goldman. 1971. Pauline.au/staffhome/siryan/screen/auteur theory. html?pagewanted=all)  Pauline and Me: Farewell.net/teachers/GalenR/Film Analysis/Documents/Class Readings/AUTEUR THEORY. 2001  Ian Scott.scribd.imdb. My Lovely (http:/ / www.com/2009/02/11/ a-couple-of-squared-circles-sarris-and-kael-–-part-one-notes-on-the-auteur-theory-in-1962-–-andrew-sarris/) • Auteur Theory History/Criticism (http://www. observer. The auteur theory was also challenged by the influence of New Criticism.bfi. Notable screenwriters such as Ernest Lehman.zenbullets. Robert Riskin and William Goldman have publicly balked at the idea that directors are more authorial than screenwriters.pdf) • acu. html) at the British Film Institute • Authorship and The Films of David Lynch (http://www. argues that the auteur theory "collapses against the reality of the studio system". In 2006.indianauteur.com/doc/1250735/The-Auteur-Theory) .uk/filmtvinfo/publications/16+/auteur.com/?p=86) • 16+ source guides: Auteur Theory/Auteurs (http://www.bbc. The New Critics argued that critics made an "intentional fallacy" when they tried to interpret works of art by speculating about what the author meant. Which Lie Did I Tell?  Aljean Harmetz. The New Yorker.  Sight and Sound." March 25.org.acu. 11 References  Google Books (http:/ / books.wordpress.com/britfilm/lynch) .co. p. David Kipen coined the term Schreiber theory to refer to the theory of the screenwriter as the principal author of a film. Melville House ISBN 0-9766583-3-X. google.com/title/tt1241707/) at the Internet Movie Database • Criticisms of auteur theory at scribd (http://www. David (2006).htm) • Film journal article on Saris and Kael (http://ardfilmjournal. The Schreiber Theory: A Radical Rewrite of American Film History.a critical essay from The British Film Resource • Auteur theory (http://www. 190  Los Angeles Times Magazine. "Lip Service. while film historian Aljean Harmetz. Nicholas Kazan.Auteur theory Herman J. Mankiewicz and cinematographer Gregg Toland. But Kael's objections to the "auteur theory" were many and are best learned by reading her essay "Circles and Squares". com/ 2009/ 07/ 12/ movies/ 12powe.edu course guide to auteur theory (http://dlibrary. com/ node/ 44957)  Kael.mvla. 29.
Orson Welles. Bertolt Brecht. My Life to Live French New Wave  Roberto Rossellini. Edward Yang. D. Swiss University of Paris Film critic. In addition. Harmony Korine Anna Karina (1961–67) Anne Wiazemsky (1967–79) Anne-Marie Miéville (not official) • • • Honorary Academy Award (2010) Honorary César (1987. Jean Cocteau. Charlie Chaplin. which "emphasized craft over innovation. Godard's films often cite existentialism. Howard Hawks. He is often identified with the 1960s French film movement La Nouvelle Vague. Bernardo Bertolucci. Jim Jarmusch. He is often considered the most radical French filmmaker of the 1960s and 1970s. Abel Ferrara. Karl Marx. Philippe Garrel. Abbas Kiarostami. Quentin Tarantino. Kenji Mizoguchi. W. Murnau. Like his New Wave contemporaries.W. Godard criticized mainstream French cinema's "Tradition of Quality". Jean Vigo. Leos Carax. director. politics and philosophies made him an influential filmmaker of the French New Wave. or "New Wave". screenwriter and film critic. Fritz Lang. Many of Godard's films challenge the conventions of traditional Hollywood in addition to French cinema. . John Ford. Max Ophüls. Martin Scorsese. Carl Theodor Dreyer. he and like-minded critics started to make their own films. actor. producer 1950–present Breathless. Satyajit Ray. His films express his knowledge of film history through their references to earlier films. Band of Outsiders. as he was an avid reader of existential and Marxist philosophy. born 3 December 1930) is a French-Swiss film director. privileged established directors over new directors. screenwriter. Olivier Assayas. André Bazin. Pedro Costa. Serge Daney. Pierrot le Fou. Jean Renoir. Alfred Hitchcock. Henri Langlois. F." To challenge this tradition. 1998) Prix Jean Vigo (1960) Citizenship Alma mater Occupation Years active Notable work(s) Style Influenced by Influenced Spouse(s) Awards Signature Jean-Luc Godard (French: [ʒɑ̃lyk ɡɔdaʁ]. Steven Soderbergh. Wong Kar-wai. 1968 Born 3 December 1930 Paris. Apichatpong Weerasethakul. Several of his films express his political views. Robert Bresson. and preferred the great works of the past to experimentation. Marcel Carné. Contempt. existentialism Rainer Werner Fassbinder. Sofia Coppola. France French. Nicholas Ray. Gregg Araki. His radical approach in film conventions. Griffith.Jean-Luc Godard 12 Jean-Luc Godard Jean-Luc Godard Jean-Luc Godard. Michael Mann. editor. cinematographer.
Jim Jarmusch. Godard's films have inspired diverse directors like Martin Scorsese. Godard. Gregg Araki. with Rivette and Rohmer. Arthur Penn.. He has said: "In the 1950s cinema was as important as bread – but it isn't the case any more." In 2010. François Truffaut. started making brief forays into film direction. Godard.. a ten-minute short. When Bazin co-founded the influential critical magazine Cahiers du cinéma in 1951. as well as those who would become his contemporaries. John Woo. They'd told us about Goethe. Wes Anderson and Ken Loach. Film criticism and early filmmaking After attending school in Nyon. and his mother was the great-granddaughter of theologian Adolphe Monod. but not Dreyer. a telescope. All the Boys Are Named Patrick (1957) another short fiction film. which saw publication of five issues in 1950... Relatives on his mother's side include composer Jacques-Louis Monod. when he then in 1953 became a citizen of Gland. which was created largely out of unused footage shot by Truffaut. We watched silent films in the era of talkies. but did not attend class. that ciné-clubs (film societies) were gaining prominence. It was there. Bernardo Bertolucci. Pennebaker. in the Latin Quarter just prior to 1950. Godard was part of a generation for whom cinema took on a special importance. We dreamed about film. a Swiss physician. We thought cinema would assert itself as an instrument of knowledge.Jean-Luc Godard After the New Wave. Godard returned to Paris in 1948. . A. Jørgen Leth. naturalist Théodore Monod and pastor Frédéric Monod. Switzerland possibly through simplified naturalisation through his Swiss father." He and his work have been central to narrative theory and have "challenged both commercial narrative cinema norms and film criticism's vocabulary. Wim Wenders. a microscope ... Godard attended school in Nyon. a homage to Jean Cocteau. and Une histoire d'eau (1958). but did not attend the award ceremony. D. canton of Vaud. Richard Ayoade. Jacques Rozier. Richard Linklater. He has created "one of the largest bodies of critical analysis of any filmmaker since the mid-twentieth century. Paul Thomas Anderson. Charlotte et son Jules. 13 Early life Godard was born in Paris on 3 December 1930. and a Marxist perspective. Mamoru Oshii. the son of Odile (née Monod) and Paul Godard. Abel Ferrara. In 1958 Godard. . shot a documentary about the building. André Bazin.. Rainer Werner Fassbinder. his politics have been much less radical and his recent films are about representation and human conflict from a humanist. he made Une femme coquette (1955). Gazette du cinéma. and Jacques Demy. while taking a job as a construction worker on a dam in 1953. His wealthy parents came from Protestant families of Franco-Swiss descent. Wong Kar-wai. was among the first writers. Godard began attending these clubs. along with several other writers for Cahiers du cinéma in the 1950s. Godard was awarded an Academy Honorary Award. Godard ranked third in the critics' top ten directors of all time (which was put together by assembling the directors of the individual films for which the critics voted). In a 2002 Sight & Sound poll. At the Cinémathèque I discovered a world which nobody had spoken to me about. Godard originally only held French citizenship. Hal Hartley. Switzerland and the Lycée Rohmer. As he continued to work for Cahiers. including Jacques Rivette. Claude Chabrol. he registered for a certificate in anthropology at the University of Paris (Sorbonne). He got involved with the young group of film critics at the ciné-clubs that started the New Wave. Pier Paolo Pasolini. made his last short before gaining international prominence as a filmmaker. Oliver Stone. In 1949. Opération béton (1955)." His approach to film began in the field of criticism. They. Along with Éric Rohmer and Rivette. with a cast that included Jean-Paul Belmondo and Anne Colette. Quentin Tarantino. We were like Christians in the catacombs. Brian De Palma. Steven Soderbergh. Robert Altman. where he soon met the man who was perhaps most responsible for the birth of the New Wave. he founded the short-lived film journal.
due to its political nature. The film. intended as a homage to the American musical. prompting her to pretend to leave her boyfriend (Jean-Claude Brialy) and make him jealous by pursuing his best friend (Belmondo) as a substitute. Godard's next film. Most of all. then a film filled with movie references was supremely autobiographical. It is an episodic account of her rationalizations to prove she is free. which dealt with the Algerian War of Independence. who had discovered her for his Saint Joan. Samuel Fuller. The following year. This cinematic period stands in contrast to the revolutionary period that immediately followed it. boasted the type of camera-liberated experimentation that made the French New Wave so influential. Lang's 'high culture' interpretation of the story is lost on Prokosch. In Breathless. his citations include a movie poster showing Humphrey Bogart (whose expression the lead actor Jean-Paul Belmondo tries reverently to imitate). character asides and breaking the eyeline match rule in continuity editing. Angela (Karina) desires a child. Contempt became known as a pinnacle in cinematic modernism with its profound reflexivity. it was the first collaboration between Godard and Danish-born actress Anna Karina. in Rohmer’s words. A coproduction between Italy and France. Georges de Beauregard. and an onscreen dedication to Monogram Pictures. His most commercially successful film was Le Mépris (Contempt) (1963). and others. a screenwriter who is commissioned by the arrogant American movie producer Prokosch (Jack Palance) to rewrite the script for an adaptation of Homer's Odyssey. during which Godard ideologically denounced much of cinema’s history as "bourgeois" and therefore without merit. starring Jean-Paul Belmondo and Jean Seberg distinctly expressed the French New Wave's style. Godard included more film references into his movies than any of his New Wave colleagues. whose character is a firm indictment of the commercial motion picture hierarchy.Jean-Luc Godard 14 Cinematic period His most celebrated period as a filmmaker is roughly from his first feature. Another prominent theme is the inability to reconcile love and labor. much like that of Breathless. Brigitte Bardot. which the Austrian director Fritz Lang has been filming. Les Carabiniers (1963) was about the horror of war and its inherent injustice. It was the influence and suggestion of Roberto Rossellini that led Godard to make the film. In one touching scene in a cafe. Godard viewed film making as an extension of criticism and was more interested in redefining film structure and style than actually being understood by the public. 1960). in A Woman Is a Woman (1961). Karina appeared again. was banned by the French government until January 1963. Breathless (1960). Godard made Le Petit Soldat (The Little Soldier). an errant mother and aspiring actress whose financially strained circumstances lead her to the life of a streetwalker. Often his movies were more about the presentation of a story than anything else. and incorporated quotations from several elements of popular culture – specifically American cinema. whom he later married in 1961 (and divorced in 1967). which is illustrated by Paul's . If. Vivre sa vie (My Life to Live) (1962). the choice of Jean Seberg as the lead actress was an overarching reference to Otto Preminger. "life was the cinema". along with Belmondo. starring Michel Piccoli and one of France's biggest female stars. It follows two peasants who join the army of a king. was one of his most popular among critics. Films Godard's Breathless (À bout de souffle. From the beginning of his career. The film's style. The film follows Paul (Piccoli). and then cast her in his acidulous 1958 adaptation of Bonjour Tristesse. Karina starred as Nana. The film employed various innovative techniques such as jump cuts. even though she is tethered at the end of her pimp's short leash. an American B-movie studio. Most notably. she spreads her arms out and announces she is free to raise or lower them as she wishes. through to Week End (1967) focused on relatively conventional works that often refer to different aspects of film history. 1962). only to find futility in the whole thing as the king reveals the deception of war-administrating leaders. The stories in his films were very simple yet unfocused and constantly digressing from the main story line (Jean-Luc Godard and Vivre Sa Vie by Tom Milne. Fritz Lang. Truffaut co-wrote Breathless with Godard and introduced Godard to the producer who ultimately funded the film. visual quotations from films of Ingmar Bergman.
appropriately marked an end to the narrative and cinematic period in Godard's filmmaking career. Phillip John Usher has demonstrated how the film." Although Godard's cinema is sometimes thought to depict a wholly masculine point of view. In 1965.A (1966). One of them. His mission is to make contact with Professor von Braun (Howard Vernon). as it were. Week End's enigmatic and audacious end title sequence. Shot in color. He directed Bande à part (Band of Outsiders). the film is thought by some to foreshadow the student rebellions that took place. looking to score on a heist. based on two Guy de Maupassant stories. Masculin. is cited as a new technique Godard used to deconstruct bourgeois trends. Pierrot le fou (1965) featured a complex storyline. What ensues is a confrontation with the tragic flaws of the over-consuming bourgeoisie. film noir. Godard followed with Made in U. Vivre sa vie. The film contains some of the most written-about scenes in cinema's history. before the beginning of the take (while the actors are preparing) and after the end of the take (while the actors are coming out of character). and a violent ending. La Femme de Paul and Le Signe. which reads "End of Cinema". It follows a Parisian couple as they leave on a weekend trip across the French countryside to collect an inheritance. it departed from Godard’s minimalist works (typified by Breathless. Anna Karina stars as the anti-hero searching for her murdered lover. "Made in the U. and satire. Gilles Jacob. called it both a "retrospective" and recapitulation in the way it played on so many of Godard’s earlier characters and themes. An intertitle refers to the characters as "The children of Marx and Coca-Cola.A" is inspired by American Noir films. deliberate. The film focused on a group of students and engaged with the ideas coming out of the student activist groups in contemporary France. whose source material was Richard Stark's The Jugger. With an extensive cast and variety of locations. He solicited the participation of Jean-Paul Belmondo. an author. toned-down black and white picture without a real story. distinctive personalities. and quotes from several gangster film conventions. and Two or Three Things I Know About Her (1967). by the way it connects images and disparate events. a famous scientist who has fallen mysteriously silent. who both fall in love with Karina. A Classic New Wave crime thiller. It was a slow. the film was expensive enough to warrant significant problems with funding. Godard made the film while he acquired funding for Pierrot le fou (1965). Released just before the May 1968 events. a detective who is sent into a city controlled by a giant computer named Alpha 60. and president of the Cannes Film Festival. in order to guarantee the necessary amount of capital. seems to blur gender lines. includes a cameo by Marianne Faithful.Jean-Luc Godard crumbling marriage to Camille (Bardot) during the course of shooting. was a study of contemporary French youth and their involvement with cultural politics." It follows two young men. féminin (1966). Godard directed Alphaville. Startlingly. 15 . Eddie Constantine starred as Lemmy Caution. Anouchka Films. a few shots contain extra footage from. Godard and Karina formed a production company. a futuristic blend of science fiction. The film was entirely produced over the period of one month and exhibited a loose quality unique to Godard. an eight-minute tracking shot of the couple stuck in an unremitting traffic jam as they leave the city. La Chinoise (1967) saw Godard at his most politically forthright so far.S. Week End. by then a famous actor. That same year. in which Marina Vlady portrays a woman leading a double life as housewife and prostitute. and Une femme mariée). and is believed to be suppressed by the computer. critic. Godard made a more colorful and political film. Une femme mariée (A Married Woman) (1964) followed Band of Outsiders.S. In 1964. another collaboration between the two and described by Godard as "Alice in Wonderland meets Franz Kafka.
a distinct post-war climate shaped by various international conflicts such as the colonialism in North Africa and Southeast Asia. Alain Resnais and Agnès Varda. Claude Lelouch. The first is a scene that takes place in the initial car ride between Ferdinand (Belmondo) and Marianne (Karina). There was. "Long live Mao!" (Vive Mao!). in the lead-up to the presentation of Godard's honorary Oscar. which had been circulating through press in previous weeks. In 1960s Paris. Le Petit Soldat. Cieply makes reference to Richard Brody's book. who belonged to the French communist party. The article also draws upon Brody's book. Joris Ivens. Maybe they’ll give us some dollars. he was also very concerned with the social problems in France. The earliest and best example of this is Karina's potent portrayal of a prostitute in Vivre sa vie. but becomes a stiff anti-war metonym.. expressed by Marianne. A large portion of this group had a particular affinity for the teachings of Karl Marx. Brody made a clear point of criticizing the "extremely selective and narrow use" of passages in his book. when he received the commandments. . the two hear the message "garrison massacred by the Viet Cong who lost 115 men". The ensuing sequence is a makeshift play where Marianne dresses up as a stereotype Vietnamese woman and Ferdinand as an American sailor. but is evident in several films — namely Pierrot and Une femme mariée. Marianne responds with an extended musing on the way the radio dehumanizes the Northern Vietnamese combatants. which Godard made on television in 1981: "Moses is my principal enemy. Furthermore. One of his earliest features. and noted that Godard's work has approached the Holocaust with "the greatest moral seriousness". Then he brought the texts. Ferdinand then reconsiders. An anti-war project. "That’s OK. "Everything is Cinema: The Working Life of Jean-Luc Godard. that Godard might be an anti-Semite. We can put on a play. he didn't show what he had seen.. for example in the following quotation. a prominent article in the New York Times by Michael Cieply drew attention to the idea. Godard's Marxist disposition did not become abundantly explicit until La Chinoise and Week End. and the Parisian artists and writers who positioned themselves on the side of social reform and class equality. In the same film. he also participated in Loin du Vietnam (1967). In addition to the international conflicts Godard sought an artistic response to." and alluded to a previous. however. and thus undeserving of the accolade. William Klein. That's why the Jewish people are accursed. Notably. longer article published by the Jewish Journal as lying near the origin of the debate. Their immediate reaction. there are two scenes in Pierrot le fou that tackle the issue. the political milieu was not overwhelmed by one specific movement. Les Carabiniers presents a fictional war that is initially romanticized in the way its characters approach their service. is "Damn Americans!" an obvious outlet of the frustration so many French communists felt towards American hegemony. we’ll change our politics. Vietnam War Godard produced several pieces that directly address the Vietnam War. Chris Marker. dealt with the Algerian War of Independence. he saw images and translated them. Along these lines. Godard himself has previously identified explicitly as an anti-Zionist but has denied the accusations of anti-Semitism. Godard has been accused by some of harboring anti-Semitic views: in 2010. Over the car radio." Immediately after Cieply's article was published.Moses." Marianne is puzzled but Ferdinand suggests that something the Americans would like would be the Vietnam War. The scene ends on a brief shot revealing a chalk message left on the floor by the pair. and was notable for its attempt to present the complexity of the dispute rather than pursue any specific ideological agenda. the lovers accost a group of American sailors along the course of their liberating crime spree.Jean-Luc Godard 16 Politics Politics are never far from the surface in Godard's films. The side that opposed such colonization included the majority of French workers. it consists of seven sketches directed by Godard (who used stock footage from La Chinoise).
which denies the viewer a fluid narrative typical of mainstream cinema. rather than solely being tools of education. specifically Week End." The way Godard treated politics in his cinematic period was in the context of a joke. philosopher and aesthetics scholar Jacques Rancière states. Une femme mariée is also structured around Marx's concept of commodity fetishism. They include everything from his "militant" period. when Godard used filmic expression for specific political ends. a phase that lasted until 1980. in which the spectacle of life is intermingled with its analysis". Godard once said that it is "a film in which individuals are considered as things. in which chases in a taxi alternate with ethological interviews. the commodification of daily life and activity. however. Brecht's influence is keenly felt through much of Godard's work. Revolutionary period The period that spans from May 1968 indistinctly into the 1970s has been subject to an even larger volume of varying labeling. characters address the audience with thoughts. Breathless' elliptical editing. connecting the pieces themselves and coming away with more investment in the work's content. . His efforts are overtly characteristic of Marx. The period saw Godard align himself with a specific revolution and employ a consistent revolutionary rhetoric. Marxism A Marxist reading is possible with most if not all of Godard’s early work. where the name Karl Marx is cited in conjunction with figures such as Jesus Christ. until Week End. His films became intensely politicized and experimental. Georges Sadoul.  Godard also employs other devices. film). with perhaps his favorite being the character aside. and instructions. along with terms as specific as "Maoist" and vague as "political". and man’s alienation — all central features of Marx’s critique of capitalism. including asynchronous sound and alarming title frames. the context of a Marxist critique of commodification. In an essay on Godard. feelings. was enough to foster a dialectical reading of the joke and the whole story. For example. Belmondo played on the word 'scandal' and the 'freedom' that the Scandal girdle supposedly offered women. 1965. or a relationship. "When in Pierrot le fou. most of which remained unfinished or were refused showings. to his "radical" period. and La Chinoise. Films Amid the upheavals of the late 1960s Godard became interested in Maoist ideology. forces the viewers to take on more critical roles.Jean-Luc Godard 17 Bertolt Brecht Godard's engagement with German poet and playwright Bertolt Brecht stems primarily from his attempt to transpose Brecht's theory of epic theatre and its prospect of alienating the viewer (Verfremdungseffekt) through a radical separation of the elements of the medium (in Brecht's case theater. Godard’s direct interaction with Marxism does not become explicitly apparent. a film without a clear political message. He was very conscious of the way he wished to portray the human being. the object of his productive activity. describes it as a "sociological study of the alienation of the modern woman". of pop art derision at consumerism. a piece of art. A constant refrain throughout Godard's cinematic period is that of the bourgeoisie’s consumerism. Pierrot le fou. in his short rumination on the film. but in Godard's. He formed the socialist-idealist Dziga-Vertov cinema group with Jean-Pierre Gorin and produced a number of shorts outlining his politics. particularly before 1980. who in his Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts of 1844  gives one of his most nuanced elaborations. presented to be used as tools of reference. In many of his most political pieces. romanticizing the Marxist rhetoric. analyzing how the worker is alienated from his product. and of a feminist denunciation of women’s false 'liberation'. In that period he travelled extensively and shot a number of films.
. the autobiographical JLG/JLG. 18 Jean-Pierre Gorin After the events of May 1968. Godard soon declined the opportunity to direct. most notably Sergei Eisenstein. In 1976. Jean-Pierre Gorin now teaches the study of film at the University of California. the first of a series of more mainstream films marked by autobiographical currents: for example Passion (1982). and Russian constructivist and avant-garde artists such as Alexander Rodchenko and Vladimir Tatlin. a Soviet filmmaker—whose adopted name is derived from the verb to spin or rotate and is best remembered for Man with the Movie Camera (1929) and a contemporary of both the great Soviet montage theorists. his wife. 1991) was a quasi-sequel to Alphaville but done with an elegiac tone and focus on the inevitable decay of age. he began to collaborate with like-minded individuals in the filmmaking arena. Godard and Swiss filmmaker Anne-Marie Miéville started the alternative video production and distribution company Sonimage.Jean-Luc Godard According to Elliott Gould. a monumental project which combined all the innovations of his video work with a passionate engagement in the issues of twentieth-century history and the history of film itself. Prénom Carmen (1984). Godard began collaborating with Swiss filmmaker Anne-Marie Miéville. Godard produced both Numero Deux (1975) and "Sauve qui peut (la vie)" (1980). it is set in a gym and uses several arias by Jean-Baptiste Lully from his famous Armide. Under Sonimage. 1995). adopted the name Dziga Vertov Group. There was. San Diego. though. Also completed in 1987 was a segment in the film ARIA which was based loosely from the plot of Armide. another flurry of controversy with Je vous salue. Between 1968 and 1973. 1990). The Dziga Vertov group The small group of Maoists that Godard had brought together. Godard had a specific interest in Vertov. Schulz. on a series of innovative video works for European broadcast television called "Six fois deux/Sur et sous la communication" (1976) and "France/tour/détour/deux/enfants" (1978). Godard and Gorin collaborated to make a total of five films with strong Maoist messages. and also with King Lear (1987). Lettre à Freddy Buache (1982). Between 1988 and 1998 he produced perhaps the most important work of his career in the multi-part series Histoire(s) du cinéma. which included Gorin. During this meeting Godard said his two favorite American writers were Feiffer and Charles M. Part of Godard’s political shift after May 1968 was toward a proactive participation in the class struggle. who displayed a passion for cinema that grabbed Godard’s attention. at the time very big stars. autoportrait de décembre (JLG/JLG: Self-Portrait in December. based in Grenoble. which was condemned by the Catholic Church for alleged heresy. Allemagne année 90 neuf zéro (Germany Year 90 Nine Zero. Marie (1985). and Grandeur et décadence (1986). Sonimage In 1972. and Godard's professional objective was reconsidered. The most notable of these collaborations was with a young Maoist student. 1980–1999 His return to somewhat more traditional fiction was marked with Sauve qui peut (la vie) (1980). the job later went to Alan Arkin. and For Ever Mozart (1996). he and Godard met to discuss the possibility of Godard directing Jules Feiffer's 1971 surrealist play Little Murders. which starred Jane Fonda and Yves Montand. Jean-Pierre Gorin. when the city of Paris saw total upheaval in response to the "authoritarian de Gaulle republic". an extraordinary but much-excoriated essay on William Shakespeare and language. His later films have been marked by great formal beauty and frequently a sense of requiem — Nouvelle Vague (New Wave. The most prominent film from the collaboration was Tout va bien.
" – Raymond Durgnat • " Godard's importance lies in his development of an authentic modernist cinema in opposition to (though.Jean-Luc Godard 19 2000–present Godard has continued to work actively into his seventies. but with attention to all war. and rediscovery as we follow the young artist Edgar contemplating a new work on the four stages of love (should it be an opera? a film?). He is rumored to be considering directing a film adaptation of Daniel Mendelsohn's The Lost: A Search for Six of Six Million. putty characters. pliable. In 2001. ponderous montage of war images that occasionally lapses into the comic. specifically. Producers for Steven Spielberg are negotiating the purchase of her grandparent's World War II story. an award-winning book about the Holocaust. The film revolves around a couple who cannot communicate with each other until their pet dog acts as an interpreter for them. Benjamin and Adorno as to whether realism or modernism is the more progressive form. Paradise is shown as a lush wooded beach patrolled by US Marines. including the American Civil War. in which the tension between film and video evokes the struggle between Cain and Abel." –Robin Wood. In 2013 he also contributed a short called The Three Disasters to the omnibus film 3X3D with filmmakers Peter Greenaway and Edgar Pera. Godard's name is perhaps the only one that occurs wherever cinema is discussed or produced. . the artist's studio. This film is notable for its use of both film and video – the first half captured in 35 mm black and white. Godard's latest film. Brecht. The film is structured into three Dantean kingdoms: Hell. the young woman attempts to stall the deal. His next feature film is called Adieu au Language (Farewell to Language) and was shot in 3-D. from the mainstream to the Avant-Garde. In Notre musique (2004). the horrors of war. and at her death we are thrust into the second half of the film where Edgar meets with her at her grandparent's house two years before. and the Israeli–Palestinian conflict. Purgatory and Paradise. Godard turns his focus to war. the objects of his daily life. Tributes • " From Hollywood to the Third World. the war in Sarajevo. the women he has loved." – Colin Myles MacCabe • " Like Picasso. separation. the latter half shot in color on DV – and subsequently transferred to film for editing. He meets up with a lost love who is terminally ill. the layering of words and images. premiered in the Un Certain Regard section at the 2010 Cannes Film Festival. the references to and repetitions of his own works. the controversy developed through such figures as Lukacs. It was released theatrically in France in May 2010. during the early period. Godard reveals to us throughout his work his world as source and subject. love." – Mary Lea Bandy. at the same time within) mainstream cinema: it is with his work that film becomes central to our century's major aesthetic debate. Eloge de l'Amour is rich with themes of aging. Godard's fascination with paradox is a constant in the film. It opens with a long. Film Socialisme. • " Godard's is an art of plastic age. Eloge de l'Amour (In Praise of Love) was released. The blending of film and video recalls the statement from Sauve Qui Peut. of fluent. the war between the US and Native Americans.
witz. p. ed. Michael. 2000. Féminin de Godard". vol. 1 (http:/ / books. 2005. Jackson. ISBN 978-0-571-21105-0. p. 3. New York: Manchester University Press. 2. 1997. htm • Grant. Vol. Three Interviews 2000/01. Jean-Luc Godard:Documents.html) • Diane Stevenson.com/ books?id=FwLqbp0cEp8C). 202. The Cinema alone: Essays on the Work of Jean-Luc Godard 1985–2000. • Godard. James E.edu/MRC/godardbib. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press. São Paulo: witz. 259. No. Schirmer Encyclopedia of Film. Richard. p.Jean-Luc Godard 20 References  Grant 2007. 4. • Usher. Bern — Berlin: Verlag Gachnang & Springer. ISBN 0-02-865791-8. French Forum. Paris: Centre Georges Pompidou. marxists.  http:/ / www. Godard: A Portrait of the Artist at Seventy (http://books. Jeffrey Crouse (ed. MI: Schirmer Reference. • Morrey. Michael Temple. • Temple. "De sexe incertain: Masculin. Usher. 4. ISBN 978-0-8050-6886-3 • Temple. Issue 30. 4. 238. Harun. 235. p. Kaja and Farocki. p. . Jean-Luc. (eds). Jean-Luc Godard (http://books. Dziga Vertov Group (http://www. 36 (http:/ / books. Phillip John. Vol. no 2.  Morrey 2005. ISBN 85-98100-05-6. Vol.).  Grant 2007. 4. vol. 49.  MacCabe 2005. "Godard and Bazin" in the Andre Bazin special issue. • Steritt. p. usher. Film International. MS: University Press of Mississippi. 32–40. p. 6. Montreal: caboose. 34.com/books?id=Kby7RaRmTt4C&pg=PA1). 2. (2009). Michael Witt (eds). no 2. Speaking About Godard. Williams. html). James S. London: Black Dog Publishing • Dixon.berkeley. Vol. jhu. Yosefa. "De sexe incertain: Masculin. (2007). Williams. David. (2009). p. • Nicole Brenez. 2002. pp. Michael and Williams. Wheeler Winston. Vol.google. Féminin de Godard". 1998. New York: Faber and Faber. ISBN 978-0-7190-6759-4. 97-112. Vol.  (http:/ / muse. Albany: State University of New York Press. 126. Vol. 34.lib. • Almeida. 2008. • Silverman.  Grant 2007. Barry Keith. edu/ journals/ french_forum/ v034/ 34. Everything is Cinema: The Working Life of Jean-Luc Godard. com/ books?id=FwLqbp0cEp8C& pg=PA37). Phillip John.com. ISBN 978-0-9811914-1-6 • Brody.google. p. (eds) 2007. Witt.  Grant 2007. 97-112. ISBN 978-3-906127-62-0 • Loshitzky. org/ archive/ marx/ works/ 1844/ manuscripts/ preface. New York: New York University Press. Colin (2005). Jane. Detroit. 2007 • Godard Bibliography (via UC Berkeley) (http://www. Michael. For Ever Godard. James S. David Faroult. 5.  Grant 2007. com/ books?id=Kby7RaRmTt4C& pg=PA1). The Films of Jean-Luc Godard. google.  Grant 2007. • MacCabe. 2012 Introduction to a True History of Cinema and Television. Further reading • Godard. p. French Forum. google. The Radical Faces of Godard and Bertolucci. 2007.br/dzigavertov). Jean-Luc: The Future(s) of Film. (1998) Jean-Luc Godard: Interviews. Douglas (2005).
00. November 2004 (http://parolesdesjours. html) • Detailed filmography of Jean-Luc Godard (http://en.uk/film/jeanlucgodard) at The Guardian Film • Jean-Luc Godard (http://movies.fr/gozag. shtml) at newwavefilm.6737.criterion.guardian.edu/curricular/MEDA/classes/media110/Friesema/intro.htm) .between Godard and the french writer Stéphane Zagdanski about Literature and Cinema.com/name/nm419/) at the Internet Movie Database • Jean-Luc Godard (http://www.newwavefilm.imdb.unifrance.org/identities/lccn-n79-55544) in libraries (WorldCat catalog) • Guardian Interview (04/2005) (http://film.co.org • Jean-Luc Godard (http://www.guardian. html) collected news and commentary at The New York Times • Works by or about Jean-Luc Godard (http://worldcat.co.free.nytimes.com/french-new-wave-encyclopedia/jean-luc-godard.nytimes.com • Jean-luc Godard Timeline (http://www.com/top/reference/timestopics/people/g/jeanluc_godard/index.1472494.com/explore/12-jean-luc-godard) at the Criterion Collection • Jean Luc Godard Biography (http://www.carleton.uk/interview/interviewpages/0.Jean-Luc Godard 21 External links • Jean-Luc Godard (http://www.com/person/91804/Jean-Luc-Godard) at The New York Times Movies • Jean-Luc Godard (http://topics.org/directories/person/15597/jean-luc-godard) on unifrance. html) • Video dialog -in french.
How To Read A Film (1977. and the City University of New York. He was a media commentator for Morning Edition on NPR in the 1980s.readfilm. and The Christian Science Monitor.James Monaco 22 James Monaco James Monaco Born 1942 Flushing. It was taken over by The New York Times Company in 2006. New York University. an early online database about the entertainment industry. and a forerunner of the IMDb. and educator.com  References  http:/ / www. Columbia University. publisher. 1981. and edited four others. External links • About James Monaco . film historian. 1999. com/ Monaco. 2009) and American Film Now (1979). Film critic.S. htm . Rivette (1976). readfilm. Godard. Chabrol. NY. The Village Voice. author. Monaco is the founder and current president of UNET 2 Corporation. He runs Harbor Electronic Publishing in New York and Sag Harbor. He has taught at The New School for Social Research. and has written for The New York Times. He founded Baseline in 1982. U. He has written seven books. publisher Occupation Years active 1965–2011 Spouse(s) Susan Schenker (3 children) Website  James Monaco (born 1942) is an American film critic. including The New Wave : Truffaut. Rohmer.
IGN was bought by News Corp's Fox Interactive Media. as a spare time project by Senh Duong. The company has been owned by Flixster. to pursue Rotten Tomatoes on a full-time basis. a Warner Bros. which produces the most popular movie ratings app for the iPad and other mobile devices.com  Commercial? Yes Type of site Registration Owner Film review aggregator and forum Optional •  Created by Launched Senh Duong August 12. In September 2005. the website's editor-in-chief is Matt Atchity. California-based web design firm Design Reactor. when Flixster bought Rotten Tomatoes. For example. much like the Oscars or Golden Globes. please use the Forums to continue your conversations about your favorite movie topics. users are no longer able to sort out fresh ratings from rotten ratings. Duong teamed up with University of California. As of 2007. Lee and Stephen Wang. Duong started collecting all the reviews of Chan's movies as they were coming out in the United States. new community features have shown up and others have been removed. subsidiary of Time Warner Rotten Tomatoes is a website devoted to reviews. Netscape. However. 1998. 1998 Flixster. In January 2010. part of Warner Bros. widely known as a film review aggregator. Rotten Tomatoes users can create and join groups that allow them to discuss different aspects of film. and vice versa. The website was an immediate success. it attracted "600 – 1000 daily unique visitors" as a result. as a fan of Jackie Chan. The first movie reviewed on Rotten Tomatoes was Your Friends & Neighbors.Rotten Tomatoes 23 Rotten Tomatoes Rotten Tomatoes URL rottentomatoes. officially launching on April 1. receiving mentions by Yahoo!. Berkeley classmates Patrick Y. 2000. and USA Today within the first week of its launch. In the meantime. In June 2004. His inspiration came when. according to the companies. his former partners at the Berkeley. and news of films.com for an undisclosed sum. His goal in creating Rotten Tomatoes was "to create a site where people can get access to reviews from a variety of critics in the US". IGN sold the website to Flixster. information. saying: "The Groups area has been discontinued to pave the way for new community features coming soon." As of February 2011. Its name derives from the cliché of audiences throwing rotten tomatoes or vegetables at a poor stage performance. The combined reach of both companies is 30 million unique visitors a month across all different platforms. Flixster was acquired by Warner Bros. since May 2011. IGN Entertainment acquired Rottentomatoes. In May 2011. and one group – "The Golden Oyster Awards" – has its members vote for their winners of different awards. . company. they disbanded the groups. History Rotten Tomatoes was launched on August 12.
To become a critic at the site. giving the reader a one glance look at the general critical opinion about the work. while still including their opinions in the general rating. Lisa Schwarzbaum. on the occasion of the 75th anniversary of the New York Film Critics Circle. marked by a small icon of a green splattered tomato). If the positive reviews are less than 60%. However. users are able to rate and review films themselves. The US version is available via a "US site" button on the homepage. video games. The staff then determine for each review whether it is positive ("fresh". Readers accessing Rotten Tomatoes from France and Germany are automatically redirected to the British version of the site that provides local release dates. The website keeps track of all of the reviews counted (which can approach 270 for major. reviews and film lists and are augmented by local content maintained by an international editor based in Los Angeles. In January 2010. If the positive reviews make up 60% or more. At the end of the year one film will receive the "Golden Tomato". Owen Gleiberman. Rotten Tomatoes hosts message forums. which usually use 4-star ratings and are often simply qualitative). the film is considered "fresh" in that a supermajority of the reviewers approve of the film. Stephen Hunter. Movies with a "Tomatometer" of 75% or better and at least 40 reviews from Tomatometer Critics (including 5 Top Critics) receive the "Certified Fresh" seal. films earning this status will keep it unless the critical percentage drops below 70%. .Rotten Tomatoes 24 Description Rotten Tomatoes staff first collect online reviews from authors that are certified members of various writing guilds or film critic associations. cited Rotten Tomatoes in particular and film review aggregators in general. meaning it is the highest rated film that year. its chairman. a score of 6 or higher is considered "fresh". In addition. India and Australia. this score is more specific as the users are able to rate the movie on a scale of 0–10 (compared to critic reviews. which tabulates their reviews separately. a consensus statement is posted which is intended to articulate the general reasons for the collective opinion of the film. Armond White. a critic's original reviews must garner a specific amount of "likes". This rating in turn is marked with an equivalent icon when the film is listed. Every movie also features a "user average" that calculates the percentage of users that have rated the film positively in a manner similar to how the critics' reviews are calculated. recently released films) and the percentage of positive reviews is tabulated. When there are sufficient reviews to form a conclusion. marked by a small icon of a red tomato) or negative ("rotten". as examples of how "the Internet takes revenge on individual expression" by "dumping reviewers onto one website and assigning spurious percentage-enthusiasm points to the discrete reviews". then the film is considered "rotten". according to White. As a result of the requirements for quantity of ratings. In addition to reviews. Furthermore. Desson Thomson. such websites "offer consensus as a substitute for assessment". Top Critics are generally ones that write for a notable newspaper. The localized versions of the site contain all of the US editorial content. Like the critic's reviews. major film reviewers like Roger Ebert. music and other topics. cinema listings. box office results and promotes reviews from British critics. International Localized versions of the site are available in Britain. where thousands of participants take part in the discussion of movies. Peter Travers and Michael Philips are listed in a sub-listing called "Top Critics". In addition. there may be films with 100% positive ratings which don't have the certificate due to insufficient reviews to be sure of the "freshness".
. The last episode aired on September 16. 2009 – September 16. 2010. The show aired every Thursday at 10:30 EST on the Current TV network. of seasons No. The Rotten Tomatoes Show.Rotten Tomatoes 25 The Rotten Tomatoes Show The Rotten Tomatoes Show on Current Genre Movie Review Program Humor Current Mark Ganek Ellen Fox Joel Church-Cooper Brett Erlich Ellen Fox Daniel Higgs United States English 2 77 Production Executive producer(s) Jeffrey Plunkett Brett Erlich Producer(s) Ben Stein John Lichman Dan Stoneberg Szu-Hua Wang James Stanton 22 minutes Broadcast Original channel Original run Current TV March 5. ratings of movies might differ from ratings currently found on the website. of episodes Editor(s) Running time In early 2009. although it did return as a much shorter segment of InfoMania. Depending on when an episode is filmed and originally aired. 2010 Chronology Followed by Rotten Tomatoes on InfoMania Created by Written by Presented by Country of origin Original language(s) No. Current Television launched the televised version of the web review site. which was hosted by Brett Erlich and Ellen Fox and written by Mark Ganek.
com/) . rottentomatoes. com/  Matt Atchity on The Young Turks Show (http:/ / www. theyoungturks. rottentomatoes.php?f=2) .com/vine/forumdisplay.rottentomatoes.com/critics/authors. com/ 2010/ 01/ 04/ rotten-tomatoes-flixster/ ) External links • Official website (https://www. including a list of approved Rotten Tomatoes Critics (https://www.rottentomatoes.php) and the Rotten Tomatoes forums (https://www. Unloads Rotten Tomatoes Onto Flixster | TechCrunch (http:/ / techcrunch. com/ story/ 2009/ 1/ 22/ 214324/ 147)  News Corp.Rotten Tomatoes 26 References  https:/ / www.
IMDb had 2. Needham developed and posted a collection of Unix shell scripts which could be used to search the four lists. the lists included almost 10. television. with over 100 million unique users each month and a solid and rapidly growing mobile presence. and video games. comments.467.314 titles (includes episodes) and 5.132. Spanish. On October 17. By late 1990. and video games Registration is optional for members to participate in discussions. ratings. At the time. History History before website IMDb originated with a Usenet posting by British film fan and professional computer programmer Col Needham entitled "Those Eyes". Both lists had been restricted to people who were alive and working. 1990 Active The Internet Movie Database (IMDb) is an online database of information related to films. Others with similar interests soon responded with additions or different lists of their own. As of March 22. The goal of the participants now was to make the lists as inclusive as possible. 2013.movies movie database". and Andy Krieg took over "THE LIST". IMDb was launched on October 17. and in 1998 was acquired by Amazon. Entire new sections were added. production crew personnel. 1990. as well as 42 million registered users. which greatly increased the amount and types of data to be stored. As the site grew hugely. Needham subsequently started a (male) "Actors List". full production crews.Internet Movie Database 27 Internet Movie Database Internet Movie Database (IMDb) IMDb homepage on August 21. This includes actors. 2012 URL Commercial? Type of site Registration imdb. The website has an Alexa rank of 48. and thus the database that would become the IMDb was born. but by 1993 had been moved out of the Usenet group as an independent website underwritten and controlled by Needham and personal followers. which would later be renamed the "Actress List". it was known as the "rec.299 personalities in its database.  Available language(s) English. Italian. while Dave Knight began a "Directors List". French. about actresses with beautiful eyes. television programs.com Col Needham October 17. German. Needham's group allowed some advertising to support ongoing operations of the site. so Needham started what was then (but did not remain) a separate "Dead Actors/Actresses List". uncredited performers and other demographic data were added. Portuguese Owner Created by Launched Current status Amazon. All the primary staff came (and still .000 movies and television series correlated with actors and actresses appearing therein. Other website users were invited to contribute data which they may have collected and verified. and voting. including the hiring of full-time paid data managers. and fictional characters featured in these three visual entertainment media. but soon retired people were added. It is one of the most popular online entertainment destinations.com Yes Online database for movies.com. on a volunteer basis.arts. 1990.
saying the actress had no grounds to proceed with an anonymous complaint. A federal judge in Seattle dismissed the lawsuit.com subsidiary In 1998. unable to secure sufficient funding from limited advertising. Founder Col Needham became the primary owner as well as the identified figurehead. IMDb launched original video (www. founder. IMDbPro was announced and launched at the 2002 Sundance Film Festival.com would be able to use the IMDb as an advertising resource for selling DVDs and videotapes. and plot summaries. private company.com. As an independent company In 1996 IMDb was incorporated in the United Kingdom. 2002. on condition that its operation would remain in the hands of Needham and his small cadre of managers. owner and CEO of Amazon. and a centralized email interface for querying the database had been created by Alan Jay. meaning that people no longer had to email the specific list maintainer with their updates. However. as well as trivia. It provides a variety of services including film production and box office details. Withoutabox and Box Office Mojo. IMDb acquired two other companies. it added a subscription service known as IMDbPro.imdb.com/20) in celebration of its 20th anniversary. The actress claims that revealing her age could cause her to lose acting opportunities. for 2006 this was increased to the top 150 contributors. As Amazon. the site has been filtered in China for more than one year. biographies. licensing and partnerships. General revenue for site operations was generated through advertising. while Amazon. On January 15. The database resided on the servers of the computer science department of Cardiff University in Wales. . and for 2010 to the top 250.Internet Movie Database come) from the burgeoning computer industry and/or training schools and did not have extensive expertise in the visual media. users identified as one of "the top 100 contributors" of hard data received complimentary free access to IMDbPro for the following calendar year. 2010. although many users address it through proxy server or by VPN. who soon were able to move into full-time paid staff positions. the sections being defined and determined by categories of film personnel and the individual filmographies contained therein. Later in the yearWikipedia:Manual of Style/Dates and numbers#Chronological items it moved onto the World Wide Web (a network in its infancy at that time) under the name of Cardiff Internet Movie Database. who uses the stage name Junie Hoang. As of May 2011. Jeff Bezos. contributions and unable to raise support from the visual media industries or academia. In 1994 the email interface was revised to accept the submission of all information. In 1998. Needham sold the IMDb to Amazon. as well as a company directory. IMDb continued to expand its functionality. On October 17. Also in 2008.com. In 2008 IMDb launched their first official foreign language version with the German IMDb. She re-filed and so revealed that the complainant is a Huong Hoang of Texas. becoming the Internet Movie Database Ltd. This gave IMDb the ability to pay the shareholders salaries for their work. as of 2003. Rob Hartill was the original web interface author. As an additional incentive for users. Over the next few years.de. the structure remained that information received on a single film was divided among multiple section managers. The website is Perl-based. In 2011 IMDb was sued by an unknown actress for more than US$1 million due to IMDb revealing her age (40). struck a deal with Col Needham and other principal shareholders to buy IMDb outright and attach it to Amazon as a subsidiary. 28 On the web The database had been expanded to include additional categories of filmmakers and other demographic material. aimed at entertainment professionals. the database was run on a network of mirrors across the world with donated bandwidth. the movie ratings had been properly integrated with the list data.
The exact number of votes a registered user would have to make to be considered to be a user who votes regularly has been kept secret. In fact. This label arises because a statistic is taken to be more credible the greater the number of individual pieces of information. This was described by Col Needham as "the largest change we've ever made to our data model". It states that filters are used to avoid ballot stuffing. based on ratings by the registered users of the website using the methods described. 2008. They have already been verified when they are added to the main filmography.000 movies and television shows from CBS. Instant viewing On September 15. all other products are ineligible. Jonas Brothers: The 3D Concert Experience is considered to be the worst film with a weighted average of 1. the method is not described in detail to avoid attempts to circumvent it.  Filters and weights IMDb indicates that submitted ratings are filtered and weighted in various ways in order to produce a weighted mean that is displayed for each film. it sometimes produces an extreme difference between the weighted average and the arithmetic mean. the characters' filmography was added. and increased the number of titles in the database from 485. this feature is only available to viewers in the United States. the top 250 films are also based on a weighted rating formula referred to in actuarial science as a credibility formula. IMDb uses the following formula to calculate the weighted rating: where: = weighted rating .1. Ranking (IMDb Top 250) The IMDb Top 250 is intended to be a listing of the top 'rated' 250 films. and so on.000. Only non-documentary theatrical releases running at least forty-five minutes with over 25. series. "Full Episode Support" came online.000 ratings are considered. Due to licensing restrictions. Also. the IMDb offers a rating scale that allows users to rate films on a scale of one to ten. Characters filmography On October 2. 2006. in this case from eligible users who submit ratings. but has a rather ordinary arithmetic mean of 4. For example. 2007. a feature was added that enables instant viewing of over 6. The rating system is recognized as being severely flawed for several reasons.000 to nearly 755. IMDb has stated that to maintain the effectiveness of the top 250 list they "deliberately do not disclose the criteria used for a person to be counted as a regular voter".Internet Movie Database 29 Television episodes On January 26. Character entries are created from character listings in the main filmography database and as such don't need any additional verification by IMDb staff. the 'top 250' rating is based on only the ratings of "regular voters". In addition to other weightings. Sony and a number of independent film makers. allowing the database to support separate cast and crew listings for each episode of every television series. Ancillary features User ratings of films As one adjunct to data. with direct links from their profiles.3 as of March 2009.
or by having been a recent customer of the parent company Amazon. along with over 140 main boards. 3. 4. Top 20 of the 250 Rank 1. 10.com. TV episodes) and name entry. news events and current affairs as well as history and economics. critically acclaimed films. cult films. Film The Shawshank Redemption The Godfather The Godfather: Part Two Pulp Fiction The Good. independent films. 7. 30 The IMDb also has a Bottom 100 feature which is assembled through a similar process although only 1500 votes must be received to qualify for the list. The top 250 list comprises a wide range of films. 5. 20. 13. including major releases. 14. The Politics board started in 2007 is a message board to discuss politics. 16. 6. having its beginnings in 2001. 12. 15.1) The in this formula is equivalent to a Bayesian posterior mean (See Bayesian statistics). as of 2006.Internet Movie Database = average for the movie as a number from 0 to 10 (mean) = (Rating) = number of votes for the movie = (votes) = minimum votes required to be listed in the Top 250 (currently 25. 19. credit card. 18. 9. In order to post on the message boards a user needs to "authenticate" their account via cell phone. This section is one of the more recent features of IMDb. Both these message boards have become the most . Message boards have expanded in recent years. 11. the Bad and the Ugly 12 Angry Men The Dark Knight Schindler's List The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King Fight Club Star Wars Episode V: The Empire Strikes Back Year 1994 1972 1974 1994 1966 1957 2008 1993 2003 1999 1980 The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring 2001 One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest Inception Goodfellas Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope Seven Samurai Forrest Gump The Matrix The Lord of the Rings: The Two Towers 1975 2010 1990 1977 1954 1994 1999 2002 Message boards One of the most used features of the Internet Movie Database is the message boards that coincide with every title (excepting. 8. 2. 17. silent films and non-English language films.000) = the mean vote across the whole report (currently 7. The Soapbox started in 2001 is a general message board meant for debates on any subject.
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 . and disasters in the theatre are sometimes blamed on his ghostly intervention. means literally "one who interprets". see terminology) is a person who acts in a dramatic or comic production and works in film. stories were only known to be told in song and dance and in third person narrative. when women first appeared on stage. Actors were traditionally not people of high status. influenced by the French actrice.com/) Actor An actor (alternatively actress for a female. theatre. it remains in use in the theatre." ὑποκριτής (hypokrites). in this sense. Theatrical legend to this day maintains that Thespis exists as a mischievous spirit.imdb. However. the re-adoption of the neutral term dates to the 1950s–60s. Within the profession. In honour of Thespis. In many parts of Europe. The word actor refers to a person who acts regardless of gender. Actress remains the common term used in major acting awards given to female recipients. television. The etymology is a simple derivation from actor with ess added. actress became the usual term. the post-war period when women's contribution to cultural life in general was being re-evaluated. an actor is one who interprets a dramatic character.Internet Movie Database 33 References External links • Official website (http://www. Terminology After 1660. However. The gender-neutral term "player" was common in film in the early days of the Motion Picture Production Code with regards to the cinema of the United States.imdb. however. often incorporated into the name of a theatre group or company (such as the East West Players) . actors are commonly called Thespians. The ancient Greek word for an "actor. Prior to Thespis' act. but later. although actress. and traditional beliefs of the region and time period held that this left any actor forever condemned. actors could not even receive a Christian burial. and this term "is increasingly preferred". "remains in general use". or radio in that capacity. this negative perception was largely reversed in the 19th and 20th centuries as acting has become an honoured and popular profession and art. referring specifically to a female person who acts. but is now generally deemed archaic. actor and actress were initially used interchangeably for female performers. History The first recorded case of an actor performing took place in 534 BC (though the changes in calendar over the years make it hard to determine exactly) when the Greek performer Thespis stepped on to the stage at the Theatre Dionysus and became the first known person to speak words as a character in a play or story.com) • mobile version (http://m. and in the Early Middle Ages travelling acting troupes were often viewed with distrust.
The stage role of Peter Pan. who was a member of the Group Theatre. women sometimes play the roles of prepubescent boys.Actor 34 Techniques Method acting Method acting is a term created by Lee Strasberg after he had left the Group Theatre and created his own Actors Studio. Method actors are often characterized as immersing themselves so totally in their characters that they continue to portray them even off-stage or off-camera for the duration of the project. men (onnagata) took over the female roles in kabuki theatre when women were banned from performing on stage during the Edo period. whether by direct address or indirectly by specific use of language. psychological. gestures or other signs indicating that the character or actor is aware of the audience's presence. In modern times. However. In Stanislavski's system'. While some actors do employ this approach. Women in male roles are uncommon in film with the notable exceptions of the films The Year of Living Dangerously and I'm Not There. is traditionally played by a woman. its practices were subsequently advanced and developed in new directions by Stella Adler. Sanford Meisner. only men could become actors in some societies. usually mezzo-sopranos. In the time of William Shakespeare. women's roles were generally played by men or boys. emphasised a different approach of using creative imagination. Uta Hagen. it revolutionized theatre in the United States. The Group Theatre first became known in the 1930s. this is a popular misconception. it was considered disgraceful for a woman to go on the stage. the actor analyzes the character in order to play him or her with psychological realism and emotional authenticity. As opposite gender In the past. it is generally not taught as part of the Method. they pretend." The illusion of the fourth wall with the audience as voyeurs is striven for. for which she received the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress. an actor may recall emotions or reactions from his or her own life and use them to identify with the character being portrayed. This convention has continued to the present. and this belief persisted until the 17th century. Presentational and representational acting Presentational acting refers to a relationship between actor and audience. In the former film Linda Hunt played the pivotal role of Billy Kwan. Lee Strasberg (at the Actors Studio in the 1940s and 50s). as are most principal boys in British pantomime. women began to appear on stage in England. In the latter film Cate Blanchett portrayed Jude Quinn. Margaret Hughes is credited by some as the first professional actress on the English stage. and others. Opera has several "breeches roles" traditionally sung by women. Examples are Hansel in Hänsel und Gretel. The first occurrence of the term actress was in 1700 according to the OED and is ascribed to Dryden. "actors want to make us 'believe' they are the character. along with Strasberg. for example. some forms of Chinese drama have women playing all the roles. Using the Method. This prohibition ended during the reign of Charles II in part due to the fact that he enjoyed watching actresses on stage. The techniques developed in the work of the Group Theatre were based on the acting theory of Konstantin Stanislavski created in the early 20th century in his work at the Moscow Art Theatre and its studios. and emotional abilities are developed. However. Cherubino in The Marriage of Figaro and Octavian in Der Rosenkavalier. often has this function of indirect contact. Method acting offers a systematic form of actor training in which the actor's sensory. Stella Adler. when in Venice it was broken. for example. looks. (Shakespeare's use of punning and wordplay. When an eighteen-year Puritan prohibition of drama was lifted after the English Restoration of 1660.) In representational acting. In Japan. In the ancient Greece and Rome and the medieval world. a .
bbc. Baltimore and London: The Johns Hopkins University Press. such as those of Shakespeare. not the 'actual' referents as such" (Elam 1980.  Women Actors in Ancient Rome (http:/ / www. plays and musicals are played by a member of the opposite sex (rather than a character cross-dressing). In It's Pat: The Movie. even themselves (when the actor is 'playing themselves. Most of Shakespeare's comedies include instances of overt cross-dressing. ISBN 0-472-08275-2. London and New York: Methuen. . uk/ radio4/ womanshour/ 2002_52_fri_04. who offer translations of classical source material that utilises the term hypocrisis (acting) (1994. 257. 1994. for which she was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress. Having an actor dress as the opposite sex for comic effect is also a long-standing tradition in comic theatre and film. or. to act is to create a character in performance: "The dramatic world can be extended to include the 'author'. A few roles in modern films. such as Francis Flute in A Midsummer Night's Dream. respectively) in which they played most scenes dressed as a woman. Felicity Huffman was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Actress for playing Bree Osbourne (a male-to-female transsexual) in Transamerica. that have large numbers of male characters in roles where the gender no longer matters in modern times. Women playing men in live theatre is particularly common in presentations of older plays. the 'audience' and even the 'theatre'. but these remain 'possible' surrogates. The Context of Ancient Drama. for example. filmwatchers never learn the gender of the androgynous main characters Pat and Chris (played by Julia Sweeney and Dave Foley). Occasionally. ISBN 0-8018-3506-2. and William J. Eric. 110).Actor representation of Bob Dylan in the sixties. • Elam. and John Travolta in the 2007 movie musical. 265–267). Linda Hunt won an Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress for playing Billy Kwan in The Year of Living Dangerously. shtml) 27 December 2002. BBC Sources • Csapo. Doubtfire. Harvey Fierstein in the Broadway musical. Robert. less often. the issue is further complicated. Ann Arbor: The U of Michigan P. co. Robert Schwartz. by a woman playing a woman acting as a man pretending to be a woman. more commonly. Tony Curtis and Jack Lemmon famously posed as women to escape gangsters in the Billy Wilder film Some Like It Hot. 1980. Keir. Dustin Hoffman and Robin Williams have each appeared in a hit comedy film (Tootsie and Mrs. See Weimann (1978. 35 References  Hypokrites (related to our word for hypocrite) also means. ISBN 0-416-72060-9.  This is true whether the character than an actor plays is based on a real person or a fictional one. New Accents Ser. • Weimann. as in John Malkovich's performance in the film Being John Malkovich). Ed. Slater. The movie A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the Forum stars Jack Gilford dressing as a young bride. The Semiotics of Theatre and Drama. 1978.' as in some forms of experimental performance art. 2). see also Csapo and Slater. "to answer" the tragic chorus. such as the character Edna Turnblad in Hairspray—played by Divine in the original film. Cross-dressing for comic effect was a frequently used device in most of the thirty Carry On films. Shakespeare and the Popular Tradition in the Theater: Studies in the Social Dimension of Dramatic Form and Function. or Gwyneth Paltrow in Shakespeare in Love. like Julie Andrews in Victor/Victoria.
variety and circus artists. stunt performers and directors and theatre fight directors.org. television and radio actors and broadcasters (on-air journalists.org/): a union representing U.). • British Actors' Equity (http://www.actorsequity. • Screen Actors Guild (SAG) (http://www. entertainment. walk-on and supporting artists. • The Empty Space by Peter Brook • The Technique of Acting by Stella Adler External links • Actors' Equity Association (AEA) (http://www. . 2005). including actors.alliance. television and radio presenters. 1987) • Letters to a Young Actor by Robert Brustein (Basic Books. ISBN 0-465-00806-2. theatre directors and designers. ISBN 0-394-75059-4. S. • Media Entertainment & Arts Alliance (http://www. S. singers.Actor 36 Further reading • An Actor's Work by Constantin Stanislavski • A Dream of Passion: The Development of the Method by Lee Strasberg (Plume Books. sports. ISBN 0-452-26198-8. 1990) • Sanford Meisner on Acting by Sanford Meisner (Vintage. and arts industries.org/): a union representing U.aftra. choreographers.org.au): an Australian/New Zealand trade union representing everyone in the media. film and TV actors. dancers. stage managers. etc. • American Federation of Television and Radio Artists (AFTRA) (http://www.equity.uk/): a trade union representing UK artists.org/): a union representing U. S. theatre actors and stage managers.sag.
Yoga. Russian formalism. discipline and integrity. and Tolstoy. An Actor's Work on a Role. IPA: [kənstɐnʲˈtʲin sʲɪrˈgʲejɪvʲɪtɕ stənʲɪˈslafskʲɪj]. Stanislavski's work was as important to the development of socialist realism in the Soviet Union as it was to that of psychological realism in the United States. and his autobiography.Constantin Stanislavski 37 Constantin Stanislavski Constantin Stanislavski Born Константин Сергеевич Станиславский  17 January 1863 Moscow. 5 January] 1863 – 7 August 1938) was a Russian actor and theatre director. Throughout his life. . Stanislavski wrote several works. Pavlovian behavioural psychology. He described his approach as 'spiritual Realism'. Gogol. Russian Empire 7 August 1938 (aged 75) Moscow. requiring dedication. Stanislavski treated theatre-making as a serious endeavour. It draws on a wide range of influences and ideas. including his study of the modernist and avant-garde developments of his time (naturalism. His development of a theorized praxis – in which practice is used as a mode of inquiry and theory as a catalyst for creative development – identifies him as the first great theatre practitioner. he subjected his own acting to a process of rigorous artistic self-analysis and reflection.S. symbolism and Meyerhold's constructivism). James-Lange (via Ribot) psychophysiology and the aesthetics of Pushkin. including An Actor Prepares. His system of acting has developed an international reach. 17 January [O. My Life in Art. Soviet Union • • • Theatre director Actor Theatre theorist Naturalism Psychological realism Socialist realism Symbolism Founder of the Moscow Art Theatre An Actor's Work My Life in Art Died Occupation Literary movement • • • • Notable work(s) • • • Spouse(s) Maria Petrovna Perevostchikova (stage name: Maria Liliana) Constantin Sergeyevich Stanislavski (Russian: Константи́н Серге́евич Станисла́вский.
Pushkin had concluded that what united the diverse classical authors—Shakespeare. the ballet. His interests included the circus. The family's second theatre was added in 1881 to their mansion at Red Gates. in 1885. Stanislavski briefly studied at the Moscow Theatre School. As a child. The prospect of becoming a professional actor was taboo for someone of his social class. Together they devised exercises in moving and sitting stationary "rhythmically". where students were encouraged to mimic the theatrical tricks and conventions of their tutors. he left after little more than two weeks. In 1823. In 1877. was elected head of the merchant class in Moscow (one of the most important and influential positions in the city). which anticipated Stanislavski's later use of physical rhythm when teaching his 'system' to opera singers. he began vocal training under Fyodor Petrovich Komissarzhevsky. Stanislavski chose not to attend university. and puppetry. and as late as 1900 he amused holiday-makers in Yalta by taking a walk each morning "in character". Stanislavski often used his inherited wealth to fund his theatrical experiments in acting and directing. he extended the experiment to the rest of the cast of a short comedy in which he performed in 1883. bourgeois family. Nikolai Gogol and Mikhail Shchepkin. disguising himself as a tramp or drunk and visiting the railway station. Psychological realism had been developed here by Alexander Pushkin. on Sadovaya Street in Moscow (where Stanislavski lived from 1863 to 1903). The Alexeyevs were a prosperous. Disappointed by this approach. It was from this habit of self-analysis and critique that Stanislavski's system later emerged. his father. Stanislavski started what would become a lifelong series of notebooks filled with critical observations on his acting. aphorisms.Constantin Stanislavski 38 Biography Family background Stanislavski grew up in one of the richest families in Russia. Instead. having only recently been serfs and the property of the nobility. and problems. Stanislavski was exposed to the rich cultural life of his family. their house became a focus for the artistic and cultural life of the city. the Alekseyevs. whose factories manufactured gold and silver braiding for military decorations and uniforms. preferring to work in the family business. that year. He was born Constantin Sergeyevich Alexeyev – "Stanislavski" was a stage name that he adopted in 1884 in order to keep his performance activities secret from his parents. providing a forum for Stanislavski's adolescent theatrical impulses. Corneille and Calderón—was their common concern for truth of character and situation." Stanislavski experimented with the ability to maintain a characterization in real life. he had a fully equipped theatre built on his estate at Liubimovka. or disguising himself as a fortune-telling gypsy. a professor at the Moscow Conservatory and leading tenor of the Bolshoi (and father of the famous actress Vera Komissarzhevskaya). Early influences Increasingly interested in "living the part. understood as credible behaviour in believable circumstances: . the home of psychological realism in Russia. Sergei Vladimirovich Alekseyev. Stanislavski devoted particular attention to the performances of the Maly Theatre. with whom he also explored the co-ordination of voice and body. His family's discouragement meant that he appeared only as an amateur onstage and as a director until he was thirty-three. Until the Russian revolution in 1917. Racine. A year later. After his debut performance there. Komissarzhevski provided one of the models (the other was Stanislavski himself) for the character of Tortsov in his actor's manual An Actor's Work (1938). In 1884. actors had an even lower social status in Russia than in the rest of Europe.
was heavily annotated by Stanislavski. along with the stress on the importance of training and discipline. feel. — Pushkin's aphorism. imagination and emotion as the cornerstones of the craft. self-knowledge. was Stanislavski's teacher (she was responsible for instilling the rejection of inspiration as the basis of the actor's art. and the practice of responsive interaction with other actors that Stanislavski came to call "communication"). The effortless. effect-seeking acting. and the use of careful observation. So too did Tommaso Salvini's 1882 performance of Othello. The Maly soon became Stanislavski as the Knight in The Society of Art and known as the House of Shchepkin." The Miserly Knight. the importance of extensive rehearsals.'" This inner desire forms the "heart of the role. the constant object of his thought." to which the "tiny quirks and tiny external details" are added as embellishment. who performed major Shakespearean tragic protagonists in Moscow in 1877. Gogol. This actor would "become the character" and identify with his thoughts and feelings: he would "walk. . dignified mode of comic performance in which the actor seeks to grasp "what is dominant in the role" and considers "the character's main concern. In an article of 1846. ensemble approach. the father of Russian realistic Literature's 1888 production of Alexander Pushkin's acting who. promoted the idea of an "actor of feeling. Glikeriya Fedotova. talk. laugh as the author wants him to. performances given by foreign star actors—who would often come to Moscow during Lent (when Russian actors were prohibited from appearing)—also influenced Stanislavski. Stanislavski wrote that Salvini was the "finest representative" of the "art of experiencing" approach to acting. Shchepkin's legacy included the emphasis on a disciplined. the 'bee in his bonnet. As well as the artists of the Maly company. think. campaigned against overblown. cry. verisimilitude in the feelings experienced in the given circumstances.Constantin Stanislavski 39 The truth concerning the passions. he advises a modest. which consumes his life. Years later. in which the actor describes his struggle to achieve a naturalness of style. meanwhile. in 1848. Shchepkin's student." A copy of Shchepkin's Memoirs of a Serf-Actor. particularly impressed Stanislavski. 1830. emotive and clear playing of the Italian actor Ernesto Rossi. that is what our intelligence demands of a dramatist.
aesthetics. the drama and opera sections each had a school. He also became interested in the aesthetic theories of Vissarion Belinsky. Schiller. but do not discuss art with them! Learn in time to listen to. Stanislavski married Lilina (the stage name of Maria Petrovna Perevostchikova). The school opened on 8 Stanislavski with his soon-to-be wife Maria Liliana. died of pneumonia in May 1890 less than two months after she was born. beware of your female admirers! Make love to them. With the guidance of Fedotov and Sollogub. On 5 July 1889. It is with them that you should discuss art. Stanislavski performed in plays by Molière. the history of costume. The society's school was to offer classes in dramatic art. as well as gaining his first experiences as a director. In January 1893. for which he had the Ginzburg House on Tverskaya Street converted into a luxurious clubhouse with its own large stage and exhibition rooms. To research the curriculum of the society's drama school. Xenia. fencing and dancing. playing Ferdinand and Louise in The October 1888 while the society itself was officially inaugurated on 3 Society of Art and Literature's production of November with a ceremony attended by Anton Chekhov. Stanislavski was well known as an amateur actor. while Sollogub was appointed head of the graphic arts section. to understand and love the bitter truth about yourselves! And get to know those who can tell it to you. Stanislavski decided to use the surplus 25. Kira. Pushkin.Constantin Stanislavski 40 The Society of Art and Literature By the age of twenty-five. Fedotov became head of the dramatic section. From Belinsky he took his conception of the role of the artist. if it amuses you. . with whom he had just performed in Intrigue and Love. Stanislavski finally abandoned the operatic conventions and theatrical clichés in his acting that he had mimicked from other actors' performances. drama. make-up. auspices of the society. Stanislavski's father died. He made a proposal to Fyodor Sollogub and Alexander Fedotov (a theatre director and estranged husband of Glikeriya Fedotova) to establish a society that would unite amateur and professional actors and artists. on which he based a moral justification for his desire to perform that accorded with his family's sense of social responsibility and ethics.000 roubles to form the Society of Art and Literature. At this time Stanislavski warned in his diary: Young actors. and Ostrovsky. was born on 21 July 1891. Their first child.000–30. Under the Schiller's Intrigue and Love in 1889. Russian literature. The profits from his family's factory were particularly high in 1887–1888. Their second daughter. Stanislavski spent the summer of 1888 studying the classes and performances of the Comédie-Française in Paris. Their son Igor was born 14 September 1894. Komissarzhevski was the head of the operatic and musical section.
almost entirely removing the prompter from the society's productions. Writing years later in his autobiography My Life in Art (1925). On the eve of creating the Moscow Art Theatre. Stanislavski discovered his "principle of opposites. in its own right. 1889. Their productions demonstrated a model for artistic achievement with relatively unskilled actors that Stanislavski was to adopt for the early part of his career as a director. not relying on the text as such. the thoughts and feelings of the protagonists. The Ensemble's general approach included historical accuracy in set. It was at this time that Stanislavski first met Leo Tolstoy. 'and when you play a villain. By means of a rigid and detailed control of the mise-en-scène. Tolstoy Stanislavski as Othello in 1896. in Stanislavski's words "the inner kernel of the play was revealed by itself. try to find where he is good. . Tolstoy was another important influence on the development of Stanislavski's thought.. try to find out where he is bad. however. re-wrote the fourth act of his The Power of Darkness along the lines of Stanislavski's suggestions in 1896. the director of the Meiningen Ensemble. Stanislavski." as expressed in his aphoristic advice to the actor: "When you play a good man. His directorial methods at this time were closely modeled on the disciplined. [.] He went through the whole play in a completely different way. the world in which they lived. in keeping with Belinsky's ideas about the "poetry of the real": Stanislavski uses the theatre and its technical possibilities as an instrument of expression. Its use of off-stage sound to produce the illusion of a reality beyond the visible stage particularly impressed Stanislavski. Stanislavski described his production of Leo Tolstoy's The Fruits of Enlightenment in February 1891 as his first fully independent directorial work. His account flowed uninterruptedly from moment to moment. Stanislavski wrote of the importance of simplicity. Stanislavski introduced lyrical elaborations through the mise-en-scène that dramatised more mundane and ordinary elements of life. but speaking in terms of the play's dynamic." Whereas the Ensemble's effects tended toward the grandiose. The Merchant of Venice and Twelfth Night. and when you play a villain. autocratic approach of Ludwig Chronegk. with quotes from important speeches.. its action. Stanislavski had studied enthusiastically during their second visit to Moscow in 1890. props and costumes and complex crowd effects achieved through a tightly drilled rehearsal process. 'try to find where he is good. 'try to find out where he is bad. a language.Constantin Stanislavski 41 'When you play a good man. The dramatic meaning is in the staging itself. including the strict choreography of the actors' every gesture." Stanislavski insisted that the actors learnt their parts thoroughly. organically unified naturalistic aesthetic of the Ensemble's approach. not providing a 'literary' explanation. directness and accessibility in art." Jean Benedetti suggests that Stanislavski's task at this stage was to unite the realistic tradition of the creative actor inherited from Shchepkin and Gogol with the director-centered. his What Is Art? (1898) promoted immediate intelligibility and transparency as an aesthetic principle. In 1889 in the society's production of Aleksey Pisemsky's historical play Men Above The Law. as well as a number of plays by Schiller. Stanislavski described Chronegk's approach as one in which the director is "forced to work without the help of the actor. whose productions of Julius Caesar.
" It was Stanislavski's historic meeting with Vladimir Nemirovich-Danchenko on 22 June 1897. along with other professional actors. however. Nemirovich's talent for dramatic and literary analysis. with Stanislavski overseeing production and Nemirovich in charge of the repertoire and literary decisions. on the basis of the working method they found they had in common." Stanislavski wrote at this time. their scope was so wide-ranging. Stanislavski began to assemble detailed prompt-books that included a directorial commentary on the entire play and from which not even the smallest detail was allowed to deviate in rehearsals. with popular prices for seats. Their eighteen-hour discussion—lasting from lunch at 2pm in a private room in the Slavic Bazaar restaurant to 8am the following morning over breakfast at Stanislavski's family estate at Liubimovka—has acquired a legendary status in the history of theatre. each had a veto. whom he had met on 15 February at a literary-musical evening. co-founder with Stanislavski of the Nemirovich needed Stanislavski's directorial talent for creating vivid stage Moscow Art Theatre. At this time he also helped to organise the first all-Russian conference on the theatre. they worked out the policy of their new theatre. spearheaded by Romain Rolland. they agreed on the conventional practices they wished to abandon and. photographed in images and selecting significant details. in a bid to avoid alarming the authorities with their connection to the dangerously democratizing "popular theatre" movement that was spreading across Europe. they would create a realistic theatre of international renown. who was later to work with him before becoming an important director and theatre practitioner in his own right. selecting actors from Nemirovich's class at the Philharmonic school and Stanislavski's amateur Society of Art and Literature group. as part of his painstaking rehearsals for Karl Gutzkow's melodrama Uriel Acosta and Shakespeare's Othello. while Stanislavski needed 1922. from tired cliché and to give greater freedom to imagination and creative ability. He proposed to call them "open" or "accessible" theatres. in an open public discussion on the creation of a popular theatre that was reported in the press. his professional expertise and his ability to manage a theatre. theatre director and acting teacher at the Philharmonic school (where he taught Vsevolod Meyerhold and Olga Knipper). urged the creation of a "Russian people's theatre. who was also committed to the idea of a popular theatre. whose organically unified aesthetic would bring together the techniques of the Meiningen Ensemble and those of André Antoine's Théâtre Libre (which Stanislavski had seen during trips to Paris). Yevtikhiy Karpov.Constantin Stanislavski From 1894 onwards. Together they would forge a professional company with an ensemble ethos that discouraged individual vanity. whose keynote speaker. Nemirovich was a successful playwright (whose work was performed by the Maly and whose play The Worth of Life had beaten Chekhov's The Seagull to win the Griboyedov prize. Stanislavski later compared their discussions to the Treaty of Versailles. much to the author's dismay). In February 1897 Stanislavski joined Anton Chekhov. . Responsibility was to be shared between them on the basis of their individual strengths. Stanislavski's Othello (1896) made a strong impression on the 22-year-old Vsevolod Meyerhold. Their abilities complemented one another: Vladimir Nemirovich-Danchenko. that would create what was called initially the "Moscow Public-Accessible Theatre" but which came to be known as the Moscow Art Theatre (MAT). "The task of our generation. is "to liberate art from outmoded tradition." 42 The Moscow Art Theatre See also: MAT production of The Seagull and MAT production of Hamlet In 1896 Stanislavski discussed with Nikolai Efros his ideas for a scheme to establish a network of touring theatre companies that would bring high-quality drama to the surrounding area of selected towns. critic.
 Stanislavski's encounter with Chekhov's drama proved crucial to the creative development of both men. Viktor Simov. who signed an agreement on 10 April 1898. members of the board of the Society of Art and Literature also invested. It was at these rehearsals that Stanislavski's lifelong relationship with Vsevolod Meyerhold began. In his opening speech on the first day of rehearsals. The production's success was due to the fidelity of its delicate representation of everyday life.000 roubles. ensemble playing. Three Sisters in 1901. isolated 50 miles from the city. Meyerhold was so impressed with Stanislavski's directorial skills that he declared him a genius. Stanislavski would only ever invest an initial 10. who invested 10. by the end of June. but the theatre's principal shareholder was to be Savva Timofeievich Morozov. Stanislavski played Trigorin. the company met in Pushkino. the company to this day bears the seagull as its emblem. . was engaged as the company's principal designer. The MAT production of The Seagull was a crucial milestone for the fledgling company that has been described as "one of the greatest events in the history of Russian theatre and one of the greatest new developments in the history of world drama. as Stanislavski described it. Throughout June and July the company rehearsed productions of Shakespeare's The Merchant of Venice. and public-accessible theatre. His ensemble approach At Pushkino in 1898. though with the aim of transferring control to the actors eventually. its intimate.000 roubles launch capital." Despite its 80 hours of rehearsal—a considerable length by the standards of the conventional practice of the day—Stanislavski felt it was under-rehearsed and threatened to have his name removed from the posters when Nemirovich refused his demand to postpone its opening by a week. For want of suitable rehearsal space in Moscow. To raise the rest of the theatre's 28. Hauptmann's Hannele.Constantin Stanislavski Given that Stanislavski's family's assets amounted to some 8 million roubles at the time. and The Cherry Orchard in 1904. Meyerhold played Constantin. Lenz's The Tutor and Alexei Tolstoy's Tsar Fiodor Ioannovich. Stanislavski co-directed with Nemirovich the first of his productions of the work of Anton Chekhov." 43 In 1898. With an annual salary of 4. To commemorate this historic production. Nemirovich persuaded some of the directors of the Philharmonic Society to contribute. but Stanislavski insisted on a limited. 14 June 1898. The company had 13 shareholders. Nemirovich assumed initially that Stanislavski would fund the theatre as a privately owned business. "and we dedicate our lives to this high goal. and the resonance of its mood of despondent uncertainty with the psychological disposition of the Russian intelligentsia of the time. joint stock company.200 roubles each." he said. Stanislavski and Nemirovich were to represent the interests of the acting company in the business. Sophocles' Antigone. which gave the MAT its sense of identity. The company consisted of 39 actors. the company was introduced to his working method of extensive reading and research and detailed rehearsals in which the action was defined at the table before being explored physically. whom Stanislavski had met in 1896. Vsevolod Meyerhold prepares for his role as Constantin to Stanislavski's Trigorin in the Moscow Art Theatre production of Anton Chekhov's The Seagull. and Olga Knipper played Arkadnia. moral. On his death-bed Stanislavski was to declare Meyerhold "my sole heir in the theatre—here or anywhere else." In an atmosphere more like a university than a theatre. Pisemsky's Men Above The Law. Stanislavski stressed the "social character" of their collective undertaking: "We are striving to create the first rational. 30% of whom came from Nemirovich's Phiharmonic class and 35% of whom came with Stanislavski from the Society of Art and Literature.000 roubles in the MAT. Stanislavski went on to direct the successful premières of Chekhov's other major plays: Uncle Vanya in 1899. 23 men and 16 women. with a total staff numbering 323.
Stanislavski had become disenchanted with the MAT's productions of Chekhov's plays—"After all we have lived through. eventually emphasizing the actor's use of imagination and belief in the given circumstances of the text rather than her/his private and often painful memories. he later worked on the Method of Physical Actions. observation. While in its very earliest stages his 'system' focused on creating truthful emotions and embodying them. Emotion memory Stanislavski's 'system' focused on the development of artistic truth onstage by teaching actors to "experience the part" during performance. vaudeville. Stanislavski's goal was to find a universally applicable approach that could be of service to all actors. and opera. emotion memory. Its focus was on physical actions as a means to access truthful emotion. Yet he said of his system: "Create your own method. The focus remained on reaching the subconscious through the conscious. including melodrama. Stanislavski hoped that the 'system' could be applied to all forms of drama. although the latter's exclusively psychological techniques contrast sharply with Stanislavski's multivariant. Don't depend slavishly on mine. and involved improvisation. Areas of study include concentration. "it is impossible to weep over the fact that an officer is going and leaving his lady behind" (referring to the conclusion of Three Sisters). The Method of Physical Actions In the beginning. Stanislavski soon observed that some of the actors using or abusing this technique were given to hysteria. . I beg you. however. holistic and psychophysical approach. and dramatic analysis.' At the First Studio. He organised a series of theatre studios in which young actors were trained in his 'system. while Chekhov's unwillingness to explain or expand on the text forced Stanislavski to dig beneath its surface in ways that were new in theatre. He began to search for more reliable means to access emotion. actors were instructed to use their own memories in order to express emotion. This was developed at the Opera Dramatic Studio from the early 1930s. which explores character and action both from the 'inside out' and the 'outside in'." Many actors routinely identify his system with the American Method. 44 Stanislavski's system Stanislavski's 'system' is a systematic approach to training actors. Make up something that will work for you! But keep breaking traditions. voice." he remarked to Nemirovich. Stanislavski proposed that actors study and experience subjective emotions and feelings and manifest them to audiences by physical and vocal means.Constantin Stanislavski and attention to the psychological realities of its characters revived Chekhov's interest in writing for the stage. physical skills. By 1922.
including those of Westerners who had met him. Bulgakov's cutting portrait of Ivan Vasilievich likely reflects his frustrating experiences with Stanislavski during the latter's eventually aborted production of Bulgakov's play A Cabal of Hypocrites in 1930–1936. who was also part of the Group Theatre and who had studied briefly with Stanislavsky and quarreled with Strasberg's approach to the work. "This director found time to explain a thousand things that have always troubled actors and fascinated students." Gielgud is also quoted as saying. Richard Boleslavsky and Maria Ouspenskaya. founded the American Laboratory Theatre in 1925. but his famous acting "method" is held up as a farce. Ivan Vasilievich is portrayed as a great actor. it should be noted that Bulgakov and Stanislavski were otherwise good friends. Honours and awards This article incorporates information from the equivalent article on the Russian Wikipedia. Lee Strasberg. While this depiction of Stanislavski is in stark contrast to most other descriptions.) In Bulgakov's novel. 1936 Fictional references Mikhail Bulgakov satirized Stanislavski through the character Ivan Vasilievich in his novel Black Snow (also called "The Theatrical Novel"). both on stage and film. (It is no coincidence that Ivan Vasilievich was the name and patronymic of the notorious 16th-century czar Ivan the Terrible. went on to co-found the Group Theatre (1931–1940) with Harold Clurman and Cheryl Crawford. as did Stella Adler. • Order of Lenin – 1937 • Order of the Red Banner of Labour – 1938 • People's Artist of the USSR. Sir John Gielgud said. in fact often hindering actors' performances through ridiculous exercises." A portrait of Constantin Stanislavski by Valentin Serov. Two of his former students. Clurman and Strasberg had a profound influence on American acting.Constantin Stanislavski 45 Legacy Stanislavski had different pupils during each of the phases of discovering and experimenting with his 'system' of acting. which was the first American acting company to put Stanislavski's initial discoveries into practice. One of their students. Lord Laurence Olivier wrote that Stanislavski's My Life in Art was a source of great enlightenment" when he was a young actor. Stanislavski's grave at the Novodevichy Cemetery . "Stanislavski's now famous book is a contribution to the Theatre and its students all over the world.
'rich as Alexeyev'" (Benedetti 1999. 51–52).  Benedetti (2005.  Magarshack (1950. See also Carnicke (2000. 100). and is.  Benedetti (1999. 3). that is what our intelligence requires of the writer" (2005.  Benedetti (1999. sentiments that seem true in the proposed circumstances. 9–11. it suggested humble status and was unlikely to be associated with one of Moscow's most eminent bourgeois families. 14) and Magarshack (1950.  Benedetti (1999. 50). 11).  Benedetti (2008. 10). 3). 25. in the United States one could be 'rich as Rockefeller.  Benedetti (2005. Benedetti explains that Stanislavski "inherited" his stage name from another amateur.  Banham (1998. 11). 985). 21–22).  Benedetti (1999. 17). 49–50). 21)." Magarshack gives the amateur actor's name as Markov (1950. 24) and Carnicke (2000. 15).  "The children were taken to the theatre and concerts almost as soon as they could walk" (Benedetti 1999.  "If.  Benedetti (1999.  Benedetti (1999. Benedetti (1989). 6–11) and Magarshack (1950. 18).  Benedetti (1999. as he had been as a boy. 1). 2) and Carnicke (1998).  Magarshack (1950. 100).  Benedetti (1999. Milling and Ley (2001).  Magarshack (1950. 985). 18–19) and Magarshack (1950. 11) and Magarshack (1950. Carnicke (1998).  Benedetti (1999. 16) and Banham (1998. of the ballerina Stanislavskaia.  Benedetti (1999. 55–56). 33–34). Margarshack indicates that at this time "the life of the rich Moscow merchant was indistinguishable from the life of the Moscow nobility" (1950. and an admirer. . 100–101). 21) and Carnicke (2000. 31–32. 11). Counsell (1996).  Carnicke (2000.  Stanislavski (1938.  Benedetti (1999. It was a safe name to adopt.  Benedetti (1999. 'in Moscow the corresponding expression was. 19). 27–28). Innes (2000). 101). 1). 100). 52). 19). 16)  Banham (1998. Of Polish origin. 18) and Magarshack (1950. Benedetti offers an alternative translation of Pushkin's aphorism in his The Art of the Actor: "Authenticity of the passions. 14–15) and (2005. 14–17). 985) and Magarshack (1950.  Magarshack (1950.  Milling and Ley (2001.  Magarshack (1950.  Benedetti (1999.  Benedetti (1999. xxi). Dr Mako: "a friend at Luibimovka.  Benedetti (2005. 13) and Carnicke (2000. 26). 21). 11). 18) and Magarshack (1950.  Benedetti (1999.  Benedetti (1999. 19–20) and Magarshack (1950.Constantin Stanislavski 46 Significant students • • • • • • Vsevolod Meyerhold Michael Chekhov Richard Boleslavsky Maria Ouspenskaya Joshua Logan • • • • • • Andrius Jilinsky Leo Bulgakov Varvara Bulgakov Vera Solovyova Tamara Daykarhanova Olga Knipper Maria Knebel Yevgeny Vakhtangov • Notes Explanatory notes  Old Style date 5 January 1863  The introduction to this article draws on the introductions and overviews in the following commentaries: Banham (1998).  Benedetti (1999. 77).
Benedetti (1989.  Benedetti (1999.  Magarshack (1950. 68–69). 43). 40–41). 59) and Worrall (1996. 28–29). Benedetti writes that as a result of the profitability of the family factory. 35–36). 44 and 50–51). Worrall (1996.  Worrall (1996.  Benedetti (1999. 63). apparently in error. 35–37).  Magarshack (1950. Nikolai Efimovich Efros (1867–1923). Stanislavski "suddenly found himself with 25.  Benedetti (1999. 75–76). 27). 17) and (1999. 47). Benedetti (1999. and Worrall (1996. Magarshack (1950.Constantin Stanislavski  Benedetti (1999. 56). 43–44). 54). 59–60). Benedetti (1999. 52). Benedetti (1999. 16). Benedetti (1999. 47). Worrall writes. however. Benedetti (1999. 64). Benedetti (1999.  Benedetti (1999. 47  Rudnitsky (1981.  Rehearsals were spread over 24 sessions: 9 with Stanislavski and 15 with Nemirovich. Benedetti (1999.  Magarshack (1950. 15).  Benedetti (1999.  Benedetti (1999. 84–85). Worrall (1996. 48). 41). 18) and (1999. the following quotation is from Benedetti (1999.000 roubles more than he expected". Worrall. 56). 55).000–30. 85). See Benedetti (1999. 46–47). 35–36. Magarshack (1950. 54). 25). Benedetti (1999. 38–40). 67) and Braun (1982. Benedetti (1999. the Moscow Art Theatre's first literary manager. 61). Benedetti (1999. 86–90) and Benedetti (1999.  Magarshack (1950. 67–68). xv). Worrall (1996. 42–43). 61). Benedetti (1999.020 roubles he established. 80) and Benedetti (1999. They first met on 29 October 1893.  Worrall (1996. 8) and Benedetti (1999a. Benedetti (1999. Benedetti (1999. Benedetti (1999.  Magarshack (1950. Magarshack (1950. 37) and Magarshack (1950. Magarshack (1950. 61–62). 68). 35). 11–44). Worrall (1996.                                   Benedetti (1999. that they married in June (1996. 61–62). 42). 64) and Worrall (1996.  Worrall (1996. 64).  Benedetti (1999. 25). Benedetti (1989. Magarshack (1950. 78–80) and Benedetti (1999. Benedetti (1999. 37–38). 24). 59). 24). offers a more modest figure for Stanislavski's initial financial investment in the Society: "With his first year’s dividend of 1. 30–40) and Worrall (1996. 26). the Society of Art and Literature" (1996. Bradby and McCormick (1978. Benedetti (1999. 30). 85). 62–63) and Worrall (1996. 27). 28–29). Benedetti (1999. The title of Pisemsky's play has also been translated as Despots and A Law unto Themselves. 60–61). Benedetti (1999. Benedetti (1999. . 43). 70). 59) and Worrall (1996.  Benedetti (1999. Worrall (1996. 16) and (1999. 73). 46). 46). 39) and Magarshack (1950. Magarshack (1950. 40). 56).  Benedetti (1999.  Rudnitsky (1981. Benedetti (1989. 82–85). 29–30) and Worrall (1996. Benedetti (1999. 61) and Worrall (1996. Benedetti (1999. 27). 81). he continues: "he decided to spend it all on an ambitious scheme". See also Magarshack (1950. 70–74) and Worrall (1996. 45) and Benedetti (1999. 40–43). 44). together with Komissarzhevsky and Fedotov. Benedetti (1989. see Benedetti (1999a.
 Braun (1981.  Lord Olivier. London and Boston: Faber. Systems of Rehearsal: Stanislavsky. . Carnicke argues that this "robs Strasberg of the originality in his thinking. 9). ISBN 0-415-10643-5. Theater:Theory/Text/Performance Ser. ISBN 0-415-19452-0. Sharon M. "Stanislavsky's Preface to An Actor Prepares". Allen (2001. Joseph R. 1982 p. "Stanislavsky's System: Pathways for the Actor". p. Jean. London: Methuen. ISBN 0-85664-501-X. 64). Foreword. • Benedetti. • Roach. ISBN 0-02-547390-5. Stanislavsky in Focus. ed. Stanislavsky: A Life. • Benedetti. 1968.Constantin Stanislavski  Braun (1981. and Graham Ley. London and New York: Routledge.  Leach (2004. • Moore. Sonia. 1991. 272). David. • Mitter. Alison Hodge. 11). ISBN 0-415-15229-1. 1999.  Chekhov and the Art Theatre. and John McCormick. Revised edition. 64). A Sourcebook on Naturalist Theatre. ISBN 0-333-77542-2. xv–xxii). New York: Viking. ISBN 90-5755-070-9. Jean. Jean. Signs of Performance: An Introduction to Twentieth-Century Theatre. Sharon M. London: Nick Hern Books. 11–36. 2005. 1998. In Stanislavski (1938. Shomit. London: Methuen. Strasberg adapted it to the American theatre. Stanislavski: His Life and Art. 59–76. Original edition published in 1982. David. The Art of the Actor: The Essential History of Acting. • Benedetti. 1996. Lee Strasberg's obituary in The New York Times credited Stanislavski with the invention of the Method: "Mr. London and New York: Routledge. 62. were united in a common desire "to achieve artistic simplicity and truth on the stage". Edward. People's Theatre. Modern Theories of Performance: From Stanislavski to Boal. ISBN 0-413-77336-1. London: Methuen. Jean. 1986. • Hagen. ISBN 0-413-50030-6. London: Methuen. In Twentieth Century Actor Training. The Player's Passion: Studies in the Science of Acting. Burnet M. 1982. NJ: Rowman and Littlefield. ISBN 0-472-08244-2. 1985. Grotowski and Brook. New York: Macmillan. 1998. • Milling. Martin. • Merlin. London: Methuen. London: Harwood Academic Publishers. Basingstoke. Respect for Acting. London and New York: Routledge. 9). Revised edition. 1992. From Classical Times to the Present Day. • Benedetti.  Quoted by Benedetti (1999a. Jean. Confessions of an Actor. 2007. 64 48 Citations Bibliography • Banham. • Carnicke. Original edition published in 1988. ISBN 0-413-71160-9. "Stanislavsky and Chekhov". 14). ISBN 0-413-46300-1. Brecht. Stanislavski: An Introduction. Theatre Journal 43: 229–232. Christopher. 2000. 1998. ISBN 0-413-52520-1. • Hobgood. 2008. ISBN 0-521-43437-8. • Braun. 1989. Bella. ISBN 0-415-06784-7. Ed. p. • Carnicke. London and NY: Routledge. Training an Actor: The Stanislavski System in Class. 2001. 2000. • Benedetti. Colin. ed. • Bradby. while simultaneously obscuring Stanislavsky's ideas" (1997. The Director and the Stage: From Naturalism to Grotowski. in Stanislavski's words. • Innes. The Cambridge Guide to Theatre. Jane. ISBN 978-1-85459-793-9. The Complete Stanislavsky Toolkit. ISBN 0-670-00249-6. 1973. 1950. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. • Counsell. • Magarshack. Stanislavski and the Actor. Hampshire and New York: Palgrave. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.  Not only actors are subject to this confusion. but always crediting Stanislavsky as his source" (Quoted by Carnicke 1998. ISBN 0-571-13791-1. Russian Theatre Archive Ser. 1978. London: Croom Helm and Totowa. imposing his refinements. Uta.
the actor also recalls emotions or reactions from his or her own life and uses them to identify with the character being portrayed. Nick. Constantin. • Whyman. Elizabeth Reynolds Hapgood. Al Pacino. 1961. The Stanislavsky System of Acting: Legacy and Influence in Modern Performance. Ed. The Moscow Art Theatre. with many contemporary acting teachers. the "method" in method acting usually refers to the practice. Method acting shares similarities with Stanislavski's system. Marilyn Monroe. ISBN 0-450-00166-0. London: Methuen. 1988. Constantin. Revised and expanded edition. and trans. Robert De Niro. Jack Nicholson. Origins "The Method" was first popularized by the Group Theatre in New York City in the 1930s and subsequently advanced by Lee Strasberg and others at The Actors Studio in the 1940s and 1950s. It was derived from the 'system' created by Constantin Stanislavski. Strasberg's students included many of the best known American actors of the latter half of the 20th century. Jean Benedetti. and ed. Constantin. • Stanislavski. Creating a Role. 1990. ISBN 978-0-415-42223-9. 1968. 1936. London and NY: Routledge. Vasily Osipovich. London: Methuen. Trans. James Dean. so as to develop lifelike performances. London: Methuen. including. schools. Marlon Brando. Mickey Rourke. ISBN 0-413-47770-3. • Toporkov. However. Jean Benedetti. 2001. • Worrall. Though not all method actors use the same approach. it is generally not taught as part of the Method. George Peppard. 49 Method acting Method acting is any of a family of techniques used by actors to create in themselves the thoughts and feelings of their characters. in which actors draw upon their own emotions and memories in their portrayals. and trans.  . 2008. and acting at the Moscow Art Theater (founded in 1897). Method actors are often characterised as immersing themselves in their characters to the extent that they continue to portray them even offstage or off-camera for the duration of a project. • Stanislavski. Constantin. emotional). Using the Method. While some actors have employed this approach.Constantin Stanislavski • Stanislavski. Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Trans. and his own teaching. ISBN 978-0-521-88696-3. ISBN 0-413-75720-X." While Classical acting instruction "had focused on developing external talents." the Method was "the first systematized training that also developed internal abilities (sensory. Method acting has been described as having "revolutionized American theater. his collaborations with playwright Anton Chekhov. 1938. and colleges teaching an integrated approach that draws from several different schools of thought about acting. Dustin Hoffman. London: Routledge. London: Methuen. An Actor’s Work: A Student’s Diary. Elizabeth Reynolds Hapgood. writing. ISBN 0-415-05598-9. London: Mentor. Stanislavski in Rehearsal: The Final Years. 1996. Paul Newman. psychological. Jane Fonda. Theatre Production Studies ser. 1968. influenced by Constantin Stanislavski and created by Lee Strasberg. 1963. aided by a set of exercises and practices including sense memory and affective memory. 2008. and many others. ISBN 0-413-46190-4." This was done through his friendships with Russia's leading actors. Trans. An Actor Prepares. • Stanislavski. this is a popular misconception. • Stanislavski. who pioneered similar ideas in his quest for "theatrical truth. Stanislavski's Legacy: A Collection of Comments on a Variety of Aspects of an Actor's Art and Life. An Actor's Handbook: An Alphabetical Arrangement of Concise Statements on Aspects of Acting. ISBN 0-413-63080-3. 1981. Elizabeth Reynolds Hapgood." Method acting continues to evolve. Ed. Constantin. Rose.
Warren Beatty. wants. possibly including a reproduction of the character's emotional state by recalling emotions or sensations from the actor's own life. the substitution. animal work. affective memory. It also seeks to stimulate the actor's imagination through the use of "as ifs. Among the concepts and techniques of Method acting are substitution. Strasberg uses the question. Stanislavski himself has been noted saying that certain techniques that are considered to be "method" are not true to his original system. the actor. rather than on pure raw emotion. and Sanford Meisner." Robert Lewis also broke with Strasberg. unrealistic way. Meisner taught actors to achieve spontaneity by understanding the given circumstances of the scene (as did Strasberg) and through interpersonal exercises he designed to help actors invest emotionally in the scene. "as if. the only Group Theatre teacher to do so. with an undue emphasis on the exercises of affective memory. such as teaching actors how to speak verse and enunciate clearly." Therefore. "What would motivate me. championed a closely related version of the Method. Lewis disagreed with the idea that vocal training should be separated from pure emotional training. Meisner described acting as "living truthfully under imaginary circumstances. and Robert De Niro. Stella Adler. including Stella Adler. and archetype work. Meisner believed that this approach caused actors to focus on themselves and not fully tell the story. but by using the scene's given circumstances. It is often contrasted with acting in which thoughts and emotions are indicated. basic techniques espoused by Strasberg through which actors access their own personal experiences in order to identify with and portray the emotional lives of their characters." sense memory. another Group Theatre pioneer. she urged performers to draw on their imaginations and utilize "emotional memory" to the fullest.Method acting 50 Technique "The Method" usually refers to the teachings of Lee Strasberg. an actress and acting teacher whose fame was cemented by the success of her students Marlon Brando. In his books Method—or Madness? and the more autobiographical Slings and Arrows. . to behave in the way the character does?" Strasberg asks the actor to replace the play's circumstances with his or her own. Her version of the Method is based on the idea that actors should conjure up emotion not by using their own personal memories. Method acting combines the actor's careful consideration of the character's psychological motives and personal identification with the character. He advocated fully immersing oneself "in the moment" and concentrating on one's partner. and objectives. Generally. Adler's technique relies on carrying through tasks. Like Strasberg's. which he felt was the focus of Method training. after he had modified many of his early ideas about acting." Adler often taught that "drawing on personal experience alone was too limited. for each different method technique is simply a different teachers' understanding of the Stanislavski System. also broke with Strasberg after she studied with Stanislavski himself. However there is no one correct way of method acting. which came to be called the Meisner technique. or presented in a clichéd. but the term "method acting" is also sometimes applied to the teachings of his Group Theatre colleagues. Robert Lewis. Lewis felt that more emphasis should be placed on formal voice and body training. needs. freeing them to react "honestly" as the character. each of which takes a slightly different approach. Sanford Meisner. Meisner broke from Strasberg on the subjects of sense memory and affective memory. and to other schools of acting derived from Stanislavski's system.
• Stella Adler. and founder of the American Laboratory Theatre in New York. to analyze the script for wants. film director. founder of HB Studio in New York City. and they continue to develop new acting tools and techniques. and author (and nephew of Anton Chekov) whose technique. • Maria Ouspenskaya.. Teachers Stanislavski described his acting system in a trilogy of books set in a fictional acting school: An Actor Prepares. to connect with each other in performance. Acting teachers whose work was inspired by Stanislavski include: • Richard Boleslavsky. the Stella Adler Studio of Acting in New York and Los Angeles. In addition to taking an integrated approach. an actress and founder of the Stella Adler Conservatory in New York City. • Lee Strasberg. and others often misunderstood each other's work. Stella Adler. but Strasberg trained many of the most respected actors of the 20th century. director. Calif. an actor. needs. an actress and the author of Respect for Acting and A Challenge for the Actor. He also wrote an autobiography. an actor. and objectives. the Edgemar Center for the Arts in Santa Monica. Le Studio Jack Garfein in Paris and American Conservatory Theater in San Francisco. including the Lee Strasberg Theatre and Film Institute in New York and Los Angeles. Her students included John Garfield. most post-1930 acting philosophies have been strongly influenced by Method acting. • Uta Hagen. co-founder of the Actors Studio. contemporary actors sometimes seek help from psychologists or use imaginative tools such as dream work or archetype work to remove emotional blocks. a director. HB Studio in New York. they all taught actors to use their imagination. Meisner often said that Strasberg actors were too focused on themselves. Techniques have also been developed to prevent the world of the performance from spilling over into an actor's personal life in destructive ways. My Life in Art. Sanford Meisner. and producer whose teachings are most closely associated with the term Method acting. and Lee Strasberg. Stella Adler. and it continues to be taught at schools around the world. . Some modern acting theorists and teachers have noted that Lee Strasberg. and Creating a Role. who emphasized the techniques of identity and substitution. actor. • Michael Chekhov. Building a Character.Method acting 51 Contemporary approaches Contemporary Method acting teachers and schools often synthesize the work of their predecessors into an integrated approach. diverged from and returned to Stanislavski's over the course of his career. and author of Method—or Madness? In fact. • Robert Lewis. • Herbert Berghof. an actress who taught at the American Laboratory Theatre. and that their criticisms were based on this misunderstanding. actor. director. largely an outside-in approach and somewhat more metaphysical. For example. the Actors Studio Drama School in New York. They reject the notion that any one of the major Method teachers of the 20th century was completely correct or incorrect.
Method acting 52 Practitioners • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Tom Hanks Richard Armitage Christian Bale Marlon Brando Adrien Brody Kamal Haasan Michael Caine Jessica Chastain Bradley Cooper Gary Oldman Bryan Cranston Mammootty James Dean Robert De Niro Johnny Depp Leonardo DiCaprio Jane Fonda Walton Goggins Ryan Gosling Tom Hardy Ed Harris Dustin Hoffman Matthew Mcconaughey Michael Ironside Anne Hathaway Val Kilmer Heath Ledger Mohanlal Marilyn Monroe Jack Nicholson Al Pacino Joaquin Phoenix Suzanne Pleshette Aamir Khan Gena Rowlands Peter Sellers James Stewart Meryl Streep Forest Whitaker Michelle Williams Reese Witherspoon Shelley Winters John Lloyd Cruz • [Bill Pendergast] (actor and writer) .
com/ gst/ fullpage. Hal Leonard Corporation. Clients. msn. p.193. and directors.  "Stella Adler..  S. p. Sharon. html) The Telegraph .10. com/ learning/ general/ onthisday/ bday/ 1117. 27 October 2011. an Actress and Teacher of the Method (http:/ / query. Loraine Hull (1985). com/ id/ 5354214/ ns/ today-entertainment/ t/ marlon-brando-redefined-acting/ ) MSNBC  Michael Caine 'uses painful secret to cry on set' (http:/ / www." Further reading Articles • Mel Gussow: "The Method. London & New York: Routledge. Vintage. msnbc. 1987) Major books on Method acting • • • • • • • • • • • • The Technique of Acting by Stella Adler Acting—The First Six Lessons by Richard Boleslavsky To the Actor by Michael Chekhov A Dream of Passion by Lee Strasberg Sanford Meisner on Acting by Sanford Meisner Method—or Madness? by Robert Lewis Advice to the Players by Robert Lewis Respect for Acting by Uta Hagen No Acting Please by Eric Morris and Joan Hotchkis Strasberg's Method: As Taught by Lorrie Hull by S. 1982  Carnicke. html) The New York Times.125. December 22. ISBN 0-07-177100-X. Routledge Theatre Classics. ISBN 1-55783-244-7. telegraph. Inc. ISBN 0-918024-38-2. Still Disputed But Now Ubiquitous. nytimes. 1987  Robert Lewis (2003). including the "over-limited reliance on psychological approaches that led to the American conception of method acting. 2008. 2011 References  Stella Adler. nytimes.  Lee Strasberg of Actors Studio Dead (http:/ / www." Encyclopædia Britannica. 2011. Strasberg's method as taught by Lorrie Hull: A practical guide for actors. p. Loraine Hull Life and Acting: Techniques for the Actor by Jack Garfein The Power of the Actor by Ivana Chubbuck Books on contemporary approaches to Method acting • • • • The Intent to Live by Larry Moss Dreamwork for Actors by Janet Sonenberg O poetică a artei actorului (Poetics of the actor's art) by Ion Cojar Rosemary Malague: An Actress Prepares: Women and "the Method". teachers. Oxbow Books. Sanford. html?res=9E0CE0DD1E31F931A15751C1A964958260) New York Times. Stanislavsky in Focus: An Acting Master for the Twenty-First Century.  Larina Kase (2011)."  The New York Times (April 14. and More Clients!: Create an Endless Stream of New Business with the Power of Psychology. 91. spent most of his later years trying to correct what he felt were gross misunderstandings of Stanislavski's works. who was a scholar and translator of nearly all of Constantin Stanislavski's works. February 18. Clients. p. 1992.Method acting 53 Controversy British biographer Jean Benedetti. co. uk/ news/ celebritynews/ 6451936/ Michael-Caine-uses-painful-secret-to-cry-on-set. McGraw-Hill. Sanford Meisner on Acting.  Marlon Brando redefined acting (http:/ / today. Slings and Arrows: Theater in My Life. 221  Meisner.
70. most Shakespearean dramas have certain characters who frequently adopt a downstage ‘platea’ playing position that is in direct contact with the audience. google. In the other (more specialized) sense. Dies (http:/ / www.1011277& dq=& hl=en) AP. philstar.Method acting  Jane Fonda Is Actress with a Character (http:/ / news. sustains or varies a particular kind of actor-audience relationship between them. com/ features/ what-ive-learned/ ESQ0104-JAN_JACK) Esquire  Suzanne Pleshette. . The type of theatre that uses ‘presentational acting’ in the first sense (of the actor-audience relationship) is often associated with a performer using ‘representational acting’ in the second sense (of their methodology). however. while other characters behave as if unaware of the audience’s presence). com/ newspapers?id=kbolAAAAIBAJ& sjid=2_IFAAAAIBAJ& pg=1054. ‘Newhart’ Actress. these chiastic correspondences do not match up in all cases of theatrical performance. html?_r=0) The New York Times. January 21. the terms describe two contrasting functional relationships between the actor and the audience that a performance can create. Due to the same terms being applied to certain approaches to acting that contradict the broader theatrical definitions. heraldscotland. com/ supreme/ 2013/ 03/ 23/ 922828/ what-makes-man  http:/ / www. 1962  What I've Learned: Jack Nicholson (http:/ / www. in other plays the performers create a range of different relationships towards the audience (for example. In some plays all of the actors may adopt the same attitude towards the audience (for example. nytimes.Jun 14. 2008  Shelley Winters Outspoken Oscar-winning actress who had a string of famous lovers (http:/ / www. com/ 1987/ 04/ 14/ arts/ the-method-still-disputed-but-now-ubiquitous. Conversely. In the most common sense (that which relates the specific dynamics of theatre to the broader aesthetic category of ‘representational art’ or ‘mimesis’ in drama and literature). esquire. The collision of these two senses can get quite confusing. the terms describe two contrasting methodological relationships between the actor and his or her character in performance. Gettysburg Times . com/ 2008/ 01/ 21/ arts/ 21cnd-pleshette. the entire cast of a production of a Chekhovian drama will usually ignore the audience until the curtain call). The actor–audience relationship In every theatrical performance the manner in which each individual actor treats the audience establishes. com/ sport/ spl/ aberdeen/ shelley-winters-outspoken-oscar-winning-actress-who-had-a-string-of-famous-lovers-1. the terms have come to acquire often overtly contradictory senses. 31808) 16 January 2006 Herald Scotland  http:/ / www. html 54 Presentational and representational acting Presentational acting and the related representational acting are critical terms used within theatre aesthetics and criticism. the type of theatre that uses ‘representational acting’ in the first sense is often associated with a performer using ‘presentational acting’ in the second sense. While usual. nytimes.
Robert Weimann argues that: Each of these theatrical practices draws upon a different register of imaginary appeal and "puissance" and each serves a different purpose of playing. 90 ‘Presentational acting’. . (Shakespeare's use of punning and wordplay. refers to a relationship that acknowledges the audience. gestures or other signs that indicate that the character or actor is aware of the audience's presence.Presentational and representational acting 55 Presentational acting Conventionalized presentational devices include the apologetic prologue and epilogue. the play-within-the-play. which maintains an absolute autonomy of the dramatic fiction from the reality of the theatre. the induction (much used by Ben Jonson and by Shakespeare in The Taming of the Shrew). p. While the former derives its primary strength from the immediacy of the physical act of histrionic delivery. in this sense. the aside directed to the audience. and images of artificial persons' thoughts and actions. and so on. rather it relates to the issue of function. on the very theatrical transaction (in soliciting the audience’s indulgence. whether directly by addressing them or indirectly through a general attitude or specific use of language. ideas. They appear to be cases of ‘breaking frame’. for instance). the latter is vitally connected with the imaginary product and effect of rendering absent meanings. and other modes of direct address. The actor–character relationship The use of these critical terms (in an almost directly opposed sense from the critical mainstream usage detailed above) to describe two different forms of the actor–character relationship within an actor's methodology originates from the American Method actor and teacher Uta Hagen. since the actor is required to step out of his role and acknowledge the presence of the public. often has this function of indirect contact. refers to a relationship in which the audience is studiously ignored and treated as 'peeping tom' voyeurs by an actor who remains in-character and absorbed in the dramatic action. in this sense. Keir Elam. looks. She developed this use from a far more ambiguous formulation offered by the seminal Russian theatre practitioner Constantin Stanislavski in chapter two of his acting manual An Actor Prepares (1936). The Semiotics of Theatre and Drama. since they bring attention to bear on the fictional status of the characters. for example. The actor behaves as if a fourth wall was present. but in practice they are licensed means of confirming the frame by pointing out the pure facticity of the representation. These premeditated and ‘composed’ forms of actor-audience persuasion are in effect metadramatic and metatheatrical functions. But the distinction is more than epistemological and not simply a matter of poetics.) Representational acting ‘Representational acting’.
however. not acknowledging the audience) is 'representational' in the wider critical sense. and only lead to false. Stanislavski calls this creation artisto-rol). However. by Stanislavski considered the French actor the time the actor reaches the stage. having watched his students' first attempts at a performance. role (in Russian. both Stanislavski and Hagen applied their processes of acting towards these types of . Stanislavski's fictional persona Tortsov offers a series of critiques. Many types of drama in the history of theatre do make use of the presentational 'outside' and its many possible interactions with the representational 'inside'—Shakespeare. 'overacting'. and trusts that a form will follow.Presentational and representational acting 56 Stanislavski's typology In "When Acting is an Art". subjective reality of the character (via the actor's "emotional memory" or "transferences" from his own life). Both teachers were fully aware of the 'outside' to the dramatic fiction. given that the theatre that is often associated with his own 'experiencing the role' approach (realistic. mechanical acting. who takes action under the circumstances of the character. but they believed that from the actor's perspective these considerations do not help the performance. part of the reason she preferred to refer to them more clearly as "formalistic acting" and "realistic acting. or a combination of the actor's personality and the  representation". 'mechanical acting'. Uta Hagen's decision to use 'presentational' as a synonym for Stanislavski's 'experiencing the role' served to compound the confusion. without concerning himself with the external realities of the theatre. and Brecht. Restoration comedy. 'the exploitation of art'. Both approaches use 'living the role' or identifying with the character during rehearsals. In Stanislavski's approach. he or she no longer experiences a Coquelin (1841-1909) to be one of the best distinction between his or her self and the character. the actor has examples of "an artist of the school of created a 'third being'. and his own 'experiencing the role'. Confusion of terms Stanislavski's choice of the phrase 'art of representation' to describe an artistic approach that diverges from his own has led to some confusion. They are: 'forced acting'. One common misrepresentation of Stanislavski is the frequent confusion of the first five of these categories with one another. In the art of representation approach. goes to some lengths to insist that two of them deserve to be evaluated as 'art' (and only two of them): his own approach of ‘experiencing the role’ and that of the ‘art of representation’. 'art of representation'. while the 'art of representation' incorporates the results of the rehearsal process in a "finished" form. during the course of which he defines different forms and approaches to acting. Stanislavski. to name a few significant examples. They deem it more useful for the actor to focus exclusively on the fictional. both Stanislavski and Hagen adhere to a mode of theatrical performance that starts with the subjective experience of the actor. whilst on-stage the actor experiences the distinction between the two (the philosopher and dramatist Diderot calls this psychological duality the actor's 'paradox'). The distinction between Stanislavski's 'experiencing the role' and 'representing the part' (which Stanislavski identifies with the French actor Coquelin) turns on the relationship that the actor establishes with their character during the performance. Stanislavski's approach undertakes this process at all times onstage." Presentational versus representational acting In their textbooks for actors.
especially chapter five. Methuen. Opponents of the Stanislavski/Hagen approach have argued that this complexity is unavailable to a purely 'naturalistic' treatment that recognizes no distinction between actor and character nor acknowledges the presence of the actual audience. 9-11) and Carnicke (1998. The confusion of the terms is explained further down in this article. having nothing to do with the actor's process. 21). she imagines mocking theatrical renditions of her own story: "And I shall see some squeaking Cleopatra boy my greatness in the posture of a whore" (5. This structural dimension is most visible in Restoration comedy through its persistent use of the aside. An Actor Prepares.  For Diderot's conception. ISBN 0-415-10643-5 Pbk. fully aware of their unique requirements to the audience. 11).Presentational and representational acting drama as well.16-23. See also Counsell.  Elam .  Stanislavski (1936. representational has been a controversial subject of much critical and practical discussion.2. ISBN 0-8018-3506-2 Pbk." 57 Notes  A simple web search can reveal just how contradictory and confusing the use of these terms has become. Hagen stated that style is a label given to the "final product" by critics. A good example is the line spoken by Cleopatra in act five of Antony and Cleopatra (1607).  Hagen. 11-13). Colin. Keir.  The complexity of these dimensions of Shakespeare's dramaturgical strategies is outlined in Weimann (1965) and (2000).  See Benedetti (1998.  Weimann. How to play Brecht. New York: Scribner's. 'Fourth wall' performances foreclose the complex layerings of theatrical and dramatic realities that result from this contact and that are built into Shakespeare's dramaturgy. Signs of Performance: An Introduction to Twentieth-Century Theatre. That this was to be spoken by a boy in a dress in a theatre is an integral part of its dramatic meaning. direct and often renewed contact with the audience on the part of the performer. Shakespearean drama assumed a natural. see Roach (1985). 16-23). New Accents Ser. since Hagen recommends treating moments of direct audience address as if speaking to an audience within the fictional world of the drama (rather than one that observes that world from the outside). New York. 1978.  Weimann (2000. 203-210).90-91. The Johns Hopkins University Press. 12-30). In Brecht. ISBN 0-416-72060-9 Pbk. She saw definitions of "style" as something tagged by others onto the result.  In addition to Stanislavski's An Actor Prepares. ISBN 0-684-19040-0  Stanislavski. especially the chapter on Stanislavski. p. for his conception of 'experiencing the role' see Carnicke (1998). The very structure of the play was enough to accomplish his desired "alienation. They may also argue that it is not only a matter of the interpretation of individual moments. and that the "creator" (actor) need only explore the subjective content of the playwright's world. 1996.  Hagen (1973. and audience members. in regard to presentational vs.  Stanislavski (1936. though there are many other meta-theatrical aspects in operation in these plays. when she contemplates her humiliation in Rome at the hands of Octavius Caesar. Brecht always intended it to be about the character's subjective reality—including the direct audience addresses. The Semiotics of Theatre and Drama. Shakespeare and the Popular Tradition in the Theater: Studies in the Social Dimension of Dramatic Form and Function. Hagen's opinion (backed up by conversations with Brecht himself and the actress who was directed by him in the original production of "Mother Courage") was that. the presentational dimension is a structural part of the meaning of the drama as a whole. 12-32) and Hagen (1973. the interaction between the two dimensions—representational and presentational—forms a major part of his 'epic' dramaturgy and receives sophisticated theoretical elaboration through his conception of the relation between mimesis and Gestus. ISBN 0-87830-983-7  It is worth qualifying this non-acknowledgment of the audience as of the actual audience.215-217). . 170). See Hagen (1991. 11-13). for the actor. 1980. A Challenge for the Actor. Theatre Arts. scholars. see also Counsell (1996. p. Routledge. Uta 1991. Robert.  "When Acting is an Art" is the second chapter of An Actor Prepares (Stanislavski 1936. Inc. Constantin 1936.
Constantin. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Sanford Meisner. A Challenge for the Actor. London and New York: Methuen. 1978. • Hagen. Lee Strasberg. This approach was developed by Constantin Stanislavski (1863–1938). • Stanislavski. 1973. An Actor Prepares. Michael Chekhov. a Russian actor. ISBN 0-02-547390-5. The most influential acting teachers. ISBN 0-415-10643-5. Joseph R. Harold Clurman. The system is the result of Stanislavski's many years of efforts to determine how someone can control in performance the most intangible and uncontrollable aspects of human behavior.The latter technique is referred to as Stanislavski's system. The Player's Passion: Studies in the Science of Acting. Ion Cojar and Ivana Chubbuck all traced their pedigrees to Stanislavski. Signs of Performance: An Introduction to Twentieth-Century Theatre. Robert.Presentational and representational acting 58 References Works cited • Counsell. Theater:Theory/Text/Performance Ser. between 1934–1938. Baltimore and London: The Johns Hopkins University Press. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. • ---. his theories and/or his disciples. • Elam. London: Methuen. Vsevolod Meyerhold. The method that was originally created and used by Constantin Stanislavski from 1911 to 1916 was based on the concept of emotional memory for which an actor focuses internally to portray a character's emotions onstage. The Semiotics of Theatre and Drama. ISBN 0-413-46190-4. Keir. and theatre administrator at the Moscow Art Theatre (founded 1897). • Weimann. Author's Pen and Actor's Voice: Playing and Writing in Shakespeare's Theatre. director. Stella Adler. ISBN 0-472-08244-2. including Richard Boleslavsky. Respect for Acting. ISBN 0-8018-3506-2. 1936. this technique evolved to a method of physical actions in which emotions are produced through the use of actions. • Hagen. Robert Lewis. ISBN 0-521-78735-1. Colin. ISBN 0-416-72060-9. 1996. Stanislavski's system Stanislavski's system is a progression of techniques used to train actors to draw believable emotions to their performances. 1985. Cambridge Studies in Renaissance Literature and Culture. such as emotions and art inspiration. Helen Higbee and William West. London and New York: Routledge. Uta Hagen. 2000. New York: Macmillan. Shakespeare and the Popular Tradition in the Theater: Studies in the Social Dimension of Dramatic Form and Function. Ed. Later. ISBN 0-684-19040-0 • Roach. 1988. New York: Scribner's. Constantin Stanislavski . New Accents Ser. 1980. Uta 1991. Uta.
To him. or completely 'being a role. Painting by Stanislavski began to create techniques that could be applied to the Valentin Serov. but their performances were still susceptible on some nights to flashes of inspiration. he began creating his first draft of the system. As a result. Most of today's actors on stage. . as the pinnacle of artistic success.' while on some nights their performances were good or merely accurate. He trained willing actors using his new techniques as he continued to work and alter his techniques as he saw fit in order to develop the most effective technique for actors. it influenced Stanislavski's system. television.Stanislavski's system 59 Background Stanislavski's initial choice to call his acting idea his System struck him as dogmatic. At times. This draft was based on his personal experiences onstage as well as his observations of other actors in the Moscow Art Theatre. these actors seemed to operate under different rules from other actors of the time. Stanislavski began developing a grammar of acting in 1906. By 1911. Stanislavski's methodological rigor bordered on opacity: see. In 1909. When psychology was formalized. he was the first to take questions and problems of psychological significance and directly link them to acting practices. he was able to experiment with his new methods. Though his approach changed throughout his life. such as the tragedians Maria Yermolova and Tommaso Salvini. the chart of the Stanislavski 'system' included as a fold-out in editions of Robert Lewis' book "Method or Madness. The chart. The system arose as a result of questions that Stanislavski had in regard to great actors that he admired. made by Adler. 1905 training of other actors to develop similar stage performances. By finding Stanislavski regarded Maria Yermolova's acting similarities among the talented actors and their performances. Although Stanislavski was not the first to codify a system of acting. lists all aspects of the actor and of performance that Stanislavski thought pertinent at the time." a series of lectures. Stanislavski attempted to create a system before psychology was widely understood and formalized as a discipline. for instance. so he preferred to write it without the capital letter and in quotation marks to appear as his ‘system’ in order to indicate the provisional nature of the results of his investigations. and film owe much to Stanislavski's system. he never lost sight of his ideals of truth in performance and love of art. His dedication to completeness and accuracy often conflicted with his goal of creating a workable system that actors would actually like to use.
He observed that actors' mental preparations for their roles did not coincide with their physical performances on stage. The shift between concepts was a result of various observations made by Stanislavski. whether true or not. Such rigors of re-learning were probably constant throughout his life. a man of institution. In essence. Each individual actor. talking. the actor does not so much become someone else as he becomes himself. For instance. his book. This was underscored when his talented protégé Michael Chekhov experimented with emotional memory and had a nervous breakdown. himself. Stanislavski believed throughout his life the dictum that an actor should approach a role as directly as possible and then see if it "lives. He wanted actors to concentrate more. so the remainder of one's performances require technique. systematic approach that might impart to any given actor with some grip on his 'instrument'.Stanislavski's system 60 Approach to acting There is a story of an actress who had once been in a play directed by Stanislavski. so this technique allowed the actors to consciously target and control their subconscious emotions through movement. They had spent most of their time reviewing their scripts and rehearsing their characters through internal and mental stationaries. Later in his life. he could sigh and hold his head in his hands. was a great believer in formal (and rigorous) training for the actor. a physical action that many who are crying instinctively do. Progression of the system Stanislavski's system is a method for actors to produce realistic characters on stage. If an actor attempts to portray a character by employing one aspect of the union without the other. are assumed by an untrained or inexperienced actor in performance. The method of physical action Stanislavski developed the "method of physical actions. even sitting on stage. translated into English as "Building a Character. then the performance is dead." gives a description of the correct way of walking on stage. 'Burn them all." If the actor connects with the role and the role is brought to life. His original studies of techniques led to the use of 'Emotional Memory' that required actors to trigger the emotions of their characters internally. The reasoning behind this goes back to the union of the psychological and physical. must be broken down and re-learned. A few months before his death he told his assistants that the path to glory can be found by working from the internal (the inside out) as well as the external (the outside in). Stanislavski realized that a shift in technique was needed for actors to produce more realistic emotions before audiences but he never discredited the use of emotional memory if used cautiously. On stage. This technique was based from a French psychologist Theodule Ribot's concept of 'Affective Memory'. but their character performances were lacking physical and emotional believability. She came to him years after the performances and informed him that she had taken very copious notes on him and his technical approach during rehearsals. that is." to solve the dilemma of spontaneous emotion in a created environment. or aspects of behaviour that an audience can detect. This led to the 'Method of Physical Action'. his constant goal in life was to formulate some codified. Stanislavski once insisted that all actions that a person must enact. She wanted to know what to do with these notes and he replied. The two go hand-in-hand. For example. then a technique or a system is not necessary. his own Moscow Art Theatre and its associated studios. In this sense. This achievement in acting may only happen once or twice in one's life. must decide whether or not an approach or technique to their acting 'works' for them in their performance. is illustrative of Stanislavski and his approach. if an actor needed to weep. In this technique. if an actor experiences only internal feelings or only physical actions. the actor would perform a physical motion or a series of physical activities to create the desired emotional response for the character. Emotions were considered to be formed from the subconscious. then they are performing . however. such as walking. His interest in deeply analyzing the qualities of human behavior were meant to give the actor an awareness of such human behavior and how easily falsehoods. Stanislavski.' The anecdote.
the structure of the script should be analyzed and sectioned based on the different characters of the play. One of the first questions they had to ask was. This technique involved breaking the script into sections. Every objective is different for each actor involved because . Magic if Stanislavski believed that the truth that occurred onstage was different than that of real life. but the sections are still evolved even through this practice. the actor must discover the character's objective.' For each scene. as opposed to an internal goal. but that a 'scenic truth' could be achieved onstage. the theatrical actions of the actors would be believable and therefore 'truthful. For example.' actors were able to satisfy themselves and their characters' positions of the plot. By answering these questions as the character. For the system to work. motivation has been described as looking to the past actions of the character to determine why they completed physical actions in a script. this technique was changed to instead immediately begin rehearsals after the main idea of the play had been discussed. or "if" the circumstances were to happen to them. everything a human experiences psychologically is displayed through physical means. One of Stanislavski's methods for achieving the truthful pursuit of a character's emotion was his 'magic if. Therefore. an objective for a particular character may simply be 'to pour a mug of tea. The objective does not necessarily have to be achieved by the character and can be as simple as the script permits.Stanislavski's system incompletely. The correct physical action does not come automatically for every psychological response nor do they stimulate identical responses for every individual. actors need to experiment until they determine what best works for them and for the character they are trying to portray. "What if I were in the same situation as my character?" Another variation on this is "What would I do if I found myself in this (the character's) circumstance?" The "magic if" allowed actors to transcend the confinements of realism by asking them what would occur "if" circumstances were different. Objectives The objective is a goal that a character wants to achieve." a process in which the actors and director literally sit around a table and put forward their thoughts on the script and the characters until a clear understanding is formed. Through the 'magic if. an actor is required to analyze his or her character's motivations. A performance should be believable for an audience so that they may appear to the audience as truth. Method actors use actions to control their emotions. Through his work.' Actors were required to ask many questions of their characters and themselves. Reacting is essentially emoting and includes allowing the body to outwardly express what the mind is inwardly experiencing. This is often worded in a question form as "What do I want?" An objective should be action-oriented. They are able to remain in character.' Motivation Through the use of system. 61 Sections of the system Stanislavski believed that if an actor completes the system. Stanislavski believed that an actor was influenced by either their mind or their emotion to stimulate their actions and the actor's motivation was their subconscious will to perform those actions. The best way to experiment with this is through improvisation. This is termed a psycho-physical union. One earlier technique used for the system involved a "round the table analysis. Internal experiences and their physical expression are unbreakably united. The best improvisers are those who can intuitively act and behave onstage as though they are in a real situation. Many times. Whether it is through a facial expression or the tapping of a foot. in order to encourage character interaction onstage. the desired emotion should be created and experienced. Later. This allows actors to "live" in silences or pauses in the dialogue of the script and not only in the words. Stanislavski reversed the human reaction system in which an emotion allocates an action.
like Stella Adler who visited and was taught by Stanislavski himself. would you? I know how well-organized you are. no single focused project. While much work was done with the works of playwrights like Clifford Odets. For example. did not follow Strasberg's Method." The objective for this line may be 'to flatter' in order to collect the tea bags. It's Bill from next door." Stanislavski had. Obstacles are the aspects that will stop or hinder a character from achieving his or her individual objective. Other American actors. Stanislavski has the actor ask himself. "What would I do if I were in this circumstance" while Strasberg adopted a modification. Tools or methods are the different techniques that a character uses to surpass obstacles and achieve their objective. Actions are referred to as how the character is going to say or do something. You wouldn't happen to have any spare tea bags. Units and bits are the division of the script into smaller objectives. '(whilst on the phone) "Hello. The latter is an outgrowth of the American theatre scene. particularly in New York. focuses on the entire play as a whole. Actions are how a character is going to achieve their objective. seemed to attract these actors and thinkers. For example. Indeed. For example. or they call on the neighbour to be able to make the tea to pour. the actor. The purpose of units is that they are used as reference points for the actor because every individual unit should contain a specific motive for the character. controversy remains contesting the appropriateness of a Method approach to pre-Modernist . however. Possibly the main difference between the Method and the system was that ideas behind the Method did not change as flaws were discovered. When he decides to call on a neighbour is called a bit. then he might not have developed such an extreme 'method'. "What would motivate me. while the character searches for tea bags to make the mug of tea. the entire section of a scene during which the character searches for a tea bag would be a unit. A super-objective. More specifically. For example. Lee Strasberg. The Method teaches to draw emotions for a character from past experiences and remembrances of the actor. a line in the script may read. in contrast. they find that there are no teabags in the tin. he thought of his system as a table of contents from which the working actor could constantly draw. It has been suggested that Strasberg had access at that time only to An Actor Prepares and that if he had perhaps waited until he had also read Building A Character. depending on what problems might occur from play to play. and Tennessee Williams. To illustrate the difference between the two methods. and on emotional authenticity. Instead. Stanislavski's emphasis on life within moments. Arthur Miller. they walk to the shops. it as an objective for each line. Actions will be different for every single actor based on their character choices. Sally. 62 The system versus the Method Often Stanislavski's system is associated with Method acting. the Method was eventually applied to older works like those of William Shakespeare. The super-objective serves as the final goal that a character wishes to achieve within the script.Stanislavski's system they are based on the characters of the script. Strasberg renamed Stanislavski's earlier technique to 'Affective Memory' and continued to teach it as a proper acting method long after Stanislavki discredited it as a useful acting method. applied the Emotional Memory technique from Stanislavski's system. first in the Group Theatre and later in the Actors Studio. the character searches around the kitchen. throughout his life. on psychological realism. to behave in the way the character does?" Strasberg asks the actor to replace the play's circumstances with his/her own. Robert Lewis. which was published much later. Method acting appeared when actors and directors like Elia Kazan. This technique made its way in American theatres because it was taught to Strasberg at the American Laboratory Theatre in the 1920s to the particular psychological needs of the American actor of their time. A super-objective can direct and connect an actor's choice of objectives from scene to scene. called a "substitution. in the 1930s and 40s. The 'system' and the Method are often confused because the Method is similar to and uses Stanislavski's 1911 concept of Emotional Memory in acting.
ISBN 0-413-52520-1. Stanislavsky in Focus: An Acting Master for the Twenty-First Century. London: Harwood Academic Publishers.Stanislavski's system plays.]: Allyn & Bacon. 1988. 2008. they differ immensely. Uta. ISBN 0-394-75059-4. Stanislavsky in Focus: An Acting Master for the Twenty-First Century. Respect for Acting. The Player's Passion: Studies in the Science of Acting. ISBN 0-413-71160-9. p. London: Nick Hern. [S. 1999. • Benedetti. Routle Theatre Classics. 169). Revised edition. 1998. 1973. ISBN 0-472-08244-2. • Roach. 153 Carnicke. Carnicke. Original edition published in 1988. References     Brockett. 63 Bibliography • Stanislavski. Sharon. Theater:Theory/Text/Performance Ser. Russian Theatre Archive Ser. • Meisner. 2000. Stanislavsky in Focus. An Actor Prepares. ISBN 0413 • ---. Sanford. New York: Vintage Books. Oscar. 1985. 1987. for while the system and Method share many characteristics. ed. Joseph R. A Sourcebook on Naturalist Theatre. ISBN 0-02-547390-5. See Benedetti (1999. p.l. On Acting. Christopher. Constantin. The Complete Stanislavsky Toolkit. • Carnicke. Routledge Theatre Classics. • Hagen. 1998. • Innes. ISBN 978-1-85459-793-9. Stanislavski and the Actor. 1936. 221 . London: Methuen. ISBN 90-5755-070-9. London: Methuen. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. Jean. London: Methuen. 2008. Sharon. ISBN 0-415-15229-1. History of the Theatre. Stanislavski: His Life and Art. • Merlin. 2002. Print. New York: Macmillan. London and New York: Routledge. 2007. Sharon M. Bella.
 Ledger died on 22 January 2008 from an accidental "intoxication from prescription drugs". In the film. Prescription drug intoxication Actor. Candy (2006). Lords of Dogtown (2005). A few months before his death. In addition to acting. Ledger had finished filming his performance as the Joker in The Dark Knight. His death occurred during editing of The Dark Knight and in the midst of filming his last role as Tony in The Imaginarium of Doctor Parnassus. Ledger portrayed a fictional actor named Robbie Clark. and The Imaginarium of Doctor Parnassus (2009). For his portrayal of Ennis Del Mar in Brokeback Mountain. I'm Not There (2007). music video director 1992–2008 Michelle Williams (2004–2007) Matilda Rose Ledger (b. 2005) Died Cause of death Occupation Years active Partner(s) Children Heath Andrew Ledger (4 April 1979 – 22 January 2008) was an Australian actor and director. and was nominated for the BAFTA Award and for the Academy Award for Best Actor. The Dark Knight (2008). U. A Knight's Tale (2001). including 10 Things I Hate About You (1999). His untimely death cast a truly sombre shadow over the subsequent promotion of the $180 million . Western Australia 22 January 2008 (aged 28) New York City. His work comprised nineteen films. New York. and the casting director for the film I'm Not There. The Patriot (2000). which was inspired by the life and songs of American singer-songwriter Bob Dylan. the director. Ledger won the New York Film Critics Circle Award for Best Actor and Best International Actor from the Australian Film Institute.S. he produced and directed music videos and aspired to be a film director. After performing roles in Australian television and film during the 1990s.Heath Ledger 64 Heath Ledger Heath Ledger Ledger at the 2006 Berlin International Film Festival Born Heath Andrew Ledger 4 April 1979 Perth. Posthumously he shared the 2007 Independent Spirit Robert Altman Award with the rest of the ensemble cast. Monster's Ball (2001). Ledger left for the United States in 1998 to develop his film career. one of six characters embodying aspects of Dylan's life and persona. Brokeback Mountain (2005).
in The Patriot (2000). In The New York Times review of the film. his father's daughter with second wife and his stepmother Emma Brown. Peter Travers states: "Ledger's magnificent performance is an acting miracle. his mother's daughter with her second husband and his stepfather Roger Bell. Ledger received "Best Actor of 2005" awards from both the New York Film Critics Circle and the San Francisco Film Critics Circle for his performance in Brokeback Mountain. His parents separated when he was 10 and divorced when he was 11. where he had his first acting experiences. and to work on the TV series Sweat (1996). the ninth-youngest nominee for a Best Actor Oscar. the 2008 Los Angeles Film Critics Association Award for Best Supporting Actor. The Four Feathers (2002). his best friend since he was three years old. In 1999. From 1993 to 1997. in which he plays Wyoming ranch hand Ennis Del Mar. He also received a nomination for Golden Globe Best Actor in a Drama and a nomination for Academy Award for Best Actor for this performance. The Brothers Grimm (2005). Mr." In a review in Rolling Stone. directed by Gregor Jordan. in the short-lived Fox Broadcasting Company fantasy-drama Roar (1997). played by Jake Gyllenhaal. and Lords of Dogtown (2005). the eldest son of Benjamin Martin (Mel Gibson).Heath Ledger Batman production. the first part of a two-part television series. his feature film debut. he starred in supporting roles as Gabriel Martin. Western Australia. In 2001. an actress and later a publicist. Ledger and Mr. he won a ShoWest Award as "Male Star of Tomorrow". and Olivia Ledger (b. and in the Australian film Blackrock (1997). returning to Perth to take a small role in Clowning Around (1992). Casanova (2005). who has a love affair with aspiring rodeo rider Jack Twist. 1996). inspired his acting on stage. starring in a school production as Peter Pan at age 10. Ledger received numerous accolades for his critically acclaimed performance in the film. making him. and later Guildford Grammar School. Ashleigh Bell (b. to whom he was very close. He seems to . for which he became the first actor to win an award posthumously. in Gooseberry Hill. a race-car driver and mining engineer. he starred in the teen comedy 10 Things I Hate About You and in the acclaimed Australian crime film Two Hands. 1990). one of Australia's most successful television shows. whose family established and owned the Ledger Engineering Foundry. the son of Hank Grotowski (Billy Bob Thornton). Ledger left school to pursue an acting career. Ledger magically and mysteriously disappears beneath the skin of his lean. Ledger's older sister Kate. critic Stephen Holden writes: "Both Mr. With Trevor DiCarlo. and his love of Gene Kelly inspired his successful choreography. and in leading or title roles in A Knight's Tale (2001). Heath's and Kate's other siblings include two half-sisters. the 2009 Golden Globe Award for Best Supporting Actor – Motion Picture and the 2009 BAFTA Award for Best Supporting Actor. 2000s From 2000 to 2005. The Sir Frank Ledger Charitable Trust is named after his great-grandfather. It is a great screen performance. at age 26. 65 Early life Heath Ledger was born in Perth. including the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor. and Kim Ledger. Career 1990s After sitting for early graduation exams at 16. a French teacher. Ledger drove across Australia from Perth to Sydney. in which he played a gay cyclist. as good as the best of Marlon Brando and Sean Penn. Ned Kelly (2003). in Home and Away (1997). sinewy character. Ledger attended Mary's Mount Primary School. Ledger also had parts in the Perth television series Ship to Shore (1993). The Order (2003). and as Sonny Grotowski. in Monster's Ball (2000). leading to Guildford Grammar's 60-member team's "first all-boy victory" at the Rock Eisteddfod Challenge. the son of Sally Ledger (née Ramshaw). He had English and Scottish ancestry. a Best Actor International Award at the 2008 Australian Film Institute Awards. Gyllenhaal make this anguished love story physically palpable.
 At a news conference at the 2007 Venice Film Festival. his family accepting it on his behalf. he shared the 2007 Independent Spirit Robert Altman Award with the rest of the film's ensemble cast. At the time of his death.' a moody. After Ledger's death. Ledger spoke of his desire to make a documentary film about the British singer-songwriter Nick Drake. Ledger was invited to join the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences.Heath Ledger tear it from his insides. in Hollywood. with singer Ben Harper and also directed a music video for Harper's song "Morning Yearning". Directorial work Ledger had aspirations to become a film director and had made some music videos. it was shown publicly only twice. Later that year. which both Cornish and Rush won in their categories. speaks and listens. Ledger costarred with fellow Australian Abbie Cornish in the 2006 Australian film Candy." Posthumously. Jude Law. for his performance as sometime poet Dan. Ledger played the Joker in The Dark Knight. mass murdering. as young heroin addicts in love attempting to break free of their addiction. In his penultimate film performance. Ledger told Sarah Lyall. and Colin Farrell play "fantasy transformations" of his character. nearly six months after his death. on 23 February 2008. first at the Bumbershoot Festival. but says accolades are never his motivation. with its screening of Their Place: Reflections On Nick Drake. Masses Music. that he viewed The Dark Knight's Joker as a "psychopathic. counter-culture actor who represents the romanticist side of Dylan. who died in 1974. Ledger won the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor. as well as numerous other posthumous awards including the Golden Globe Award for Best Supporting Actor. from an overdose of an antidepressant. on 22 January 2008. Ledger was nominated for three "Best Actor" awards. an adaptation of the 1998 novel Candy: A Novel of Love and Addiction." 66 Heath Ledger posing with Charlotte Gainsbourg at the 64th Venice Film Festival in 2007. at the Grauman's Egyptian Theatre. directed by Todd Haynes. "a series of short filmed homages to Nick Drake" (including Ledger's). directed by Christopher Nolan. Ledger "won praise for his portrayal of 'Robbie [Clark]. its director. including one of the Film Critics Circle of Australia Awards. in their New York Times interview. Ledger inaugurated a new record label. To see him inhale the scent of a shirt hanging in Jack's closet is to take measure of the pain of love lost. In 2006 Ledger directed music videos for the title track on Australian hip hop artist N'fa's CD debut solo album Cause An Effect and for the single "Seduction Is Evil (She's Hot)". on 16 July 2008." After Brokeback Mountain. which Ledger posthumously shared. Ledger created and acted in a music video set to Drake's recording of the singer's 1974 song about depression "Black Eyed Dog" – a title "inspired by Winston Churchill’s descriptive term for depression" (black dog). he knows how he breathes. in Australia. held from 1 to 3 September 2007. so that Ledger's final performance could be seen in theatres. which director Todd Haynes praised highly in his tribute to Ledger upon accepting the ISP Robert Altman Award. and its casting director. schizophrenic clown with zero empathy. While working on the film in London. which Christopher Nolan accepted for him. in Seattle. Ledger had completed about half of the work for his final film performance as Tony in Terry Gilliam's The Imaginarium of Doctor Parnassus. sponsored by American Cinematheque. For his work in The Dark Knight. Ledger doesn't just know how Ennis moves. on 23 February 2008. at the age of 26. first released. whose mentor is played by Geoffrey Rush. Shortly after the release of Candy. Gilliam chose to adapt the film after his death by having fellow actors Johnny Depp. and secondly as part of "A Place To Be: A Celebration of Nick Drake". As one of six actors embodying different aspects of the life of Bob Dylan in the 2007 film I'm Not There. on 5 October 2007. his music video for "Black Eyed Dog" was shown on the Internet and excerpted in news clips distributed via .
. which would have been his first feature film as a director. and their daughter. In 2004. with Ellen Page proposed in the lead role. As an adult. and it led to his abandonment of plans for his family to reside part-time in Sydney. and the Woodroofe video for her cover of David Bowie's "Quicksand". he met and began dating actress Michelle Williams on the set of Brokeback Mountain. include an animated feature for Modest Mouse's song. completed for Modest Mouse and Grace Woodroofe. in late 2007 and early 2008. New South Wales up for sale..Heath Ledger YouTube. where he shared a house with Williams. which at the time of his death he was planning to both perform in and direct." . On 30 January 2011. 67 Personal life Ledger was an avid chess player." After his performance on stage at the 2005 Screen Actors Guild Awards. saying that he had been told that he would be presenting the award only minutes earlier. would have been Ledger's first feature film as a director. Matilda Rose. he strongly denied press reports alleging that "he spat at journalists on the Sydney set of the film Candy. outside Ledger's Sydney home. Heather Graham and Naomi Watts. The "King Rat" video premiered on 4 August 2009. he stated: "I am so sorry and I apologise for my nervousness. Williams' father confirmed to Sydney's Daily Telegraph that Ledger and Williams had ended their relationship. and returned to the United States. Allan Scott's film adaptation of the chess-related 1983 novel The Queen's Gambit. After his break-up with Williams. from 2005 to 2007. in which he shot two music videos before his death.  Ledger's final directorial work. He also intended to act in the film. In the summer of 2004. winning Western Australia's junior chess championship at the age of 10. he often played with other chess enthusiasts at Washington Square Park. the topic and for the amazing filmmakers. in Boerum Hill. In September 2007. by Walter Tevis. the Los Angeles Times referred to his presentation as an "apparent gay spoof." Ledger called the Times later and explained that his levity resulted from stage fright. Ledger put his residence in Bronte. premiered in 2009. Brooklyn. Relationships Ledger had a number of high-profile relationships with actresses. squirting Ledger and Williams with water pistols on the red carpet at the Sydney premiere of Brokeback Mountain. He was working with Scottish screenwriter and producer Allan Scott on an adaptation of the 1983 novel The Queen's Gambit by Walter Tevis." or that one of his relatives had done so later. Gemma Ward stated that the pair began dating in November 2007 and their families spent Christmas together in their home town of Perth. including Lisa Zane. the tabloid press and other public media linked Ledger romantically with supermodels Helena Christensen and Gemma Ward. 2006 Gyllenhaal and Williams' Dawson's Creek castmate Busy Philipps. "King Rat". Press controversies Ledger's relationship with the press in Australia was sometimes turbulent. In January 2006. when he had giggled in presenting Brokeback Mountain as a nominee for Outstanding Performance by a Cast in a Motion Picture. I would be absolutely horrified if my stage fright was misinterpreted as a lack of respect for the film. The music videos. "Several members of the paparazzi retaliated . Matilda's godparents are Ledger and Williams' Brokeback co-star Jake International Film Festival. was born on 28 October 2005 in New York Ledger at the 56th Berlin City. On 13 January 2006.
Heath Ledger Ledger was quoted in January 2006 in Melbourne's Herald Sun as saying that he heard that West Virginia had banned Brokeback Mountain, which it had not; actually, a cinema in Utah had banned the film. He had also referred mistakenly to West Virginia's having had lynchings as recently as the 1980s, but state scholars disputed his statement, observing that, whereas lynchings did occur in Alabama as recently as 1981, according to "the director of state archives and history" quoted in The Charleston Gazette, "The last documented lynching in West Virginia took place in Lewisburg in 1931."
In their New York Times interview, published on 4 November 2007, Ledger told Sarah Lyall that his recently completed roles in I'm Not There (2007) and The Dark Knight (2008) had taken a toll on his ability to sleep: "Last week I probably slept an average of two hours a night. ... I couldn't stop thinking. My body was exhausted, and my mind was still going." At that time, he told Lyall that he had taken two Ambien pills, after taking just one had not sufficed, and those left him in "a stupor, only to wake up an hour later, his mind still racing." Prior to his return to New York from his last film assignment, in London, in January 2008, while he was apparently suffering from some kind of respiratory illness, he reportedly complained to his co-star from The Imaginarium of Doctor Parnassus, Christopher Plummer, that he was continuing to have difficulty sleeping and taking pills to help with that problem: "Confirming earlier reports that Ledger hadn't been feeling well on set, Plummer says, 'we all caught colds because we were shooting outside on horrible, damp nights. But Heath's went on and I don't think he dealt with it immediately with the antibiotics.... I think what he did have was the walking pneumonia.' [...] On top of that, 'He was saying all the time, 'dammit, I can't sleep'... and he was taking all these pills to help him.' " In talking with Interview magazine, after his death Ledger's former fiancée Michelle Williams also confirmed reports the actor had experienced trouble sleeping. "For as long as I'd known him, he had bouts with insomnia. He had too much energy. His mind was turning, turning turning – always turning."
At about 2:45 p.m. (EST), on 22 January 2008, Ledger was found unconscious in his bed by his housekeeper, Teresa Solomon, and his masseuse, Diana Wolozin, in his fourth-floor loft apartment at 421 Broome Street in the SoHo neighborhood of Manhattan. According to the police, Wolozin, who had arrived early for a 3:00 pm appointment with Ledger, called Ledger's friend, actress Mary-Kate Olsen, for help. Olsen, who was in California, directed a New York City private security guard to go to the scene. At 3:26 pm, "[fewer] than 15 minutes after Wolozin first saw him in bed and only a few moments" after first calling Olsen and then calling her a second time to express her fears that Ledger was dead, Wolozin telephoned 9-1-1 "to say that Mr. Ledger was not breathing." At the urging of the 9-1-1 operator, Wolozin administered CPR, which was unsuccessful in reviving him. Paramedics and Emergency Medical Technicians (EMT) arrived seven minutes later, at 3:33 pm ("at almost exactly the same moment as a private security guard summoned by Ms. Olsen"), but were also unable to revive him. At 3:36 pm, Ledger was pronounced dead and his body was removed from the apartment.
Autopsy and toxicology report
Two weeks later on 6 February 2008, the Office of the Chief Medical Examiner of New York released its conclusions, based on an initial autopsy of 23 January 2008, and a subsequent complete toxicological analysis. The report concludes, in part, "Mr. Heath Ledger died as the result of acute intoxication by the combined effects of oxycodone, hydrocodone, diazepam, temazepam, alprazolam and doxylamine." It states definitively: "We have concluded that the manner of death is accident, resulting from the abuse of prescription medications." While the medications found in the toxicological analysis may be prescribed in the United States for insomnia, anxiety, pain, or
Heath Ledger common cold (doxylamine) symptoms, the vast majority of physicians in U.S. are extremely reluctant to prescribe multiple benzodiazepines (e.g., diazepam, alprazolam, and temazepam) to a single patient, let alone prescribe the same to a patient already taking a mix of OxyContin and Vicodin. Although the Associated Press and other media reported that "police estimate Ledger's time of death between 1 pm and 2:45 pm" (on 22 January 2008), the Medical Examiner's Office announced that it would not be publicly disclosing the official estimated time of death. The official announcement of the cause and manner of Ledger's death heightened concerns about the growing problems of prescription drug abuse or misuse and combined drug intoxication (CDI).
Late in February 2008, a DEA investigation of medical professionals relating to Ledger's death exonerated two American physicians, who practise in Los Angeles and Houston, of any wrongdoing, determining that "the doctors in question had prescribed Ledger other medications – not the pills that killed him." On 4 August 2008, citing unnamed sources, Murray Weiss, of the New York Post, first reported that Mary-Kate Olsen had "refused [through her attorney, Michael C. Miller] to be interviewed by federal investigators probing the accidental drug death of her close friend Heath Ledger ... [without] ... immunity from prosecution," and that, when asked about the matter, Miller at first declined further comment. Later that day, after the police confirmed the gist of Weiss's account to the Associated Press, Miller issued a statement denying that Olsen supplied Ledger with the drugs causing his death and asserting that she did not know their source. In his statement, Miller said specifically: "Despite tabloid speculation, Mary-Kate Olsen had nothing whatsoever to do with the drugs found in Heath Ledger's home or his body, and she does not know where he obtained them," emphasizing that media "descriptions [attributed to an unidentified source] are incomplete and inaccurate." After a flurry of further media speculation, on 6 August 2008, the U.S. Attorney's Office in Manhattan closed its investigation into Ledger's death without filing any charges and rendering moot its subpoena of Olsen. With the clearing of the two doctors and Olsen, and the closing of the investigation because the prosecutors in the Manhattan U.S. Attorney's Office "don't believe there's a viable target," it is still not known how Ledger obtained the oxycodone and hydrocodone in the lethal drug combination that killed him. Eleven months after Ledger's death, on 23 December 2008, Jake Coyle, writing for the Associated Press, announced that "Heath Ledger's death was voted 2008's top entertainment story by U.S. newspaper and broadcast editors surveyed by The Associated Press," as it resulted in: "shock and confusion" about "the circumstances", the ruling of the death as an accident caused by "a toxic combination of prescription drugs", and the continuation of "his legacy... [i]n a roundly acclaimed performance as the Joker in the year's biggest box office hit The Dark Knight."
Controversy over will
After Ledger's death, in response to some press reports about his will, filed in New York City on 28 February 2008, and his daughter's access to his financial legacy, his father, Kim Ledger, said that he considered the financial well-being of his granddaughter Matilda Rose the Ledger family's "absolute priority" and her mother, Michelle Williams, "an integral part of our family", adding "They will be taken care of and that's how Heath would want it to be". Some of Ledger's relatives may be challenging the legal status of his will signed in 2003, prior to his involvement with Williams and the birth of their daughter and not updated to include them, which divides half of his estate between his parents and half among his siblings; they claim that there is a second, unsigned will, which leaves most of that estate to Matilda Rose. Williams' father, Larry Williams, has also joined the controversy about Ledger's will as it was filed in New York City soon after his death. On 31 March 2008, stimulating another controversy pertaining to Ledger's estate, Gemma Jones and Janet Fife-Yeomans published an "Exclusive" report, in The Daily Telegraph, citing Ledger's uncle Haydn Ledger and other family members, who "believe the late actor may have fathered a secret love child" when he was 17, and stating that "If it is confirmed that Ledger is the girl's biological father, it could split his multi-million dollar estate
Heath Ledger between ... Matilda Rose ... and his secret love child." A few days later, reports citing telephone interviews with Ledger's uncles Haydn and Mike Ledger and the family of the other little girl, published in OK! and Us Weekly, "denied" those "claims", with Ledger's uncles and the little girl's mother and stepfather describing them as unfounded "rumors" distorted and exaggerated by the media. On 15 July 2008, Fife-Yeomans reported further, via Australian News Limited, that "While Ledger left everything to his parents and three sisters, it is understood they have legal advice that under WA law, Matilda Rose is entitled to the lion's share" of his estate; its executors, Kim Ledger's former business colleague Robert John Collins and Geraldton accountant William Mark Dyson, "have applied for probate in the West Australian Supreme Court in Perth, advertising for 'creditors and other persons' having claims on the estate to lodge them by 11 August 2008 ... to ensure all debts are paid before the estate is distributed...." According to this report by Fife-Yeomans, earlier reports citing Ledger's uncles, and subsequent reports citing Ledger's father, which do not include his actual posthumous earnings, "his entire fortune, mostly held in Australian trusts, is likely to be worth up to $20 million." On 27 September 2008, Ledger's father Kim stated that "the family has agreed to leave the US$16.3 million fortune to Matilda," adding: "There is no claim. Our family has gifted everything to Matilda." In October 2008, Forbes.com estimated Ledger's annual earnings from October 2007 through October 2008 – including his posthumous share of The Dark Knight's gross income of "US$991 million in box office revenue worldwide" –– as "US$20 million."
• In a 2008 edition of his (American) radio show, John Gibson commented on Ledger's death the day before. He opened the segment with funeral music and played a clip of Jake Gyllenhaal's famous line "I wish I knew how to quit you" from Ledger's film Brokeback Mountain; he then said "Well, I guess he found out how to quit you." Among other remarks, Gibson called Ledger a "weirdo" with "a serious drug problem". The next day, he addressed outcry over his remarks by saying that they were in the context of jokes he had been making for months about Brokeback Mountain, and that "There's no point in passing up a good joke." Gibson later apologized on his television and radio shows.
Day-Lewis praised Ledger's performances in Monster's Ball and Memorial for Ledger. describing the latter as "unique. memorial tributes were communicated by family members. he expressed determination to "salvage" it. In January 2011. and Colin Farrell signed on to take over Ledger's role. and thousands of Ledger's fans around the world.m. Ledger's parents and sister appeared outside his mother's house in Applecross. In February 2008. and read a short statement to the media expressing their grief and desire for privacy. as a "memorial tribute to the man many have called one of the best actors of his generation. a riverside suburb of Perth. The State Theatre Centre of Western Australia in Ledger's hometown of Perth named a 575-seat theatre the Heath Ledger Theatre after him. Later that night. saying that he was inspired by Ledger's acting. Within the next few days.. tattooed on his hand in remembrance of Ledger because Ledger "had made such an impression on [him]. (distributor of The Dark Knight). Posthumous films and awards Ledger's death affected the marketing campaign for Christopher Nolan's The Dark Knight (2008) and also both the production and marketing of Terry Gilliam's film The Imaginarium of Doctor Parnassus." On 1 February. 23 January 2008 Verne Troyer. Tony. with some leaving flowers or other memorial tributes. Prime Minister of Australia Kevin Rudd. Ledger's Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor was on display in the theatre's foyer along with his Joker costume. outside 421 Broome Street. afterward Ledger's body was cremated at Fremantle Cemetery. mourners. an exact duplicate of a symbol that Ledger scrawled on a piece of paper with his email address. who was working with Ledger on The Imaginarium of Doctor Parnassus at the time of his death. transformed in this "magical re-telling of the Faust story. Ledger's family members returned with his body to Perth. After attending private memorial ceremonies in Los Angeles." SoHo.Heath Ledger 71 Legacy Memorial tributes and services As the news of Ledger's death became public. his family and friends gathered for a wake on Cottesloe Beach." . at 10:50 a. Several actors made statements expressing their sorrow at Ledger's death. throughout the night of 22 January 2008. a memorial service attended by several hundred invited guests was held at Penrhos College. and the next day. Brokeback Mountain. with his ashes to be interred later in a family plot at Karrakatta Cemetery. with both directors intending to celebrate and pay tribute to his work in these films. who dedicated his Screen Actors Guild Award to Ledger. and dedicated it to Ledger. The next day. For the opening of the theatre. Michelle Williams expressed her heartbreak and described Ledger's spirit as surviving in their daughter. fans. Although Gilliam temporarily suspended production on the latter film. Manhattan." Johnny Depp. in her first public statement after Ledger's death. including Daniel Day-Lewis. and other onlookers began gathering outside his apartment building. perfect. media crews. perhaps using computer-generated imagery (CGI). becoming multiple incarnations of his character. Warner Bros. next to two of his grandparents. garnering considerable press attention. Deputy Premier of Western Australia Eric Ripper. On 9 February. had a heart shape. followed by a private service attended by only 10 closest family members. Australian time. Jude Law.
and that he had entrusted to me to finish. But the truth is. after fellow Australian actor Peter Finch. 72 Filmography Television . right when he passed. and Ledger won an award for "Match-Up" in the ceremony aired live on CBS in January 2009. who played opposite him as Batman. unsettling final act: this young actor looked into the abyss. co-stars Maggie Gyllenhaal and Michael Caine and many of Ledger's colleagues in the film community joined Bale in calling for and predicting a nomination for the 2008 Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor in recognition of Ledger's achievement in The Dark Knight. Ledger greatly enjoyed meeting the challenges of creating that role. On 11 December 2008. Even film critic David Denby. as an actor. Released in July 2008. "It was tremendously emotional. On 10 November 2008... Ledger went on to win the award. to have a performance that he was very. who was killed during a car accident while preparing one of the film's stunts. very proud of. playing a character. on which Ledger had completed his work in October 2007. especially with regard to Ledger's performance as the Joker. evaluates Ledger's work highly. becoming the second person to win a posthumous Academy Award for acting. as well as to the memory of technician Conway Wickliffe. The award was accepted by Ledger's family. or probably ever will have." All of Ledger's scenes appear as he completed them in the filming. an experience that Ledger himself described as "the most fun I’ve ever had. Nolan dedicated the film in part to Ledger's memory. who does not praise the film overall in his pre-release review in The New Yorker. "Best Ensemble Cast" and "Best Onscreen Match-Up" (shared with Christian Bale). describing his performance as both "sinister and frightening" and Ledger as "mesmerising in every scene". Nolan added no "digital effects" to alter Ledger's actual performance posthumously. The Dark Knight broke several box office records and received both popular and critical accolades." Ledger received numerous awards for his Joker role in The Dark Knight. concluding: "His performance is a heroic.Heath Ledger and the three actors have donated their fees for the film to Ledger's and Williams's daughter. Ledger's subsequent nomination was announced on 22 January 2009. I feel very lucky to have something productive to do. has stressed that. having to go back in and look at him every day. he was nominated for two People's Choice Awards related to his work on the film. the anniversary of his death. Ledger's co-star and friend Christian Bale. Film critics. who won for 1976's Network. in editing the film. Nolan recalled. Speaking of editing The Dark Knight. he subsequently won the award at the 66th Golden Globe Awards ceremony telecast on NBC on 11 January 2009 with Dark Knight director Christopher Nolan accepting on his behalf. it was announced that Ledger had been nominated for a Golden Globe Award for Best Supporting Actor – Motion Picture for his performance as the Joker in The Dark Knight." Attempting to dispel widespread speculations that Ledger's performance as the Joker had in any way led to his death (as Denby and others suggest). .
Heath Ledger 73 Year Title Role Cyclist Notes (3 episodes) 1993 Ship to Shore 1996 Sweat Snowy Bowles (26 episodes) (9 episodes) (13 episodes) 1997 Home and Away Scott Irwin Roar Conor Film Year Title Role Orphan clown (Uncredited) Toby Ackland Oberon Jimmy Nominated—Australian Film Institute Award for Best Actor in a Leading Role Nominated—Film Critics Circle Award for Best Actor Nominated—MTV Movie Award for Best Musical Sequence Blockbuster Entertainment Award for Favorite Male – Newcomer Notes 1992 Clowning Around 1997 Blackrock Paws 1999 Two Hands 10 Things I Hate About You 2000 The Patriot 2001 Monster's Ball A Knight's Tale Patrick Verona Gabriel Martin Sonny Grotowski Sir William Thatcher/ Sir Ulrich von Lichtenstein of Gelderland Harry Faversham Alex Bernier Ned Kelly Nominated—MTV Movie Award for Best Kiss (shared with Shannyn Sossamon) Nominated—MTV Movie Award for Best Musical Sequence 2002 The Four Feathers 2003 The Order Ned Kelly Nominated—Australian Film Institute Award for Best Actor in a Leading Role Nominated—Film Critics Circle Award for Best Actor .
Louis Gateway Film Critics Association Award for Best Actor Nominated—Academy Award for Best Actor Nominated—BAFTA Award for Best Actor in a Leading Role Nominated—Broadcast Film Critics Association Award for Best Actor Nominated—Chicago Film Critics Association Award for Best Actor Nominated—Chlotrudis Award for Best Actor Nominated—Independent Spirit Award for Best Male Lead Nominated—Inside Film Award for Best Actor Nominated—Golden Globe Award for Best Actor – Motion Picture Drama Nominated—London Film Critics' Circle Award for Best Actor Nominated—Online Film Critics Society Award for Best Actor Nominated—Screen Actors Guild Award for Outstanding Performance by a Male Actor in a Leading Role Nominated—Screen Actors Guild Award for Outstanding Performance by a Cast in a Motion Picture Nominated—Satellite Award for Best Actor – Motion Picture Drama Nominated—Washington D.C.Heath Ledger 74 Giacomo Casanova Jacob Grimm Skip Engblom Ennis Del Mar Australian Film Institute International Award for Best Actor Australian Film Institute Awards – Reader's Choice Best Actor Central Ohio Film Critics Association Award for Best Lead Performance Central Ohio Film Critics Association Award for Actor of the Year Las Vegas Film Critics Society Award for Best Actor MTV Movie Award for Best Kiss (shared with Jake Gyllenhaal) New York Film Critics Circle Award for Best Actor Phoenix Film Critics Society Award for Best Actor San Francisco Film Critics Circle Award for Best Actor Santa Barbara International Film Festival Performance of the Year Award St. Area Film Critics Association Award for Best Actor Nominated—Australian Film Institute Award for Best Actor in a Leading Role Nominated—Inside Film Award for Best Actor Nominated—Film Critics Circle Award for Best Actor Independent Spirit Robert Altman Award (shared with cast and crew) 2005 Casanova The Brothers Grimm Lords of Dogtown Brokeback Mountain 2006 Candy Dan Carter 2007 I'm Not There Robbie Clark .
Louis Gateway Film Critics Association Award for Best Supporting Actor Toronto Film Critics Association Award for Best Supporting Actor Utah Film Critics Association Award for Best Supporting Actor Washington DC Area Film Critics Association Award for Best Supporting Actor Nominated—Broadcast Film Critics Association Award for Best Cast Nominated—Gransito Movie Award for Best Actor in a Supporting Role Nominated—London Film Critics' Circle Award for Best Actor Nominated—Satellite Award for Best Supporting Actor – Motion Picture Nominated—MTV Movie Award for Best Fight (shared with Christian Bale) 2008 The Dark Knight 2009 The Imaginarium of Doctor Parnassus Tony Shepard .Heath Ledger 75 The Joker Posthumously Awarded: Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor Australian Film Institute International Award for Best Actor BAFTA Award for Best Actor in a Supporting Role Boston Society of Film Critics Award for Best Supporting Actor Broadcast Film Critics Association Award for Best Supporting Actor Chicago Film Critics Association Award for Best Supporting Actor Dallas-Fort Worth Film Critics Association Award for Best Supporting Actor Florida Film Critics Circle Award for Best Supporting Actor Golden Globe Award for Best Supporting Actor – Motion Picture IGN Movie Award for Best Performance IGN Movie Award for Favorite Villain Iowa Film Critics Award for Best Supporting Actor Kansas City Film Critics Circle Award for Best Supporting Actor Las Vegas Film Critics Society Award for Best Supporting Actor Los Angeles Film Critics Association Award for Best Supporting Actor Online Film Critics Society Award for Best Supporting Actor MTV Movie Award for Best Villain New York Film Critics Online Award for Best Supporting Actor North Texas Film Critics Award for Best Supporting Actor Oklahoma Film Critics Circle Award for Best Supporting Actor People's Choice Award for Best Ensemble Cast People's Choice Award for Best On-Screen Match-Up (shared with Christian Bale) Phoenix Film Critics Society Award for Best Supporting Actor Rembrandt Award for Best Foreign Actor San Francisco Film Critics Circle Award for Best Supporting Actor Saturn Award for Best Supporting Actor Scream Award for Best Fantasy Actor Scream Award for Best Villain Scream Award for Best Line Screen Actors Guild Award for Outstanding Performance by a Male Actor in a Supporting Role Southeastern Film Critics Association Award for Best Supporting Actor St.
2008. video directed by Ledger. includes photo album. p.) • Norris. 24 January 2008  Cookies must be enabled | Herald Sun (http:/ / www. . au/ entertainment/ arts-books/ state-theatre-centre-opens-in-perth-honouring-heath-ledger/ story-fn7euh6j-1225996093685)  (Postdated) Further reading • Adler. Fox News Radio.news.com.). Retrieved 5 August 2008.) • Arango.com. Christopher. The New York Times. (Book excerpt. • The Joker vs. Chris. (Rev. Retrieved 18 March 2008.' which features the late actor portraying the Joker". following Elvis Presley (1) and Charles M. (2009) "King Rat". html). ("ET takes a look back at Heath Ledger's career amid the hugely successful launch of 'The Dark Knight. References  'Heath: A Family's Tale' by Janet Fife-Yeomans (2009).com/news/features/44217/): In Which the Protagonist Dies Mysteriously. huffingtonpost. html). 28. song by Modest Mouse and conceived by Ledger.com (CBS Studios Inc. "Esquire Publishes a Diary That Isn't" (http://www. news. by Heath Ledger.  Gemma Ward breaks her silence on Heath Ledger .com. Fox News.)  Drake's song "Black Eyed Dog" is featured as track number five on the soundtrack album for the 1974 film Practical Magic. co. mtv.html)Wikipedia:Link rot Entertainment Tonight Looks Back at the Career of Heath Ledger. 4 February 2008: 9. Newsweek. Forbes. 24 January 2008  The John Gibson Show. Yorkshire who arrived in Western Australia from England in 1880. directed by Griffin Dunne and starring Sandra Bullock and Nicole Kidman.newsweek.nytimes.) • "Death of a Star: Unsolved Mysteries" (http://www. and the Audience Analyzes His Final Days for Clues to His Real Character".com/news/2008/07/63600/index. Retrieved 5 August 2008. com. Actor". (Excerpt listed below.etonline.) • McShane John. London: John Blake. Schulz (2).) • Nolan.jhtml) Late Actor Was Intelligent. Nichols reports.Heath Ledger 76 Music videos • • • • (2006) "Cause an Effect" and "Seduction is Evil (She's Hot)". 23 January 2008. 6 March 2008.com/id/105569?tid=relatedcl). ISBN 978-1-84454-633-6 (13).com.23739. html)  (As updated 25 January 2008. Self-Aware during 'Brokeback Mountain' Chat.com ranks Ledger as third among the world's highest-earning deceased celebrities for that year. among others. 25 January 2008. heraldsun. video directed by and featuring Ledger. Shawn." song written by Nick Drake (1948–1974). of Taddeo. (Excerpts from transcript of interview with Heath Ledger conducted by John Norris in 2005. videos directed by Ledger. Retrieved 21 April 2008. "Heath Ledger Said He Hoped to Evolve as an Actor and Person in 2005 Interview: (http://www. nymag. New York. "(Untitled Heath Ledger Project) (http://nymag. songs by N'fa. Books. Both Web and print versions.  "Fox Host John Gibson Mocks Heath Ledger's Death" (http:/ / www. 22 January 2008. ISBN 1-84454-633-0 (10). Retrieved 21 April 2008.)  Based on its estimates. uk/ news-features/ TMG8293826/ Gemma-Ward-breaks-her-silence-on-Heath-Ledger. (2007) "Black Eyed Dog.32: "Ledger was a descendant of the Ledger family of Leeds."  ("Introductory film" includes excerpts of the music video." MTV. Black Eyed Dog. Periscope. nytimes.Telegraph (http:/ / fashion.com/movies/news/articles/1580086/20080122/story. "Transition: Charisma as Natural as Gravity (http://www.23564492-5007191. (2006) "Morning Yearning. telegraph. Fox News Radio.) • "Loves of Heath Ledger's Life" (http://www. Retrieved 25 July 2008.com.au/couriermail/story/0. Newsmakers. Newsweek.au. Both Web (updated 26 January 2008) and print versions. 18 February 2008. com/ 2008/ 01/ 23/ fox-host-john-gibson-mock_n_82962.00. Tim. etonline.newsweek.com/2008/03/06/books/06esqu. 4 February 2008: 62. (Eulogy.  The Big Story. 20 April 2008. The Courier-Mail.  The John Gibson Show. html) The Huffington Post. Retrieved 8 August 2008." song by Ben Harper. The Real Heath: (http://www. Heath Ledger: His Beautiful Life and Mysterious Death. July 2008.com/id/105580): Heath Ledger.
Movies.stm) at BBC In Pictures Heath Ledger (http://topics.com/blogs/traverstake/2008/02/ video-review-pass-on-hannah-mo. • Wolf. People. Both Web and print formats. Brian J.nytimes.au/nla. Esquire (April 2008). illustrations in "Perth Album". Includes hyperlinked feature: Video Review: A Look at Heath Ledger's Best Performances (http://www.esquire.com.party-452097) National Library of Australia. O. 2008. A. "We're Having a Heath Wave" (http://www.people.php).cgi?page=gr&GRid=24102296) at Find a Grave Heath Ledger (http://www. "Christian Bale on 'Kindred Spirit' Heath Ledger" (http://www. with photographs by Bruce Weber.co. 24 January 2008. 22 January 2008. Retrieved 5 August 2008. August 2008.uk/2/hi/in_pictures/7203860.com. Peter.vanityfair.imdb.cnn. Retrieved 21 April 2008.html) at The Daily Telegraph obituary • Ledger. People and Organisation record for Heath Ledger .com • Heath Ledger (http://www.com/features/heath-ledger-last-days). rev.com/artist/Heath+Ledger) discography at Discogs Heath Ledger (http://news.bbc.jhtml) at MTV Movies Heath Ledger (http://topics. • Sessums. • Scott.Heath Ledger • Park. Vanity Fair. (See Wolf below. cf. (Interview with Heath Ledger.) • Taddeo. The New York Times. 29 June 2008: 8–9. "Christian Bale: 'Life Should Never Be Boring' " (http://www. (Fictional account. 25 June 2008.music.php) (video by Jennifer Hsu.) • Robb. August 2000.people. "Sundance: Shock" (http://www. 1 February 2008.com/people/heath_ledger) at People.com/2008/01/ 24/movies/24appr.html?hp). ISBN 0-85965-427-3 (10).com/name/nm5132/) at the Internet Movie Database Heath Ledger (http://www. Jeanne.findagrave.com/articles/editions/ 2008/edition_06-29-2008/1BATMAN). "The Last Days of Heath Ledger" (http://www.00.com/movies/person/233661/personmain.huffingtonpost.com/top/reference/timestopics/people/l/heath_ledger/index.) • Travers. 5 March 2008. "An Appraisal: Prince of Intensity with a Lightness of Touch" (http://www.com. esquire. Retrieved 3 August 2008. ISBN 978-0-85965-427-2 (13).uk/news/worldnews/1576375/ Heath-Ledger-obituary-An-actor-of-promise. by Bruce Weber. (Updated 21 July 2008.) Accessed 25 July 2008. Web. (See Park above.rollingstone. Parade. with audio commentary provided by Travers). Web.com. The Travers Take: News and Reviews from Rolling Stone's Movie Critic. Kevin.gov.mtv. Retrieved 27 April 2008.co. vanityfair. London: Plexus Publishing Ltd. Rolling Stone (Blog).telegraph. rollingstone.html) at New York Times Topics • Heath Ledger (http://www. Lisa.com/blogs/traverstake/2008/01/ sundance-shock. Trove.parade.) Accessed 21 April 2008.msn.20208769.rollingstone. by Arango.com/people/article/ 0.com/news/heath-ledger) at The Huffington Post Heath Ledger (http://www. nytimes.com/topics/heath_ledger) at CNN Topics Heath Ledger (http://www.com/cgi-bin/fg.) 77 External links • • • • • • • • • Heath Ledger (http://www. Heath Ledger: Hollywood's Dark Star.html?xid=rss-fullcontentcnn).nytimes..discogs. Michael Y. (4 pages. com/culture/features/2000/08/heath200008). Heath (1979–2008) (http://nla.com/celebrities/celebrity/heath-ledger/) at MSN Movies Heath Ledger (http://www.
Swades. Sarfarosh. Ansh.Makarand Deshpande 78 Makarand Deshpande Makarand Deshpande Makarand Deshpande at Zee Marathi TV serial 'Kesari' launch Born 6 March 1966 India Mumbai. and director in Hindi and Marathi films and theatre. wayfarer roles. He has written 35 full-length plays and at least 12 short plays and has his own theatre company. writer. and Darna Zaroori Hai where he often plays drunkard. Maharashtra. however is in theatre. Deshpande has an unconventional personality and is noted for his unusual outfits and hairstyles. He is often seen in supporting and pivotal roles in various films like Jungle. He has directed over 5 films. The bulk of his work. India Film actor Director Writer Film producer Residence Occupation Makarand Deshpande (born 1966) is an Indian actor. He studied in Shri BPM school. Makdee. . He lives in Vile Parle in Mumbai.
Don Bbuddah... Comm. Manas Dutta Swades (2004) . the village butcher Road (2002) .Makarand Deshpande 79 Filmography Director • Hanan (2004) • Danav (2003) • Shahrukh Bola Khoobsurat Hai Tu (2010) Actor Marathi • Marathi Paul Padte Pudhe (2011)... Judge Malayalam • No...... Bhiku • Company (2002) . Krishnamurthy Paisa Vasool (2004) Hanan (2004) . Rahul Ek Khiladi Ek Haseena (2005) .... 66 Madhura Bus (2012) • Amen (2013 film) Telugu • Ek Niranjan (2009) as Chidambaram • Jalsa (2008) Kannada • Dandupalya (film) (2012) as Dandupalya Krishnas Hindi • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Kalpvriksh (Film) (2012) Tatta (2012) My Friend Pinto (2011) ..... Mun. Anthony Kaalia Makdee (2002) .. Surya Chameli (2003) . Truck driver . Omkar Manav . Poker Player Khamosh.. Rajayya Pyaar Diwana Hota Hai (2002) (as Makrandh Deshpandey) ... Fakir Ek Se Badhkar Ek (2004) .... sona spa Lal Salam (2002) ..... Hoga Terra Baap (2011) Khatta Meeta (2010) Guzaarish (2010) Rita (2009) Yun Hota Toh Kya Hota (2006) Darna Zaroori Hai (2006) ....... Inderpal. Taxi driver Market (2003) .. Khauff Ki Raat (2005) . Narrator • Ek Aur Visphot (2002) . Kallu...
3to6. Shiva Satya (1998) (as Makarand Deshpande) ......htm) • Makrand Deshpande (http://www.. Dorai Swamy Snip! (2000) Sarfarosh (1999) .com/name/nm0221218/) at the Internet Movie Database ... Street Singer Pehla Nasha (1993) Sir (1993) .. Peera Qayamat Se Qayamat Tak (1988) (as Mac Deshpanday) .... Mak Anth (1994) .. Masoombhai Dayachan Ghatak: Lethal (1996) . Kali Prahaar: The Final Attack (1991) ...Makarand Deshpande • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Ghaath (2000) .. Shirley's brother Salim Langde Pe Mat Ro (1989) . Advocate Chandrakant Mule Udaan (1997) (as Makarand Deshpande) .... Happy Singh Jungle (2000) ...imdb.. Punk (repeatedly slapped by Kashi) Fareb (1996) Naajayaz (1995) ..com/final_theatre/Makrand Deshpande. Baba 80 References External links • Interview (http://www..
Khan gained the reputation of a skilled actor from his roles in Bollywood movies such as The Warrior. He has garnered the National Film Award for Best Actor in the 60th National Film Awards 2012. Khan is perhaps India's best known international actor due to the critical acclaim he has received for his roles in Hollywood films.Irrfan Khan 81 Irrfan Khan Irrfan Khan Khan at the press conference of director Ang Lee's Life of Pi (2012) at New Delhi Born Sahabzade Irrfan Ali Khan  7 January 1967 Jaipur. He also hosted the TV show Mano Ya Na Mano and appeared in popular Vodafone commercials. The Amazing Spider-Man. and theatre. Haasil. . and an Independent Spirit Award nomination. A Mighty Heart. Paan Singh Tomar and Rog. a biopic about an athlete. television. India Irfan Actor 1988–present Sutapa Sikdar (1995–present) Website www. a Screen Actors Guild Award. Khan has won three Filmfare Awards. for his performance in Paan Singh Tomar. Both the movie and Khan's performance received critical acclaim. In 2012 he appeared in the lead titular role in Paan Singh Tomar. I Love You. and Life of Pi. Rajasthan. He has appeared in more than 30 films in Bollywood.com   Other names Occupation Years active Spouse(s) Sahabzade Irrfan Ali Khan. He is also the recipient of 2011 Padma Shri award.irrfan. Maqbool. Khan's English-language mainstream work includes character roles in movies like The Namesake. He has also acted in many international projects. In India. as well as in the HBO series In Treatment. Slumdog Millionaire. the fourth highest civilian award in India. previously known as Irrfan Khan and later as just Irrfan in Bollywood movies (born 07 January 1967) is an Indian National Awards winning actor who appears in film. New York.
he was featured as a narrator in an Arts Alliance production. be it talking to his buddy Munish or arguing with Suhel. The performance toured worldwide. things changed when London-based director Asif Kapadia gave him the lead in The Warrior. "AnooGoonj" on Doordarshan" Star Bestsellers (Star Plus). and his father. wondering what he'll do next". In 2004 he won the Filmfare Best Villain Award for his role in film Haasil. especially a critic wrote "Irfaan's eyes speak louder than his words and every time he is in frame. He also played the role of famous revolutionary Urdu poet and Marxist political activist of India Makhdoom Mohiuddin in Kahkashan produced by Ali Sardar Jafri. he shows his capability as an actor". In one of the episodes (Ek Sham Ki Mulakat). after being insulted by his female boss. Critics praised his performance in Haasil saying that "as the ambitious. when he earned a scholarship to study at National School of Drama (NSD) in New Delhi in 1984. Ashvin Kumar's short film. an adaptation of Shakespeare's Macbeth.Irrfan Khan 82 Early life and background Irrfan Khan was born in Jaipur. Bharat Ek Khoj. and The Namesake. That same year he played the title role in the critically acclaimed Maqbool. opposite Kay Kay Menon. and ran a tyre business. He anchored a show Mano Ya Na Mano (airing on Star One). After the film received rave reviews at international festivals. In 2003–04 he acted in Indian born writer-director. Career Irrfan Khan moved to Mumbai. with tens of thousands turning out to see the event as it toured the West Bank. Even after becoming a successful actor in Bollywood. took revenge. brash. Much before these. Khan was studying for his MA degree. Banegi Apni Baat. id – Identity of the Soul. the late Jagirdar. Theatre and television kept him afloat until Mira Nair offered him a cameo in Salaam Bombay (1988) though his role was edited out in the final film. In one episode. for which he received a Filmfare Best Supporting Actor Award. In 2008. His first Bollywood main lead role came in 2005 with film Rog in which his performance was praised by critics. he appeared in the box office hits Metro. He also appeared in a serial called Bhanvar (aired on SET India) for two episodes. he played the role of an office-accountant who. It was based on a translation by Uday Prakash of a Russian play by Mikhail Shatrov. They were closely followed by his appearance in the international films A Mighty Heart and The Darjeeling Limited. In 2001 The Warrior opened in international film festivals. "Road to Ladakh". He acted in some of the episodes of Star Bestsellers (aired on Star-Plus). He hosted another programme named Kyaa Kahein which was similar to Mano Ya Na Mano. He was the main villain in a series called Darr (which aired on Star Plus). Begum. he performed the role of a thug who somehow lands in court. he has not severed his ties with television. to a Muslim family. Sara Jahan Hamara. the film is now being made into a full length feature. a historical film completed in 11 weeks on location in Himachal Pradesh and Rajasthan. was from the Khajuriya village near the Tonk district. He is outright scary and makes you sit up. In the other one. He also plays the police inspector in the 2008 film Slumdog Millionaire. After many unsuccessful films. and Sparsh. was from the Tonk Hakim family. his role was of a parchoon shopkeeper who has a misconception that his landlord's wife is trying to seduce him and it turns out that his own wife (Tisca Chopra) is cheating on him. for which he and the cast of the movie won a Screen Actors . Chandrakanta (Doordarshan). In 2007. Thereafter he appeared in several films either playing the leading role or a supporting role as a villain. where he played the role of a psycho serial killer. he had acted in a teleplay on Doordarshan named Laal Ghaas Par Neele Ghode where he played Lenin. where he acted in numerous television serials like Chanakya. In the 1990s he appeared in the critically acclaimed film Ek Doctor Ki Maut and Such a Long Journey (1998) and various other films which went unnoticed. His chemistry with Konkana Sen in Metro was one of the highlights of the Multi-star movie. making Irrfan Khan a known face. Khan's mother. again starring Irrfan Khan. fearless goon who is mind-blowing.
He recently worked on the third season of the HBO series In Treatment. who is also an NSD graduate. In addition." Even now." she recalls. Sikdar recalls how he would demand as many as 11 rewrites from her when he directed episodes of Banegi Apni Baat. I remember when he would come home. and read books. we believe the policeman might actually conclude that Jamal is innocent. Recently. "Once he dragged me to a police station in Mumbai to understand procedure. Sutapa said about him. Khan has stated that he wants to do more and more action films in the future. "It's beautiful to watch. Irrfan has been highly praised. The rest of us would be hanging around gossiping. he believes in doing his homework. Rajit Ratha in The Amazing Spider-Man in 2012. I Love You. USA. so that in Slumdog. Awards Wins • 2003: Filmfare Best Villain Award – Haasil • 2007: Filmfare Best Supporting Actor Award – Life in a Metro • 2008: Screen Actors Guild Award for Outstanding Performance by a Cast in a Motion Picture – Slumdog Millionaire • 2011: Padma Shri • 2012: Filmfare Critics Award for Best Actor – Paan Singh Tomar • 2012: IRDS Film Award for social concern – Best male character — Paan Singh Tomar • 2012: National Film Award for Best Actor – Paan Singh Tomar .Irrfan Khan Guild Award for Outstanding Performance by a Cast in a Motion Picture. who is finding it difficult to come to terms with his wife's death and loneliness after moving to New York. trying to understand ways to play his character." In 2009. Boyle compares him to an athlete who can execute the same move perfectly over and over. He also appeared as an FBI agent in New York and as a Gujarati diamond merchant in New York. "He was always focused. Khan played Dr. His latest film Paan Singh Tomar in which essays the role of real-life Rajput runner Paan Singh Tomar has received extremely favourable reviews by critics. taking notes. 83 Personal life On 23 February 1995. Danny Boyle said. He also said he likes the sound of the extra "r" in his name. About him. He has two brothers. "he has an instinctive way of finding the "moral center" of any character. staying up till 3 in the morning. he would head straight for the bedroom. sit on the floor. he has changed his name to Irrfan. Imran Khan and Salman Khan and one sister Rukhsana Begum. he featured in the film Acid Factory. Khan married writer Sutapa Sikdar. enacting the part of Sunil. as reads through at least one new Hollywood script a week. Irrfan signed a contract to be in the new Kabhi Khushi Kabhie Gham remake in December 2011. They have two children named Babil and Aryan.
Irrfan Khan 84 Nominations • 2007: Independent Spirit Award: Best Supporting Male – The Namesake • 2008: Stardust Best Supporting Actor Award – The Namesake • 2008: IIFA Award: IIFA Best Supporting Actor – Life in a Metro Filmography Year Film Letter writer Ajit Alfred Rahul Amulya Role Notes 1988 Salaam Bombay 1989 Kamla Ki Maut 1989 Jazeere 1990 Drishti 1991 Ek Doctor Ki Maut 1993 Karamati Coat 1998 Bada Din 1999 The Goal 2001 The Warrior 2001 Kasoor 2002 Pratha Kali Salwaar 2002 Gunaah 2003 Haasil Police Inspector The Coach Lafcadia – Warrior Public Prosecutor Priest Ninni Pandey Shankar Police Inspector Digvijay Pandey Ranvijay Singh Filmfare Award for Best Performance in a Negative Role Footpath Maqbool 2004 Shadows of Time Aan: Men at Work Charas: A Joint Operation Sheikh Maqbool Yani Mishra Yusuf Pathan Ranbhir Singh Rathore Bengali/German film 2005 Chocolate: Deep Dark Secrets Pipi Rog Chehraa 7½ Phere 2006 Yun Hota To Kya Hota The Killer Deadline: Sirf 24 Ghante Sainikudu Inspector Uday Rathore Chandranath Diwan Manoj Salim Rajabali Vikram/Roopchand Swaroopchand Solanki Krish Vaidya Pappu Yadav Telugu film .
Rajit Ratha filming Adult Piscine Molitor Patel ("Pi") Indrajeet Singh aka Raja Bhaiyya pre-production pre-production . East Karachi Deputy Inspector General Monty Ashoke Ganguli The Father Ravi Kumar Farooque.Irrfan Khan 85 Mir Zubair Mahmood.a. Biwi Aur Gangster Returns Jai Ramji Hungame Pe Hangama Dr.k. I Love You 2010 Right Yaaa Wrong Hisss Knock Out 2011 Yeh Saali Zindagi 7 Khoon Maaf Thank You 2012 Paan Singh Tomar Filmfare Award for Best Supporting Actor The Amazing Spider-Man Banker to the Poor Life of Pi 2013 Saheb. Najma's husband Avtar Short film Suraj Kumar Dr. Mukherjee Thomas Police Inspector Vishal Kapoor Samit Kaizar Billu/Vilas Pardesi Roshan (FBI Official) Mansuhkhbai Vinay Patnaik Vikram Gupta Bacchoo/ Tony Khosla Arun Wasiullah Khan a. Musafir Vikram Paan Singh Tomar National Film Award for Best Actor Filmfare Critics Award for Best Actor Nominated–Filmfare Award for Best Actor Screened at the 2007 Cannes Film Festival 2007 A Mighty Heart Life in a Metro The Namesake The Darjeeling Limited Apna Asmaan Aaja Nachle Partition 2008 Road to Ladakh Tulsi Sunday Krazzy 4 Mumbai Meri Jaan Slumdog Millionaire Chamku Dil Kabaddi 2009 Acid Factory Billu New York New York.
html) • TIME Magazine photo feature (http://www. "Senapati" Bhadrashal "Badrinath/Somnath" Role Other notes 1997 Jai Hanuman 1994 The Great Maratha 1999 Star Bestsellers 2010 In Treatment Ek Shaam Ke Mulaqaat "Sunil" 2013 ' 'Paan Singh tomar "Paan singh tomar" References  Irrfan Khan's Profile (http:/ / www. hollywoodreporter.com/name/nm451234/) at the Internet Movie Database • Irrfan Khan Official Website (http://www. com/ profile.9171.com/Entertainment/Bollywood/ Irrfan-Khan-takes-the-comic-turn/Article1-878645.00.  Road of Ladakh Short Film (http:/ / www. com/ news/ amazing-spider-man-widest-india-release-342712  http:/ / www.a "Psycho Singh" a.00. indiantelevision.Irrfan Khan 86 Television Year Film Chanakya 1994 Chandrakanta 1995 Banegi Apni Baat 1997 Just Mohabbat "Mr. irrfan.k. com/ March2003/ Film-Road to Ladakh. the-south-asian.hindustantimes. Singh" a. com/ movies/ 2003/ nov/ 07irfan. htm)  http:/ / www.a "Psycho Uncle" Maharishi Valmiki Najib-ud-daula and Gulam Kadir Khan He plays a  teacher.imdb.aspx) .Rediff movies (http:/ / in.S.com) • TIME Magazine coverage of Irrfan Khan (http://www.time.time. php External links • Irrfan Khan (http://www.1959033_2033954. com/ aac/ y2k13/ aac44. film The Amazing Spider-Man.irrfan. rediff.html) • Irrfan Khan takes the comic turn (http://www. htm)  Irrfan Khan goes to Hollywood.com/time/magazine/article/0.29307.k. irrfan.com/time/photogallery/0.1959014. com  He is credited as Irrfan Khan in the 2012 U. htm)  http:/ / www.
India Actor Occupation Years active 1972–present Spouse(s) Manara Sikri (deceased) Ratna Pathak Shah (1982–present) Heeba Shah Imaad Shah Vivaan Shah Padma Bhushan. He has appeared in . Uttar Pradesh. He has been successful in mainstream Bollywood cinema as well as in Parallel Cinema. including three National Film Awards. and a Best Actor Award (The Volpi Cup) at the Venice Film Festival. He is widely considered to be one of the finest Indian stage and film actors. Early life Shah was born on 20 July 1950 in Barabanki. He graduated in arts from Aligarh Muslim University in 1971 and attended National School of Drama in Delhi. Anselm's Ajmer and St Joseph's College. Nainital. National Film Award Children Awards Signature Naseeruddin Shah (born 20 July 1950) is an Indian/Bollywood film actor and director. Naseeruddin Shah did his schooling at St. Padma Shri. The Government of India has honoured him with both the Padma Shri and the Padma Bhushan civilian awards for his contributions to Indian cinema. He is an influential actor of the Indian Parallel (New Wave) Cinema. Shah has won numerous awards in his career. Uttar Pradesh.Naseeruddin Shah 87 Naseeruddin Shah Naseeruddin Shah Naseeruddin Shah Born 20 July 1950 Barabanki. He is a descendant of the 19th-century Afghan warlord Jan Fishan Khan. Shah's family hails from Sardhana in District Meerut (Uttar Pradesh). three Filmfare Awards for Best Actor. India where his father was an Army officer.
Aakrosh. His next major success in mainstream films was the 1986 multi-starrer film Karma where he acted alongside veteran Dilip Kumar. Jaane Bhi Do Yaaro. The film portrayed the irrational bonding of a feudal serf (played by Mammootty) and a colonial landlord (played by Shah). He worked in an Indian adaptation of Shakespeare's Macbeth. he acted as the villain in Mohra. he starred in international projects such as Monsoon Wedding in 2001 and a Hollywood comic book adaptation The League of Extraordinary Gentlemen in 2003 (co-starring Sean Connery) where he played the role of Captain Nemo. His elder brother is Lt. Albert Pinto Ko Gussa Kyon Ata Hai. F. He made his Pakistani film debut in Khuda Ke Liye by Shoaib Mansoor where he played a short cameo. . In the very early stages of his career he acted in the film Dil Aakhir Dil Hai directed by noted director Ismail Shroff. Chandran's critically well acclaimed drama Ponthan Mada. Sparsh. etc. His nephew (cousin's son) Salim Shah is also a TV and film actor. the drunken coach to a deaf and mute boy in Iqbal. Ardh Satya. such as Ghulami (1985). Shah's upcoming films include The Hunt where he plays a recluse growing marijuana in his forest retreat. He strongly believed that the distinction between art and commercial films had largely reduced. Junoon. In 2000 his dream of playing Mahatma Gandhi was realised when he played Gandhi in Kamal Hassan's critically acclaimed Hey Ram which focused on the assassination of Gandhi from the assailant's point of view. Jalwa (1988) and Hero Hiralal (1988) followed. Trikal. especially with the directors of the former also making commercial films. titled Maqbool and Rajiv Rai's Asambhav opposite Arjun Rampal and Priyanka Chopra in 2004. He won a lot of critical acclaim by playing the role of Mohit. SM. He was most recently seen in The Dirty Picture (2011). which was written by Vipul K Rawal with Shah specially in mind. Masoom (1983) was shot at St Joseph's College. Katha. his 100th film as an actor. although his Nemo was far less manic. R. General Zameerud-din Shah PVSM. He has acted in several multi-starrer Bollywood films as well.Naseeruddin Shah international films. Mandi. He forayed into Malayalam cinema the same year. 88 Career Shah has acted in movies such as Nishant. Nainital. He also worked in Neeraj Pandey's critically acclaimed A Wednesday (2008). One of his most important films. Later. Tridev (1989) and Vishwatma (1992). V. He became active in mainstream Bollywood cinema with the 1980 film Hum Paanch. Mirch Masala. He then went on to work in The Great New Wonderful (2005). Keating's novels in the Merchant-Ivory English language film The Perfect Murder. VSM. Starring roles for films such as Ijaazat (1987). the fictional detective of H. In 1988 he played opposite his wife Ratna Pathak as Inspector Ghote. through T. Mohan Joshi Hazir Ho!. with Rakhi where she played the character of Naseer's elder girlfriend Kusumji whom he was forced to marry unwillingly because he is quite younger than her (in the film). His portrayal of Nemo was very close to the design of the graphic novel. Bhavni Bhavai. notably playing Captain Nemo in the Hollywood comic book adaptation The League of Extraordinary Gentlemen. In 1994. recently appointed as the Vice-Chancellor of Aligarh Muslim University.
Naseeruddin Shah 89 Other media and art forms In 1977. In 1998. His directorial debut in movies. a drunken coach. he acted as the Maratha King Shivaji in another eponymous television series Bharat Ek Khoj based on Jawaharlal Nehru's book The Discovery of India. this time on film. He played the role of Mohit. who played the role of narrator in the popular audiobook series for kids Karadi Tales. It was recentlyWikipedia:Manual of Style/Dates and numbers#Chronological items voted as one of ten Hindi films that is considered ideal training and motivational material. In 2000. a role he had auditioned for in Richard Attenborough's Gandhi. Mumbai. In 1999. With this. Irfan Khan. He has directed plays written by Lavender Kumar. which was staged at the Prithvi Theatre on 29 July 1979. Naseeruddin Shah playing Pozzo in Motley's production of Waiting for Godot at The Doon School. Yun Hota To Kya Hota. he again portrayed the Mahatma. The role was specially written keeping him in mind by Vipul K Rawal. 2009. he acted as a special agent in the TV series Tarkash on Zee TV. the writer of the film. directed by Gulzar and telecast on DD National. As a director Naseeruddin Shah has been giving performances with his theatre troupe at places such as New Delhi. (which looked at the Mahatma's relation with Harilal Gandhi. he achieved his objective of portraying Mahatma Gandhi. he acted in the eponymous television series based on the life and times of Mirza Ghalib. He has been awarded the life membership of International Film And Television Club of Asian Academy of Film & Television. In 1988.Wikipedia:Avoid weasel words He was the first of several celebrity actors. Paresh Rawal. he. He was the narrator in the film Paheli — the Indian entry to the 2006 Academy Awards. Tom Alter and Benjamin Gilani formed a theatre group called Motley Productions. Bangalore and Lahore. He played the villain with the dual identity of a ghazal singer and a Pakistani spy who supports terrorism in India in Sarfarosh (1999). in Hey Ram. his son Imaad Shah and his old friend Ravi Baswani. his first son). Their first play was Samuel Beckett's Waiting for Godot. Gandhi. . In 1989. was released in 2006. Ismat Chughtai and Saadat Hasan Manto. It stars several established actors such as Konkona Sen Sharma. newcomer Ayesha Takia. in the critically acclaimed Iqbal. he played the role of Mahatma Gandhi in the play Mahatma Vs. He played the role of a retired agent haunted by nightmares who is re-inducted as he apparently knows something about a dreaded terrorist somehow connected with his past.
. Surekha Sikri’s step-sister. He married Bollywood actress Ratna Pathak Shah in 1982 after the death of his first wife. He has a daughter named Heeba Shah from his first marriage.. Ya Jaane Na. Awards Award Civilian Awards Padma Shri Padma Bhushan India's fourth highest civilian award 1987 Awarded India's Third highest civilian award 2003 Awarded National Film Award National Film Award for Best Actor National Film Award for Best Actor Sparsh Paar 1979 Won 1984 Won 2006 Won Film Year Status National Film Award for Best Supporting Actor Iqbal Filmfare Award Filmfare Best Actor Award Filmfare Best Actor Award Filmfare Best Actor Award Filmfare Best Supporting Actor Award Filmfare Best Villain Award Filmfare Best Supporting Actor Award Filmfare Best Villain Award Filmfare Best Villain Award Filmfare Best Villain Award Filmfare Best Actor Award Aakrosh Chakra Masoom Sir Mohra Naajayaz Chaahat Sarfarosh Krrish A Wednesday Venice Film Festival The Volpi Cup (Award for Best Actor) Paar 1981 Won 1982 Won 1984 Won 1993 Nominated 1995 Nominated 1996 Nominated 1998 Nominated 2000 Nominated 2007 Nominated 2008 Nominated 1984 Won .Naseeruddin Shah 90 Personal life He first got married to Manara Sikri. Mirch Masala and The Perfect Murder. He has two sons from his second marriage Imaad and Vivaan. He co-starred with Ratna in films like Jaane Tu.
Anand Naurangia Lawyer Malkani Professor Singh SP Sultan Singh Ruiz Pereira subedar Captain Bakshi Khairuddin Chishti Kapil Film Vishwam Bhola Sunil Verma Shastri Priest Sarfaraz Khan Aniruddh Parmar Bhaskar Kulkarni Albert Pinto Kannada film Role Notes Gujarati film .Naseeruddin Shah 91 Other Awards • 2000: Won: Sangeet Natak Akademi Award • 2000: Won: IIFA (International Indian Film Academy) Award — Artistic Excellence for Performance in a Negative Role for Sarfarosh Filmography Actor Year 1975 Nishant 1976 Manthan 1977 Bhumika 1977 Tabbaliyu Neenade Magane 1977 Godhuli 1978 Junoon 1979 Sparsh 1980 Aakrosh 1980 Albert Pinto Ko Gussa Kyon Aata Hai 1980 Bhavni Bhavai 1980 Hum Paanch 1981 Chakra 1981 Umrao Jaan 1982 Bazaar 1982 Situm 1983 Jaane Bhi Do Yaaron 1983 Katha 1983 Masoom 1983 Woh Saat Din 1984 Paar 1984 Mohan Joshi Hazir Ho 1984 Holi 1985 Ghulami 1985 Trikaal 1985 Mirch Masala 1985 Khamosh 1986 Karma 1987 Jalwa 1987 Tamas 1987 Ijaazat Mahender Nasiruddin Shah Lukka Gohar Mirza Salim Subhash Vinod Chopra Rajaram Purshotam Joshi DK Dr.
Siddhant Arya Bhaisaab Voice of Narrator Cricket Coach . Zindal DCP Abbas Lodhi Raj Solanki Inspector De Costa Ajay Narang Mastana Major Sarfaraz Khan Jimmy Bilimoria Gulfaam Hasan Bashir Mahatma Gandhi Simultaneously made into Tamil Tamil Debut Lalit Verma Captain Nemo Releasing in (2003) (US film) (Malayalam film) 2001 Monsoon Wedding 2002 The League of Extraordinary Gentlemen 2002 Encounter: The Killing 2003 Maqbool 2004 3 Deewarein 2004 Main Hoon Na 2005 Paheli 2005 Iqbal 2005 The Great New Wonderful 2006 Being Cyrus 2006 Krrish 2006 Omkara Inspector Bharucha Inspector Purohit Ishaan Brig. Shekhar Sharma Him Self Mohit Avi Dinshaw Sethna Dr.Naseeruddin Shah 92 Hero Hiralal Raj Phirojshah Inspector Ghote Jay Singh Rajshekar 1988 Hero Hiralal 1988 Maalamaal 1988 Pestonjee 1988 The Perfect Murder 1989 Tridev 1989 Mane (The House) 1991 Ek Ghar 1991 Lakshmanrekha 1992 Vishwatma 1992 Electric Moon 1992 Chamatkar 1992 Panaah 1993 Kabhi Haan Kabhi Naa 1993 Sir 1994 Ponthan Mada 1994 Mohra 1994 Drohkaal 1995 Naajayaz 1995 Takkar 1996 Chaahat 1997 Bombay Boys 1998 Chinagate 1998 Such a Long Journey 1999 Sarfarosh 1999 Bhopal Express 2000 Hey Ram Amar Kapoor Suryapratap Singh Rambuhj Goswami Amar Kumar Devaa Father Breganza Professor Amar Verma Sheema Thampuran Mr.
Jai's father Anonymous antagonist Sheekha's father Shukla Khan Sahab Akbar N. Negi Salim Kidwai Iftikhar Bhaskar Sanyal Warden Dr.S. Hindi. Jayaram Maulana Wali (A Pakistani film) French-German-Indian Film 2006 Banaras 2006 Valley of Flowers 2007 Parzania 2007 Amal 2007 Khuda Ke Liye 2007 Dus Kahaniyaan 2008 Mithya 2008 Shoot on Sight 2008 Jaane Tu Ya Jaane Na 2008 A Wednesday 2008 Mere Baap Pehle Aap 2008 Mithya 2009 Barah Aana 2009 Firaaq 2009 Today's Special 2009 Bolo Raam 2010 Peepli Live 2010 Ishqiya 2010 Raajneeti 2010 Allah Ke Banday 2011 7 Khoon Maaf 2011 That Girl in Yellow Boots 2011 The Blueberry Hunt 2011 Zindagi Na Milegi Dobara 2011 The Dirty Picture 2011 Deool 2011 Chaalis Chauraasi 2011 Michael 2012 Maximum 2013 Sona Spa 2013 Mad Dad 2013 Khasi Katha– A Goat Saga 2013 Mastaan 2013 Amma 3D Tariq Ali Amar Singh Rathore . Tamil. and English Telugu Debut English Debut Marathi Film Hindi Film Post-Production Agricultural Minister Khalu Jaan/Khalu/Iftikhar People Leader .K.Naseeruddin Shah 93 Babaji Yeti Cyrus G. Modhusudhon Tarafdar Diwakar Colonel Salman Habib Suryakanth Dacoit Pankaj Purushottam Suri (Sir) Michael Police Officer Baba Dayanand Announced Butcher Bengali film Announced Pre-Production Simultaneously made into Telugu.
• Yun Hota To Kya Hota (2006)
 A review of the play Mahatma Vs. Gandhi (http:/ / www. rediff. com/ news/ 1998/ feb/ 23nandy. htm)  http:/ / cinema. sholay. com/ stories/ dec2001/ 24122001-1. htm
• Naseeruddin Shah (http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0787462/) at the Internet Movie Database • Article about Shah's direction of plays (http://www.hindu.com/thehindu/mp/2003/03/24/stories/ 2003032400650100.htm) • An interview about state of Bollywood movies (http://www.rediff.com/entertai/2001/dec/01shah.htm) • An article about Naseerudddin Shah's directorial debut in Cinema (http://www.deccanherald.com/ deccanherald/aug142005/enter1043402005812.asp)
September 10, 1965 Belgaum, Karnataka, India Actor Geetanjali Kulkarni Website www.atulkulkarni.com 
Atul Kulkarni (मराठी- अतुल कुलकर्णी) (born 10 September 1965) is an Indian actor who has won two National Awards and has attained the superstar status in Marathi film industry after successful movies like Valu (film) and Natarang. Kulkarni won a National Award for his portrayal of Shriram Abhyankar in the film Hey Ram. Although he started his career in theatre, he has won critical acclaim for his performances in films like Page 3 and the Aamir Khan starrer Rang De Basanti. He has acted in several Marathi movies including Maati Maay (A Gravekeeper's Tale) that premiered at the Toronto Film Festival. He has achieved superstar status in Marathi Films with the success of blockbuster movie of year 2009–10 Natarang.
Kulkarni was born on 10 September 1965 in Belgaum, Karnataka, India. Atul completed his secondary education (10th Standard) from Haribhai Deokaran High School, Solapur, Maharashtra. His father, a businessman, and his mother, a housewife, were settled in Solapur. He completed his Junior College (12th Standard) from Belgaum and was able to secure a seat for electrical engineering at College of Engineering Pune (COEP) . Due to his disinterest in engineering, he quit the college and came back to Solapur to join D. A. V. College, Solapur which was affiliated to Shivaji University. He completed his graduation in English literature. He is married to theatre actress Geetanjali Kulkarni, whom he met at National School of Drama.
Kulkarni's first stint with stage was during his high school days and later during his college days he was actively participating in cultural gatherings. While studying, Atul joined Natya Aradhana, an amateur theatre group from Solapur. Working with this group helped him groom better. After working backstage for two years, finally he got a chance to act. He decided to pursue a career in professional acting. Atul joined the National School of Drama, New Delhi (1992–1995 batch). His acting skills were given final touches at this institutions which has produced legendary actors of international fame. Atul Kulkarni holds a postgraduate diploma in dramatic arts from National School of Drama, New Delhi. His most successful performance, both commercially and critically was as Gunawant Kagalkar in the Marathi blockbuster Natarang. He made his debut in Kannada film Bhoomi Geetha in 1997 and has acted in several Tamil films. Atul Kulkarni is acting in a romantic film.In which he is in love with Chak De girl Sagarika Ghatge.His mature love story will be seen in Director Satish Rajwade's Marathi Movie Premachi Gosht.
National Film Awards • 2000: Won: Best Supporting Actor in Hey Ram Citation: For his serious performance as a cold blooded fundamentalist stalking the cities during the turbulent years of partition that led to the assassination of Mahatma Gandhi. • 2002: Won: Best Supporting Actor in Chandni Bar Citation: For depicting a ruthless character, trapped in a world without social values. Filmfare Awards • 2001: Nominated: Best Supporting Actor in Hey Ram Asia Pacific Screen Awards • 2010: Nominated: Best Performance by an Actor in Natarang
Year 1997 2000 2000 2000 2001 2002 2002 2003 2003 2003 2003 2003 Film Bhoomi Geetha Kairee Language Kannada Marathi Jadhav teacher Role
Jayam Manade Raa Telugu Hey Ram Chandni Bar Run Bhet Mango Soufflé Dahavi Fa 88 Antop Hill Satta Dum Hindi / Tamil Hindi Tamil Marathi English Marathi Hindi Hindi Hindi Shriram Abhyankar Potya Sawant Bhaskar Satish Edwin 'Ed' Prakash Ganesh Deshmukh (teacher) Pratyush Shelar Yashwant Varde 'Encounter' Shankar
Atul Kulkarni 97 2003 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2005 2005 2006 2006 2006 2007 2007 2007 2008 2008 2008 2009 2009 2009 2009 2010 2010 2010 2010 2011 2011 2012 2012 2012 2012 2013 2013 2013 Vaastu Purush Chanti Gowri Mansarovar Vajram Khakee Devrai Manmadhan Page 3 Chakwa Kedi Raam Rang De Basanti Aa Dinagalu Maati Maay Malayalam Hindi Marathi Tamil Hindi Marathi Tamil Telugu Hindi Kannada Marathi Laxman Pandey Agni Shridhar Narsu Sandeep Swanand Gaddamwar Krishnadeva Saivar Dr. Iqbal Ansari Shesh ACP Deva Vinayak Mane Tushar Khot Pughazhenthy Marathi Telugu Telugu Sarkar Data Gauri: The Unborn Hindi Valu Talappavu Kurukshetra Yeh Mera India Delhi 6 Padikathavan Marathi Malayalam Malayalam Hindi Hindi Tamil Raj Gobar Kasi Anandan Vandae Maatharam Malayalam / Tamil Yaksha Sukhaant Natarang Bumm Bumm Bole Panjaa Chaalis Chauraasi Suzhal Surangani Edegarike Vallinam Premachi Goshta Zanjeer Toofan  Kannada Marathi Marathi Hindi Telugu Hindi Tamil Tamil Kannada Tamil Marathi Hindi Telugu English Raoji Ram Kulkarni Bobby Guna Kagalkar  Upcoming Singularity .
com/) • • • • Atul Kulkarni (http://www.atulkulkarni.com (http://www.gmagazine. com/ movies/ premachi-goshta-marathi-movie-cast-crew-photos/ ) External links • Atul Kulkarni – The official site (http://www.htm) QUEST http://quest.com/magazine/april2003/Interviews10.rediff.rediff.in/node/158 .org.com/name/nm0474609/) at the Internet Movie Database Atul Kulkarni's interview on Rediff (http://www.imdb. atulkulkarni.com/movies/2003/jun/27atul. com/  Premachi Goshta Marathi Movie (http:/ / marathistars.asp) Another Rediff Interview (http://us.com/entertai/2002/nov/09atul.Atul Kulkarni 98 Theatre • • • • • • • • Samudra Gandhi Virudhha Gandhi Manoos Navacha Bet Aapan Sarech Ghodegaonkar Chapha Natak Zale Mokale Aabhal Kharashe References  http:/ / www.htm) Interview on Gmagazine.
As one of the most prominent award ceremonies in the world. currently Oscars are given in more than a dozen categories. It is also the oldest award ceremony in the media. the Academy Awards ceremony is televised live in more than 100 countries annually. at the Dolby Theatre in Los Angeles. The Oscar statuette is officially named the Academy Award of Merit and is one of nine types of Academy Awards. The AMPAS was originally conceived by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer studio executive Louis B. are all modeled after the Academy Awards. Organized and overseen by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS). now officially known as The Oscars. March 2. the awards are given each year at a formal ceremony. The 86th Academy Awards will be held on Sunday. and the Tony Awards for theater. Awarded for Country Presented by First awarded Excellence in cinematic achievements United States Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences 1929 Official website www. February 24. the categories presented have changed. The 85th Academy Awards were held on Sunday. The awards themselves were later initiated by the Academy as awards "of merit for distinctive achievement" in the industry. the Emmy Awards for television. This will be a week later than normal as not to interfere with the 2014 Winter Olympics. at the Dolby Theatre in Los Angeles. its equivalents. 2014. are a set of awards given annually for excellence of cinematic achievements. . at the Hotel Roosevelt in Hollywood. The awards were first given in 1929 at a ceremony created for the awards. Over the years that the award has been given. the Grammy Awards for music. and include films of various types. Mayer as a professional honorary organization to help improve the film industry’s image and help mediate labor disputes. 2013.Academy Award 99 Academy Award The Oscars 85th Academy Awards An Academy Award statuette.org  The Academy Awards. California.oscars.
the best known one is the Academy Award of Merit more popularly known as the Oscar statuette. for his performances in The Last Command and The Way of All Flesh. however. Thalberg Memorial Award. Oscar statuette Design Although there are eight other types of annual awards presented by the Academy (the Irving G. it is 13.853 awards. foreign-language films were honored with the Special Achievement Award. This method was used until the Los Angeles Times announced the winners before the ceremony began. Since then and during the first decade. the 2nd Academy Awards presented on April 3. For example. Fifteen statuettes were awarded. and the Student Academy Award) plus two awards that are not presented annually (the Special Achievement Award in the form of an Oscar statuette and the Honorary Award that may or may not be in the form of an Oscar statuette). and professionals were honored for a specific performance in a single film.Academy Award 100 History The first awards were presented on May 16. the Academy has since 1941 used a sealed envelope to reveal the name of the winners. a total of 2. 1929. the Academy Scientific and Technical Award.809 Oscars have been given for 1. that was changed in the second ceremony of the Academy Awards in 1930. Since the fourth ceremony. held in 1935. 1957. as a result. 1929. the Jean Hersholt Humanitarian Award.5 lb (3. the results were given to newspapers for publication at 11 pm on the night of the awards. the John A. for example. The 1939 film Beau Geste is the only movie that features as many as four Academy Award winners for Best Actor in a Leading Role (Gary Cooper. Gary Cooper and Joan Fontaine holding their Oscars at the Academy Awards. weighs 8. As of the 83rd Academy Awards ceremony held in 2011. Broderick Crawford) prior to any of the actors receiving the Best Actor Award. Until then. recognized films that were released between August 1. 1930. honoring artists. held on March 27. this made him the first Academy Award winner in history. so the Academy agreed to give him the prize earlier. Bonner Medal of Commendation. Jannings received the award for two movies in which he starred during that period. 1928 and July 31. The post Academy Awards party was held at the Mayfair Hotel. Susan Hayward. For the first six ceremonies. the eligibility period spanned two calendar years.5 in (34 cm) tall. A total of 302 actors have won Oscars in competitive acting categories or have been awarded Honorary or Juvenile Awards. the Academy Award for Technical Achievement. the Gordon E. Ray Milland. Winners had been announced three months earlier. directors and other personalities of the filmmaking industry of the time for their works during the 1927–1928 period. Starting with the 7th Academy Awards. the period of eligibility became the full previous calendar year from January 1 to December 31. the Best Foreign Language Film category was introduced. 1942 The first Best Actor awarded was Emil Jannings.85 kg) and depicts a knight . At the 29th ceremony. Sawyer Award. The cost of guest tickets for that night's ceremony was $5. The honored professionals were awarded for all the work done in a certain category for the qualifying period. the system changed. at a private brunch at the Hollywood Roosevelt Hotel with an audience of about 270 people. Made of gold-plated britannium on a black metal base. He had to return to Europe before the ceremony.
Shumway & Sons Foundry in Batavia. In support of the American effort in World War II. Margaret Herrick. The original Oscar mold was cast in 1928 at the C. Since 1983. The five spokes each represent the original branches of the Academy: Actors. Wilde was asked by a customs officer whether he had anything to declare and reputedly replied "I have nothing to declare but my genius." Ownership of Oscar statuettes Since 1950. 101 Naming The origin of the name Oscar is disputed. Producers. approximately 50 Oscars are made each year in Chicago by Illinois manufacturer R. one of the earliest mentions in print of the term Oscar dates back to a Time magazine article about the 1934 6th Academy Awards. If a winner refuses to agree to this stipulation. sculptor George Stanley (who also did the Muse Fountain at the Hollywood Bowl) sculpted Gibbons's design in clay and Sachin Smith cast the statuette in 92. after his heirs won a 2004 court decision that Welles did not sign any agreement to return the statue to the Academy. the statuettes were made of plaster and were traded in for gold ones after the war had ended. and Technicians.542. first saw the award in 1931 and made reference to the statuette's reminding her of her "Uncle Oscar" (a nickname for her cousin Oscar Pierce). In December 2011. MGM's art director Cedric Gibbons. Academy Awards not protected by this agreement have been sold in public auctions and private deals for six-figure sums. Fernández was finally convinced to pose nude to create what today is known as the "Oscar".W. Another claimed origin is that the Academy's Executive Secretary. While the Oscar is owned by the recipient. Owens & Company. one of the original Academy members.Academy Award rendered in Art Deco style holding a crusader's sword standing on a reel of film with five spokes. Columnist Sidney Skolsky was present during Herrick's naming and seized the name in his byline. The only addition to the Oscar since it was created is a minor streamlining of the base. which also contributed to casting the molds for the Vince Lombardi Trophy and Emmy Awards statuettes. when disembarking in New York to begin his "Grand Tour" of America. the statuettes have been legally encumbered by the requirement that neither winners nor their heirs may sell the statuettes without first offering to sell them back to the Academy for US$1. which keeps them in its treasury. Although some Oscar sales transactions have been successful. Writers. it is essentially not on the open market. On December 20. The trophy was officially dubbed the "Oscar" in 1939 by the Academy of Motion Pictures Arts and Sciences. Walt Disney is also quoted as thanking the Academy for his Oscar as early as 1932. band leader Harmon Oscar Nelson. Directors. Orson Welles' sole 1941 Oscar for Citizen Kane (Best Original Screenplay) was put up for auction. but the Academy won the legal battle by getting a permanent injunction. In 1882. Illinois. Reluctant at first. In 1928. 2011 it sold in an online auction for US$861.5 percent tin and 7. It may also have been named after the famous Irish playwright Oscar Wilde. In need of a model for his statuette. supervised the design of the award trophy by printing the design on a scroll. Michael Todd's grandson tried to sell Todd's Oscar statuette to a movie prop collector in 1989. .5 percent copper and then gold-plated it. "Employees have affectionately dubbed their famous statuette 'Oscar'". some buyers have subsequently returned the statuettes to the Academy. Gibbons was introduced by his future wife Dolores del Río to Mexican film director and actor Emilio "El Indio" Fernández. then the Academy keeps the statuette. One biography of Bette Davis claims that she named the Oscar after her first husband.S. Then.
Actors constitute the largest voting bloc. The Academy does not publicly disclose its membership.311 members (22 percent) of the Academy's composition. writers for writers.783 as of 2012. including Best Picture. while all members may submit nominees for Best Picture. the film will be ineligible for Academy Awards in any year. the 2009 Best Picture winner. While the membership had been growing. There are some exceptions in the case of certain categories. . except for short subject awards. and it must exist either on a 35 mm or 70 mm film print or in 24 frame/s or 48 frame/s progressive scan digital cinema format with native resolution not less than 1280x720. The winners are then determined by a second round of voting in which all members are then allowed to vote in most categories. In late December ballots and copies of the Reminder List of Eligible Releases are mailed to around 6000 active members. The form includes the production credits for all related categories.Academy Award 102 Nomination Since 2004. Membership eligibility may be achieved by a competitive nomination or a member may submit a name based on other significant contribution to the field of motion pictures. Voters The Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS). The 2007 release also stated that it has just under 6. The members of the various branches nominate those in their respective fields. only directors vote for directors. and each country can submit only one film per year. on behalf of Academy Branch Executive Committees. Prior to that. California. each form is checked and put in a Reminder List of Eligible Releases. Documentary and Animated Feature Film. in which movies are selected by special screening committees made up of members from all branches. Academy Award nomination results have been announced to the public in late January. with each representing a different discipline in film production.000 voting members. maintains a voting membership of 5. For most categories. thus qualifying for the 2009 awards.e. a professional honorary organization. in Los Angeles County. Academy membership is divided into different branches. stricter policies have kept its size steady since then. All AMPAS members must be invited to join by the Board of Governors. defined as a minimum of 40 minutes. was actually first released in 2008. a film must open in the previous calendar year. to qualify (except for the Best Foreign Language Film). although as recently as 2007 press releases have announced the names of those who have been invited to join. In May 2011. The Hurt Locker.). Votes have been certified by the auditing firm PricewaterhouseCoopers (and its predecessor Price Waterhouse) for the past 73 annual awards ceremonies. New membership proposals are considered annually. like Foreign Film. etc. Producers must submit an Official Screen Credits online form before the deadline. actors for actors. For example. members from each of the branches vote to determine the nominees only in their respective categories (i. but did not qualify for the 2008 awards as it did not play its Oscar-qualifying run in Los Angeles until mid-2009. all voting members are eligible to select the nominees for that category. Then.000 or so voting members that an online system for Oscar voting will be implemented in 2013. the results were announced in early February. the Academy sent a letter advising its 6. from midnight at the start of January 1 to midnight at the end of December 31. Foreign films must include English subtitles. Rule 2 states that a film must be feature-length. numbering 1. In the special case of Best Picture. in case it is not submitted by the defined deadline. Rules According to Rules 2 and 3 of the official Academy Awards Rules.
It is the culmination of the film awards season. Canada. (The artists who recorded the nominees for Best Original Song quite often perform those songs live at the awards ceremony. 1959 The Academy Awards is televised live across the United States (excluding Hawaii. NBC continued to broadcast the event until 1960 when the ABC Network took over. after which NBC resumed the broadcasts. and musical performers sometimes do not adhere to this. The Academy has for several years claimed that the award show has up to a billion viewers internationally. it is under contract to do so through the year 2020. Hollywood. This is an elaborate extravaganza. they aired live in Alaska starting in 2011 for the first time since 1996). but this has so far not been confirmed by any independent sources. Hollywood. After more than 60 years of being held in late March or early April. Golden Globes. and the fact that they are performing is often used to promote the television broadcast). most commonly in late February or early March following the relevant calendar year. which would cut into the Academy Awards audience. Another reason was because of the growing TV ratings success of the NCAA Men's Division I Basketball Championship. and gathers millions of viewers elsewhere throughout the world. The 2007 ceremony was watched by more 81st Academy Awards Presentations. The earlier date is also to the advantage of ABC. Pantages Theater. televising the festivities through 1970. which usually begins during November or December of the previous year.Academy Award 103 Ceremony Telecast The major awards are presented at a live televised ceremony. although fashion may dictate not wearing a bow-tie. and six weeks after the announcement of the nominees. the United Kingdom. ABC once again took over broadcast duties in 1976. Other awards ceremonies (such as the Emmys. Black tie dress is the most common outfit for men. as it now usually occurs during the highly profitable and important February sweeps . the ceremonies were moved up to late February or early March starting in 2004 to help disrupt and shorten the intense lobbying and ad campaigns associated with Oscar season in the film industry. 31st Academy Awards Presentations. and Grammys) are broadcast live in the East Coast but are on tape delay in the West Coast and might not air on the same day outside North America (if the awards are even televised). with the invited guests walking up the red carpet in the creations of the most prominent fashion designers of the day. 2009 than 40 million Americans. Kodak Theater. The Awards show was first televised on NBC in 1953.
50 minutes — — — — Conrad Nagel — — Lawrence Grant Biltmore Hotel Grand Hotel — — Lionel Barrymore. honoring those who had made a significant contribution to cinema who had died in the preceding 12 months. citing TV viewers' fatigue with the film industry's long awards season. This. 1934 Douglas Fairbanks. and that an earlier start time would allow viewers on the East Coast to go to bed earlier. however. a selection compiled by a small committee of Academy members.C. in 1999 the ceremonies were moved to Sundays at 8:30 pm Eastern/5:30 pm Pacific.Academy Award period. 1930 November 10. The reasons given for the move were that more viewers would tune in on Sundays. (Some years. The Awards show holds the distinction of having won the most Emmys in history. according to organizer Bill Mechanic. On March 30. D. an In Memoriam segment was introduced. 104 Awards ceremonies The following is a listing of all Academy Awards ceremonies. as traditionally no movie studios or competitors of official Academy Award sponsors may advertise during the telecast. the ceremony is moved into early March in deference to the Winter Olympics. Also. Conrad Nagel Ambassador Hotel Cavalcade — — Will Rogers .m Pacific. For many years the film industry had opposed a Sunday broadcast because it would cut into the weekend box office. William C. In 2010. 1932 March 16. deMille Hollywood Roosevelt Hotel Ambassador Hotel The Broadway Melody All Quiet on the Western Front Cimarron 1 hour. In 1993. 3 minutes 1 hour. deMille William C. a January ceremony may have to compete with National Football League playoff games. After many years of being held on Mondays at 9:00 pm Eastern/6:00 p. 1929 April 3. 1930 November 5. the awards ceremony was postponed for one day after the shooting of President Ronald Reagan and others in Washington. But such an accelerated schedule would dramatically decrease the voting period for its members. 1981. the organizers of the Academy Awards announced that winners' acceptance speeches must not run past 45 seconds. was to ensure the elimination of what he termed "the single most hated thing on the show" – overly long and embarrassing displays of emotion. 1931 November 18. 13 minutes 2 hours. to the point where some voters would only have time to view the contending films streamed on their computers (as opposed to traditionally receiving the films and ballots in the mail).) Advertising is somewhat restricted. that Los Angeles rush-hour traffic jams could be avoided. The Academy has also had recent discussions about moving the ceremony even further back into January. This segment has drawn criticism over the years for the omission of some names. with 47 wins and 195 nominations. 52 minutes 1 hour. 50 minutes 2 hours. Ceremony Date Best Picture winner Wings Length of ceremony 15 minutes Number of Rating viewers 270 — Host(s) Venue 1st Academy Awards 2nd Academy Awards 3rd Academy Awards 4th Academy Awards 5th Academy Awards 6th Academy Awards May 16.
Awards 1941 14th Academy February 26. 1953 All About Eve 2 hours. 52 minutes 2 hours. Dick Powell — — Robert Montgomery The Academy Theater Pantages Theatre All the King's Men — — Paul Douglas March 29. 8 minutes 43 million — Donald O'Connor. 30 minutes 3 hours. 35 minutes 1 hour. 48 minutes 1 hour. 50 minutes — — Irvin S. Thelma Ritter Marty — — Jerry Lewis. 58 minutes 1 hour. 58 minutes 1 hour. 1957 From Here to Eternity On the Waterfront 1 hour. Mankiewicz Jerry Lewis. Celeste Holm Around the World in 80 Days — — . 42 minutes 2 hours. 45 minutes 2 hours. 1945 March 7. 1952 March 19. 1954 March 30. 1935 March 5. 18 minutes 1 hour. 48 minutes 2 hours. 56 minutes 2 hours. Claudette Colbert. 10 minutes 1 hour. 32 minutes — — Fred Astaire An American in Paris The Greatest Show on Earth — — Danny Kaye 40 million — Bob Hope. 1948 March 24. 1947 March 20. 1950 — — None — — Bob Hope Ambassador Hotel (Cocoanut Grove) Biltmore Hotel (Biltmore Bowl) — — How Green Was My Valley Mrs. Awards 1940 13th Academy February 27.Academy Award 105 February 27. 1956 March 27. Awards 1939 12th Academy February 29. 53 minutes 1 hour. 1943 March 2. James Stewart The Best Years of Our Lives Gentleman's Agreement Hamlet — — Jack Benny Shrine Auditorium — — Agnes Moorehead. 1938 It Happened One Night Mutiny on the Bounty The Great Ziegfeld 1 hour. 52 minutes 1 hour. Joseph L. Conrad Nagel Pantages Theatre / NBC International Theatre Pantages Theatre / NBC Century Theatre 26th Academy Awards 27th Academy Awards 28th Academy Awards 29th Academy Awards March 25. Fredric March — — Bob Hope. 12 minutes 2 hours. 14 minutes 1 hour. Miniver — — — — Ambassador Hotel (Cocoanut Grove) Jack Benny Grauman's Chinese Theater Casablanca — — Going My Way — — Bob Hope. 1937 March 10. 6 minutes 3 hours. 1946 March 13. John Cromwell The Lost Weekend — — Bob Hope. Awards 1942 15th Academy Awards 16th Academy Awards 17th Academy Awards 18th Academy Awards 19th Academy Awards 20th Academy Awards 21st Academy Awards 22nd Academy Awards 23rd Academy Awards 24th Academy Awards 25th Academy Awards March 4. 41 minutes 2 hours. Cobb Biltmore Hotel 7th Academy Awards 8th Academy Awards 9th Academy Awards 10th Academy Awards — — Frank Capra — — George Jessel The Life of Emile Zola You Can't Take It With You Gone with the Wind Rebecca — — Bob Burns 11th Academy February 23. 1936 March 4. 1951 March 20. 1949 March 23. 1944 March 15. 56 minutes 1 hour. 1955 March 21. 10 minutes 1 hour.
Rock Hudson John Huston. 1965 April 18. Diana Ross Sammy Davis. 1961 April 9. Jr. 1972 March 27. Bob Hope. 50 minutes 2 hours. Tony Randall. 1967 April 10. 23 minutes 3 hours. 25 minutes — — Santa Monica Civic Auditorium West Side Story — — Lawrence of Arabia Tom Jones — — Frank Sinatra — — Jack Lemmon My Fair Lady — — Bob Hope The Sound of Music A Man for All Seasons In the Heat of the Night Oliver! — — — — — — — — None Dorothy Chandler Pavilion Midnight Cowboy — 43. 1966 April 10. 1968 April 14. Burt Reynolds. Frank Sinatra Goldie Hawn.. 1969 April 7. 38 minutes 3 hours. Jerry Lewis Bob Hope Pantages Theatre 30th Academy Awards 31st Academy Awards April 6.Academy Award 106 March 26. Rosalind Russell Bob Hope. Charlton Heston. David Niven. 41 minutes — — Bob Hope. James Stewart. 55 minutes — — 32nd Academy Awards 33rd Academy Awards 34th Academy Awards 35th Academy Awards 36th Academy Awards 37th Academy Awards 38th Academy Awards 39th Academy Awards 40th Academy Awards 41st Academy Awards 42nd Academy Awards 43rd Academy Awards 44th Academy Awards 45th Academy Awards 46th Academy Awards 47th Academy Awards 48th Academy Awards April 4. 1963 April 13. Sammy Davis. Sir Laurence Olivier. 33 minutes 2 hours. 5 minutes 2 hours. Gene Kelly. Alan King. 8 minutes 2 hours. David Niven. 1962 April 8.. 1975 March 29. 12 minutes — — The French Connection The Godfather — — Helen Hayes. Jack Lemmon Carol Burnett. 10 minutes 2 hours. Jr. David Niven. 50 minutes 2 hours. 20 minutes 3 hours. Robert Shaw — — The Sting — — The Godfather Part II One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest — — — — . Michael Caine. 1960 Ben-Hur 1 hour. 1970 The Apartment 2 hours. 1959 Gigi 1 hour. 52 minutes 1 hour. 54 minutes 2 hours. George Segal. 1974 April 8. Shirley MacLaine. Mort Sahl. Walter Matthau. 31 minutes 1 hour. 30 minutes 2 hours. 1976 Patton 2 hours.40 April 15. 1971 April 10. 40 minutes — — April 17. Jack Lemmon. 1958 The Bridge on the River Kwai 2 hours. 1973 April 2. 1964 April 5. 44 minutes 2 hours.
51 Whoopi Goldberg Dorothy Chandler Pavilion . Paul Hogan Chevy Chase Shrine Auditorium Platoon 25.87 million 44. 24 minutes 3 hours.22 million 25.47 David Letterman Shrine Auditorium Braveheart 30.79 million 44.25 million 45. 1984 March 25. 10 minutes 3 hours.63 million 28. Goldie Hawn. 1981 March 29.04 million 42.00 — — Jack Lemmon Out of Africa 38.44 million 45. 38 minutes 3 hours.42 Billy Crystal Dorothy Chandler Pavilion March 25.72 million 42. Jane Fonda. Richard Pryor Bob Hope 49th Academy Awards 50th Academy Awards 51st Academy Awards 52nd Academy Awards 53rd Academy Awards 54th Academy Awards 55th Academy Awards 56th Academy Awards 57th Academy Awards 58th Academy Awards 59th Academy Awards 60th Academy Awards 61st Academy Awards 62nd Academy Awards 63rd Academy Awards 64th Academy Awards 65th Academy Awards 66th Academy Awards 67th Academy Awards 68th Academy Awards 69th Academy Awards 70th Academy Awards 71st Academy Awards Annie Hall 39. Robin Williams Chevy Chase. 37 minutes — — Chariots of Fire — — Gandhi — — Liza Minnelli. Dudley Moore. 2 minutes 42. 1977 April 3. Richard Pryor. 25 minutes 3 hours. 33 minutes 3 hours.41 None Driving Miss Daisy 26. 19 minutes 3 hours. 34 minutes 3 hours.Academy Award 107 March 28. 13 minutes 3 hours. 18 minutes 3 hours.73 million — 31. 1987 April 11. 1996 March 24. 35 minutes 3 hours.77 million 40. 19 minutes 3 hours.85 Schindler's List 31. 1998 March 21. 15 minutes 3 hours.10 The Deer Hunter — Johnny Carson Kramer vs. 1986 March 30. 33 minutes 3 hours.83 million 57. 47 minutes 4 hours. 1990 Ordinary People 3 hours. 38 minutes 3 hours. Ellen Burstyn. 1985 March 24.71 Alan Alda.80 Rain Man 28.32 Shakespeare in Love 28.83 Billy Crystal 35. 1993 March 21. 1980 Rocky 3 hours. 1997 March 23. 42 minutes 3 hours. 1988 March 29. 30 minutes 3 hours. 35 minutes 3 hours. 1992 March 29. 1999 Dances with Wolves The Silence of the Lambs Unforgiven 3 hours.94 The Last Emperor 27. 1979 April 14. 1994 March 27. 1989 March 26.84 Dorothy Chandler Pavilion 32. Kramer — — March 31. 1995 March 25. 12 minutes — — Warren Beatty. 1991 March 30. 1982 April 11.84 million 46. Walter Matthau Johnny Carson Terms of Endearment Amadeus — 38. 2 minutes 3 hours.86 Whoopi Goldberg Forrest Gump 33.06 Shrine Auditorium 29.48 Whoopi Goldberg Dorothy Chandler Pavilion Shrine Auditorium The English Patient Titanic 25. 1978 April 9. 30 minutes 3 hours.65 million 39.81 million 40. Jane Fonda. 1983 April 9.26 million 48.
33 minutes 3 hours.64 Billy Crystal Shrine Auditorium 72nd Academy Awards 73rd Academy Awards 74th Academy Awards 75th Academy Awards March 25. 2002 March 23. 30 minutes 3 hours. 23 minutes 4 hours.94 million 41.66 Jon Stewart 21.56 million viewers. 21 minutes 3 hours.04 million 43.4% household rating on April 7. 37 minutes 42. 35 minutes TBA 37. 14 minutes 3 hours.13 Whoopi Goldberg Dolby Theatre Chicago 20. Awards 2012 85th Academy February 24. independent film Crash (with a pre-Oscar gross of .68 Billy Crystal 77th Academy February 27. 15 minutes 3 hours. ceremonies honoring films that have not performed well at the box office tend to show weaker ratings. Awards 2009 82nd Academy Awards March 7. the year of Titanic. Awards 2007 80th Academy February 24.56 million 25. The King's Speech Awards 2011 84th Academy February 26.30 million 40. The 76th Academy Awards ceremony in which The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King (pre-telecast box office earnings of US$368 million) received 11 Awards including Best Picture drew 43.25 million viewers tuned to the telecast for the 70th Academy Awards in 1998. 2010 The Departed 23.92 million 31.58 Steve Martin 76th Academy February 29.30 million TBA 21.97 James Franco. 4 minutes 46. The 78th Academy Awards which awarded low-budgeted.63 million 39. Awards 2008 81st Academy February 22.16 million 38. The most watched ceremony based on Nielsen ratings to date.29 Chris Rock 22. Awards 2004 The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King Million Dollar Baby Crash 26. however.64 million 39. 1970.  2014 The Artist 3 hours.54 million 33.76 million 36. 2000 American Beauty 4 hours. 51 minutes 3 hours.93 million 40. which generated close to US$600 million at the North American box office pre-Oscars. 30 minutes 3 hours. 23 minutes 3 hours.86 Steve Martin A Beautiful Mind 25.68 Hugh Jackman 24. Awards 2013 86th Academy Awards March 2. was the 42nd Academy Awards (Best Picture Midnight Cowboy) which drew a 43.91 Jon Stewart 79th Academy February 25. Awards 2015 Ceremony Date TBA TBA TBA TBA TBA Best Picture winner Length of ceremony Number of Rating viewers Host(s) Venue Historically.50 Billy Crystal Argo 26. 2001 March 24.60 Seth MacFarlane TBA TBA TBA 87th Academy February 22. Anne Hathaway 25.53 million 29. Awards 2005 78th Academy Awards March 5. the "Oscarcast" has pulled in a bigger haul when box-office hits are favored to win the Best Picture trophy. 2006 3 hours. 2003 Gladiator 3 hours.65 Ellen DeGeneres No Country for Old Men Slumdog Millionaire The Hurt Locker 18. 44 minutes 42. Alec Baldwin 83rd Academy February 27.Academy Award 108 March 26.62 million 25.75 Steve Martin. 14 minutes 3 hours. By contrast. More than 57.
 From 1950 to 1960.4 million) generated an audience of 38. the theatre was once again renamed – to the Dolby Theatre – after Dolby Laboratories acquired the naming rights. In 2008. By 1969. Merit categories Current categories • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Best Actor in a Leading Role: since 1928 Best Actor in a Supporting Role: since 1936 Best Actress in a Leading Role: since 1928 Best Actress in a Supporting Role: since 1936 Best Animated Feature: since 2001 Best Animated Short Film: since 1931 Best Cinematography: since 1928 Best Costume Design: since 1948 Best Director: since 1928 Best Documentary Feature: since 1943 Best Documentary Short: since 1941 Best Film Editing: since 1935 Best Foreign Language Film: since 1947 Best Live Action Short Film: since 1931 • Best Makeup and Hairstyling: since 1981 • Best Original Score: since 1934 .64 million with a household rating of 22. this time to the Dorothy Chandler Pavilion at the Los Angeles County Music Center. due to Eastman Kodak's bankruptcy issues. The Best Picture winner of that particular ceremony was another independently financed film (No Country for Old Men). 109 Venues In 1929. 2008 With the advent of television. In 2002. the Academy decided to move the ceremonies back to Los Angeles. Pantages Theatre. awards ceremony. after which the ceremony took place solely in Los Angeles. the 1953–1957 awards took place simultaneously in Hollywood and New York first at the NBC International Theatre (1953) and then at the NBC Century Theatre (1954–1957). the 80th Academy Awards telecast was watched by 31. the ceremony alternated between two venues: the Ambassador Hotel on Wilshire Boulevard and the Biltmore Hotel in downtown Los Angeles. From 1930–1943. in spite of celebrating 80 years of the Academy Awards. Grauman's Chinese Theater in Hollywood then hosted the awards from 1944 to 1946. 2012.76 million viewers on average with an 18. The 21st Academy Awards in 1949 were held at the Academy Award Theater at what was the Academy's headquarters on Melrose Avenue in Hollywood. followed by the Shrine Auditorium in Los Angeles from 1947 to 1948. As of May 2012. California in 1961. the first Academy Awards were presented at a banquet dinner at the Hollywood Roosevelt Hotel. However.Academy Award US$53. The Oscars moved to the Santa Monica Civic Auditorium in Santa Monica.66% household rating. the Kodak Theatre became the permanent home of the award ceremonies.91%. the lowest rated and least watched ceremony to date. this theatre was renamed the Hollywood and Highland Center in the days preceding the February 26. the awards were presented at Hollywood's Pantages Theatre.
entitled the Academy Award for Best Original Musical. the Best Original Score award has also been split into separate categories (Drama and Comedy/Musical). Discontinued categories • • • • • • • • • • • • Best Assistant Director: 1933 to 1937 Best Director. it has not been awarded since 1984 (when Purple Rain won). Comedy Picture: 1928 only Best Dance Direction: 1935 to 1937 Best Engineering Effects: 1928 only Best Original Musical or Comedy Score: 1995 to 1999 Best Original Story: 1928 to 1956 Best Score – Adaptation or Treatment: 1962 to 1969. From the 1930s through the 1960s. the Best Director award was split into two separate categories (Drama and Comedy). the Art Direction (now Production Design). Cinematography. due to continuous insufficient eligibility each year.Academy Award • • • • • • • • Best Original Song: since 1934 Best Picture: since 1928 Best Production Design: since 1928 Best Sound Editing: since 1963 Best Sound Mixing: since 1930 Best Visual Effects: since 1939 Best Adapted Screenplay: since 1928 Best Original Screenplay: since 1940 110 In the first year of the awards. 1973 Best Short Film – Color: 1936 and 1937 Best Short Film – Live Action – 2 Reels: 1936 to 1956 Best Short Film – Novelty: 1932 to 1935 Best Title Writing: 1928 only Best Unique and Artistic Quality of Production: 1928 only Proposed categories The Board of Governors meets each year and considers new award categories. is still in the Academy rulebooks and has yet to be discontinued. At times. and Costume Design awards were likewise split into two separate categories (black-and-white films and color films). To date. Another award. the following proposed categories have been rejected: • Best Casting: rejected in 1999 • Best Stunt Coordination: rejected every year from 1991-2012 • Best Title Design: rejected in 1999 . Prior to 2012. the Production Design award was called Art Direction. However. while the Makeup and Hairstyling award was called Makeup.
The Special Academy Awards are voted on by special committees, rather than by the Academy membership as a whole. They are not always presented on a consistent annual basis.
Current special categories
• • • • • Academy Honorary Award: since 1929 Academy Scientific and Technical Award: since 1931 Gordon E. Sawyer Award: since 1981 Jean Hersholt Humanitarian Award: since 1956 Irving G. Thalberg Memorial Award: since 1938
Discontinued special categories
• Academy Juvenile Award: 1934 to 1960 • Academy Special Achievement Award: 1972 to 1995
Due to the positive exposure and prestige of the Academy Awards, studios spend millions of dollars and hire publicists specifically to promote their films during what is typically called the "Oscar season". This has generated accusations of the Academy Awards being influenced more by marketing than quality. William Friedkin, an Academy Award-winning film director and former producer of the ceremony, expressed this sentiment at a conference in New York in 2009, describing it as "the greatest promotion scheme that any industry ever devised for itself". In addition, some winners critical of the Academy Awards have boycotted the ceremonies and refused to accept their Oscars. The first to do so was Dudley Nichols (Best Writing in 1935 for The Informer). Nichols boycotted the 8th Academy Awards ceremony because of conflicts between the Academy and the Writers' Guild. George C. Scott became the second person to refuse his award (Best Actor in 1970 for Patton) at the 43rd Academy Awards ceremony. Scott described it as a 'meat parade', saying 'I don't want any part of it." The third winner, Marlon Brando, refused his award (Best Actor in 1972 for The Godfather), citing the film industry's discrimination and mistreatment of Native Americans. At the 45th Academy Awards ceremony, Brando sent Sacheen Littlefeather to read a 15-page speech detailing his criticisms. Tim Dirks, editor of AMC's filmsite.org, has written of the Academy Awards, Unfortunately, the critical worth, artistic vision, cultural influence, and innovative qualities of many films are not given the same voting weight. Especially since the 1980s, moneymaking "formula-made" blockbusters with glossy production values have often been crowd-pleasing titans (and Best Picture winners), but they haven't necessarily been great films with depth or critical acclaim by any measure. Acting prizes in certain years have been criticized for not recognizing superior performances so much as being awarded for sentimental reasons, personal popularity, atonement for past mistakes, or presented as a "career honor" to recognize a distinguished nominee's entire body of work.
The following events are closely associated with the annual Academy Awards ceremony: • Nominees luncheon • Governors Awards • The 25th Independent Spirit Awards (in 2010), usually held in Santa Monica the Saturday before the Oscars, marked the first time it was moved to a Friday and a change of venue to L.A. Live. • Golden Raspberry Awards • The annual "Night Before", traditionally held at the Beverly Hills Hotel, begun in 2002 and generally known as THE party of the season, benefits the Motion Picture and Television Fund, which operates a retirement home for SAG actors in the San Fernando Valley. • Elton John AIDS Foundation Academy Award Party airs the awards live at the nearby Pacific Design Center. • The Governors' Ball is the Academy's official after-party, including dinner (until 2011), and is held adjacent to the awards-presentation venue. In 2012, the three course meal was replaced by appetizers. • The Vanity Fair after-party, historically held at the former Morton's restaurant, since 2009 has been held at the Sunset Tower.
 http:/ / www. oscars. org/  http:/ / en. wikipedia. org/ w/ index. php?title=Academy_Award& action=edit  "Oscar" in The Oxford English Dictionary, June 2008 Draft Revision.  Levy, Emanuel (2003) All About Oscar: The History and Politics of the Academy Awards Continuum, New York. ISBN 0-8264-1452-4  (Levy 2003, pg 28)  (Levy 2003, pg 29)  Nielsen – Press Release: The Nielsen Company's 2008 Guide to the Academy Awards (http:/ / www. nielsen. com/ media/ 2008/ pr_080221a. html)  Academy Awards will move to Sunday night (http:/ / news. google. com/ newspapers?nid=1955& dat=19980701& id=-CsiAAAAIBAJ& sjid=eqYFAAAAIBAJ& pg=6637,43314) Reading Eagle – July 1, 1998; From Google News Archive  Never Say Never: Academy Awards move to Sunday (http:/ / news. google. com/ newspapers?nid=1980& dat=19990319& id=sKEiAAAAIBAJ& sjid=laoFAAAAIBAJ& pg=1224,4570799) The Item – March 19, 1999; From Google News Archive  http:/ / www. oscars. org/ press/ pressreleases/ 2013/ 20130325. html  Charts and Data: Top 100 TV Shows of All Time by Variety (http:/ / www. variety. com/ index. asp?layout=chart_pass& charttype=chart_topshowsalltime)  Music Awards | Rules for the 84th Academy Awards | Academy of Motion Picture Arts & Sciences (http:/ / www. oscars. org/ awards/ academyawards/ rules/ rule16. html)
• Brokaw, Lauren (2010). "Wanna see an Academy Awards invite? We got it along with all the major annual events surrounding the Oscars" (http://thedailytruffle.com/2010/03/ oscar-week-parties-the-weekly-juice-oscar-edition/). Los Angeles: The Daily Truffle. • Cotte, Oliver (2007). Secrets of Oscar-winning animation: Behind the scenes of 13 classic short animations. Focal Press. ISBN 978-0-240-52070-4. • Gail, K., and Piazza, J. (2002). The Academy Awards: The Complete History of Oscar. Black Dog & Leventhal Publishers, Inc. ISBN 1-57912-240-X. • Levy, Emanuel (2003). All About Oscar: The History and Politics of the Academy Awards. New York: Continuum. ISBN 0-8264-1452-4. • Wright, Jon (2007). The Lunacy of Oscar: The Problems with Hollywood's Biggest Night. Thomas Publishing, Inc.
• Official website (http://www.oscars.org/) • Oscar.com (http://www.oscar.com/)—official Academy Award ceremony site. • Academy Awards (http://www.dmoz.org/Arts/Movies/Awards/Academy_Awards/) at the Open Directory Project. • "Oscar Greats" (http://www.time.com/time/archive/collections/0,21428,c_oscars,00.shtml) at Time magazine.
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