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08/03/2014

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„Rethinking

Leisure Time by Expanding Opportunities for YOUNG

PEOPLE COMMUNITIES ” World YOUTH Report, 2003

The importance of leisure time for young people,particularly as it relates to personal and community development, is examined in this chapter. It is imperative that youth be given a wide range of opportunities for meaningful participation within the community, provided or facilitated by a multitude of organizations,institutions and programmes in all sectors. The various sections in the chapter focus on how young people spend their free time, the developmental opportunities presented within diverse contexts, and the virtuous cycle of mutual benefit created through reciprocal youth-community support (illustrated in several detailed case studies). The conclusion emphasizes the importance of saturation(adequacy of opportunities is more important than variety), a solid infrastructure, a strong public and political commitment, and the recognition that leisure time and opportunities constitute a right to be protected rather than a privilege to be earned or lost. Certain major themes—basic health, risk behaviour reduction, education, employment and political participation—constitute the pillars of youth policy. Indeed, they are the foundations of human resource development in general, reflecting a continuum of goals from protection to prevention to civic and economic participation. They are the domains of responsibility of the main public systems charged with providing services and opportunities for youth. In every culture, there are hours in the day when young people are not formally required to be in school or engaged in household or paid work. They choose to be involved in various activities, and there are public and private programmes, organizations and individuals who support their participation. These hours, these activities and often even these programmes are considered discretionary. They are viewed as optional—nice but not necessary, or even particularly important. These are the hours, the activities and the programmes whose absence or disappearance would not be noticed by policy makers but would be very much felt by young people. Public recognition of their importance is low, a fact reflected in the scarcity of relevant data. Equally important, it is these hours, activities and programmes that policy makers, programme planners and frequently the public have few qualms about reducing. When test scores drop or family incomes dip, opportunities to participate in voluntary activities are often restricted, as the hours required for work or study are increased. When public funds are low, sports, recreation and cultural programmes and institutions are often among the first casualtie. The amount of time young people spend away from work and school work varies significantly across populations and regions. Differences exist within the developing world. In a Kenyan sample, 10 per cent of children’s waking hours were free,compared with 63 per cent

East Asian. with sharper rises in sports for boys than for girls.while Asian young people appear to have a quarter to a third of their time for leisure. . boys tend to have significantly more leisure time than do girls.Music plays a less substantial role in young people’s leisure time than any other activity. While media use is not even mentioned in the developing country time-use studies Larson and Verma examine. Across regions. American and European young people. the time that younger children spend in play appears to be supplanted during adolescence by labour in developing and transitional populations and by talking (often more than two hours a day) among. In terms of active. structured leisure such as sports. organizations and the arts is also greater in Europe and the United States than in Asia.as the latter spend more time in household labour than do their male counterparts. Time spent “doing nothing”—waiting. In the developed world. studies tracking organized activity participation in developing areas have not been carried out. and a greater increase for younger than for older adolescents. it is a dominant force in developed societies.for a sample of young men in urban India. and perhaps more time of youth in developing than in developed countries. with those in the United States reading less than Europeans. while children and youth in East Asia spend relatively little time in unstructured active leisure.and European adolescents seem to have about the same or slightly less leisure time. with boys watching more than girls. and Europeans less than Asians. participation appears to increase as socioeconomic status improves. Young people’s engagement in active. European and North American young people appear to spend an average of about two hours daily in front of the television. about half of American young people’s waking hours are free. Young people from all regions spend less than an hour reading each day. In developing country populations. for example—takes more of Western young people’s time than that of Asian youth. hanging out and thinking. unstructured leisure.

educatia. Acestea sunt domeniile responsabile ale sistemului public principal care furnizeaza servicii si oportunitati pentru tinerii din fiecare comunitate.in general reflectand goluri incepand de la protectia si prevenirea fiecarui tanar la participarea economica si participarea civica. a unui public activ. acestea sunt componente esentiale ale bazei dezvoltarii resurselor umane. Diverse sectiuni din acest capitol pun accentul pe modul in care tinerii isi petrec timpul lor liber. pentru a putea participa si pentru a fi folositori comunitatii in care ei locuiesc. jobul part-time. astfel ca ei aleg sa se implice in diverse activitati si programe publice si private alaturi de alti tineri. dar si pe oportunitatile de dezvoltare prezentate in contexte diverse si ciclul virtuos de beneficii mutuale create prin sprijin reciproc pentru tineret de catre comunitate (ilustrata in cateva studii de caz detaliate). In fiecare cultura. ocuparea fortei de munca si participarea politica. a unei infrastructurii solide. Este important ca tinerilor sa li se ofere o gama larga de oportunitati.2003 Importanta timpului liber pentru cei tineri. . importante cum ar fi sanatatea de baza.“ O gandire diferita a timpului liber prin extinderea oportunitatilor pentru comunitatile de tineri” Raportul World Youth.reducerea comportamentelor de risc.puternic si un angajament politic si nu in ultimul rand recunoasterea faptului ca timpul liber si oportunitatile constituie un drept care trebuie sa fie protejat si nu trebuie sa fie privit ca un privilegiu care sa fie castigat sau pierdut. Concluzia subliniaza importanta saturatiei (adecvarea oportunitatilor este mai importanta decat diversificarea lor). in special asa cum se raporteaza la dezvoltarea individuala si a comunitatii. este tratata in acest capitol. Intr-adevar. aceste oportunitati provenind sau fiind facilitate de foarte multe organizatii. constituie pilonii politici de tineret. institutii si programe in toate sectoarele. sunt anumite ore intr-o zi cand tinerii nu sunt nevoiti sa mearga la scoala sau sa fie angajati in intretinerea casei sau pur si simplu sa mearga la locul de munca. Cateva teme majore.

si europenii mai putin decat asiaticii. activitati si programe a caror absenta sau disparitie nu par a fi remarcata de politicile de marketing dar lipsa lor este simtita din plin de tinerii care au nevoie de ele. acestea din urma se pare ca isi petrec timpul liber in casa cu treburile specifice. par sa petreaca in medie 2 ore zilnic in fata televizorului.Aceste ore libere. s-a constatat ca baietii au tendinta de a petrece si de a avea mai mult timp liber decat fetele. Recunoasterea publica a importantei acestor activitati nu este prezenta mai deloc aceasta constituind un fapt care se reflecta in lipsa de capital. in timp ce tinerii asiatici par sa aiba de la un sfert la o treime timp liber din numarul total de ore pe zi. cele culturale si diversele institutii care se ocupa de tineri. In lumea de azi. deosebindu-se in felul acesta de baieti. oportunitatile pe care le au tinerii de a participa in activitatile voluntare sunt adesea restrictionate sau limitate sau la acele ore de studiu care cresc atunci cand fondurile publice sunt scazute astfel ca cele mai defavorizate sunt programele sportive. Timpul total al tinerilor petrecut in afara timpului de lucru sau scoala variaza semnificativ de la om la om sau de la regiune la regiune. Tinerii est asiatici. astfel ca americanii citesc mai putin decat europenii. Tinerii din toate regiunile petrec mai putin de 1 ora in fiecare zi citind. In timp ce media nu mentioneazafaptul ca dezvoltarea timpului liber reprezinta o forta dominanta in societate. La fel de important ca aceste ore libere sunt activitatile si programele pe care politicile de marketing le planifica din timp dar ele sunt mai putin frecventate si apreciate sau dorite de catre public si din cauza aceasta ele sunt mai reduse. . de recreere. In ceea ce priveste emanciparea locuitorilor din mediul rural. S-a efectuat un esantion pe locuitorii din Kenya astfel ca doar 10% din copii petrec in mod liber orele pe care le au la dispozitie excluzand de aici orele de munca sau de scoala si daca ii comparam cu cei din mediul urban procentul este la 63% in India. Diferentele exista odata cu dezvoltarea lumii noastre. care este mai dezvoltata din mai multe puncte de vedere. baietii vizionand mai mult decat fetele. jumatate din tinerii americani care dispun de acest timp liber au cam acelasi numar de ore libere pe care le au si europenii sau chiar mai putin decat ei. europeni si nord-americani. Un exemplu ar fi ca atunci cand scade nota de la testul care priveste administrarea banilor sau mai bine zis atunci cand venitul familiei scade.

Timpul liber. cand nu faci nimic. in care sa stai. Timpul de joaca se modifica. comunicand mai mult de 2 ore pe zi.Muzica joaca un rol important in petrecrea timpului liber decat oricare alta activitate. impartindu-se acum in timp liber si timp dedicat muncii. . apare mai des la tinerii din vest decat la cei asiatici. Tinerii americani si europeni petrec relativ putin timp in activitatiile libere decat tinerii din estul Asiei. in timpul liber interactioneaza cu alte persoane. sa te gandesti. si poate mai mult timp la tinerii in dezvoltare decat la tinerii din tarile dezvoltate.

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