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APPLICATUO
EXAMPLES
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Table of Con tents
CopyrightlPub lisher/Editor/Disclaimer Preface Acknowledgments Suggestions for Improvement / Errata Notifi cation Introduction How to Use This Document Notation Definitions EXAMPLE Example i DESCRIPTION
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ix xi I 2 3 18 ASCEISEI 705 §11.51 §11.6 § 12.4.2.3 §2.4 § 11.4 §12.3.2.2 §12.3.2.2 §12.3.2.2 §12.3.2.2 §12.3.2.2 §12.3.2.2 §12.3.3.1 §12.3.2.1 §12.3.2.1.. §12.3.2.1 §12.3.2.1 §12.3.2.1 §12.3.2.1 §12.3.4 §12.8.7 §12.8. 1... PAGE 25 26 27 32 36 41 42 46 48 50 52 54 58 59 63 65 67 68 69 74 78
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Classification/Importance Factors Seismic Design Category Example I Earthquake Load Combinations: Strength Design Example 2 Comb inations of Loads Example 3 Design Spectral Respon se Accelerations Introduction to Vertical Irregularities Example 4 Vertical Irregul arity Type l a and Type Ib Example 5 Vertical Irregul arity Type 2 Example 6 Vertical Irregularity Type 3 Example 7 Vertical Irregularity Type 4 Example 8 Vertical Irregular ity Type 5a Example 9 Vertical Irregularity Type 5a Introduction to Horizontal Irregularities Example 10 Horizontal Irregularity Typ e Ia and Type Ib Example I I Horizontal Irregularity Type 2 Example 12 Horizontal Irregularity Typ e 3 Example 13 Horizontal Irregularity Type 4 Example 14 Horizontal Irregularity Type 5 Example 15 Redu ndancy Factor p Example 16 Pdelta Effects Example 17 Seismic Base Shear
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2006 IBC Stru ctural/S eismic Design Manual, Vol. I
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EXAMPLE Example 18 Example 19 Example 20 Example 2 1 Example 22 Example 23 Example 24 Example 25 Example 26 Example 27 Example 28 Example 29 Example 30 Exampl e 31 Example 32 Example 33 Example 34 Example 35 Example 36 Example 37 Example 38 Example 39 Example 40 Example 4 1 Exampl e 42 Example 43 Example 44 Example 45 Example 46 Example 47 Example 48 Example 49
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DESCRIPTION Appro xima te Fundamental Period Simplified Alternative Structural Design Procedure Combination of Structural Systems: Vertical Comb ination of Framin g Systems: in Different Directions Combin ation of Structural Systems : Along the Same Axis Vertical Distribution of Seismic Force Horizontal Distribution of Shear Amplification of Accident al Torsion Elements Supporting Discontinuous Systems Elements Supporting Disconti nuous Walls or Frames Soil Pressure at Foundati ons Drift Story Drift Lim itations Vertical Seismic Load Effect. Design Response Spectrum Dual Systems Lateral Forces for OneStory Wall Panels OutofPlane Seismic Forces for TwoStory Wall Panel Rigid Equipment.. Flexible Equipment Relative Motion of Equipment Attachments Deformation Compatibility for Seismic Design Categories D, E, and F .· Adjoining Rigid Elements Exterior Elements: Wall Panel Exterior Nonstructural Wall Elements: Precast Panel. Beam Horizontal Tie Force Collector Elements OutofPlane Wall Anchorage of Concrete or Masonry Walls to Flexible Diaphragms Wall Anchorage to Flexible Diaphragms Determination of Diaphragm Force Fpx : Lowrise Determination of Diaphragm Force Fpx : Highrise Building Separations
ASCE/SEI 705 §12.8.2.I §I 2.14 §I 2.2.3.I §I2.2.2 §I 2.2.3.2 §12.8.3 §12.8.4 §I2.8.4.3 §I 2.3.3.3 §12.3.3.3 §2.4 §I2.I3.4 §12.8.6 § 12.12 §12.4.2.2 §11.4.5 §12.2.5. I §12.11 §12.11. I §I2.11.2 §I 3.3.1 §13.3.1 §I3.3.2 § I2.12.4 §12.7.4 §I3.5 .3 §13.5.3 §12.1.3 §12.10.2 §12.11.2 §12.11.2.1 § 12.11.2.1 §12.10 .1.1 §12.10.1 §12.12.3
PAGE 80 83 86 90 92 93 97 102 106 I 10 I I3 I 16 I 19 121 124 126 129 133 137 140 143 145 148 150 153 160 162 165 167 170 174 176
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2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I
1 §6.5 PAGE 179 182 186 188 190 193 200 205 I I I I I I I I I 2006 IB C Structural/Seismic D esign Man ual.Ana lytica l Procedure ASCE /SEI 705 §15.6 IBC § 1808.4 §6.2 §15. I V I .2. Vol.23.7.4 §6.5 §15.4.0 § 15.Table of Conten ts 1 EXAM PLE Example 50 Example 5 1 Example 52 Example 53 Example 54 Example 55 Example 56 Example 57 DESCRIPTION Flexible Nonbuilding Structure Lateral Force on Nonb uilding Structure Rigid No nbuilding Structure Tank With Supported Bottom Pile Interconnections Simplified Wind Loads on 2Story Buildings Simplified Wind Loads on LowRise Buildings Wind Loads .
I I I I I I I I I I I I vi 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual. I . Vol.
I vii . Vol. Volume 1: Code Application Examples. The 2006 lBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual illustrates how the provisions of the code are used. The example problem numbers used in the prior Seismic Design Manual . I I 1 The examples in the 2006 lBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual do not necessarily illustrate the only appropriate methods of design and analysis. and everyday structural engineering design practice . The 20061BC Structural/Seismic Design Manual is not meant to establish a minimum standard of care but. and SEAOC's 2005 Recommended Lateral Force Requirements and Commentary (also called the Blue Book).2000 IEC Volume I code application problems have been retained herein to provide easy reference to compare revised code requirements. presents reasonable approaches to solving problems typically encountered in structural /seismic design . Inc. It has been developed by the Structural Engineers Association of California (SEAOC) with funding provided by SEAOC. instead. which explains the basis for the code provisions. SEAOC. Proper engineering judgment should always be exercised when applying these examples to real projects. provides stepbystep examples for using individual code provisions.Preface I This document is the initial volume in the threevolume 20061BC Structural/Seismic Design Manual. published by the International Code Council . Its purpose is to provide guidance on the interpretation and use of the seismic requirements in the 2006 l llfem ational Building Code (IBC). Jon P. In Volumes" and III. Volumes 1I and lIl: Building Design Examples.. The 2006 lBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual was developed to fill a void that exists between the commentary of the Blue Book. Kiland and Rafael Sabelli Project Managers I I I I I 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual. NCSEA and ICC intend to update the 2006 lBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual with each edition of the building code. furnish examples of seismic design of common types of buildings. calculationbycalculation. how the various seismic requirements of the code are implemented in a realistic design. such as computing base shear or building period . important aspects of whole buildings are designed to show.
1 J J I I I I I viii 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual. Vol. I .
ICC 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual. Their assistance is gratefully acknowledged.  I •• L . 'l.. CoProject Manager Douglas S. Kiland. Their help was sought in review of code interpretations as well as 'detailed checking of the numerical computations.. and III are: Jon P. During its development.. I ix . The 20042005 and 20052006 committees reviewed the document and provided many helpful comments and suggestions. Vol. The consultants for Volumes I. I' _. drafts of the examples were sent to these individuals. Close collaboration with the SEAOC Seismology Committee was maintained during the development of the document. . Lawson Joe Maffei Kevin Moore Stephen Kerr A number of SEAOC members and other structural engineers helped check the examples in this volume. II. Thompson Dan Werdowatz Matt Eatherton John W.Acknowledgments The 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual Volume J was written by a group of highly qualified structural engineers. CoProject Manager Rafael Sabell i. They were selected by a steering committee set up by the SEAOC Board of Directors and were chosen for their knowledge and experience with structural engineering practice and seismic design.
org.seaoc.org. Comm ents and suggestions for improvements are welcome and shou ld be sent to the following: Structural Engi neers Association of Cal ifornia (SEAOC) A ttention : Executive Director 14 14 K Street. SEAOC.seaoc ..org or on the ICC website at http:// wll1l. Suite 260 Sacramento.org I I I I SEAOC and NCSEA have made a substantial effort to " ensure that the information in this document is accurate.Sugges tion s for Impro vem ent I In keep ing with SEAOC's and NCSEA's Mission Statemen ts: "to adva nce the structural engineering profession" and "to provide structural engineers with the most current informa tion and tools to improve their practice. California 95814 Telephone: (9 16) 4471198 . I I ." SEAOC and NCSEA plan to upd ate this document as structural/seismic requirements change and new research and better understand ing of building performa nce in earthqu akes becomes ava ilable. Web address: www . Vol. In the event that corrections or clarifi cations are needed.iccsaf e. Fax : (916) 9322209 Ema il: leeiWseaoc. these will be posted on the SEAOC web site at h/lP://11 1111 '. mayor may not issue written errata I I I I I J I I x 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic DesIgn Manual. ati ts sole discretion.
concise. building departments.1 Introduction Volume I of the 2006 lBC Structural/Seismic D esign Manual: Code App lication Examples deals with interpretation and use of the structural/seismic provisions of the 2006 lntem ational Building Code'" (!BC). AISC. each of which is illustrated in full. and graphic guidance on the application of specific provisions of the code. Each example is a separate problem . I 1 I I I I I I I I a nual will have three volumes. and a concrete shear wall building. The primary referenced document is ASCE/SEI 705. or group of problems. It primarily addresses the major structural/seismic provisions of the !BC. While the 2006 lBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual is based on the 2006 !BC. The complete 2006 lBC Structural/Selsmic Design M Volumes II and III will provide a series of structural/seismic design examples for buildings illustrat ing the seismic design of key parts of common building types such as a large threestory wood frame building. other plan review agencies . The 2006 lBC Structural/Seism ic Design Manual is intended for use by practicing structural engineers and structural designers. Volume I presents 58 examples that illustrate the application of specific structural/seismic provisions of the !Be. which contains the "Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures. there are some provision ofSEAOC 's 2005 Recommended Lateral Force Provisions and Commentary (Blue Book) that are app licable. The 2006 lBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual is intended to help the reader understand and correctly use the mc structural/seismic provisions and to provide clear. with interpretation of specific provisions and examples highl ighting their proper application. The problem is solved through the normal sequence of steps. When differences between the !BC and Blue Book are significant they are brought to the attention of the reader. and deals primarily with a single code provision. Vol. a tiltup warehouse. MSJC and NOS) are then referenced to take the structural load demands from ASCE/SEI 705 and perform specific materia l designs. National Material design standards (such as ACI. The 2006 !BC has had structural provisions removed from its text and has referenced several national standards documents for structural design provisions. a braced steel frame building. Each example begins with a description of the problem to be solved and a statement of given information. I 1 . 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual . Appropriate code references for each step are identified in the righthand margin of the page." ASCE/SEI 705 is referenced for load and deformation design demands on structural elements. and structural engineering students.
" In this section. or in the examples. For example.. reference is made to othe r codes and standards (e. Generally.4.Ho w to Use This Do cum ent ] • :JC . look at the upper. " Equation (12 . In general.4. reference to specific code provisions and equations is given in the righthand margin under the category Code Reference. To find an example for a particular provision of the code. the ASCE/SEI 705 notation is used throughout. outer come r of each page. there is a statement of the example to be solved. the examples are presented in the following format. Finally. . Commentary is intended to provide a better understanding of the exampl e and/or to offer guidance to the reader on use of the information generated in the example.31" is understood to be ASCE/SEI 705 Table 12. many of the examples have a third section designated "Commentary. Occasionally. 2005 AISC Steel Construction Manual 13th Edition. When this is done. the phrase "T 12. This is followed by the "Calculations and Discussion" section. including given information. Som e other notation is defined in the followi ng pages. I . "ASCE/SE I 705 §6. The 2006 lEe Structural/Seismic Design Manual is based on the 2006 IBC. Throughout the document. 1 I I I I I I I I I I I ) I I 2 2006 lac Structural/Seismic Design Manual. Vol. First. Generally. Similarly. and sketches. these documents are clearly ident ified.2 with ASCE/SEI 705 being understood.g. comm ents and discussion on the example and related material are made. ACI 31805. which provides the solution to the example and appropriate discussion to assist the reader. or 2005 NOS).2" is given as §6. or in the table of contents.31. No building design is illustrated . and the referenced Standard ASCE/SEI 705 unless otherwise indicated.83) in the righthand margins. Building design examples are given in Volumes II and III. and "F 2215 " is understood to be Figure 2215. the Volume I examples focus entirely on use of speci fic provisions of the code.'>. The various code application examp les of Volume I are organized by topic consistent with previous editions. Reference to ASCE/SEI 705 sections and formulas is abbreviated.83)" is designated (Eq 12. diagram s.
I . For example. A ABM area of floor or roof supported by a member = crosssectional area of the base material area of anc hor. The reader is cautio ned that the same notation may be used more than once and may carry entire ly different mean ings in different situations. When the same notation is used in two or more definitions. steel or loads) before the definition is given..g. Some new notations have also been added . of the shear walls in the first story of the structure I I I I I I A ch = crosssectional area of a struct ural member measured outtoout of transverse reinforcement net area of concrete section bounded by web thickness and length of section in the directio n of shear force considered Ae AI the minimum crosssectional area in any horizontal plane in the first story. in square feet. each definition is prefaced with a brief descript ion in parentheses (e. E can mean the tabulated elastic modulus under the AISC definition (steel) or it can mean the earthquake load under § 12.Notation The following notations are used in this document.4. in square inches the combined effective area. These are generally consistent with those used in ASCE/SEI 705 and other Standards such as ACI and AISC. in square feet of a shea r wall flange area Ag Ag Ai = = = = = gross area of section the gross area of that wall in which ADis identified the floor area in square feet of the diaphragm level immediately abo ve the story under consideration area of the loadcarrying foun dation the effective area of the projection of an assumed concrete failure surface upon the surface from wh ich the anchor protrudes .2 of ASCE /SEI 705 . Vol. in square inches area of nonprestressed tension rein forcement 3 I I I = 2006 lac Stru ctural/S eism ic Design Manual.
4 2006 IBC Structural/S eism ic Design Manual. 1) amplification factor related. ap I I I I I I I b br bu.1 (concrete) width of compression face of member flange width web width ] Ask A Slmin = = = = = As.Nota tion Ash = total crosssectional area of transverse reinforcement (including supplementary crossties) having a spacing s" and crossing a section with a core dimension of he area of skin reinforceme nt per unit height in one side face area having minimum amount of flexural reinforcement area of link stiffener tributary area area of shear reinforcement within a distance s.3 (concrete) depth of equivalent rectangu lar stress block (concrete spandrel) shear span. I .7 the acceleration at Level i obtained from a modal analysis (§ 13.. Vol.§ 12.to the response of a system or component as affected by the type of seismic attachment determined in §13.8.4.3. a a ae ad a. distance between concentrated load and face of supports coefficient defin ing the relative contribution of concrete strength to wall strength incrementa l factor relating to the Pdelt a' effects as determined in §12. AT Av I I A.3.'J Av r All' = = = = = = = = = = = = = = Aw A. or area of shear reinforcement perpendicular to flexura l tension reinforcement within a distance s for deep flexural members required area of leg reinforcement in each group of diagonal bars in a diagonally reinforced coupling beam area of shearfriction reinforcement (web) link web area (weld) effective crosssectional area of the weld the torsional amp lification factor at Level x .8.
2.1 building period coefficient .2) 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual.14.8.4. of a shear wall in the first story in the direction parallel to the applied forces gross weight of helicopter Dh Dp = relative seismic displacement that a component must be designed to accommodate .3.2 effective depth of section (distance from extreme compression fiber to centroid of tension reinforcement) d db db = = = = (anchor bolt) anchor shank diameter (concrete) bar diameter column panel zone depth (steel) modulus of elasticity combined effect of horizontal and vertical earthquakeinduced forces (§12.8.1. in feet.42 snow exposure factor coefficient defined in §Hl of AISC/ASD. C1'X = vertical distribution factor .2.§12.41 or 15. 9th Edition Ce = em C. Vol.1 snow thermal factor Cr C.I bit Notation member widththickness ratio = Cd deflection amplification factor as given in Tables 12.2 and 12.3.1 and §19. E E Em = seismic load effect including overstrength factors (§§ 12.21 or 15.§ 12.3 distance from extreme compression fiber to neutral axis of a flexural member dead load.3.§13. I 5 .4) d. = = the seismic response coefficient determined in § 12.8.2. the effect of dead load c D I I I I I I I I I De = the length.
I e F Fa Fa Fa Fb FaM Fexx = = = = = Fi. = Fp = Fp . Fw F II' 6 I I I I I I I I I I I I 2006 1BC S tructura l/Seis mic Design Manual. r.§ 12.3 the design lateral force applied at Level x the lateral force induced at any Level i . .3.4. E. V.8. as determined in §12. in psi (concrete) modu lus of elastic ity of reinforcement EBF link length load due to fluids site coefficient defined in §11 . induced at Level i. centered at the component's center of gravity and distributed relative to the compon ent' s mass distribution. or x as determined in §12.8. F" F" Fill = = = = = = = = = F.3 (stee l LRFD) nomina l strength of the weld electrode material (steel ASD) allowable weld stress 1 s. ksi through thickness weld stresses at the beamco lumn interface minimum specified tensile strength of the anchor long period site coefficient (at 1.P. induced by the parts being connected. F. seism ic force.n.4.3 the diap hragm desig n force specified minimum tensile strength..8.3 axial comp ressive stress that would be permitted if axial force alone existed flood load bending stress that would be permitted if bending moment alone existed nominal strength of the base material to be welded classification number of weld metal (minimum specified streng th) portion of seismic base shear.N otation I £1 = = = = = = flexural stiffness of compression member modules of elasticity of concrete ./ . Vo/.Fu.0 second period) see § 11.
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= = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = assumed web depth for stability height in feet above the base to Level i. 8 = = = = I I I I I I I I I I 20061BC Structural/Seismic Design Manual. neglecting reinforcement) moment of inertia of gross concrete section about centroidal axis moment of inertia of reinforcement about centroidal axis of member cross section .5. uniform moment case roof live load including any permitted live load reduction hsx hll' I I Ia Ig I I ] I t. (concrete. neglecting reinforcement.h. component importance factor that is either 1. moment of inertia of structural steel shape.8. 11 or x.§12. except rooflive load.3 live load.e. Concentrated impact loads unreduced design live load (steel) unbraced beam length for determining allowable bending stress limiting laterally unbraced length for full plastic flexural strength.3. hn. Vol.5.1 (steel) effecti ve length factor for prismatic member a distribution exponent . pipe or tubing about centroidal axis of composite member cross section . Live load related internal moments or forces. neglecting reinforcement) moment of inertia of gross concrete section about centroidal axis. h. as determined in §13. Ig t..00 or 1. I .notation I he h. respectively height in feet of the roof above the base the story height below Level x height of entire wall or of the segment of wall considered the importan ce factor determined in accord ance with §11. reduced design live load).1 moment of inertia of section resisting externally applied factored loads moment of inertia of cracked section transformed to concrete (concrete. including any permitted live load reduction (i. K k L Lo Lb Lp L. I.
distance from column centerl ine to centerline of hinge for reduced bending strength (RBS) connection design clear span measured facetoface of supports unsupported length of compression member I" I" = Ill' Level i = length of entire wall. "x = I" designates the first level above the base (steel) maximum factored moment factored moment to be used for design of compression member Level. Vol. measured from center to center of the joints in the frame = t: /. in direction of shear force level of the structure referred to by the subscript i.Notation Ie 1 (steel RBS) length of radius cut in beam flange for red uced beam section (RBS) design length of a compression member in a frame. " i = I" designates the first level above the base Leveln = = that level that is upperm ost in the main portion of the structure that level that is under design consideration. or of segment of wall considered. = moment at face of column (concrete ) modified moment (steel) maximum moment that can be resisted by the member in the absence of axial load (steel) nominal moment strength at section (concrete) required plastic moment strength of shearhead cross section 2006 IBC Stru ctural/Se ismic Des ign Manual. uniform moment case I I I "1. J 9 .r M = I I I moment at centerline of colum n Mer = moment at which flexural cracking occurs in response to externally applied loads limiting laterally unbraced length for full plastic flexural strength..
Notation
u,
Mpa
= = = =
(steel) nominal plastic flexural strength, FyZ nominal plastic flexural strength modified by axial load nominal plastic flexural strength using expected yield strength of steel (concrete) probable moment strength determined using a tensile strength in the longitudinal bars of at least 1.25;;. and a strength reduction factor cjJ of 1.0 (steel RBS) probable plastic moment at the reduced beam section (RBS) (concrete) moment due to loads causing appreciable sway torsional moment accidental torsional moment (concrete) factored moment at section (steel) required flexural strength on a member or joint moment corresponding to onset of yielding at the extreme fiber from an elastic stress distribution smaller factored end moment on a compression member, positive if member is bent in single curvature, negative if bent in double curvature larger factored end moment on compression member, always positive number of stories ponding load (steel) factored axial load (wind) design wind pressure unfactored axial load in frame member nominal axial load strength at balanced strain conditions connection force for design of column continuity plates (concrete) critical load
u;
Mpr
1
Mpr M,
M,
= = = = = = = =
I I I I I I I I I I I I I
M,a M" M"
M,•.
MI
M)
N
P P P PDL,
= = = = =
i» , r.; =
Pb Pb l
= = =
r,
10
2006 IBC Structural/S eismic Design Manual, Vol. I
Notation
Pc P" Po
P si
= =
(concrete anchorage) design tensile strength nominal axial load strength at given eccentricity, or nominal axial strength of a column nominal axial load strength at zero eccentricity
= =
FyA
(concrete) factored axial load, or factored axial load at given eccentricity
p" p" p"
=
(steel) nominal axial strength ofa column, or required axial strength on a column or a link (concrete anchorage) required tensile strength from loads nominal axial yield strength ofa member, which is equal to F),A g total unfactored vertical design load at and above Level x
r,
p.,
PE Pu QE
= = = =
axial load on member due to earthquake axial live load the effect of horizontal seismic forces rain load The response modification factor from Table 12.21 nominal strength
I I
1
R R R" Rp
=
component response modification factor that varies from J.00 to 3.50 as set forth in Table J 3.5 J or Table J 3.61 required strength
I I I I
I
R" R)'
=
ratio of expected yield strength F)'c to the minimum specified yield strength Fy live load reduction in percent 
R, Rl R2
r
r ry
=
!Be §§ 1607.9.2/1607. J 1.2
rate of reduction equal to 0.08 percent for floors (steel) radius of gyration of cross section of a compression member
=
radius of gyration about y axis
2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I
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No tation
S
= = = = = = = = = = = =
snow load design spectral response acceleration 0.6 (SosITo) T + 0.4 (Sos), for T less than or equal to To (SOl ) 1 T, for T greater than T, 5% damped, design, spectral response acceleration parameter at short period (i.e., 0.2 seconds) = (2/3) S,«..  § 11.4.4 Mapped, MCE, 5% damp ed, spectral acceleration parameter at short periods (i.e., 0.2 seconds) as determin ed by § 11.4.1 5% damped , design, spectral response acceleration parameter at l second perio d = (2/3) S sn Mapped, MCE, 5% damped, spectral acceleration parameter for a ls econd period as determined in § 11.4.1 MCE, 5% damped, spectral response acce leration parameter for short periods (i.e., 0.2 seconds) = FoS,. adj usted for site class effects MCE, 5% damped , spectral response acceleration parameter for lsecond peri od = F•. SJ, adjusted for site class effects sectio n modu lus at the reduced beam section (RBS) spacing of shear or torsion reinforcement in direction parallel to longitudinal reinforcemen t, or spacing of transverse reinforcement measured along the longitud inal axis selfstraining force arising from contracti on or expansion resultin g from temperature change, shrinkage, moisture change, creep in comp onent materials, movement due to differential settlement or combinations thereof elastic fundamental period of vibration, in seconds, of the structure in the direction under consideration, see § 11.4.5 for limitations approximate fundamental period as determined in accordance with § 12.8.2.1 0.2 (SOl 1Sos) SOl 1Sos thickness of flange thickness of web
So
I I
Sos
S,
SOl
I
SI
s'II S
S,I/I
SRBS
S
T
=
T
= = = = = =
To
To T,
If
I I I I I I I I I I
tw
12
2006 IBC Structural/Seismic D esign Manual, Vol. I
1
I;
Notation
ratio of expected yield strength F ,.<to the minimum specified yield strength F."
U
=
requ ired strength to resist factored loads or related intemal momen ts and forces the tota l design seismic lateral force or shear at the base of the building or structure
V
Vc
=
(conc rete) nominal shear strength provided by concrete (concrete anchorage) design shear strength
I
I
I
Vc VDL, Vu , V,ei,
= =
unfactored shear in frame member shear correspond ing to the development of the "nominal flexural strength  calculated in accordance with Chapter 19" (concrete) nom inal shear stren gth at section (steel) nomina l shear strength of a member
v,,,
v,
V" Vp Vpa
= =
(steel) shear strength of an active link nominal shear streng th of an active link modified by the axial load magnitude the portion of the seismic shear force at the level of the diaphragm, required to be transferred to the components of the vertical seismiclateralforceresisting system because of the offsets or changes in stiffue ss of the compon ents above or below the diaphragm
I I I
I I I
Vpx
V,
=
(concrete) nominal shear streng th provided by shear reinforcement (steel) shear strength of member, 0.55 Fidt
V, V" V"
= = =
(concrete anchorage) required shear strength from factored loads (concre te) factored shear force at section (loads) factore d horizontal shear in a story (steel) required shear strength on a member
v,
V"
v.
=
the seismic design story shear (forc e) in story x, (i.e.• between Level x andxI )
2006 IBC Structural/S eismic D esign Manual, Vol. I
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8.3. §13.2 and §12.7.Notation I w W WI' l1'c = = = = = = = = the total effective seismic dead load (weight) defined in § 12. 11'r wp wp I I 1 I lVp:c ) VII' = = = = = = = = = = = = 11.2 weight of the wall tributary to the anchor column panel zone width height of upper support attachment at Level x as measured from the base heigh t of lower support attachm ent at Level Yas measured from the base (steel) plastic section modulus height in structure at point of attachment of component. includ ing ap plicable portions of other loads defined in §12. Vol. I I I I I I a 14 2006 IBC Stru ctural/Seismic Design Manu al. l (wind) load due to wind pressure component operating weig ht weights of concrete. I .1 plastic section modu lus at the reduced beam section (RBS) (concrete) capacityreduction or strengthreduction factor (steel) resistance factor for flexure (steel) resistance factor for compression resistance factor for shear strength of panelzone of beamtocolumn connections (concrete) angle between the diagonal reinforcement and the longitudinal axis of a diagona lly reinforced coup ling beam 1 11'. in pcf that portion of W located at or assigned to Level i or x. l4. respectively the weigh t of the smaller portion of the structure the weight of the diaphragm and other elemen ts of the structure tributary to the diap hragm the weigh t of the diaphragm and elements tributary thereto at Level x....= X I I y Z z ZeD s <I> <l>b <l>c <1>.7.
Notation 1 a.85 for " sandlightweight" concrete limiting slen derness parameter for compact element length of radius cut in beam flange for reduced beam section (RBS) connection design distance from co lumn centerline to centerline of hinge for RBS connection design A p fo = = flo fn f u = = clear span measu red facetoface of supports unsupported length of comp ression member length of entire wall or of segment of wall considered in direction of shea r force 2006 IBC Structural/S eismic D esign Manua l. 1.75 for "all lightweight" concre te.3. I f ll' 15 .4 (conc rete) ratio of nonprestressed tension reinforcement (As/bd ) reinforcement ratio producing balanced strain conditions = = pn ps = = J ratio of area of distributed reinforcement parallel to the plane of A c" to gross concrete area perpendicular to the reinforcement ratio of volume of spiral reinforcement to total volume of core (outtoout of spirals) ofa spirally reinforced compression member ratio of area of distributed reinforcement perp endicular to the plane of A«. Vol. 0.0 for norma lweight concrete. and 0.to gross concrete area A c" I I I I I I I p" = lightweight aggregate concrete factor.I a redundancy factor determined in accordance with § 12.~ (steel) centroid locations of gusset connection for braced frame diagonal coefficient defining the relative contribution of concrete strength to wall strength ratio of long side to short side of concentrated load or reaction area Uc I ~c = P P Ph I the ratio of shear demand to shear capacity for the story between Level x and x.
121 for any story 8 8a 8 aA 8 aB = = = = = allowable story drift for structure A allowable story drift for structure B system overstrength factor as given in Table 12.§ 12.Notation 11 coefficient offriction = I I 1 1 8 design story drift. as obtained from Table 12. see § 12. Vol.7 I I I I I I I I I I 16 20061BC Structural/Seismic Design Manual.6 the average of the displacements at the extreme points of the structure at Level x I I I no Ox O. Note: Where ASD is used.21 inelastic deflections of Level x .WE ONl4X OX4 = = = the maximum displacement at Level x deflection at structure Level x of structure A the deflections determined by an elastic analysis of the seismicforceresisting system maximum of Ox displacements of the adjacent building where 0M2 is at same level as OAII s. 8 shall be computed using earthquake forces without dividing by 1. shall be computed as the differences of the deflections at the center of mass at the top and bottom or the story under consideration. I .8.OM2 = = Ol:4 deflection at structure level y of structure A = OrB 8 deflection at structure level y of structure B stability coefficient .4.12 design story drift allowable story drift.§ 12.8. OM OAlI.
000 years) times. A fault for which there is an average historic slip rate of I mm per year or more and geologic evidence of seismic activity within Holocene (past I 1. I I I I I I Brittle. Component. A method of proportioning structural members. 17 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual. I Base. Allowable Stress Design. An exterior floor projecting from and supported by a structure without additional independent supports. A structural system relying on column elements that cantilever from a fixed base and have minimal rotational resistance capacity at the top with lateral forces applied essentially at the top and are used for lateral resistance. Boundary Elements. Boundary Members. Active fault traces are designated by the appropriate regulatory agency and/or registered design professional subject to identification by a geologic report. and reentrant corners. Cantilevered Column System. equipment.Definitions Active Fault/Active Fault Trace. or structural system. materials and connections that do not exhibit significan t energy dissipation capacity in the inelastic range. having a fundamental period greater than 0. Chords and collectors at diaphragm and shear wall edges. Component. members. A mechanical or electrical component or element that is part of a mechanical and/or electrical system within or without a building system. mechanical. Means by which components and their supports are secured or connected to the seismicforeeresisting system of the structure. including its attachments. electrical. Vol. Collector. such that elastically computed stresses produced in the members by nominal loads do not exceed specified allowable stresses (also called working stress design). Such attachments include anchor bolts. A part or element of an architectural. The level at which the horizontal seismic ground motions are considered to be imparted to the structure. A diaphragm or shear wall element parallel to the applied load that collects and transfers shear forces to the verticalforeeresisting elements or distributes forces within a diaphragm or shear wall. Systems. Component. discontinuities. Exterior. Attachments.06 second . I . Base Shear. Seismic. Balcony. Total design lateral force or shear at the base. Component. interior openings. flexible. Portions along wall and diaphragm edges strengthened by longitudinal and transverse reinforcement and/or structural steel members. welded connections and mechan ical fasteners.
Dead Loads. A diaphragm is flexible for the purpose of distribution of story shear and torsional moment when the lateral deformation of the diaphragm is more than two times the average story drift of the associated story. Two times the initial deformation that occurs at a load equal to 40 percent of the maximum strength. Flexible. including its attachments. rigid. The ratio of the ultimate deformation to the limit deformation. Coupling Beam. 18 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual.5 or less. and fixed service equipment.0.06 second . An element whose deformability is 1. floors. and other similarly incorporated architectural and structural items.5 when subjected to four fully reversed cycles at the limit deformation. electrical. Those architectural. Diaphragm. An element whose deformability is not less than 3. ceilings. Confined Region. . Deformability. The deformation at which failure occurs and which shall be deemed to occur if the sustainable load reduces to 80 percent or less of the maximum strength. Low deform ability element. The portion of a reinforced concrete component in which the concrete is confined by closely spaced special transverse reinforcement restraining the concrete in directions perpendicular to the applied stress. Component. Vol. Ultimate deformation. Limited deformability element. piers. The product of the nominal strength and a resistance factor (or strength reduction factor). cladding. Design Strength. High deform ability element. having a fundamental period less than or equal to 0. Deck. Deformation. determined by comparing the computed maximum inplane deflection of the diaphragm itself under lateral force with the story drift of adjoining vertical lateralforceresisting elements under equivalent tributary lateral force. including the weight of cranes. The earthquake effects that are 2/3 of MCE earthquake effects. or other independent supports . Limit deformation. and mechanical systems and their components that require design in accordance with Chapter 13 that have a component importance factor. Diaphragm. stairways. An exterior floor supported on at least two opposing sides by an adjacent structure. builtin partitions. The weight of materials of construction incorporated into the building. Rigid. and/or posts. roofs. lp . including but not limited to walls. An element that is neither a low deformability nor a high deformability element. A diaphragm that does not conform to the definition of flexible diaphragm. 1 1 I 1 I I I J I I I I I I I I I I I .Definitions Component. greater than 1. A beam that is used to connect adjacent concrete wall piers to make them act together as a unit to resist lateral forces. Design Earthquake. Designated Seismic System. finishes.
required for design of the isolation system. or an element thereof. snubbers. Factored Load. or earthquakes. lac Structural/Seismic Design Manual. A collect ion of structural elements that limits lateral displacement of seismically isolated structu res due to the maximum considered earthquake. The design earthquake lateral displacement. The period of continuous application of a given load. Duration of Load.Definitions 1 Displacement. divided by the corresponding lateral displacement. including additional displacement due to actual and accidental torsion. Essential Facilities. Those connections between equipment components that permit rotational and/or translational movement without degradation of perform ance. including additional displacement due to actual and accidental torsion. Effective Damping. The design earthquake lateral displacement. snow. Total Maximum Displacement. Total Design Displacement. required for verification of the stability of the isolation system or elements thereof. hangers. including braces. lugs. Buildings and other structures that are intended to remain operational in the event of extreme environmental loading from flood. An element having a mode of failure that results in an abrupt loss of resistance when the element is deformed beyond the deformation corresponding to the development of its nominal strength . Limited ductile element. or the aggregate of periods of intermittent applications of the same load. Nonductile element. Equipment Support. design of building separations. required for design of the isolation system. Design Displacement. Nonductile elements cannot reliably sustain significant deformation beyond that attained at their nominal strength. Those structural members or assemblies of members or manufactured elements. exclud ing additional displacement due to actual and accidental torsion . Flexible Equipment Connections. and vertical load testing of isolator unit prototype. The value of equivalent viscous damping corresponding to energy dissipated during cyclic response of the isolation system. Effective Stiffness. I . The maximum considered earthquake lateral displacement. or saddles that transmit gravity load and operating load between the equipment and the structure. The value of the lateral force in the isolation system. Element Ductile element. 19 I I I I I I 2006 Vol. An element that is capable of sustaining moderate cyclic deformations beyond the attainment of nominal strength without significant loss of strength. An element capable of sustaining large cyclic deformations beyond the attainment of its strength. The product of a nominal load and a load factor. Displacement Restraint System. wind. frames.
A moment frame in which members and joints are capable of resisting forces by flexure as well as along the axis of the members.7. Dual frame system. A braced frame in which the members are subjected primarily to axial forces. craneways. A diagonally braced frame in which at least one end of each brace frames into a beam a short distance from a beamcolumn or from another diagonal brace. A moment frame in which members and joints are capable of resisting forces by flexure as well as along the axis of the members. A factor assigned to each structure according to its occupancy category as prescribed in §11. Braced frame. A material that is highly toxic or potentially explosive and in sufficient quantity to pose a significant lifesafety threat to the general public if an uncontrolled release were to occur. An essentially vertical truss.1. A steel or composite steel and concrete concentrically braced frame in which members and connections are designed for ductile behavior. Eccentrically braced frame (EBF). A structural system with an essentially complete space frame system providing support for vertical loads. Intermediate moment frame (IMF). Building frame system. Impact Load. Ordinary concentrically braced frame (OCBF). or its equi valent . Vol. and other similar forces and kinetic loads. Concentrically braced frame (CB F). Importance Factor. I . A structural system with an essentially complete space frame system providing support for vertical loads. Moment. and possible surcharge from fixed or moving loads.2 and 12. I 1 ) 1 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 20 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual. Ordinary moment frame (OMF). pressure. that is capable of supporting vertical loads and that also may provide resistance to seismic forces . Seismic force resistance is provided by shear walls or braced frames. Space frame system. The load resulting from moving machinery.8. other than bearing walls . Special concentrically braced frame (SCBF). of the concentric or eccentric type that is provided in a building frame system or dual frame system to resist shear. Frame System. Hazardous Contents. A steel concentrically braced frame in which members and connections are designed for moderate ductility. Special moment frame (SMF). A moment frame in which members and joints are capable of resisting forces by flexure as well as along the axis ofthe members. Frame.Definitions ) Frame. vehicles. elevators.5. The total dead load and applicable portions of other loads as defined in §§ 12. Gravity Load (W). Seismic force resistance is provided by a momentresisting frame and shear walls or braced frames. A structural system composed of interconnected members.1.14.
and 2) during the life of the structure by movable objects such as planters and by people . earthquake load. The boundary between the upper portion of the structure. 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual. which moves rigidly with the ground. A method of proportioning structural members and their connections using load and resistance factors such that no applicable limit state is reached when the structure is subjected to appropriate load combinations. and for the probability that more than one extreme load will occur simultaneously. Isolator Unit. and the lower portion of the structure. equipment. have essentially one degree of freedom in horizontal translation. The term "LRFD" is used in the design of steel and wood structures. Live Loads. Isolation Interface. Structures that have a large portion of their mass concentrated near the top and. An isolator unit may be used either as part of or in addition to the weightsupporting system of the building. occupants and their possessions. Joint. Load Factor. for uncertainties in the analysis that transforms the load into a load effect. flood load. A portion ofa column bounded by the highest and lowest surfaces of the other members framing into it.Definitions Inverted Pendulumtype Structures. Limit State. A horizontally flexible and vertically stiff structural element of the isolation system that permits large lateral deformations under design seismic load. snow load. and restrained dimensional changes. thus. A condition beyond which' a structure or member becomes unfit for service and is judged to be no longer useful for its intended function (serviceability limit state) or to be unsafe (strength limit state). Vol. A factor that accounts for deviations of the actual load from the nomin al load. Other loads are variable loads (see also "Nominal loads"). I I I I I I I Live Loads (Roof). and materials. which is isolated . Forces and deformations produced in structural members by the applied loads. environmental effect. Those loads produced by the use and occupancy of the building or other structu re and do not include construction or environmental loads such as wind load. Those loads produced I) during maintenance by workers.ordead load. The collection of structural elements that includes individual isolator units. Loads. rain load. I 21 . Loads Effects. differential movement. Forces or other actions that result from the weight of building materials. Permanent loads are those loads in which variations over time are rare or of small magnitude. structural elements that transfer force between elements of the isolation system and connections to other structural elements. I Isolation System. Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD). The structures are usually Tshaped with a single column supporting the beams or framing at the top.
Pdelta Effect. A factor that accounts for deviations of the actual strength from the nominal strength and the manner and consequences of failure (also called strength reduction factor). Resistance Factor. A classification assigned to a site based on the types of soils present and their engineering properties as defined in § 11. wind. flood. constructed of a type included in Chapter 15 and within the limits of § 15.4. or roof located between the supporting frame of two adjacent rows of columns and girders or column bands of floor or roof construction.2. A structure. or wall component sheathed to act as a shear wall or diaphragm. The section of a floor. A wall designed to resist lateral forces parallel to the plane of the wall. soil. The second order effect on shears.) Nonbuilding Structure. The part of the structural system that has been considered in the design to provide the required resistance to the seismic forces prescribed herein. live. wall. 1. Structures. other than a building. Nominal Loads. 1 . related to the response of the structure to earthqua ke motions. A classification assigned to a structure based on its occupancy category and the severity of the design earthquake ground motion at the site. Other Structures. roof. Shear Wa llframe Interactive System. 22 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 200 6 IBC Structural/Seis mic D esign Manua l. axial forces and moments of frame members induced by axial loads on a laterally displaced building frame.1. The assumed forces prescribed herein. Coefficient C" as determined from §12. A floor. see § 11. Shear Pa nel. Seism ic Response Coefficient . The magnitudes of the loads specified in this chapter (dead.4. and earthquake. Seism ic Forces. The most severe earthquake effects considered by this code. A structural system that uses combination s of shear walls and frames designed to resist lateral forces in proportion to their rigidities. other than buildings. considering interaction between shear walls and frames on all levels. rain. Panel (Part of a Structure). Site Class . to be used in the design of the structure and its components. Seismicfo rceresisting system. snow. Shea r Wa ll.Definitions Maximum Considered Earthquake. Shallow anchors are those with embedme ntlengthtodiameter ratios of less than 8. Seismic Design Category.8. Shallow Anc hors. for which loads are specified in this chapter. Vol.
cross section. Any metal or wood stud wall that supports more than 100 pounds per linear foot (1459 N/m) of vertica l load in addition to its own weight. or hoops and supplementary crossties provided to restrain the concrete and qualify the portion of the componen t. Wall.1 1 Dennltions Site Coefficients. Any wall that is not a loadbearing wall. W indres traint Seismic System. Nom ina l. Strength. Story Drift Ratio.41 and 11. 2006 IBC Structural/Sei smic D esign Manual. The distribu tion of horizontal seismic forces through a rigid diaphragm when the center of mass of the structure at the level under consideration does not coincide with the center of rigidity (sometimes referred to as a diaphragm rotation). The values of Fa and F indicated in Tables 11. Loadbearing. Strength of a member. " Special Transverse Reinforcement. Reinforcement composed of spirals. Strength Design. The story drift divided by the story height.) The term "strength design" is used in the design of concrete and masonry structural elements. Vol. To ughness. A method of proportion ing structural members such that the computed forces produced in the members by factored loads do not exceed the member design strength (also called load and resistance factor design. respect ively. as determined by computations using specified material strengths and dimensions and formulas derived from accepted principles of structural mechanics or by field tests or laboratory tests of scaled models. The windrestraint system may be either an integral part of isolator units or a separate device. allowing for modeling effects and differenc es between laboratory and field conditions. The collection of structural elements that provides restraint of the seismicisolatedstructure for wind loads.42. I 23 . closed stirrups. Wall. Torsiona l Force Distrib utio n. The ability of a material to absorb energy without losing significant strength . Strength Required. as a confined region. 2. Non loadbearing. where used. or connection required to resist factored loads or related internal moments and forces in such combinations as stipulated by these provisions. Any masonry or concrete wall that supports more than 200 pounds per linear foot (2919 N/m) of vertical load in addition to its own weight. The capacity of a structure or member to resist the effects of loads. Any wall meeting either of the follow ing classifications: I.
I .Definitio ns ] I I I I I I 24 2006 IBC StructurallSe lsmlc Design Manual. Vol.
5 Snow Factor 1 \.20 Wind Factor f 1. the general category is II.1. From Table 1\.Example i • Classlficationllmportance Fact ors/Seismic Des ign Ca t eg or y §11.1.0 \.6 Determine the importan ce factors and the seismic design category for a faci lity given the following information. The importance fac tors for seismic loads are from Table 11 . Importance factors for wind loads are from Table 61. The occupancy category is used to determine the "Se ismic Design Category.75 Determine the following. The one building to be used for an emergency shelter is Category IV." § 11 . " Importance Factors .51.5. Importance factors for snow loads are from Table 74.51 §11.15 Category II IV 2006 IBC Str uctural/Se ismi c Des ig n Manu al.Elementary School with capacity greater than 250 S DS = 1. I 25 .6.70 0. Vol. Seismic Factor f \.0 1." for the given occupancy category.~ [!J Building category and importance factors . [!J [!J Building category and importance factors for general occupancy and for one build ing to be used for emergency shelter Seismic Design Category (SOC) IC~/c~d/~Jions and Discussion Cd~e Referenc.17 = = SOl SI 0. Type of occupancy .0 1.
70 0. the building shall be assigned to SDC E. and III having S. Vol. I I I I I I I I I I 1 26 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual.S· 1 Example i • Cla ssification/Impo rtance Fa ctors Seismic Des ign Cat egory § 1 1.62 as follows.75 ). Table 2.I7 1. 6 J ~ Seismic Design Category ] ] J All structures are assigned to a Seismic Design Category (SDC) based on their Occup ancy Category and the spectral response acceleration coefficients So< and SOl. ~ 0.§ 11.1 Occupancy Category vs Seismic Design Category Nature of Occupancy Sc hool Occupancy Category Table I 1.70 D* 0* SDC USE* E F II Emergency IV Shelter Recall: SI = 0. Also for Occupancy Category IV having S.75% for this table I I *Note that for Occupancy Categories I.75.17 D* 0* Table 11. II. the building shall be assigned to SDC F. 1 I . Each building and structure shall be assigned to the most severe SDC in accordance with Table 11.62 SDC SOl 0.61 SDC SDS 1. equal to or greater than 0. irrespec tive of the fundamental period of vibration of the structure T.75 (recall Sj = 0.I or I 1.6.
4. / // / r r • / rrr> D Beam AB and Column CD are elements of the special momentresisting fram e. Positi ve axial load induces compression . This will be done for the momentresisting frame structure shown below.3 II = 0.QI.100 kip ft +90 kips +40 kipft Live Load L 50 kipft +40 kips +20 kipft LefttoRight Seism ic Load (+QI.toright ( ~) and righttoleft () directio ns oflateral seismic loading. ILJ [!J [!J Strength design seismic load combinations (Comb .10 = 1. and left.0 = 1. 8 Ds I P = 1. I 27 .3 . Note that for the pa rticular location of Column CD... office building live load. 4.) Strength design moments at beam end A for seismic load combinations Strength design interaction pairs of axial load and moment for the design of column section at C for seismic load combinations 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual.Ex am p le 1 • Earth q u ake Lo ad Co m b i n ations: St rength Des ign §12. This is not necessarily true for the other elements of the structure. Dead Load D Beam Mome nt at A Column CD Axial Load Column Moment at C . Vol . Structural ana lysis has provi ded the follow ing beam moments at A. Find the following.) RighttoLeft Seismic Load (. the seism ic Axial Load and Moment at C are both positive fo r the lefttoright ( ~) load ing and are both negative for the rightto Ieft () loading. and the column axial loads and moments at C due to dead load.2.ft +110 kips +160 kipft 120 kipft .) +120 kip.5 A Snow load S = 0 B c .3 This example demonstrates the application of the strength design load combinations that involve the seismi c load E given in § 12.2 .110 kips ) 60 kipIt Sign Convention: Positive moment induces flexural tension on the bottom side of a beam and at the right side of a column.
1)D + 0. these yield E =PQE+ 0.42D + 1.5L (Comb. 7) 1. 7) when the signs of QE and D are the same. 5) 0.5L when the signs of QEand D are the same.3QE+ 0.2)(1. ±.3QE+ (0.44) 1 I I I I I I I I I I I I I Combined.(0.+E.OE + 0.§12.3QE .2D + 1.3QE (Comb. the load combinations are = 1.. = PQE E.2. of QE is taken as opposite to that for D.5L (Comb.43) (Eq 12.3 Example 1 • Earthquake Load Combinations: Strength Design I [LJ Governing strength design seismic load combinations 1 (Comb .I2D + 1.. (Note 0.2)( I.3.10.3QE+ 0. E.4.41) (Eq 12. 5) (Comb.2SDSD when the algebraic sign.43) when the algebraic sign. For the given values of: p = 1.2D + 1.3QE + (0.9D + 1. and 28 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual.2S =0) 0. =0.. =0.5L when the signs of QEand D are opposite . Vol.I)D + 0. of QE is taken as the same as that for D.0E where for a given type of load action such as moment M or axial load P E=E.9D + 1. and E =PQE  0.1)D = 1.98D + 1.5L .2S D SD (Eq 12. and 1..2)(1.. 5) 1. I I I .2SDSD (Eq 12. SDS= 1. ±.2D + I.
I 29 .68D + 1.42 (.3(120) = 88 kipft : .5L I I I I I I I I MA = 1.2.3QE when the signs of QE and D are opposite.3QE+ 0.I 1 ] Example 1 • Earthqua ke Lo ad Combinations: Stren g th Design §1 2. By inspection.100 and QE = 120 MA = 0. 68D + 1.3 0.(0 .5(50) =. the governing seismic load combinations are when the signs of Q£ and D are the same.323 kipft ~ For the governing load combination when the signs of Q£ and D are opposite 0.100) + 1.3QE with D = M D = . Vol.68 D + 1. Streng th design moments at beam end A for seismic load combinations ~ For the governin g load combin ation when the signs of Q£ and D are the same 1.3 (120) + 0.3QE. 7) when the signs of Q£ and D are oppos ite. 0. Beam section at A must be designed for M A = .2)( 1.42D + 1. 4.68(100) + 1.9 D + 1.l)D =0.323 kipft and + 88 kipft 2006 IBC Structural/Se ism ic Design Manual.3Q£ (Comb .
3 and SDS = l.2 SD 0. These pairs must occur simultaneously because of a common load combination.0.l 0. it is proposed to use E = p(>QE) ± 0.4.41 through 12. I I I . Vol.3 Example 1 • Earthquake Load Combinations: Strength Design [!J Strength design interaction pairs of axial load and moment for the design of column section at C for seismic load combinations I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I The seismic load combinations using the definitions of E given by Equations 12.5 applies to L if L :0: 100 psf [except at garages and public assembIy areas]) For the specific values of p = 1.2 SDsD 0. Note that the interaction pair Pc and Me must occur simultaneously at a specific load combination of gravity load. This condition would prohibit the use of the same load combination for both axial load and moment. To include the algebraic signs of the individual actions. and the interaction pair Pc and Me. and p( Qd ± 0. For example .2 SDsD. The interaction design of the column section must satisfy all of the eight pairs of P e and Me from the seismic load 30 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual.2 SDSD.2 SDsD (Note : a factor of 0. the load combinations provide the following values for MA .2 SDsD.2 SD sD.0. and the independent reversible property of the vertical seismic load effect 0.§12. while the moment algebraic signs are different. The resulting set of combinations is 1.0. both the axial load and the moment must be due to a common direction of the lateral seismic loading and a common sense of the vertical seismic acceleration effect represented by 0. but they cannot be used for interactive pairs of actions such as the axial load and moment at the column section C. There can be cases where the axial load algebraic signs are the same for QE and D.2 SDsD + L sD 0.9D + p(Qd .2.9D + p( >Qd . the directional property of the lateral seismic load effect QE.9D + p( Qd + 0.44 can be used for the design requirement of a single action such as the moment at beam end A. and lateral and vertical seismic load effects.2D + p( >QE) .
The eight seismic load combinations resulting from the proposed definition of E pro vid e an automatic method of considering the individual algebraic signs of the load actions.109.5L 0.2 .420 + 1. 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic D esign Manual.8 and and and and and · and and and and Me kipft +242.98D . the algebraic signs of seismic load actions are lost because of the process of combining the individual modal responses. Combination 1.3 (Q i.43 since all possible com binations are represented .8 +22 1.12D + 1.2 2 0. Vol.148...3 combinations along with the pairs from the gravity load combinations and wind load combinati ons. 12D .8 + 182. Thi s is imp ortant for interactive pa irs of actions that must be evaluated for a common load combination. When the Modal Respo nse Spectrum Analysis' procedure of § 12.2 59 .5L 1.42 and 12.4 .68D + 1.8.2 . 8 +225.1. 8 +220 .3 (Q E) 1.3 (Qd + 0.68D .3 (Qd + 0.Example 1 a Earthq uake L oad Co m b i n ations : Strength Des i g n §1 2. alternatively.12.2 . I 31 .) + O. .5L O.8 +203 .3 (Qd 0.3 (Qd 0.1.8 The govern ing va lues are und erlined fo r MA [sam e as det erm ined in Part (2) ] and for the interaction pairs of Pc and Me required for the design of the column section at C.2 .5L 1.42D .8 +26. Or.3 (QE) MA kipft 35 9 299 255 + 20 +64 244 200 Pc kips +268.2 SDCD. the direction of the lateral seismic load.9 is used.1.98D + 1.8 +229. The signs to be used for an interaction pair of actions due to a given direction of lateral loading can be obtained from the primary mode response where the prim ary mode is the mode having the largest participation fac tor for the given direction of lateral seism ic loading.2 126.3 (Q E) + O.2 131.1. the signs can be obtained from the equivalent lateral force procedure of § 12. There is no nee d to use the "same sign" and "opposite sign" limitations of Equations 12 . and the independent ± action of 0.
Seismic Design Catego ry B J = 1.3). I .3 E = Ell = bQ£ = 4 kips (seismic force due to the base shear determined from § 12.4.4 ft Determine the required design loads for shear capacity q and holddown capacity T for the following load combinations. Section 2.4.§2. This example illustrates the application ofthis method for the plywood shear wall shown below.0 +3. Gravity loads The following information is given.4 Example 2 • Combinations o f Loads : The code permits the use of allowable stress design for the design of wood members and their fastenings (ASCE/SEI 705 §2.5 + 2.0 ITnTTTTm Plywood shear wall 5 DS = 0.2) Grav ity loads Dead lVD = 0. The wall is a bearing and shear wall in a light wood framed build ing.4 defines the basic load combinations for allowable stress design.2.5/2) = 10 ft 7. Shear Wall Elevati on [!J Basic allowable stress design 32 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual.0 P = 1.3 kif (tributary dead load.4 and § 12.25 in = 9. including weight of wall Live lIIL = (roof load supported by other elements) Moment arm from center of post to center of holddown bo lt L = 10 ft . Vol.(3.
7QE for D and QE with opposite sense For ASD Basic Combination 6 the load combination is: D + 0.3.958D .41) I (Eq 12.525 QE for D and QEwith the same sense = D(J.7 (0. . 6) I I D(1.6D + 0.. 6.75(0.1 I [IJ Example 2 • Combinations o f Loads §2.7)(0. 5) ( 1. .0. Vo l..6DQd = 0. .06D when D and QE are in the same sense 1 (Eq 12.75 L.75)(0.75)(0 . and 8.O .0)QE+ 0.O.0 + (0.7E (Comb..968) + 0.4.7E = D(I .7QE for D and QE with the same sense and D(1.. . These are used without the usual onethird stress increase. + 0.44) and E = PQE .4 r .525 QE for D and QE with the opposite sense I I For ASD Basic Combination 8 the load combination is: 0. § 12.O) + 0. as modified in § 12. I 33 .06D when D and QE have oppos ite sense For ASD Basic Combination 5 the load comb ination is: I I I I \ D +0.43) = QE+ 0.~ Basic allowable stress design §12.042)D + 0..2.7E) + 0.2.75 (L + Lr) = (Comb.2 defines the seismic load effect E for use in load combinations as (Eq 12.0.7(0.032D + 0. 8) 2006 IBC Struct ural/S eismic Design Manual.0.2SosD =QE... = J.06)) + (0.3 The governing load combinations for basic allowable stress design are Basic ASD Combinations 5.75 L.0..6D + QE) = (Comb .4.75L.4..0)+0 .70)(1.
558D . TQE for D and QE in the opposite sense For the determination of design shear capacity.4 Example 2 • Combinations of Loads 1 =D(0. which gives allowable shear values for shorttime duration loads due to wind or earthquake.7QE ~ Required unit shear capacity q Base shear and the resulting element seismic forces QE determined under §12.7QE = 0.042D + 0.4. I .7(0. TQE for D and QE in the same sense = (0. select 15/32 structural I sheeting (plywood) with 10d common nails having a minimum penetration of 11/2 inches 34 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Des.gn ·Manual.7 as indicated.8. dead load and live load are not involved.7QE L = 0.0. and all load combinations reduce to For the design holddown tension capacity the governing load combination is 0.0.0) QE+ 0.1.6 .7QE For the wall boundary element compression capacity.§2.O. For allowable stress design.558D .7(4000) = 280 If 10ft P This unit shear is used to determine the plywood thickness and nailing requirements from lBe Table 2306.042)D + 0. the governing load combination would be 1.7QE = 0.7QE.642D + O.042)D . QE must be factored by 0.06) + 0.1 are on a strength design basis.06)D = (0. Vol. For example. the design unit shear is q = 0.0.6 + 0. For design shear capacity the seismic load effect is QE = 4000 Ib For the governing load combination ofO.7(1.
the catalog "1. 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual. 7(4000 Ib)(9 ft) + T(9.42 for E create algebraic sign problems in the load combinations.I I Example 2 • Comb/nations of Loads § 2. allowable shear of 340 plf. the value of the holddown tension force T due to horizontal seismic forces is computed 0. Required holddown tensile capacity T Taking moments about point 0 at center of post at right side of wall with = oQ£ = 4000 Ib.39 Ib tension E" ~ ) .41 and 12.88 Ib ft .25. I I I I I I I Equations 12.200 Ib ft9. Manufacturer's catalogs commonly list holddown sizes with their "1.4 ft(T) = 0 T = 1816. Here the 1.042(300 pit) lOft (5 ft Thu s: ~ ) + 0.7 (4000 Ib)(9 ft) 2(12) C(9.4 ft) = 0 I 1 15.1741b ft + 25. It would be preferable to use E = pQ£ + 0. This is not considered a stress increase (although it has the same effect).33 value represents the allowed Load Duration factor for resisting seismic loads.o.558(300 pit) I0 ft(5 ft Thus : 8125.2 SD sD and use ± E in the load combinations.4 ft C=O c = 4295 Ib compression The tension value is used for the selection of the premanufactured holddown elements.33 x allowable" capacity values.200 Ib ft + 9.4 into 2x members with 6inch spacing of fasteners at panel edges.4 ft) = 2(12) 0 Similarly the boundary element comp ression capacity is computed 1.33 x allowable" capacity values may be used to select the appropriate holddown element. Therefore. Vol. I 35 .
123 (or 121. at short periods. geocode. This example illustrates the general procedure for determin ing the design spectral response parameters Sos and SDl from the mapped values of Ss and 8). The site longitude and latitude can be obtained from an internet site such as u\I~"H'. Vol.8 and the Design Response Spectrum in § 11. the website provides va lues of Ss and S).§11.eqhazmaps. Given the longitude and latitude of the site. I . and most effic ient way to obtain the spectral design values is to use the USGS website iwww.J Maximum considered earthquake spectral response accelerations and Sl s. The soil profile is Site Class D.com " it is determ ined that a building site near Sacramento. easiest. R = 6. The parameters Sos and So. the maximum conside red earthquake spectral response accelerations S. From u\I'lI'\I'.com " by simply inputting the address. T = 0. D D I I I I I I I I Determin e the following. are used to calculate the design base shear in §12.4 Des ign Spectral Response Acc el eraOons For a given building site.60 sec. California is located at Latitud e 38. !TI [!J Site coefficients and adjusted maximum considered earthquake spectral response acceleration parameters SMS and SMl Design spectral response acceleration parameters Sos and SOl I I ~ Plot the general procedure response spectrum ~ Calculation of seismic response coefficient c. geocode.govr.123 west). and I = 1. and S) at Isecond period are given by the acceleration contour maps in §22. 123° North and Longitude .121.0 I I I 36 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic D esign Manual.usgs.5.4. Given: so il site class D. Note that by far the most accurate. [!.
California) of 38° North (Latit ude = 38. Code.58 TII.121.S. = 1.462g.3%g = O. the site coefficients are as follows Fa = 1.42) S'/I =F..123°) and 121.203g ~ Site coefficients and adjusted maximum considered earthquake spectral response accelerations §1 1.462g 5.4.203g) =0.NW of Sacramento. = 20.58(0.4 . I 37 .8eference· " §11. "" . 5\ = O .99 The adjusted maximum conside red earthqu ake spectral response accelerations (based §11.123° West (Longitu de =... = 1.99(O.404g 2006 lac Stru ctural/S eismic De sign Manu al.3) are also given on the CD ROM as follows SMS =FaS.41 T 11.203g.4.1 [!J Maximum considered earthquake spectral response accelerations For the given position (Near Sonora .462g) =O.Design Spec tral Res p onse Accelerations §1 1.4. = 1. Vol.123').730g (EqI1. and Ss = 0.2%g = 0. USGS provides the values of 5s = 46.41) (Eq 11.3 From the USGS for the given site class D.42 011 I I I I I I I F.
27g 'J ? (Eq 11.4.15) T.§ 1 1.6 SDS r: T + 0.46) I I I I I I I I I I I 0.45) For periods greater than or equal to To and less than or equal to T" the design spectral response acceleration So shall be taken equal to Sos For periods greater than T:" and less than TL .20 (SOl / Sos) = = (Eq 11.27 / 0.43) 2 = 3 SMS 2 =(0. the design spectral response acceleration Sa shall be given by Sa = (SOI) / T Where : To = 0.44) General procedure response spectrum §1l .55 sec 8 sec (F 22. = 38 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manu al. Vol.5 I 1 For periods less than or equal to To. the design spectra l response shall be given by So = 0.73g) =0.4 Sos (Eq 11 .404g) =0.49g 3 I I I 1 SOl = ~ S.49) O.49 0. I .4 (Eq 11. 4 D es ign Sp ectral Respon se Acc el erations ~ Design spectral response acceleration parameters S DS §1l. I I sec SOl / 50s 0. = = = Tt.I{I = ~ (0.27 /0.4.2 (0.
in g 's 0.0 To =0.2 0.60 2..4 0..8 0.27 / 1. Vol.55 sec 0.27 0..Des ign Spectral R esponse A cc ele ra ti ons §11 A Thus: T =Period 0..11 sec General Procedure Response Spectrum 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual...4 0. ..27 / 0..18 .23 0..2 0. =0.4 (0.20 1.17 0.6 2..4 0..135 Computation for Sa 0..27 /2.18 0. 1.3 0. 0.2 0. 1 .27 /0. .80 1.49 0.8 o o 0..6 T.34 0.27 / 1. .49 0.6 0.00 ScJg 0..27 / 1.55 0.0 S.. .27 / 1.4 1.49 0.2 1.40 1.5 S DS = 0.4 9g 0.49) 0.0 1.11 0.00 1.00 0.55 0...8 1. I 39 .19 0.000. .
Vol.6) = 0.60) §12. f = 1.82) 0.D75 But shall not be taken less than C..0) 0.27 I (6.8. I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I .6g C.83) = 0.§11.0/1.0/1..5S 1 I (RIl) 40 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual.1 The seismic response coefficient shall be determined by C.0 and T= 0. = SDI I (RIlE) T (Eq 12.49 I (6.01 (Eq 12. shall not be less than C. Governs 1 I I The value of C. = = = SDS I (RIl) (Eq 12.0) (0 . = 0. = 0.08 2 .. need not exceed C.4 Design Spectral Response Accelerations 1 I Calculation of seismic response coefficient Cs (Recall Soil Site Class D.85) where SI 2: 0.
Ib. is necessary. The vert ical force distribution provided by § 12. The vertical irregularities are Ia. irregularities in load path or force tran sfer.1) Structure Description 3. Discontinui ty in Lateral Strength .3 may be assumed to be adequate for structures lacking vertical irregulari ty Types Ia. §12. Stiffness Extreme Soft Story Irregularity 2.': '. Ib.2 .2. and 3. which are Types Ia.7. and F possessing dynamic force distribut ion irregularities shall be analyzed using the dynamic analysis procedure (or moda l analysis procedure) prescribed in §12.Extreme Weak Story Irregularity Structures in Seismic Design Categories D.8. Although designers may opt to use the dynamic analysis procedure and bypass checks for irregularity Types Ia. Vol.1 prohibits structures with vertical irregularity Types Ib. Discontinu ity in Lateral Stength .3.forceresisting system. Note that § 12. The first. which can account for these discontinuities. dyn amic forcedistribution irreg ularities. However.3. In this case. 2. and 3.Intro duction to Vertica l Irregul arities §12. the code prescribes addi tiona l strengthening to correct the deficienc ies for structures in cert ain seismic design categories (SDCs) . Sa. Ib.2.32 defines vertical structural irregularities and assigns analysis and design procedures to each type and seismic design category. there is the possibility of having localized concentrat ions of excessive inelastic deformations due to the irregular load path or weak story. Vertical geometric irregu larity 4. In the case of vertical irregularity Type 5b. which are Types 4 and 5.3. or 5b for Seismic Design Categories E and F.32 should still be checked for limitations and design requirements. the reference sections listed in Tab le 12. 2006 lac Structural/S eismic D esign Manu al. Weight (mass) irregularity 3. and 3. stiffness and mass discontinuities may significantly affect the vertical distribution of forces and. Stiffness Soft Story Irregu larity Ib. (Refer to Tab le 12. for this reason the modal analysis procedure. limits are placed on the building height for all SDCs except S DC A. These irregularities can be divided into two categories.6.3. 2. When vertical irregu larity Types 4 and 5 exist. E. I 41 . 2. Inplane discontinuity in vertical latera lforceresisting element Sa.2 1 Tab le 12. The second.Weak Story Irregularity 5b. Regular structures are assumed to have a reasonably uniform distribution of inelastic behavior in elemen ts throughout the lateral.
. . /..75 .'==::. 2.' / : I . I . The lateral story stiffness is less than 80 percent of the average stiffness of the three stories above. .32 (StiffnessSoft Story Irregularity) exists in the first story Calculations and Discussion Code Reference [L] To determine if this is a Type 1a vertical irregularity (StiffnessSoft Story Irregularity) there are two tests I.. 42 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual.I.11 have been applied and the corresponding floor level displacem ents O . "' : ! 0.Vertical Irr egularity Type 1a a nd Type 1b .0B ~rrr7Y..."'77'.. The codeprescribed lateral forces F.§12. 10' F. from Equation 12. . 2.. Vol.. .3. i: 0 " .71 i " Actual shape [!J Determine if a Type 1a vertical irregularity from Table 12. _1.2 .\.::=::::::.2. DD .. . The lateral story stiffness is less than 70 percent of that ofthe story above..1'.' 0It_ 0. 10' F ./ .* :" !" . Ft + Fs 10' J ~ ['.. A Seismic Design Category D fivestory concrete special momentresisting frame is shown below..11 F.3..02 Triangular shape .45 I I ! .2 ~ &le4 .re at the floors' centersofmass have been determined as shown below.• DD /· DD .' ! / 02" .'" 0'.8. .. 1.2 Ex ample 4 • Vertic al1rregula rlty Typ e 1 1 § 12. ' 0' F ' 2' '.
the storydrift ratios arc determi ned as ~= o . or I I I I I I I I I I s s. which assumes a prescribed shape for the first dynamic mode of response. (0. 3 h. the soft story occurs when one of the following cond itions exists. h. story drifts and the storydrift rat io's values are determi ned.1.Ii.• h. • Ii. Generally . = (1.8. ) + (0. This deformat ion comparison may even be more effective than the stiffness comparison because the shape of the first mode shape is often closely approximated by the structure displacements due to the specified §12. 3. To compare displacements rather than stiffness. The definition of soft story in the code compares values of the lateral stiffness of individual stories. These storydrift ra tios will be used for the required comparisons because they better represent the changes in the slope of the mode shape when there are significant differences in interstory heights.08 . . + (0.00308 h.0" h. h.8. = (1.08) = 0. From the given displacements . it is necessary to use the reciprocal of the limitin g percentage ratios of 70 and 80 percent as they apply to story stiffness. I 43 . h.9) is generally required by Table 12.45 .• .) .0) 144 = 0. and a modal analysis (§12. 0.I.00308 120 ~ = Ii.exceeds h. this type of irregularity can also be determined by comparing values of drift ratios due to the prescr ibed lateral forces.3.2 1 If the stiffness of the story meets at least one of the two criteria above. When 80 percent of .) In terms of the calculated storydrift ratios.'= = h.. .' exceeds I [(0. . When 70 percent of ". Ii.3 force pattern .Example 4 • Venicallrregularity Type 1 §12. Floor level displacements and corresponding storydrift ratios are directly available from computer programs.0..• Ii.. There are many structural configurations where the evaluat ion of story stiffness is complex and is often not an available output from computer programs. The following example shows this equivalent use of the displacement propert ies.7 1. the structure is deemed to have a soft story. h. h.. The storydrift ratio is the story drift divided by the story height. Vol.6. _ . (Note: story displacements can be used if the story heights are nearly equal.0. h. Recogni zing that the basic intent of this irregularity check is to determ ine if the lateralforce distribution will differ significantly from the pattern prescribed by §12.00493 t.. it is not practical to use stiffness properties unless these can be easily determ ined..)] ..71) = 0..Ii. . 120 I 2006 IBC Struc tural/Seismic Design Manual. or reverse their applicability to the story or stories above.2.
. NG : . §12. . 44 2006 IBC S tructural/Seism ic Design Manual. Soft story exists. Type l b) Checking the 60percent requirement: 0. Alternately: 0.. Ib.002958 < 0.00308 + 0.80(0.30 = 0. NG h. .00493) = 0.) hi = 0.00308 x 1.70(1i.00493 > (0. Check for extreme soft story.80(~) = 0. Exception 1.4 = 0.00289 x 1.004312) . NG Al ternately: 0.3 = 0.00375) . thus soft story.00308 .00289 .00289 ..00493 > (0..00289 ~(0. s.0040) . . 3. . . Alternately: 0. NG Thus: StiffnessExtreme Soft Story exists .00308 . o. or 2 in Table 12. Soft story exists.70 (0.751.60(0. = Ii" .2.'.45) = 0.00493) = 0.00308 + 0.. = (1.00493 > (0..00308 x 1.00289 x 1. Vol.003451 > 0. condition Ia Alternately: 0. . I I I I I I I I I I . Note that 70 percent of first story drift is larger than second story drift. thus soft story.32 do not apply where no storydrift ratio under design lateral force is greater than 130 percent of the storydrift ratio of the next story above. (Vertical Structural Irregularity.3.00347) . .k.Ii" Iz. . .00345 > 0.. k. .00250) = 3 Checking the 70percent requirement: O.2 Ex ample 4 • Vertical Irreg ularity Type 1 1 _ t:J. o.70(0 .00394 > 0. Also note that structural irregularities of Types Ia.00493 > (0. Checking the 70percent requirement: 0.2.00493) = 0._ .20 = 0.2.00493) = 0.§12. .. .. Checking the 80percent requirement: 0.condition lb..00250 120 0.
0024 6 0. Commentary Section 12.27 in 0 .r .00250 0 .00493 0 . for the purpose of the story drift.75 1. Vol.002 16 0.37 0.00216 0.0026 1 0.71 Storydrift Rat io 0.drift Ratio of Next 3 Stories Soft Story Status la No No No No Yes Leve l 5 4 3 2 T able 4.001 58 0.45 1. x rr I (Eq 12.02 in 1.3. It is often convenient to create tables to facilitate this exerc ise.3.30 0.2.27 in 0 . 37 0.71 Storydrift ratio 0 .75 1. of S tory.00225 0.00 21 6 0.00175 0.30 0 .2. In the exampl e above.8.00 246 0.45 1.002 16 0.00345 0 .00180 0.00345 0. or storydrift ratio.02 in 1. all stories must be checked.Examp le 4 tI Vertical Irr egularity Type 1 §12. 1. Structures having SDC E or F and also having vertical irregularity Type Ib shall not be permitted. reference §12.37 0 .815) However.32 for Ib . unless a modal analysis is performed. extreme soft story. In practice.00308 0.00150 0.00200 0. the displacement bxe due to the design seismic forces can be used as in this example. comparisons needed for softstory determination. only the first story was checked for possible softstory vertical irregularity .6 requires that story drifts be computed using the maximum inelastic response displac ements b.00 30 8 0. Table 4. and is permitted.2 Recall from Table 12.00308 0 .0026 1 0 .08 0.2 SoftStory Status Ib S tory Disp lacement 2. This building is SOC 0 . which include the deflection amplification factor Cd s = Cdb.00289 Avg.00175 0. of Storydrift Ratio of Next 3 Stories Soft Story Status lb No No No No Ye s Level 5 4 3 2 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual.00289 Avg .001 85 0.00296 0 .00 225 0 .00 135 0.71 S tory Drift 0.6x (Storydr ift Ratio) 0 .00493 0 .08 0. I SoftStory Status ln Sto ry Displacement 2.37 0.0030 8 0.7x (S torydrift Ratio) 0.00 394 0 .3.8x (S torydrift Ratio ) 0.7x (S tory drift Ratio) 0. I 45 .00250 0 .00185 0.00 158 0.1 and 4.71 Story Drift 0. see Tables 4.
= 100k [!J . vertical irregularity is considered to exist when the effective mass of any story is more than 150 percent of the effective mass of an adjacent story. This results in the floor weight distribution shown below. .2 The fivestory special moment frame office building has a heavy utility equipment installation at Level 2.= 110k W. Code Reference :Calci!li!tions and Discussion A weight..3~2.2. 46 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual. Weight irregularity exists. I .5 X WI At Level 3 1. However. Note that it does apply if the roof is heavier than the floor below. Ws = 90 k W.5 X = 1.2 Example 5 • Vertical Irregularity Type 2 .3..5(110 kips) = 165 kips Wz = 170 kips > 150 kips . Vol.V~rtical lrregularity Type 2 §12.§12. Determine if there is a Type 2 vertical weight (mass) irregularity . or mass..' a!nple 5 . Checking the effective mass of Level 2 against the effective mass of Levels 1 and 3 At Levell 1. = 110 k W.5(100 kips) = 150 kips W3 = 1. this requirement does not apply to the roof if the roof is lighter than the floor below.
1 1 I . Vol. • .2 .61). Consequently.2 .3 . I 47 .8. 1 1 I I I I I I I I I 2006 lac Structura l/Seismic De sign Manual... the appropriate load distribution must be determined by the modal analysis procedure of § 12. unless the irregular structure is not more than two stories and is Occupancy Category l or II (see Table 12.9.3. Commentary As in the case of vertical irregularity Type la or Ib. Example 5 • Vertical Irreg ularity Type 2 § 12. this Type 2 irregularity also results in a primary mode shape that can be substantially different from the triangular shape and lateral load distribution given by § 12.
 Level 5 4 3 2 DDD DDD DDD D. 4@2S' 100' . . I. / //.33 48 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Des ign Manual.2 The lateralforeeresisting system of the fivestory specia l moment frame building shown below has a 25foot setback at the third.2 Ex ample 6 • Vertical Irregularity Type 3 ~ ample 6 Vertic al Irregularity Typ e 3 § 12.'. Vol ..§12.3.2 . and fifth stories. the setback of Level 3 must be checked.3. . = 1... The ratios of the two levels are Width of Level 2 = (lOa ft) Width of Le vel 3 (75 ft) 133 percent > 130 percent ....DDD "/ //"/ // / '/ / / . I .. Onestory penthou ses are not subject to this requirement. In this example.. / [!J Determine if a Type 3 vertical irregularity (vertical geometric irregularity) exists CalcuJ~tiC?ns and Discussion Code Reference A vertical geometric irregularity is considered to exist where the horizontal dimension of the lateralforeeresisting system in any story is more than 130 percent of that in the adjacent story...2. Vertical geom etric irregulari ty exists... fourth..
If the change is a decrease in width of the upper adjacent story (the usual situation).2 . Note that if the frame elements in the bay between lines 4 and 5 were not included as part of the designated lateralforceresisting system. the mode shape difference can be mitigated by designing for an increased stiffness in the story with a reduced width. the vertical geometric irregularity would not exist. when the width decrease is in the lower story. Vol. However. there could be an overturning momentloadtransfer discontinuity that would require a dynamic analysis per Table 12. Similarl y.61. if the width decrease is in the lower adjacent story (the unusu al situation).8. the Type la softstory irregularity can be avoided by a proportional increase in the stiffness of the lower story.2 ..J 49 .3.I I Example 6 • Vertical Irregularity Typ e 3 §12.11. Commentary The more than l3 0percent change in width of the lateralforceresisting system between adjacent stories could result in a primary mode shape that is substantially different from the shape assumed for proper applications of Equation 12. ) I I I I 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual.
Inplane discontinuity exists . : . I . the left side of the upper shear wall (between lines A and B) is offset 50 feet from the left side of the lower shea r wall (between lines C and D). mple 7 Vertical Irregularity Typ e 4 § 12.2 Ex amp le 7 11 Vertic al Irre g u lar i ty Type 4 .0 00 ' L Shear wa ll Shear wall 1 12' // '/ / . 3.Ex.2. rrrT 3@25'=75' Level IE< ~ 5 12' 4 12' 'DO' e: 25' 50' 3 12' 2 12' . Vol .2. This 50foot offset is greater than the 25foot length of the offset wall clements . / // '/ / / "/ [!J Determine if there is a Type 4 vertical irregularity (inplane discontinuity) in the verticallateralforceresisting element Code Reference Calculations and Discussion A Type 4 vertical irregularity exists when there is an inplane offset of the lateralforceresisting elements greater than the length of those elements . In this examp le. The shear wall between lines A and B has an inplane offset from the shear wall between lines C and D.§12.3. 50 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual.2 A concrete building has the building frame system shown below.
2.3. even those less than or equal to the length or bay width of the resisting element.3.Examp le 7 • Vertical Irregularity Type 4 §12.3. and the collector element between lines Band C at Level 2 is subject to the provisions of § 12. I 51 . can result in an overturning momentloadtransfer discontinuity that requires the application of §12.3. It should be noted that any inplane offset.3.4.3.3.3.3. s: '" I I 1 I I I I I 2006 IBC Stru ctlirallSuismic D esign Manual.4 for the strength of collector elements along the offset.3. In this example. When the offset exceeds the length of the resisting element.2 C. there is also a shear transfer discontinuity that requires application of § 12. the columns under wall AB are subject to the prov isions of § 12.3. Vol.ommentary The intent of this irregularity check is to provide correction offorce transfer or loadpath deficiencies.
V.8(90) = 72 kips :. Then . ampleB Verfic a l l r r eg ularity Type 5a §12. the story strengths are First story strength = 20 + 30 + 10 = 60 kips Second story strength = 80 + 10 = 90 kips Check if firststory strength is less than 80 percent of that of the second story. Level J PIER 1 \In V".2.2.3. Weak story condition exists.2 Exa mple 8 • Ve rtIc al Irregu l ar ity Type 5a IE. and the individu al piers have the shear contribution given below.§12.." Note that VII/ is not defined in ACI or Chapter 19. I . All walls in this direction are identical. and Vm is defined herein as the shear corresponding to the development of the "nominal flexure strength also calculated in accordance with Chapter 19. 52 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual.3. Vol. is the nominal shear strength calcu lated in accordance with Chapter 19. 2 3 4 5 20 kips 30 15 80 15 30 kips 40 10 120 10 [!J Determine if a Type 5 vertical irregularity (discontinuity in capacity. 60 kips < 0.weakstory) condition exists Code Reference Calculations and Discussion A Type Sa weakstory discontinuity in capacity exists when the story strength is less than 80 percent of that in the story above.2 A concrete bearin gwall building has the typical transve rse shearwall configuration sho wn be low. The story strength is the total strength of all seismicforceresisting elements shari ng the story shear for the direction under consideration. Using the smaller values of VII and VII/ given for each pier.
60 kips > 58. Elements subject to this check are the shearwall piers (where the shear contribution is the lower of either the shear at development of the flexural strength . I I I I I I 2006 IBC Slructural/Seismic Design Manual. . 60 kips < 0.2. the column shear contribution shall not exceed the column shear capacity.3 . or the shear strength).3.65(90 kips) = 58. Where there is a strong columnweak beam condition. A weakstory condition is absolutely prohibited in SDC E and F.1) for structures more than two stories or 30 feet in height if the "weak story" has a calculated strength ofless than 80 percent of the story above . In any case. Irregularity Type 5b. bracing members and their connections. Therefore the lower story is not an extreme soft story.3.2 Check if firststory strength is less than 65 percent of that of the second story (Irregularity Type 5b). Vol. I 53 . Frame columns with weak columnstrong beam condit ions have a shear contribution equal to that developed when the top and bottom of the column are at flexural capacity. Commentary This irregularity check is to detect any concentration of inelastic behavior in one supporting story that can lead to the loss of vertical load capacity.5 kips . An extreme weak story is prohibited (under §12. and frame columns.Example 8 • VerlicallrregularJty Type Sa §12.5 kips :. the column shear resistance contribution should be the shear corresponding to the development of the adjoining beam yield hinges and the column base connection capacity.
~ 12' 3 .. To determine if a weak story exists in the first story. In this example.. 12" 2 12' 1 14' . assume for the purposes of illustration only. Vol..1 A fivestory building has a steel special momentresisting frame (SMRF).3.2PD + 0.3. . I . an extreme weak story exists) . . ' . The story strength is consi dered to be the total strength of all seismicforeeresisting elements that share the story shea r for the directi on under consideration.5PL Column base connections at grade (based on gradebeam strength): Jvf"GB = 100 kipft In addition.3. // "/ / / / // . the sums of the column shears in the first and second storieswhen the member moment capacities are developed by lateral loadingmust be determined and compared. [!J [!J Determine firststory strength Determine second story strength ~ Determine if weakstory exists at first story Calculations and Discussion Code Reference A Type 5 weakstory discontinuity in capacity exists when the story strength is less than 80 percent of that of the story above (where it is less than 65 percent. A o Beams at Levels I and 2: Mllb = ZF. The frame consists ofW24 beams and W14 columns with the following member strength properties... that the columns have been designed such that a strong beamweak column condi tion is permitted. Level 5 12' 4 . .." = 250 kipft Columns on lines Band C at both levels: M" c = 250 kipft at axial loading of 1.1 Example 9 II Vertical Irregularity Type 5a Example 9 Verticallrregulaljty Type Sa § 12./ /// Determine if a Type 5 vertical irregularity (discontinuity in capac ityweak story) cond ition exists in the first story.§12..3. it is assumed that the beam moments at a beamcolumn joint are 54 2006 IBC Stru ctur al/Se ismic Des ig n Manual.
0 kips 12 M 4 First story strength = VA + VB + VD = 2(18..J V VB= Vc= 200 + 100 = 25.. 250(+)250 200" 2Mc = 400 < 2Jvfb = 500 :.... the shear in each column must be determined.2 ft = 12 ft v 125+100 .. the shear in each column must be determined... . Me = 200 kipft 200(+) 200 200'' 200 r ' Clear height = 14 ft .. .Example 9 • Vertical Irregularity Type Sa §12. Strong beamweak column condition exists. I . [!J Determine first story strength Columns A and D must be checked for strong columnweak beam considerations 200 2Mc = 400 > M..75) + 2(25. .2 ft = 12 ft 100 . Strong columnweak beam condition exists...) "iPS 12 • o FOR SHEAR Mf=100kip·ft Checking columns Band C for strong columnweak beam considerations 200 . Given below are the calculations for first and second stories. Note moment capacity of column governs over v moment capacity of beam to determine shear. Next.. Vol.3.3. FOR MOMENT a 200.. ~) 250 : .1 distributed equally to the sections of the columns directly above and below the joint. Note moment capacity of beam (25012) governs over moment capacity of column (200) to determine shear v . . Next.= 187k' . 200 FOR MOMENT 125~ a M..0) G =100 klpft FOR SHEAR = 87... /2 =125 kipft 125 '' L) I 250 Clear height = 14 ft ..5 kips 55 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual. = 250 ..
Strong beamweak column con dition exists . """" 200 v Mb I 2= 125 kipft '' 125 Clear height = 12 ft .3.§12. Clear height = 12 ft .2 ft = 10ft 125 rFOR SHEAR V.0) = 130.0 kips 10 v Me =200 klpft 200 J1"""' FOR SHEAR • 200 '" Second story strength = VI + VB + Vc+ VD + 2(25.3. strong columnweak beam condition exis ts... IpS 10 J 125 Mb I 2= 125 kipft v • 125" J Check ing columns B and C for strong columnweak beam con siderations 2Mc = 400 < 2Mb = 500 : ..0 kips 56 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual."  " D tr  125 + 125 ?5 0 k' ._... )200 VB = Vc = 200 + 200 = 40. I .. Vol ...2 ft = IO ft 10' 200( + 200 .1 Example 9 • Ver tical Irregu larity Type 5a ~ Determine second story strength Columns A and D mu st be checked for st rong columnw eak beam at Level 2 FOR MOMEN T :..0) + 2(40.. FOR MOMENT v Me = 200 kipft 200 .....
I . I 57 .0 kips I I 87. Item 5a) :. I I \ I I I I I I 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual.Ex ampl e 9 ~ Vertical Ir regulari ty Type Sa §12 . 3.32.3 . Vol. 1 ~ Determine if weak story exist s at first story First story strength = 87. Weak story condition in first story exists.5 < 0.5 kips Second story strength = 130.80(130) = 104 (T 12.
to be considered when diaphragms are not flexib le as determined in §12. When the ratio of maximum story drift to average story drift exceeds the given limit.1 Horizontal structura l irregularities are identified in Table 12. In this case.3. the equivalent stiffness of the side having maximum deformation will be reduced. shears and overturning moments must be transferred from the level above the offset to the level below the offset.2. and the eccentr icity between the centers of mass and rigidity will be increased along with the corresponding torsions. An amplification factor Ax is to be applied to the accidental torsion M'a to represent the effects of this unbalanced stiffness. there is the potential for an unbalance in the inelastic deformation demands at the two extreme sides ofa story.3. Excessive openings in a diaphragm can result in a flexible diaphragm response along with force concentrations and load path deficienci es at the boundari es of the openings.2 Extreme Torsional Irregularity . Types Ia. Vol.1. Type 4. and 5 are special response conditions: Type 1a and 1b.3. Ib. Type 5.1 In tr oduction 10 Ho r/zonla /lrregularitles Introduction to Horizontal Irregularities 1 §12. I I Type 2. Tor sional Irregularity .8. Nonparallel Systems .4. Elements must be provided to transfer these forces into the diaphragms. The opening and closing deformation response or flapping action of the projecting legs of the building plan adjace nt to reentrant comers can result in concentrated forces at the comer point. Diaphragm Discontinuity Irregularity. 3.31. There are five types of horizontal irregularities: la. 58 2006 IBC Stru ctural/S eism ic Des ign Manu al. 1 ] I These irregularities can be categorized as being either special response condition s or cases of irregular load path. 3. I to 12. The outofplane offset irregularity represents the irregular load path category.to be considered when diaphragms are not flexible as determined in §12. Type 3.3. 2. I I I I I I I I I .2 Reentrant Comer Irregularity. and there is a horizontal offset in the load path for the shears.2.8. 3. As a consequence.4.§ 12. 2. § I2. Outofplane Offsets Irregularity. 4. The response deform ations and load patterns on a system with nonparallel lateralforceresisting elements can have significant differences from those of a regular system.Irregularity.1. lb . 5. Further analysis of deformation and load behavior may be necessary. Elements must be provided to transfer the forces into the diaphragm and the structural system.
Unde r codeprescribed seismic forces..00 in OR. including the effects of acc idental torsion.8.2 times the average of the story drifts of the two ends of the structure.20 in Level > .2 3 2 [}J Determine if a Type 1a or Type 1b torsional irregularity exists at the second story If it does: I I I ~ Compute the torsional amplification factor Ax for Level 2 C€l'cu'ations and Discussion Code Reference A Type 1a torsional irregu larity is con sidered to exist whe n the maxi mum story drift.:!. see § 12.1 OR. = 1.: ! = 1.2 .2 = 1. l = 1. the follow ing elastic displacements O OL. Vol. includ ing accidental tors ion effects. A threestory special momentresisting frame building has rigid floor diaphragms .3. I 59 .Example 10 a Horizontal Irregularity Type 1a and Type 1b §12. at one end of the structure transverse to an axis is more than 1.2.20 in OR. it has X l! at Levels I and 2.6 for story drift determination 2006 IBC Structural/S eismic Design Man ual.1 ri3fnple 1 oui on a/Irregulari ty Type 1a a nd ype'lb § 12.7 OR .90 in O L.3.
.20 in D. Torsional irregularity exists at Leve l x when T 12.70 = 0 45 .55 . .. "!!!!.2 D.20 = 0.45 I I I I I I I I 60 2006 IBC S tructural/Seismic D esign Manual.2 = 1.7 = 1.x = (bx ..Type Ia. """ = 0.2.L.2 = 1. Horizon'al Irreg ula rit y Type 1a an d Typ e 1b ITI Determine if a Type 1a torsional irregularity exists at the second story Referri ng to the above figure showing the displacements bJe due to the prescribed lateral forces. a. .bxd at ends R (right) and L (left) of the structu re.31 I I I where I Determining story drifts at Level 2 I D. In 2 Checking 1. .45 :. =.T ype Ib.1.R .1. 0. Vol. .2 criteria D.55 > 1.90 .20 . Tors ional irregularity exis ts .00 = 0. I .1 Example 10 . this irregularity check is defined in terms of story drift D.".J. extreme torsion lrregu Ianty exists D. 0_ 70 . 0.§12. thus.= I .20 + 0.70 in U al'g A = 0. Check for extreme torsional irregulari ty D.
2 4 ' .g and bm·g is as follows ..2(1.60 in 2 A . and both bR.. in view of the complexity of this determination and the judgmental nature of the 1..0. in terms of displacements bxc • There can be instances where the storydrift values indicate torsional irregul arity and where the related displacement values produce an Ax value less than 1. ' = ( (jm tI.r should be evaluated for this load condition. Theoret ically. I 61 . then combined by the appropriate SRSS or CQC procedures. if the dynam ic analysis pro cedure were to be used.814 is. is computed for Level 2.8. However. Table 12. Commentary In §12.1 is triggered. The most severe condition is when both bR. the accidental torsional moment M'n must be increased by an amplification factor Ax .Example 10 .3. This result is not the intent of the provision. = 1.60) :.m a. = ( 1.3 1 When torsional irregularity exists at a Level x.2 ) b avg = bL. A. and the value of Ax used to determine acci dental torsion should not be less than 1.X and bL.X and bL..90 )2= 0. Note Ax shall not be less than 1.. The interpretation of this for the case of the story drift and displacements to be used for the average values I'l. The displacement and storydrift values should be obtained by the equivalent lateralforce method with the codeprescribed lateral forces. which prohibits such structures for SOC E or F.4. if irregularity Type Ib (Extreme Tors ional Irregularity) is present.90 = 1.. In fact. use Ax = 1. It is important to recognize that torsionai irregularity is defined in terms of story drift I'l..Xare computed for the same accidental centero fmass displacement that causes the maximum displacement bmax.0. and each level may have a different Ax value. (b R. it is reasoned that the equivalent static force method is sufficiently accurate to detect torsional irregu larity and evaluate the Ax factor.n the centersofmass at all levels should be displaced by the accidental eccentricity to the right side R.260 ' 8 ) (!BC Eq 1644) bm a.b".0 . This must be done for each level.0.0 1.2.. and then scaled to the codeprescribed base shear." while the evaluatio n of A.8. In this example..m. Note that Ax is a function of the displacements as opposed to/versus the drift.g would have to be found for each dynamic mode.31 triggers a number of special design requirem ents for torsionally irregular struc tures.1 ~ Compute amplification factor Ax for Leve l 2 §12 .3.' and I'l.] + b R.2 factor.' 1.30 + 1.4. § 12.3. Horizontal Irr egularity Type 1a and Type 1b §12. there is the pro vision that the more severe loading shall be considered.r by Equation 12.90 in. 2006 I I I I I I lac Stru ctural/Se ismic D esign Manu al.3..98 < 1. the values of I'l. Vol. 2 = 1. For the condition shown in this example where b RX = bma.
3 requires the use of a threedimensional model if there are any irregularities.14 should be calculated as the algebraic average . the static force procedure can resul t in a negative displacement on one side and a positive on the other. and the individual modal results must be properly combined to determ ine the total response value for D m . The value of D m 'g in Equation 12. For cases oflarge eccentricity and low torsional rigidity. For example.§12.40) + 1.DAD in. 1 = (. and DR. the algebraic average value Dm 'g should be found for each mode.3 = 1.80 = l AO = 0.80 in.g • I I I I I I I I I I I 62 2006 lac Structural/Seismic Design Manual.3 . this occurs if D u = .70 in 2 2 When dy namic analysis is used. Vol.8.1 Example 10 .7. I .2. Horizontal Irregularity Typ e 1a and Typ e 1b J If the dynamic analys is procedure is either elected or required. then § 12.
and its lateralforceresisting system.2. 1 The plan configuration of a tenstory special moment frame building is as shown below.40 ft = 20 ft 2006 IB C Structura l/Se is mic p esign Manual.3. the projection is 60 ft . For the sides on line I .Exam ple 11 • Horizontal Irregularity Type 2 §12.. 100 For the sides on line E. G I 0) 4 @l2S= 100' I ® I 00~ o N 1 < @) 08 c<) [!J Determine if there is a Type 2 reentrant corner irregularity Calculations and Discussion Code Reference A Type 2 reentrant comer irregularity exists when the plan configuration of a structure and its lateral foreeresisti ng system contain reentrant corners. where both projections of the structure beyond a reentran t comer are greater than 15 percent of the plan dimension of the structure in the direction considered. The plan configuration of this building. 1 Example 11 orizontallrregularity T}'J e 2 §12. Vol .75ft = 25 ft This is 25 or 25 percent of the 100ft plan dimension .3. . . has reentrant comer dime nsions as shown. More than 15 percent. the proj ection beyond the reentrant comer is 100 ft . I 63 .2.
~ .§1 2.3.3.4 for SDC D. and F.1 Exam p le 11 • Ho riz ontal Irregularity Typ e 2 This is 20 or 33. . Vol. . there is a reentrant comer irregularity.3 percent of the 60ft plan dimension . Commentary Whenever the Type 2 reentrant comer irregularity exists. More than 15 percent. Since both projections exceed 15 percent . see the diaphragm design requirements of §12. Reentrant comer irregularity exists.3. I I I I 64 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic D esign Manu al. E. J .2.
1 A fivestory con crete building has a bearin g wall system located around the perimeter of the buil ding.3.1 • a.000 sq ft 65 . The first check is for gross area Gro ss enclosed area of the diaphragm is 80 ft x 125 ft Area of op ening is 40 ft x 75ft = 3000 sq ft 50 percent of gro ss area = 0. and has dimensions of 40 feet by 75 feet. The floor plan of the second floor of the building is shown below. including cutout or open are as comprising more than 50 percent of the gross enclosed area of the diaphragm. I = 10. All diaphragms above the second floor are wi thout significant openings.2 .3. Vol.Ex ampl e 12 IZ Horizon tal Irregular i ty Typ e 3 §12.000) = 5000 sq ft 3000 < 5000 sq ft " No diaphragm discontinuity irre gularity exists. 2006 IBC Structural/Se ismIc Design Manual.8V»ple 12 Horizonfal lrregularity ype 3 §12.5(1 0. or changes in effect ive diaphragm stiffness of more than 50 percen t from one story to the next. The symmetrically placed op en area in the diaphragm is for an atrium . ?~ ®®b CD 125' 75' ~ ~ r " IE 1 ? ®® Second floor plan [!J Determine if a Type 3 diaphragm discontinuity irregularity exists at the second floor level Calculations and Discussion Code Reference A Type 3 diaphragm discontinu ity irregularity exists when diaphragms have abrupt discontinuities or va riations in stiffness.2. Lateral forces are resisted by the bearing walls acting as shear wa lls.
I I t:. Vol... I . 66 200 6 IBC St ructural/S e. 2. there is diaphragm discontinuity. a diaphragm discontinu ity irregularity exists for the structure...  .. 1 Exampl e 12 • Horizonrallrreg u/arit y Type 3 The second check is for stiffness. ~" '" . Find the simple beam mid span deflec tions L12 and L1J for the diaphragm s at Levels 2 and 3. due to a common distri buted load IV such as I kif. Deflected sha pe I w =1 kif t:.. If the change in stiffness exceeds 50 percent. > ~ .§ 12...~ .....smic D esign Manu al.. . respectively. 3. The sti ffuess of the second floor diaphragm with its opening mu st be compared with the stiffness of the solid diaphragm at the third floor. This comparison can be performed as follows .. I I w = 1 kif .. } ~ .. ~ Den ected shape If L12 > 1.5L1J..
Offset irregu larity exists. Eleva tion Line E ® I 0) I 4 @25' o l 00' @ I<E < 25' 1 ~ 0 " 2 0)'" in III o @ '" Ground (first) floor plan [!J Determine it there is a Type 4 outatplane offset irregularity between the first and second stories Calculations and Discussion Code Reference An outofplane offset plan irregularity exists when there are discontinuities in a lateralforce path... an Ie 13 rizontallrregularity TjIj e4 §12..1 .1 apply to the design. shown below. For example: outofplane offsets of vertical lateral. I 67 .3. This constitutes an outofplane offset irregularity. 10' 10' Typical floor plan 10' 10' o I . 2006 IBC Structura l/S eis mic Desig n Manual. The plan configuration of the shear walls is. The first story shear wall on line 0 has a 25foot outofplane offset to the shear wall on line E at the second story and above . and the referenced sections in Tab le 12. : . Vo l.2.1 A fourstory building has a concrete shear wall lateralforceresisting system in a bui lding frame system configuration.3.2.2.3.forceresisting elements such as shear walls .Example 13 • Horizontal Irregularity Type 4 §12.
The vertical lateralforeeresisting frame elements located on line F are not parallel to the major orthogonal axes of the building (i. Special momentresisting frames are located on the perimeter of the building on lines 1. and the referenced section in Table 12.61.3. 00.. Therefore a nonparallel system irregularity exists. I . A 3dimens ional dynamic analysis is recommended . and F.4.31 applies to the design.2. A nonparallel system irregularity exists. ~ M Ty pical floor plan [!J Determine if a Type 5 nonparallel system irregularity exists Calculations and Discussion Code Reference A Type 5 nonparallel system irregularity is considered to exist when the vertic al lateralforceresisting elements are not parallel to or symmetric about the major orthogonal axes ofthe build ing's lateralforeeresisting system.2. see §12. §12. and Table 12.e.73.§12. A. lines 4 and A).5.1 A tenstory building has the floor plan shown below at all levels.1 Exa mple 14 • Horizontal Irregularity Type 5 Examp le 14 H oriz on ta l Irregularity Type 5 §12.in ~ N ~ @.3. :.3. 68 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual. Vol.
0. 2000 and 2003 1BC.3. for the top level or levels of taller structures. 1): I.2 are used. There is no longer a calcu lated p factor between the minimum and maximum value s. such as due to an outofplane offs et in the seismic load resisting system.2 ident ifies two other conditions in which p may be taken as 1. the cond itions need not be met. Note that the criteria for these condi tions need only be met at floor levels in which more than 35percent of the base shea r is being resisted. Design of nonbuilding structures that are not similar to buildings.3. 3.3. 12. 7. as described below) .4.0 in the following circ umstances (§12. Structures with damping systems designed in accordance wi th 18. Desig n of collector elements. §12. ASCE/SEI 702) and the ASC E/SEI 705 .0. Diaphragm loads determined using Eq.4 ·Ei.3.Example 15 • Reliability/Redun dancy Coefficient p § 12.4. Th e calculation is in some ways simpler. Vol.2 are required for des ign. although it nevertheless requir es some effort for conditions that do not compl y with prescriptive requirements (unless the full penalty is taken. In all other conditions. 8. Design of nonstructural components. ASCE/SEI 705 permits the redundancy factor to be taken as 1. 6. p is taken as 1.101 (note that this does not apply to forces transferred through a diaphragm. Struc tures assig ned to Seismic Design Category B or C. I 69 .4.) 2.rample 15 Redunda ncy Factor p §12. I I I I \ I I 2006 IBC Stru ctural/S eismic D esign Man ual .4. Desig n of members or connections where the load combi nat ions with overstrength of §12. Additionally.3. and the higher p factor may apply as otherwise required). (Note that the load combinations that include the redundancy factor are not used for Seismic Design Catego ry A. splices and their connections for which the load combinations with overstrength factor of §12. The factor may be taken as 1. Drift calculation and Pdelta effects.3. 5. 4.0 when either of the conditions listed below is met.4 1 The calculation of the redundancy factor p has changed considerably between earlier codes (1997 UBC.
0.2(a) Configurations in which the removal of one element (as described below in the summary of Table 12.33) will not result in an increase of more than 33percent reduction in story shear strength or in an extreme torsional irregularity (as defined in Table 12.4.33 Removal of one element is defined as: 1.3.3. Removal of a shear wall or wall pier with a heighttolength ratio greater than 1. I .1 will be analyzed. For other systems. Condition II 12. WailS Stiffness Kn WaliD Stiffness K! Wall G Stiffness Kg Wall H Stiffness x. allowing p to be taken as 1. Sufficient perimeter bracing is defined as at least two bays of seismic forceresisting perimeter framing on each side of the structure in each orthogonal direction. 2. Wall F Stiffness Kf WaliA Stiffness Ko Walle Stiffness x. such as seismically isolated structures. or shearwalls. Vol . Summary of Table 12.0 (shear wall systems). 5.3. no prescriptive requirements are given.4 Example 15 II Reliability/Redundancy Coefficient p Condition I 12. Loss of moment resistance at the beamtocolumn connections at both ends of a single beam (moment frames).31). For shear wall systems the number of bays is calculated as the length of shear wall divided by the story height (two times the length of shear wall divided by the story height for lightframed construction). EXAMPLE To illustrate the application of the method for establishing the redundancy factor. 4. moment frames. Wall E Stiffness K.4.§12. the structure shown in Figure 15.2(b) Configurations with no plan irregularities at any level and with sufficient perimeter braced frames. The removal of a brace (braced frames). Loss of moment resistance at the base connections of any single cantilever column (cantilever column systems). Figure 151 70 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual. 3.
Thus the increase in the force on the most heavily loaded bay is 42%/26.3. and thus the configuration would not qualify for a p factor of 1. the removal of one wall covers the cases of the remova l of each of the other walls.4.3.4. I 71 . However. Because there are two bays of shear wall on each of the perimeter lines of resistance and the building is completely regular.3.3. The length of each shear wall is 15 feet.4. this distribution is shown in Figure 15. None of the conditions listed in §12. Vol. The effect on story shear strength can be considered in at least two ways. In this example Wall C will be removed.5% = 37. Such an analysis of the structure with all four bays present shows that the seismic forces in each line of resistance (including the effects of accidental torsion) are 52.62.3. the length of each shearwall bay is less than the story height. a separate check would need to be performed for several (or even all) of the walls. and the reduced force level causing yielding of that wall is 1/1.2(b) might allow a factor of 1.3.2 must be used to determine whether is 1. by removing a wall and assessing the effect on story shear strength and on building torsion .6 = 62. The configuration will therefore be analyzed using the method outlined in §12. the number of bays as defined by §12. the design seismic forces change to 42percent resisted on the weaker line and on the stronger line.2(b) is less than two. the effect on story drift is assessed to be a decrease in capacity of 100% . this distribution is shown in Figure 15.43 to determine the horizontal seismic load effect. and thus §12. concrete shearwall building All walls have the same nominal shear strength . Because of the symmetry of the system.Example 15 " Reliability/Redundancy Coefficient p §12 .25percent. For purposes of the required strength of the walls.1 apply.0.4 Given information: SDCD One story. and thus the configuration does not automatically qualify for a redundancy factor of 1. Using this method.0.4.6.0 or 1. In a more typical system.5percent of the base shear.2(b). the redundancy factor must be determined and used in Equation 12.2(a). with each bay on each line resisting 26. then.0. If the stiffness of one line of resistance is reduced by half.25% = 1. I ) I I I I I 2006 IBC Strucrural/S eismic Design Manual. The most conventional way to calculate the modified story shear strength is based on the modified elastic distribution of forces and the capacity of the most heavily stressed wall.4.5%.5%. §12.3.2(a). name ly. R" The story height is 18 feet.
which in this case is substantial. = 5% R.75% 1 1 2. If one wall is removed.5% 2. (b) 72 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual.5% 6. ~ Ru = 32. The resulting building torsional forces must be resisted by the frames in the orthogonal direction.5% t 6. Ru = 32.75% t 2.3(b).5% t R. this method is not required. which in this case is only the accidental torsion). This interpretation of the story shear capacity has been endorsed by the SEAOC Seismology Committee. R. In this method of analysis.> 5% R. where R n denotes the capacity of the wall.3(a). the orthogonal walls must be checked for the forces resulting from building torsion. = 50/ a Rtf n.25% 31% t 6. again. R. t R u = 5% ~ R. R.3.. = 32. considering strength and limit states.5% R. This is the method envisioned by the committee that authored the redundancy provision. A more direct method of establishing story shear capacity is to utilize a plastic mechanism analysis.25% 31% 1 $ 23. rather than elastic design). Thus the reduction in capacity is only 25percent.e.5% 23. I . the story shear capacity is the sum of the capacities of the 3 remaining walls resisting the seismic force in the direction under consideration. ~j n. e.4 Example 15 • Reliability/Redundancy Coefficient p 2.5% R. ~ $ R. and it is more consistent with the principles of seismic design (i. This is shown in Figure 15.5% ~ 26. the story shear capacity before removal of a wall is the sum of the capacities of the 4 walls resisting the seismic force in the direction under consideration (provided that the orthogonal walls have sufficient strength to resist the torsion. ~ $ ~ n. This is shown in Figure l5.0.5% ~ $ 26.5% ~ 42 % (a) Figure 152 (b) While this is an acceptable method of demonstrating compliance with the conditions justifying a factor p of 1.5% 6. Ru = 32. Vol. ~ R.§12.5% R. R. (a) Figure 153 e.
the system with one wall removed must also be checked for an extreme torsional irregularity as defined in Table 12.4 I 1 To qualify for a factor of 1. I 73 . ) 2006 IBC Strucr ural/S eismic D esign Ma nual.3. Vol. Thus.325RnlKn• This is less than the 40percent maximum that is allowed by Table 12.0. For the example.31. the configuration qualifies for a p factor of 1.3. the deflection in the direction ofloa ding is R.0.1Kn• The additional deflection at each perimeter line due to rotation is 0..1 before an extreme torsional irregularity is deemed to exist. using the plastic mechanism analysis.Examp le 15 • Reliab ility/Re dundancy Coefficient p §12.
~= 0.8. l:.§12. = 20 ft Deflection at level x = I due to seismic base shear V (without Pdelta effects) Ol e = 0. Seismic Use Group I Seismic Design Category D R =8 Cc/ = 5. The purpose of this example is to illustrate the procedure that must be used to check the overall stabili ty of the frame system for such effects.0 At the first story . thereby causing additional secondary column and girder moments.L VI = = = W = 8643 kips 3850 kips / / " " " " T hi = 20' " V = 0.D l:.80 h. I .7 In highrise building design. xample 16 P.8.d Ita ERects §12.5 1 = 1. in first story ~ Pdelta criteria for the building ~ Check the first story for Pdelta requirements ~ Final design story drift and story shear in first story ~ Check for story drift compliance in first story 74 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Des ign Manual. The following informa tion is given. Vol.72 in Determ ine the following. Pdelta effects are the result of the axial load P in a column being mov ed laterally by horizontal displacements. [!J Initial design story drift l:!.7 Ex ample 16 • Pdelta Effec ts .0 kips. A ISstory building has a steel specia l moment frame (SMF).042W = 363.00311 1 = 0. 'important secondary moments and addi tional story drifts can be developed in the lateralforceresisting system by Pdelta effec ts.
15) Th is value is termed initial because it may need to be increased by the incremental factor Gd = 1.96 (Eq 12.0 is required) P.I6) I I I I I I 6 = = stability coefficient for story x total design vertica l load on all colum ns in story x (Note: no factor above 1. !:J. in first story At story x = I.8.8. = initial design story drift in story x occurring simultaneously with CdT!. .0 Now: !:J.8. v.72) = 3.< = = height of story x deflection ampl ification factor in Table 12.Calculations and Discussion Code Reference OJ Initial desig n story drift !:J.Example 16 • P. ~ Pdelta criteria for the building §12 . the preliminary desig n story drift is §12 . = seismic shear force in story x lis.21 (given = 5.I0 200 6 IBC Structural/S eismic D esign Manual.96 in I 1. = 3.5) C: Pdelta effects must be considered when 6> o. Vol.B.del ta Effects §12 . I 75 .7 .5(0.7 J Pdelta effects must be considered whenever the ratio of secondary momen ts to primary moments exceeds 10 percent.6 where b) = Cdb'r = 5.8.0/(16) as determined in Part []] of this example. This ratio is defined as stability coefficient 6 6= where (Eq 12.
8. 8 .0) = 404.100 V. I . Final design story drift and story shear in first story §12.k. 1136 0. o. = (1.80)(5 . 103 > 0.7 requires that the total vertical load P l at the first story be considered the total dead J:.\15 10.5) : .7 Check Pde lta requi rements for the first story 1 Section 12.I'J.D plus floor live J:.7 When 8 > 0.817) I I I = 0.8. Pdelta effects must be considered.96) = 0.\15)(363.103 The final design story drift in the first story is I'J. Vol.10.1136 .8. = ?.8.5 = ~Cd 0.0)(20 ft)(l2)(5 .7 kips I I I I I I I I I 76 2006 IBC Structural/Seism ic Design Manual. = (8643 + 3850)(3. the initial design story drift and design story shear must be augmented by the incremental factor ad related to Pdeita effects ad= ~= 18 \. 1 =adI'J.h"C d (363.§ 12 .493 kips For story x = I.5 (0.415 in The final design story shear is VI = adVI = (1. PI = 8643 + 3850 = 12.5) = 0. Check for 8 :'0 8max using the given 8 lII ax ~= 0. 7 Ex ample 16 • P·delta Effects I §12.103 < 0. These loads are unfactored for determination of Pdelta effects... I I J Using S = 0 for the building site.96) = 4.L and snow load S above the first story.0 = 1.80 (Eq 12.\15)(3.
which would lead to yet another increment.B. Vol.. As a resu lt the initial story drift /:.. compute the corresponding incremental factor relating to P delta effects ad = 1/( I . Thus both the drift and the shear in the story would be increased by a factor equal to the series of I + 8 + 8 2 + 8 3 + .. Given the initial design story drift /:. This is equivalent to an added latera l load equal to (a dI) V .020(20 ft)( 12) = 4.12...8.7 T 12. ~ = ad IJ.415 < 4.). in a multistory building having 8 > 0." and story shear V.1 at story x: compute for each story x the stability coefficient 8x given by Equation 12.0". The provisions in §§ 12. is equal to." = 0.6 and 12. I I 2.drift compliance in the first story §12. . In each story requiring consideration of Pdelta effects the initial story shears are increased to ad V" .10.7 Check for story.. etc.1. The engineer should verify that the total gravity load employed and the method used in these programs will provide results that are essentially equivalent to the augmented story shear method described above.8) = ad. overturning moments and element actions.. For each story where 8.. . Commentary In § 12.7 the Pdelta effects on the design story drift and the design story shear are evaluated by the follow ing procedure: I. thus .8.I) V" along with the initi al lateral loads on the frame. need to be multiplied by the factor ad to represent the total final Pdelta effect.121 1 Allowable story drift /:. Therefore the new story drifts in the stories below would be inc reased not only by their own ad but by the added lateral load effect from the stories above.1 in more than one story. .7 for the evaluation of the final story drifts state that the final story drift shall be ad times the initial drift IJ. However. leading to another story drift.0110'" = 0. or greater than 0.16.80 in .8. The fina l resulting story drift IJ. need s to comply with the drift limitations of §12 .80 in /:.8..020 hi /:. = 4. the initial story shears in these stories are increased by the ad factor. the fina l drifts should be found by a new analysis with the added lateral loads equal to (ad .k. I 77 .110'" = 0.8. 3. o. 2006 la c Structural/S eism ic Design Manual... which converges to 1(1 . . leading to another increment of story drift. The structural elements must be designed to resist the resulting final story shears. applied to each story level having 8 > 0.':= I I I Some computer programs for frame analysis state that Pdelta effects are incl uded directly in the analysis.Example 16 • Pdelta Effects §12.. 8. This factor accounts for the multiplier effect due to the initial story drift /:.
45g SOl = 0.0 (Eq 12.'.8.82) 78 200 6 IBC Structural/ Se ismic Design Manual. Seismic Design Category D S DS = ] 0.e ismic Base Shear Find the design base shear for a 5story steel special momentresisting frame building shown below .2. Vol.0 60' R =8 W = 1626 kips 11" = 60 feet . = C rUd :.D75 sec (Eq 12..1 C = S os = (0.' I I I To solve this example. Cr for steel momentresisting frames is 0. follow these steps.1 ii~ample 1 7 S.8.035(60)~ = 0. is the smaller value of §12.'. 1.45) = 0 0561 s (R) J (8) ...1 Example 17 • Seis mic Bas e Shear 1 ] §12. T.035.28g J = 1.. The following information is given.§12..87) ~ Determine the seismic response coefficient Cs The design value of C.8. [L] Determine the structure period ~ Determine the seismic response coefficient ~ Determine seismic base shear Calculations and Discussion c.8. I I I I I I I I I .1 The appropriate fundamental period To is to be used. = 0. Code Reference [I] Determine the structure period §12.'.
I 81 .32). the values for "all other buil dings" To = CT(h.'. there is a vertical geometric irregularity (Table 12. Roof pentho uses are generally not considered in determining hi!> but heights of setbacks are included. x = 0. h« = 33 feet Setback kJ 33' ' .Y = 0. more than five stories or 65 fee t in height..75 T = CT(hn}T: = 0. CT may be taken as 0.8. require dynamic analysis for this type of irregularity. _ L.37 sec [!J Steel eccentric braced frame (EBF) EBF structures use the C.1 ~ Concrete special moment frame (SMF) structure Height of the tallest part of the building is 33 feet.030(44)°·75 = 0.Example 18 D Approximate Fundamental Period §12.2.0 16(33)°·9 = 0.030 . if the setback represents more than a 130percent change in the lateral force system dimension. for the "all other buildings" category C T = 0.020 and x may be taken as 0.5 1 sec 44' ~ Masonry shear wall building 29' 29' ~ TYP' 60' I~~f" < 45' IE Front wall elevation Back wall elevation For this structure.9 To = CT(hnY = 0. CT = 0. Vol.75. However. and this is used to determine per iod.020(29)°·75 = 0.016 .'  L _ L. x = 0.25 sec 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual. Taller structu res.
020.2. The fundamental period T of the building may also be established by analytical procedures with the limitation given in §12. .~'" Typical wall elevation H ) zo' ' " ) I CT = 0. 8. 20'I ~I • 4  .75 I I T = CT(hn )' = 0.§12. the period computed above is not a good estimate of the rea l fundamental period of this type of building. 1 '. I I I I I ) 82 2006 la c Structural/Seismic Design Man ual. 15'typ ~ .1 Exa mple 18 • Approximate Fu nd am en tal P eriod ~ Tiltup building Consider a tiltup building 150 feet by 200 feet in plan that has a panelized wood roof and the typical wall elevation shown below. The code formula for period does not take into consideration the fact that the real period of the building is highly dependent on the roof diaphragm construction. It is acceptable.. Thus . I I I . Vol. X = 0.19 sec This type of structural system has relatively rigid walls and a flexible roof diaphragm.020(20)°·75 = 0. I E 4t"" .2. comm'fmtaf)'.8. however. for use in determining design base shear.
follow these steps. w. 150 kips 300 kips 300 kips 12' To solve this examp le.14 Determine the seismic base shear and the seismic lateral forces for a threestory wood structural panel wall buildin g using the simplified alternative structural design procedure.0 R 6X Level T f I( 20' W = 750 kips + 20' ~ 1 12' 12' Effective Seismic Weight. I 83 . 2006 lBC Structural/Se ismic Des ign Manual.Example 19 II Simplified Alternative Structural Des ign Procedure §12.1. or other buildings with bearing walls or building frame systems not more than three stories.14. Occupancy Category I S DS = = 1.14 Exam Ie 19 Simplified I ernettve Structura l Design Procedure § 12.1 Lightframed cons truction not more than three stories. The following information is given. can use the simplified alternat ive method when general conditions are satisfied. Vol. [}J Check applicability of simplified alternative method ~ Determine seismic base shear ~ Determine seismic lateral forces at each level Calculations and Discussion Code Reference [}J Check applicability of simplified alternative method §12.
7.14.8 The follo wing is a comparison of simplified base shear with standard design base shear.81) (Eq 12.4 kips 750 I I F2 = ~~~ 750 (138.0)(750 kips) ] 6X = 138.7.§12.2(1. Vol.14 Ex ampl e 19 • Simplified Alterna tive Structu ra l Des ign Pro c edu r e ~ Determine seis mic base shear §12.7 kips Commen tary §12.82) I I I I I I I I I 84 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual.1410) I I FI = 300 (138.5 kips @J Determine seismic lateral forces at each level §12.1 (Eq 12.14.2 F =" V x W W (Eq 12. I .5) = 55.5) = 27. The standard method of determining the seismic base shear is v=csw wher e (Eq 12.5) = 55.4 kips F 3 = ISO (138. 149) 1.
6 115. Vol. I 85 .333 0. Level . i.5 38.278 0.4 kips 51.600 L II'.185 0.222 L ~ F. U'.5 second or less.2 25.200 3.4 55.093 The seismic base shear Vand lateral forces F" at each level except the roof are all less than the simplified method . 1 n 1 Note: distribution exponent k = 1.~V (Eq 12.811) where (IBe Eq 1642) 2: w ..r 3 2 I h. Comparison of Simplified VS Standard Level x 3 2 Total Lateral Force F. w.4 138.2 % Difference 72 108 216 120 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual.7 kips 55.2 25. I 36 fl 24 12 150 kips 300 300 5 .7.Example 19 • Simplified Alrernative Structural Design Procedu re §12.6 115. "'xlix }: wi"i 0.14 1 The distribution of seismic forces over the height of the structure is 1 Fx = C.4 kips 5 1.444 0.400 kipIt 7 . Standard Simplified 27.14.200 38. see table below .".5.4 0.h. 16.h. Fju '. may be taken as I percent of the story height.0 for structures having a period of 0. The principal advantage of the simplified method is that period T need not be calculated and design story drift (). §12.
the structure in this direction must use the lowest R = 6. 86 20D6 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual.3. For example. no factor.Calculations and Discussion Code Reference [!J Steel Special concentrically braced frame (SCBF) over steel special moment frame (SMF) Seismic Design Category C Ordinary steel concentrically braced frame R =6.3.0.1 cannot be used. it is sometimes necessary to design buildings that have a vertical combination of different lateralforceresisting systems. Cd .0 no= 3. the bottom part of the structure may be a rigid frame and the top part may be a braced frame or shear wall. Vol.1 to determine the applicable response modification coefficient R system overstrength factor no and deflection amplification factor Cd values for combined vertical systems.1. Recall that lithe floor and roof diaphragms could be considered to be flexible. For the three systems shown below. This example illustrates use of the requirements of §12.3. I . determine the required R coefficient. and related design base shear requirements.2.0 C« = 5.2.0 P = 1.5 P = 1. the exception for a twostage analysis in § 12. Therefore. Table 12.2.3.21.0 nu = 2.0 This combined system falls under vertical combinations of § 12.2.0 Special steel moment frame R = 8.0 and the largest no = 3.1 Example 20 • Combination of Structural Systems: Vertical !~ample 20 'Combina tion of Structural Systems: Vertical '12. Because the rigid framing system is above the flexible framing system. factor.5. per footnote g.0 Cd = 5.2.§12.1 In structural engineering practice. n u would be 2.3.
1.2. a twostage analysis cannot be used. R = 5.55 sec T eoll/billed = 0.56 sec Shear walls 2006 IBC Structu r al/Se is mic Design Manual. Seism ic Design Catego ry B Concrete specia l reinforced conc rete mome ntframe R =8.21 ).0 .5 Cd = 4.0.5 P = 1. 1.0.5 P = 1.0 Special reinforced concrete moment frame R = 8.0 Cd = 5.2.3. [!J Concrete SRCMF over a concrete building frame system ~ Applicable criteria.00 = 3.00 = 2.0 .0 C« = 5. Also note that ordinary rein forced concre te shear wall systems are not permitted above 35 feet in SOC 0 .00 = 3.0 Th is combined system falls under vertical combinations of § 12. Under § 12. Therefore.5 P = 1. provi ded the structures conform to the following four requirements. Because the rigid portio n is above the flexible portion.1 ~ Ordinary reinforced concrete shear wall (ORCSW) over special reinforce d concrete moment frame (SRC MF) Seismic Design Category C Ord inary reinforced concrete shear wall (non. or F (Table 12.3 Stiffness upper portion = 175 kipin T upper = 0.Example 20 If CombInation of Structural Systems: Vertical §12. . T his is a vertical combination of a flexibl e system over a more rigid system. and the largest.00 = 3. I 87 .3.bearing) R =5 . the structure in this direction must use the lowest.2. a twostage static analysi s may be used. E.3. Vol.
03 sec 1 J Also note R is different for bearing wall systems versus building frame systems for special reinforced concrete shear walls. d. The stiffness of the lower portion is at least 10 times the stiffness of the upper portion.000 kipin rlo"er = 0. Period of entire structure is not greater than l.0 Stiffness = 10. J . c.1 (.k.2.61 sec .§12. Rigid lower portion shall be designed as a separate structure using appropriate values of Rand p.5 Cd =5 P = 1.1 Example 20 • Combination of Structural Systems: Vertical J Special reinforced concrete shear wall R =6.56 sec < 1.000 kipin > 10(175) = 1750 kipin .0 no=2. b. For multistory upper or lower portions . . 10.0. o. see Table 12. the stiffness should be the stiffness of the first mode. I I I I I I I I I I I I 88 2006 lac Structural/Seismic Design Manual. Vol.1 for a twostage analysis a.k.21.l times the period of upper structure considered a separate structure fixed at the base.3... Flexible upper portion supported on the rigid lower portion shall be designed as a separate structure using appropriate values of Rand p. Reactions from the upper structure shall be determined from analysis of the upper structure amplified by the ratio of Rip of the upper structure over Rip of the lower structure. This ratio shall not be less than 1.2. o.3. 0. .55) = 0. 1 I Check requirements of § 12.
0 /1.3 Vllilme =1... Q = 2.0 = 1. and p = 1.0 The reactions from the upper portion shall be determined from the analysis of the upper portion amplified by the ratio of (Rip) for the upper portion over (Rip) of the lower portion. 8.03 Vllilme 6.1 ~ Design procedures for upper and lower structures Design upper SRCMF using R n p =8.0 =3.0 for the lower portion).. Vol.0/1. Note that for the basic seismic load combinations the factor p must still be applied to forces corresponding to V lower.5.Example 20 • Combination of Structural Systems: Vertical §12.3 . I 89 ... r VIrum. Amplified Vllil m • =..2.3.0. 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual. Design lower portion of the building frame system for the combined effects of amplified reactions from the upper portion and lateral forces due to the base shear for the lower portion of the structure (using R = 6..
a threestory building has concrete shear walls in one direction and concrete moment frames in the other.. Floors are concrete slab.2 J Exam p l e 21 gombina tion of F !"aming Systems in Differ~nt Directions ") : ' . Q" = 2. In this example. directions) ofthc building. QQ= 3.. and the building is SDC D and Occupancy Category I.2.5.21 (AI) Lines I.0. and deflection amplification factor Cd values for a building that has different seismic framing systems along different axes (i. Cd= 5. Cd.5 Table 12. system over strength factor QQ. Cd = 5.§12.2.Shear wall G Typ ical floor Plan Lines A and D are special reinforced concrete shear walls (bearing wall system) R = 5. and 3 are special reinforced concret e moment frames R =8. I 1 Determine the R.e. Table 12. and Q " values for each direction. 2. I I I I I I I I I I I I . I I _ .21 (C5) !TI Determine the R value for each direction 90 2006 IBC Structural/S eismic Design Manual. Thi s example illustrates the determination of response modification coefficient R. Vol.2 Example 21 • Co mbination of Fram ing Systems in Different Dir ections I J §12.0.
and R = 8. Vol. I ~'..2. and Cd = 5. Use R = 5. I 91 . Q o = 3.2. . ordinary reinforced concrete shear walls are not permitted. the appropriate response modification coefficient R. system overstrength factor Q o' and deflection ampl ification factor Cd for each system shall be used.Calculations and Discussion .2 require that where different seismicforeeresisting systems are used along the two orthogonal axes of the structure.0. 2006 IBC Str uctural/Seismic D esign Ma nual.5 for the eastwest direction.2 .Example 21 • Combination of Framing Systems in Different Directions §12 .0. and Cs = 5 for the northsouth direction.. Q o = 2.5.0. Y Code Reference The provisions of § 12. Commentary Note that since this is SDC D.
.2 Occasionally. '' .1.2. to qualify as a flex ible diaphragm. see definition in § 12.§12. long the Same Axis §12. 92 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual. I ..2 requires that (except for dual systems and shear wallframe interactive systems) the value of R used shall not be greater than the least value of any system utilized in that direction. : .3. This example shows how the response modification coefficient R value is determined in such a situation.3.. ' Roof Plan Lines 1 and 4 are ordinary steel moment frames: R = 3. A onestory steel frame structure has the roof plan shown below. Use R = 3. ~ COmbination of Structural Systems: .3. Vol . it is necessary or convenient to have different structural systems in the same direction. §12.2 Example 22 " Combination of Structural Systems: Along the Same Axis . the lateral deformation of the diaphragm must be more than two times the average story drift of the associated story. However. Commentgl'Y An exception is given for light frame .5 Lines 2 and 3 are special steel concentrically braced frames: R = 6. EX~mple22 .2. The structure is assigned to Seismic Use Group 1.0 [!J Determine the R value for the N/S direction Calculations and Discussion Code Reference When a combination of structural systems is used in the same direction.2. flexible diaphragm buildings of Occupancy Category I or Il two stories or less in height.5 for entire structure.3.3.
6g. C.1 v =C. value of 0.8.01 (Eq 12. then the lower bound on C.81) 0. value were to have been equal or greater than 0.28g given in this example is based on an S. for structu res located where S. s (~) (Eq 12.l .28) _ R ~ (0.6g. is 0.86) I : .85) In addition.2I g.5/S. TL (Eq 12.0467 ~ Determine seismic base shear The seismic base shear is given by §12. = 0.84) • but shall not be less than C.1 and C Example 17 • Seismic Base Shear § 12.9 kips I I I I ComtnimtcJry The So.0467 for T S.0 0. shall not be less than C = 0. If the S. Vol. = 0.B. Design value of C.0467(1626 kips) 75. value of 0.5S. is equal to or greater than 0.i)() SOl / _ (0.W = = (Eq 12. I 79 . .83) (Eq 12.86) 2006 IBC Structural/Seism ic D esign Manual.75) 1.R Cs > z: (Eq 12.
is supported. or the level at which the structure.§12. base is defmed as the level at which earthq uake motions are considered to be imparted. For this structure the solution is the same. 96' Supe rslructu re C r = 0. [!J Steel special moment frame (SMF) structure Concrete special moment frame (SMF) structure Steel eccentric braced frame (EBF) [!J @J ~ ~ Masonry shear wall building Tiltup building Calculatipns and Discussion Code Reference [!J Steel special moment frame (SMF) structure Height of the structure above its base is 96 feet. I .8.2. ample 18 Appro~imate Fundamental Period § 12.028.1 Determine the period for each of the structures shown below usi ng the appropriate fundament al period formula (Eq 12. 8 Grad e To = Cr (I1"r = 0.2.2.87) The coefficient CT and the exponent x are dependent on the type of structural system used.1 .8. 22' _L Basemenl Note : In the SEAOC Blue Book.028(96)°·8 = 1. The additional 22foot depth of the basement is not considered in determining 11" for period calculation.08 sec .1 Example 18 • Approximate Fundame ntal Period '. Vol .8. §12. x = 0. 80 2006 IBC Structuraf/Seismic Design Manual. as a dynamic vibrator.
5 5 54k 12' 4 22k '2' I 3 4 22k ' 2' 2 440k ' 2' 4 65k 20' // " 1' / / 1' / ~ / / /I' / '/ Total 3762 kips I I I I I To solve this example.062 R = 8. Find the vertical distribution oflatera l forces F x • The following information IS given.81) 2006 IBC Structura l/Se.062 (376zk) = 233.smlc Design Man ual. IV = 3762 kips C. Vol. It is determined as follows v = C.Example 23 • Vertica l Distributio n of Seismic Forc e §12. [!J ~ Determine V Find Fx at each level ~ Find the distribution exponent k ~ Determine vertical force distribution :Ca/culations and Discussion Code R..0 T = 1.06 sec ' 2' 4 QSk 4 O~ ' 2' ' 2' 6 .3 A ninestory building has a momentresisting steel frame for a lateralforceresisting system.8 kips (Eq 12.8.B. = 0.81 [!J Determine V I This is the total design lateral force or shear at the base of the structure..0 = 1. IV = 0.ference §12.0 Q" level 9 I ? f T I I I ( 27' 0) EO 27' ): Story weight 2 14k 4 OSk 12' 8 7 1 = 3. follow these steps. I 93 .3 1 Exampl e 23 · Vertical Distribution of Seismic Force § 12 .
" e 0~ 1.I .812) I ] Since there are nine levels above the ground.8w. .l1.§12.0 2.8. hi i. Vol. and is equal to 2.06 1.5 1. x • ~ LJ lV /Ii i.3 Ex ample 23 • Ver tic al Dis tr ibu tion of Seis mic Force ~ Find r.5 seconds. I §12. I I .0 0. k is determined by linear interpo lation.5.0 for buildings having a period of T s 0..11 ) I I ] The vertica l distribution of seismic forces is determined as where c = I'X 2: IV.8. Thus: 2.0 for buildings having a period oi T>: 2.5 2.5 o o 0.3 Find the distribution exponent k The distribution exponent k is equal to 1.5 2.0 1. 8.28 'C 1. at each level (Eq 12.0 .I n lVxhl (Eq 12. k 94 2006 IBC Struc tural/S eism ic Design Manu al.5 I I I I I I I I J Exponent. 11 = 9 Thus: F = 233.. For intermediate value of the building period.5 1.
137 0.0.594 36.Examp le 23 • Verti cal Distribution of Seismic Force §12 . 192 0.28 = 1.2 15. Often.3 I Now: for T k = 1. the horizontal forces at each floor level are increased when p is greater than 1. 2006 la c Stru ctur al/Seismic Design Manual. I 95 .960 21.3 44.004 27. when stre ss check ing the individual mem bers of the lateralforeeresisting system. The horizontal forces need not be increase d at each floor level whe n p is greater than 1.3.013 I I I I I I I I I 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 116 ft 104 92 80 68 56 44 439 382 326 273 222 173 127 84 46 214 405 405 405 584 422 32 20 422 440 465 ~ =3762 0. p = 1.28 • " .09 1 0.169 0.06 sec = 1.8 6.079 0.0.5) ( = 1.6.812 is solved in the table below given V= 233.3 32.8 38.390 ~ = 806.28 I ) 2.030 110.I W. 161 0.• wxhx • C~ . Vol.027 1.0 (§12.289 LW/l i F.037 0.127 0.f Level X ii.5 Use: k @J Equation 12. Redundancy requ irements must also be evaluated once the type oflateralforceresisting system to be used is specified.0 + (1.1) shall be used.565 129. = C••V (kips) F/ w.064 0. the seismic forces are factored by p.710 132.5 10. Table 12.2 233.094 0.8 kips and k = 1. = Su 0.I lists the minimum allowable analysis procedures for seismic design .04 6 0.1 II 0. = ./I.2 Commelltary Note that certain types of vertical irregularity can result in a dynamic response hav ing a load distribution significantly different from that given in this section .024 0. When checking building drift.~ (kips) kipIt 93. 1 37.648 73.4. provided that.067 0. ( ft) U'.6 21. because this may require modification of the building framing system and vertical distribution of horizontal forces as a result of changes in building period T.006 53. 116 0. Th is is done to simplify the analysis of the framing members.B.050 0.5 0.06 _ 0.946 154.
and having a height exceeding five stories or 65 feet may have significantly different force distributions. Note that ( So )max is approximately twice C .§ 12. or 3 in Table 12.61. 8. 3 Exampl e 23 • Vertica l Distr ibution of Se ism ic Forc e Structu res that have a vertical irregularity of Type Ia. I I I .61. it is recommended that these calculations be performe d to confirm the computer analysis and to gain insight to structural behavio r. and it is rarely necessary to manually perform the calculations shown above . The configuration and final design of this structure must be checked for these irregularities. Ib. Structures exceeding 240 feet in height shall require dynamic analysis. 2. or plan irregular ities of Type l a or Ib in Tab le 12. Most structural analysis programs used today perform this calculation. However. I I I I I I I I r I I I I I I 96 2006 IBC Structural/S eism ic Des ign Man ual. and S" = r <pSa from a modal analysis. Vol.
Example 24 • HOlizontal Distribution of Shear §12. In actu al pract ice. .4 A singlestory building has a rigid roof diaphragm. See appendix to this example for a proc edure for the distribution of lateral forces in structures with rigid diaphragms and cross walls and/or frames of any orientation . Design base shear: V = 100 kips in northsouth direction Wall rigidi ties: RA = 300 kip/in RB = 100 kip/in Rc = RD = 200 kip/in Centerofmass: X m= 40 ft. • • Roof diaphragm YR X ) c BO' IE Roof plan )1 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual. I 97 . Lateral forces in both directions are resisted by shear walls. the weight of the walls should be included in the determ ination of the centerofmass (CM). Ym = 20 ft Ana lyze for seismic forces in north south direc tion. the weight of the walls is neglected. particularly with concrete shear walls.' XR ~ ". The mass of the roof can be consid ered to be uniformly distributed. and in this example. The following information is given. Vol.8. r .BA 1 EKa mp!e 2 4 :Horizontal Distribution of Shear §12. A 40' y 0 Shear wall below .
XR = 40 . 98 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual. the total shear on walls A and B can be found by the addition of the direct and torsional load cases .B. OJ [3J [I] ~ ~ Eccentricity and rigidity properties Direct shear in walls A and B Plan irregularity requirements Torsional shear in walls A and B Total shear in walls A and B Calculations and Discussion ~ode Reference I I I OJ Eccentricity and rigidity properties The rigidity of the structure in the direction of applied force is the sum of the rig idities of walls parallel to this force . 1 . With the requirements for accidental eccentricity es«.4 Example 24 • H or/z ontal Dist ribution of Shear I Determine the following.4.1 = RA + RB = 300 + 100 = 400 kip/in Th e centers ofrigidity (CR) along the x and y axes are eccentricity e = X m .8. R §12 . Vol.20 = 20 ft Torsional rigidity abo ut the center of rigidity is de termine d as J = RA (20) 2 + RB (60/ + Rc (20)2 + RD(20)2 = 300 (20i + 100 (60)2 + 200 (20)2 + 200 (20i = 64 x 104 (kip /in) fe I I I I I I I I I I I The seismic force V app lied at the CM is equivalent to having Vapplied at the CR together with a counterclockwise torsion T.§1 2.
5 ki s j 64 x 1O~ P 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual.. x 100 = 75.A D / r rr: / / VO.31. Vol . 8A VO. eacc + 0. I 99 .05 (80 ft) = 4.O VT.n = RA + Rn X (V) = @J Plan irregularity requirements Th e determination of torsional irreg ularity.0 kips 300 + 100 V D.S VT. a A CR 20' 20' • V .A 4 D / VT.. This evaluation must include accidental torsion caused by an eccentricity of 5 percent of the building dimension. . the initial most severe tors ional shears. requires the evaluation of the story drifts in walls A and B.Ex amp le 24 • Horizontal Distribu tion of Sh ear §1 2.C T= V(e:: eecc) fa / / / ~ C C Direct shear contribution Torsional shear contribution ~ Direct shear in walls A and B R A RA + RB RD V 0.0 ft For the determination of torsional irregularity.11 = X (V) = 300 .B = V(e+e acJ(8 0 x R)( R B ) = 100(20+4)(60)(100) = 22..0 kips 300 + 100 100 x 100 = 25.20' 60' A l ~ CR~ VT. Items la and lb in Table 12.5 ki s 64 x 10~ P ~' T. V' and corresponding story drifts (so as to produce the lowest value of the average story drift) will result from the large st ecce ntrici ty e + eacc • Thes e are v' T.A = V (e+e"cJ(xR)(R A ) j = 100(20 + 4) (20)(300 ) = 22.
3 requires the evaluation and application of the torsional amplification factor A. = ( b"4' )' = ( 0.48 in 100 = 0.5 = 0.5 = 47.B V.8.2(0. = 0.33) (IBC Eq 1644) I I I I Note: the factor Ax is not calculated iteratively (i.49 = 1.8. and diaphragm shear transfer forces to collectors must be increased 25 percent per §12.1 8 + 0.A . ~ Torsional shears in walls A and B To account for the effects of torsional irregularity.5 = 52. are b' = ) ) RA = V~ = 52.5 300 = 0.. 1.33 I I I I :.A = 75. which for this singlestory building are also the story drift values.0 + 22.4. Vol.48 in b"4' b.e. Section 12.47 < 3..2 requires that the accidental torsional moment." 1. §12.5 kips (NOTE: Th is is not the design force for Wall A.4.B + \~.33 in 2 = b~ = 0.2. Extreme Torsional Irregularity Type Ib exists.5 kips = VD.0 . The resulting displacem ents b'. be multiplied by the torsional amplification factor Ax.7. it is not recalculated with amplified torsion).4 Example 24 • Hor izo ntal Distribution of Sh ear I The initial total shears are V~ = VD.§12.48 ) ' = 1.22. 100 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual. (See Example 26) Assum ing SDC D.4.3. 1 .8.. = 25.3. as accidental eccentricity here is used to reduce the force). 18 in V~ RB = 47.45 > 1.V..0 ..4 0.3.cc. Ve. structural modeling must include 3 dimensions per §12.48 = 0.
ed CC ] for VT.3 requirement to multiply only the accidental torsion al moment by Ax differs significantly from the 2000 !Be.4 The most severe total shears result from the use of V [e . I. This load combination involves the direct and torsional shears. 64 x 104 (kip/in jft ' 100 kips[(20 + 1.VT.0 + 24. Where the torsional shear has the same sense.47 x 4]20( ~00 kip/in) = 100 kips[(20 . and is therefore added to the direct shear. 2.. IpS ~ Total sh ear in walls A and B Total shear in each wall is the algebraic sum ofthc direct and torsiona l shear components v:.B = = 24 3 k' .0 .{.4. 2006 IBC Str uct ural/Seismic D esign Manual.B = r I I COmmentary Section 12. . and the "most severe" condition is as follows.8.2 requires that the most severe load combination for each element shall be considered for design . the torsion al shear must be based on the actua l eccentricity minus the accidental eccentricity to give the smallest subtractive shear. Vol.8.2 = 61.B + V T.24 kips V T.47 x 4]60(100 kip/in) " 64 x 10 (kip/injft ' = 13.A = 75. I I I I I I The §12.Example 24 • Horizontal Distrib ution of She ar §12.B.3 = 49.A and V [e + A. the torsional shear shall be calculated using actual eccentricity plus the accidental eccentricity to give the largest additive torsional shear.A . Where the torsional shear has the opposite sense to that of the direct shear and is to be subtracted.8 kips 25.4. = V D_.3 kips VB = V D . It restores the requirements of the 1997 UBC and 1999 Blue Book.13.eacc ] for VT•B V T. I 101 .1.
A threedimensional rigid diaphragm model has been formu lated for the evaluation of element actions and deformations due to prescrib ed loading conditions.3 Example 25 • Amplification of Accidental Tors i on § 12 . at the centers of mass and the ±O.8. Level.0 ±4 .g II b N @M 0 @ IN Floor plan at Level x The lateral seismic forces Fein the northsouth direction.0 80.5 65.0 80. 102 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual.8 30. 1 23. L. and accidental eccentricity eacc for each Level x are given below.4.0 In addition. 1 27. The structure is a fivestory reinforced concrete building frame system. Separate values are given for the application of the forces F.1 42.0 X es «: =0. 80. Vol. I .8 24.2 ft 25. In this example.05L.4.0 ±4.8.0 80.0 kips 82. f f f 4 @J20'=80' A ®. it is assumed for simplicity that the location of the centerofmass CAtf.0 I .0 ft ±4. for the given lateral seismic forces F. Shear walls resist lateral forces in both directions.\" F.4. resulting in zero inherent at torsion.r ± 4.e is congruent with the center of rigidity at the level in question . a computer analysis provides the following results for the second story.§12.3 This example illustrates how to include the effects of accidental eccentricity in the lateral force analysis of a multistory building.2.8. 5 4 3 2 I 110.0 ±4.3 3 1. structure dimensions.05Lx displacements as required by §12.0 ft 80.
0 kips 0. ~lJla:c = = 0.31 196. Vol.0 kips 0.31).0 kips 104.85 1. X rl . The following is a check of the story drifts.68 + 0.68 0.0 kips Check if torsional irregularity exists The building may have a torsional irregularity Type I (Table 12.68 in 0. From the above table. I 103 .44 For the second story.4..75 1.33 in 0.37 in 0. Story drift II..0 kips 126. find the following.80 1. Story drift II.0 kips 126. in this example it is assumed that accidenta l eccentricity is the only source of torsional mome nt at this floor level.62 0 .3 Force F~ Position I x .35 in 0. inherent torsion (center of mass not being congruent with center of rigidity) and the contribution due to accidental torsion.33 2 = 0..8.~ Wall shear 1'" Wall shear V. [L] ~ Maximum force in shear walls A and 8 Check if torsiona l irregularity exists Determine the amplification factor Ax New accidental torsion eccentricity @J ~ Calculations and Discussion Code Reference [!J Maximum force in shear walls A and 8 The maximum force in each shear wall is a result of direct shear.Example 25 II Amplification of A ccidental Torsion §12.0 kips 0.0 kips 115. it is determined that I I I I I I I VA VB = = 196.56 0.: Level 2 displacement 0" Level 2 displacement 5 8 185. r X r~ + 00 e..1 8 174.. As mentioned above.51 in 2006 IB C St ructur al/S eismic Design Ma nual.e.
.8.10) )= 1.e. a second analysis for torsion must be performed using the new accidental eccentricity.814) Where: the average story displacement is computed as = 1.10 in 2 1. ~ Determine the amplification factor A x Because a torsiona l irregularity exists.68 = 1. I .. §12. the amplification factor will be used to calculate a new and increased accidental eccentricity . e"cc = (1. beca use the only source of torsion is the accidental eccentricity. Ax (Eq 12..76 ft 10 4 2006 IBC Structural/S eismic De sign Manual.44 ((1 .2 0. In this example.8.4.1liao'g is larger than 1.19 in I I I = ' ~ New accidental torsion eccentricity Since Az (i. Torsional irregularity Type la exists .0 ft) = 4. = 0.. then torsional irregu larity Type 1b exists. as shown below.33 > 1.Note: if li ma.4.3 Example 2S • Amp lification of Accidenta l Torsion J li"".3 requires that the second story torsional moment be ampli fied by the following factor.§ 12.2)(1.44+0.4.5 1 1 I I . «.75 = 1. Ax for the second story) is greater than unity. Vol.19)(4.
However.8.1 .1 and §12.4.3 Example calculati ons were given for the second story. are sufficient for design purposes. Only the accidental torsion is required to be amplified if torsional irregularity exists . If torsional irregularity exists and Ax is greater than 1. Also note that Ax is not required to exceed 3. However.9 gmmentary Example 25 • Amplification ct Accidental Torsion §12. a second torsional analysis must be performed using the new accidental eccentricities. all the requirements of horizontal shear distribution.8. In practice.0. given in §12.0).4. When the dynamic analysis method of §12. The results of the first analysis with the use of A.8. each story requi res an evaluation of the most severe element actions and a check for the torsional irregularity condition. Vol..2) also apply .9 is used. the same procedure applies to the determination of the most severe element actions for any other lateralforeeresisting system having rigid diaphragms. I I I I I 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual.4. it is 110/ required to find the resulting new Ax values and repeat the process a second or third time (until the Ax converges to a constant or reaches the limit of 3.9.0 at any level (or levels) . While this example involves wall shear evaluation.5 states that amplification of accidental torsion.8.4. need not be amplified by Ax where accidental torsional effects are included in the dynamic analysis model. including torsion calculations that may be accounted for by displacing the calculated centers of mass of each level (§12. §12. I 105 .
Shear walls at the firstfloor level are discontinuous between lines A and Band lines C and D. I ..f 12' 4 .4. Seismic Design Category C S DS= 1.. or F.3..3 L~. E. ..§12.2....5 T 12.21 Note: ORCSW not permitted in SDC D... ~ Shear wall 12' Column C 24" x 24" f c =4000 12' psi Determine the following for column C. The following information is given. Vol. [!J Required strength ~ Detailing requirements 106 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual..3 Example 26 • Elements Supporting Discontinuous Systems ain~/e26 lements Supporting Discontinuous Systems A reinforced concrete building has the lateralforeeresisting system shown below.10 Ordinary reinforced> concrete shear wall (ORCSW) building frame system : R = 5 and Q o = 2. Office building live load: use factor of 0...3..5 on L Axial loads on column C D = 40 kips L = 20 kips QE = 100 kips 12' § 12.
4.3 .4.10)(40) = 259 kips or § 12.2( 1.J • Calculations and Discussion Code Reference This examp le demonstrates the loading criteria and detail ing required for elements supporting discontinued or offset elements of a seismicforceresisting system .2 Pu = 1.2 (Comb.3.5( 100) .3 (Comb.2( 1.2 (Comb.2 S DS D = 2.3 (Comb.5( 100) + 0.4.5L + 1. the first story columns on lines A and D must support the wall elements above this level.0.2 SDS D = 2.0Em where § 12. Because of symmetry. and seismic loads I P" = 1..4.Exam plo 26 • Elements Supporting Discontinuous Systems §12. Column C on line D is treat ed in this example. = Q" QE+ 0.3.9 (40) ..3.J.5 (241) = 205 kips tension · 2006 IBC Stru ctural/Seis mic Design Manual.2. 7) E.0Em P" = 0. 5) § 12. live.10)(40) = 24 1 kips 1 Substituting the values of dead. 7) E. I 107 .0. = Q" QE .3 requires that the column shall have a design strength to resi st special seismic load combination of § 12.2 (40) + 0. 5) § 12.0.J.2 . the column on line A would have identica l requirements. Required strength Because of the discontinuous configuration of the shear wall at the first story.3.9D + 1. I Section 12. Vol.5 (20) + 259 = 317 kips co mpression I I I I I I and P" = 0.2D + 0.4.
Vol. These would have to be designed according to the requirements of § 12.3 and relat ed sections of the relevant materials chapters apply to the following vertical irregularities and vertical elements. Discontinuous column. The wall at left has a Type 4 vertical structural irregularity. Note that only the column needs to resist the special load combi nations since it supports the shear wa ll. 1. Th is frame has a Type 4 vertica l structural irregularity.2.3.3.14"_ _.3. DDD Transfer girder DDD 108 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual.10.r t Column 2. 1. I . collector beams AB and CD are required at Levell . Discontinuous shear wall. The load requirements of § 12.3 Examp l e 2 6 ff Elements Supporting Discon tinuous Systems Cotpmentary To transfer the shears from walls AB and CD to the firststory wall BC.3.§12.
e.3. Note that the transfer diaphragm and the offset shear wall are subject to the p factor. and §12.Example 26 • Elements Supporting Discontinuous Systems §12. The wall on Line A at the first story is discontinuous. transfer diaphragm) to the offset wall must be designed per the requirements of §12.3. Outofplane offset. but not to the special load combinations.3. the load demand Em of § 12.3.3. The portion of the diaphragm transferring shear (i.3.3 applies to the supporting columns.3. I 109 .4.. Vol.4.2 Equations 5 and 7 need not exceed the maximum force that can be transferred to the element by the lateralforeeresisting system. 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual. Oisconllnued wall It should be noted that for any of the supporting columns shown above.3 3. This structure has a Type 4 plan structural irregularity.
§12.3.3.3
Example 27 • Elements Supporting Discontinuous Walls or Frames
1
fI" ':rt:

r
·& r'!'! amp le 2 7 .". ~~/emen ts Supporting Discontinuous Walls
1
orFrames
§12.3.3.3
1
This example illustrates the application of the requirements of § 12.3.3.3 for the allowable stress design of elements that support a discont inuous lateralforeeresisting system. In this example, a lightframed bearingwall building with plywood shear panels has a Type 4 vertical structural irregularity in one of its shear walls, as shown below. The following information is given. Seismic Design Category C S DS = l.IO R =6.5 no = 3.0 Cd =4 /I = 0.5 Axial loads on the timber column under the discontinuous portion of the shear wall are Dead D = 6.0 kips Live L = 3.0 kips Seismic Q£ = ±7.0 kips Determine the following.
I I
I
Ughl framed wall
with plywood
sheathing
J
I
Timber column
[!J
Applicable load combinations
~ Required column design strength
CalclJlations and Discussion Code Reference
[1J
Applicable load combinations
For vertical irregularity Type 4, § 12.3.3.3 requires that the timber column have the design strength to resist the special seismic load combinations of § 12.4.3.2 . This is required for both allowable stress design and strength design. For strength design the applicable load combinations for allowable strength design are
7. (0.9  0.2S DS)D + QoE
Appl icable load combinations for allowable strength design are:
I I I I I I I I I I
110
2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I
Example 27 • Ele ments Supp or ting Discontinu ous Waifs or Fram es
§ 12.3 .3 .3
5. (1.0 + 0.105 80S) D + 0.525 + QoQE + 0.75L 6. (0.8  0.14 80s) D + 0.7 QuQE
1
Required column desig n streng th (strength design) In this shear wall, the timber column carries only axial loads. The appropriate dead, live, and seismic loads are determined as
D = 6.0 kips L
= 3.0 kips
Em = n, QE + 0.2 80S D = 3.0(7.0)+ 0.2 (1.10) (6.0) = 22.3 kips
J
or
Em = Q o QE 0.2 80S D = 3.0(7.0)  0.2 (!.IO) (6.0) = 19.7 kips
For the required strength design strength check, both load combinations must be checked.
P
=
1.2D + L + Em
I I I I I I I I
I
P = 1.2 (6.0) + 0.5 (3.0) + 22.3 = 31.0 kips . . . (compression) P
=
0.9D  1.0Em
P = 0.9 (6.0)  1.0 (19.7) =14.3 kips .. . (tension)
The load factor on L in combination 5 is permi tted to equal 0.5 for all occupancies in whic h L; is less than or equal to 100 psf, with the exception of garages or areas occupied as places of public assembly.
Commentary
For strength design, the tim ber column must be checked for a compression load of31.0 kips and a tension load of 14.3 kips. In making an allowable stress design check, § 12.4.3.3 permits use of an allowable stress increase of 1.2. The 1.2 stress increase may be combined with the duration ofload increase described in the NO S. The resulting design strength = (1.2)(1.0)( 1.33) (allowable stress desig n). This also applies to the mechanical holddown element required to resist the tension load.
2006 IB C Structural/Se ismic Design Manual, Vol. I
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§12.3.3.3
Example 27 • Elements Supporting Discontinuous Walls
or Frames
The purpose of the designstrength check is to confirm the ability of the column to carry higher and more realistic loads required by the discontinuity in the shear wall at the first floor. This is done by increasing the normal seismic load in the column QE by the factor Q o = 3.0 to calculate the maximum seismic load effect Em (§ 12.4.3).
I
1
I I I
I I
I I I I I
112
2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I
E::ample 28 • Soil Pr es s ur e At Foundation
§§2A; 12.13 .4
le2 oil Pressure At Foundations
III
§§2.4; 12.13.
Geotechnical investiga tion reports usua lly prov ide soilbearing pressures on an allowable stress design basis while seismic forces in ASCE /SEI 705 and most concrete design (ACI/31805, § 15.2.2 and R 15.2), are on a strength design basis. The purpose of this exam ple is to illustrate footing design in this situation. A spread footing supports a reinforced concrete column. The soil classification at the site is sand (SW). The following information is given . Seismic Design Category C SDS = 1.0, / = 1.0 P = 1.0 for structural system PD = 50 kips PD includes the footing and imposed soil weight) PL = 30 kips P E = ± 40 kips, VE = 25 kips, (these are the QE loads due to base shear V) Snow load S = 0 Wind load W < QE /1.4 The seismic loads are from an equivalent lateral analysis. The loads given above follow the sign convention shown in the figure. Perform the followi ng tasks.
r
)J
Grade
4'
I}J
Determine the design criteria and allowable bearing pressure
~ Determine footing size ~ Determine soil pressure reactions for strength design of the footing
section
2006 IBC Structural/S eism ic Design Manual, Vol. I
11 3
6) (Comb.§§2.4 permits reduction of overturning effects at the foundationsoil interface by 25 percent (if an equivalent lateral for ce analysis is used) or 10 percent (if modal analysis is used )..7(0.I) Per § 12. £ 1' = 0 for determ ining soil p ressure.75)£ + L] (Comb.4 . +£.7E) D + 0. (Eq 12.I reduces to (Eq 12.75(0.4.20 ksf for trans ient loads.4.6D + 0. allowable stress design may be used for sizing the foundation using the load combinations given in §2. 7) 0.2 by £=£. 5) (Comb.4.4. for the soil pres sure the seism ic effe ct is reduced D + 0.4 .7£ Section 12. Vol. Equation 12.43) For the san d class of material and footing depth of 4 feet. I .75)£ Because foundation investigation reports for bu ild ings typically specify bearing pre ssures on an allowable stress design basis.4 Example 28 • Soil Pressure At Foundation :Calculations and Discussion Code Reference §2.13 . However.13. 7) 0.7£ + L ) (Comb. the allowable gross foun dati on pressure pa from a sitespecific geotechnical investigation recommendation is p a = 2.7£ D + 0.4 [L] Determine the design criteria and allowable bearing pressure The seismicforce reactions on the footing are based on strength design.6D + 0. 6) (Comb . 12. 5) (Comb..75[0.1. The earthquake loads to be resisted are specified in §12. Therefore . such as seismic. D + 0. crit eria for determining footing size are also on this basis.2. 114 2006 IB C S tr u c tu r al /Se ism i c Des ig n Manual.75 (0.40 ksf for sustained loa ds and pa = 3.7(0.2.
Example 28 • Soli Pres sure At Foundation
§§ 2.4; 12.13.4
[3J
Determine foot ing size
1
1
P
=
D + 0.75(0.7E) = 50 + 0.75(0.7)(40) = 56 kips
(Comb. 5) (Comb. 6)
P = D + 0.75[0.7(0.75)£ + L]
= 50 + 0.75[0.7(0.75)40 + 30) = 88 kips
P = 0.6D + 0.7(0.75)£
= 0.6(50) + 0.7(0.75)(40) = 9 kips
(Comb. 7)
Equation 6 governs. The requ ired footing size is 88 kips/3.20 ksf = 27.5 sf Use 5 ft, 3insquare footing. A = 27.6 sf
~ Determine soil pressure reactions for strength design of footing
For the design of the concrete elements, strength design is used. The reduction in overturning does not apply, and the vertical seismic load effec t is included
P
= I.3D + 0.5L + E
=
§2.3.2 (Comb. 5)
1.2(50) + 0.5(30) + 40 + 0.2( 1.0)(50) = 11 5k
I I I I I
I
A uniform pressure of 115k/27.6 sf = 4.17 ksf should be used to determine the internal forces of the footing. (Note that if the footing also resisted moments, the pressure would not be uniform.) The other seismic load combination is
P =0.9D +£
= 0.9(50)  40 + 0.2(1.0)50 = 5k
§2.3.2 (Comb. 7)
Note that this indicates uplift will occur. ASCE/SEI 705 does not require that foundation stability be maintained using strengthlevel seismic forces. This combination is only used here to determine internal forces of concrete elements of the foundat ion. As it results in no internal forces, it may be neglected.
2006 IBC StructuraVSeismic D esign Manu al, Vol. I
11 5
§12.8.6
Example 29 • Drift
Example 29 Drift
§12"B.6
A fourstory special momentresisting frame (SMRF) building has the typical floor plan as shown below. The typical elevation of Lines A through D is also shown, and the structure does not have horizontal irregularity Types 1a or lb. The following information is given .
Occupancy Importance Category I Seismic Design Category 0 1 = 1.0 Cd = 5.5 T = 0.60 sec
Seism ic force
Typical fluor plan
Level
4
3
2
DDD DDD DDD
Ty pical Elevati on
12'
12'
12'
12'
The following are the deflections (computed from static analysis  effects of Pdelta have been checked) bxe at the centerofmass of each floor level. These values include both translational and torsional (with accidental eccentricity) effects. As required by § 12.8.6.2, b.~c has been determined in accordance with design forces based on the computed fundamental perio d without the upper limit (CI/Ta ) of § 12.8.2.
11 6
20 06 IBC Structura l/Se IsmIc Design Man ua l, Vol . I
1
Level
Example 29 • Drift
§ 12.B.6
0"
1.51 in 1.03
1
[L]
4
3 2
.63 .30
For each floorlevel centerofmass, determine the following. Maximum inelastic response deflection 05.
~ Design story drift ~ in story 3 ~ Check story 3 for storydrift limit
Calculations and Discussion
Code Reference
[!J
Maximum inelastic response deflection Ox These are determined using the O se values and the Cd factor
§12.B
o = CA, I
.r
= 5.56" = 5.50
1.0
se
C Eq 12.815)
The refore:
Level
0.(1'
1.51 in 1.03 0.63 0.30
6,
8.31 in 5.67 3.47 1.65
I I I I I I
1
4 3
2
1
~ Design story drift ~ in story 3 due to Ox
Story 3 is located between Levels 2 and 3. Thu s:
~J =
5.67  3.47 = 2.20 in
I
2006 IBC Structural/Seismic D esign Manual, Vol. I
117
§12.8.6
Example 29 • Drift
I
§12.12.1
@J
Check story 3 for storydrift limit
1
1
J
For this fou rstory building with Occupancy Importance Category I, § 12.12.1, Table 12.121 requires that the design story drift /1 shall not exceed 0.025 times the story height.
For story 3
/1J
=
2.20 in
]
Storydrift limit = 0.025 (144) = 3.60 in > 2.20 in :. Story drift is within the limit.
I I I I I I I I I
)
118
2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. 1
I I I I
a fourstory steel special mo mentres isting frame (SMF) structure has the design force deflections o x t! as shown. using a static.8. e 2. The limits are based on the design earthquake displacement or deflection O x and not the elastic response deflections ex t! corresponding to the design lateral forces of § 12.5c5.rr 1 (E q 12. I 1 19 .91 1 = 1. Occupancy Category I Seismic Design Category D 12' Level 4 ~ f ~ D Deflected shape ' 6.8.15) = 5. elastic analysis.5 12' 2 1. [}J Design earthquake deflections Ox ~ Compare design story drifts with the limit value Calculations and Discussion Code Reference [}J Design earthquake deflections ax §12 .12 For the design of new buildings.50 of t! 2006 IB C St ructural/SeIsmi c Des ign Manual..Example 3 0 • Stor.0 = 5.79 P = 1. These have been determined according to § 12.36 12' Cd 0. Vol . In the example give n below.3 16' 0 Determine the foll ow ing.! Drift Limitations §12 . the code places limits on the design story drifts.0 tr = 5. 1.6 The design earthquake deflections O x are determined from the following = Cd° .8.8. /).44 In 3 1.1 2 lEJralnple 30 Story Drift Limitations *12.
1: !1alp = 0.65 3.21 requires that the calculated design story drift shall not exceed 0.51 in 2.0251111. and F. 120 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual.62 1.019211 Levell = 0.Cl.08 in 1.13 0.k.76 in !1 S. o.12. Therefore: The story drift limits of § 12.59 Limit 2.65 O x 11.9 is used. Vol . . .92 6.68 2.019211 = 0._I. Table 12.76 3.76 2. 0.12. Whenever the dynamic analysis procedure of § 12. 2. Determination of story drift from the difference of the combined mode deflections may produce erroneous results because differences in the combined modal displacements can be less than the corresponding combined modal story drift..025 time s the story height." 2. For SMF in SDC D.k. 0.121 . Note that use of the drift limit of 0.3 = 0.§12.0192 (16 ft x 12 in/ft) = 3. I .68 Status o. check actual design story drifts against limits Level x 4 3 2 1 C .59 D.76 2. and 2 !1 S.k.43 in 8.68 in For b. E. story drift should be determined as the modal combination of the storydrift value for each mode.1.02511 requires interior and exterior wall systems to be detail to accommodate this drift per Table 12.12 are satisfied. 3. § 12.k. o. this limit is reduced by §12.24 3.0192 (12 ft x 12 in/ft) = 2.12 p per §12. = Cl.12 Example 30 a Story Drift Limitations @J Compare story drifts with the limit value For this fourstory building in Occupancy Category I.. o.019211 Determine drift limit at each level Levels 4 .
2.2 Find the vertical seismic load effect.2 E = E" + E\O (Eq 12.4.42) (Eq 12. on the nonprestressed canti lever beam shown below.0) D =. I 121 .Example 31 • Vertical Sei smi c Load Effect §12.43) E" = 0.2D where the negative sign is for an upward action. The follow ing information is given.4.44) =0  0. [!J Upward seismic forces on beam ~ Beam end reactions Calculations and Discussion Code Reference [!J Upward seismic forces on beam For SOC 0 .2 §12.4..0 Find the following for strength design. Seismic Design Category D Beam unit we ight = 200 plf SDS= 1. 2006 IBC Structural/Se ismi c D esig n Manual.41) (Eq 12.2. The governing load combination including E as defined in §12. the design of hori zonta l cantilever beams must consider 1.2SDsD QE = 0 for verti cal load.0.4. giving E (Eq 12.2(1. Vol .2 Exal te 31 Vertical Seismic Load Effect §12.2. E.
3. A minimum net upward seismic force.0.0.2 I I 122 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual.§12.2)(1.0)D + 0 + 0 =l. The governing load combination including the downward seismic effect from §2.4.2 Example 31 • Vertical Seismic Load Effect I 1 The governing load combination including the upward seismic effect from §2.0E = 0.2.2. I .28 = 1..0.9D + (.7(200 plf) = 140 plf downward :.2D) =0.2.2 times the dead load qs = .0E + L + 0.4 (200 pit) = 280 plf downward :.2D + 1.2WD = .2(200) = . no net upward load. The terminology of "net upward seismic force" is intended to specify that gravity load effects cannot be considered to reduce the effects of the vertical seismi c forces and that the beam must have the strength to resist the actions caused by this net upward force without consideration of any dead loads. This force is computed as 0.0(0.2D + 1.7D 1 = 0.40 plf J §12.3. (7) is qe = 0.1.4D = 1. I I I I I I I J 2.2. (5) is qe = 1.9D + 1. this is the maximum downward load on the beam. Vol.
2.4= qe .. = 40~0)2 = J 2000 lb/ft The beam must have strengths . Vol.J 123 .pM.2 Beam end reactions for upward force of 40 plf v.pll.4. and the actions due to the applicable gravity load combinations.1 J J EKample J 1 " Vertical Seismic Load Effect §12. I I I I I I I 20061BC Structural/Seismic Design Manual. and .J = qEl! = 40 plf(lO ft) = 400 lb M. to resist these actions.
45g SOl = 0.esign Response Spectrum I I Determine the general design response spectrum for a site where the followi ng spectra l response acceleration parameters have been evaluated accordin g to the general procedure of §11 .I2 sec T.45 124 2006 IBC Structural/Seism ic Design Man ual.4.2(0.4.5 provides the equations for the 5percent damped accele ration response spectrum Sa for the period T intervals of os T::: To.= 0. I I I I I I I I I . p l e 32 '!.4.45 = O.62 sec 0.28 = 0.4. Vol.28) 0. and T > T. ".5 Examp le 32 • Desig n Response Spe ctrum I §11.28g TL = 8 sec I J [!J Determine design response spectrum 'Calculations and Discussion Code Reference Section I J . arc calculated as I I I "". S DS= 0. = S DI S DS = 0.§11. To and T.5 Exam .
1.. .18g '_' .12 sec Ts =0.g Sa .45g 3.4.4  To =0.0 T(sec) TL = 8 sec .45 ) T + 0. For the interval 0:::: T:::: To Sa = 0. 1 Elastic response spectrum 2006 IBC Structur al/S eis mi c Des ign Manual. per Figure 11.28g _ T 0.18]g 2.1 below. < T:::: TL T .6 = SD S T+ OASDS T" (Eq 11 . For T~ TL sa S DI TL _ 2. T nsc Eq 162 1) 4._ .28g _ _ __ : ~ I L I ~0. For To < T :::: r. Figure 33.12 [2..Examp le 32 " Des ign Response Spectrum §11.SOl _ 0.45g I I ! 0.25T + 0.28 ..6 = 0. 125 . For r.24 g T2 .~ From this information the elastic design response spectrum for the site can be drawn as shown in Figure 33. Vol . Sa = SDS = 0.62 s ec 1.4(OA5g) 0.45) g (0.41.1.5 The spectral accelerations are calculated as 1. in ASCE/SEI 705 So 0..
2.0 Design Base Shear V = 400 kips QE = MQE = 53. 2. In this example. Recall that the momentresisting frames provided must be able to resist at least 25 percent of the design forces.5. Vol.0 kipft ~ Moment frame Point A V=400kips From the results of the computer analysis LV shear walls = 355 kips L V columns = 45 = 400 kips Total design base shear Determine the following for the moment frame system. I . Shear wall This is the beam moment MQE .1 . [!J [!J Design criteria Seismic design moment at A = M'QE I I I I I I I I I I I I 126 2006 lac Structural/Seismic Design Manual.1 This example illustrates the determination of design lateral forces for the two basic elements of a dual system.8 has been used to determine the seismic demand QE at point A in the dual system of the building shown below. example 33 II Dual Systems I 1 § 12. the frame element design loads for a dual system are usually a result of a computer analysis of the combined frameshear wall system.§12.0 J = 1.5.2.1 prescribes the following features for a dual system . The two systems are designed to resist the total design base shear in proportion to their relative rigidities. §12.2. In present practice. Seismic Design Category D p = 1. I 1 J I. the Equivalent LateralForeeProcedure of § 12.5. The following information is given. Resistance to lateral load is provided by the combination of the moment frames and by shear walls or braced frames.
the portion VFofthe base shear resisted by the momentframe is equal to the sum of the first story frame column shears in the direction ofl oading. I 127 .5. Th is 25percent requirement may be interpreted in two ways. because this procedure includes the interaction effects between the frame and the shear wall From the combined frameshear wall analysis with forces due to the design base shear V = 400 kips.2~~400) (53. For this example. the moment frame must be designed for the greater value of either the Q E value due to the design base shear V loading on the combined frame .1 1 J Example 33 • Du al Sys tems § 12. ~ Q~ ~ Q~ may be found by an equivalent lateralforce analysis of the independent moment frame using 25 percent of the design base shear V. assume that The required values QEcorresponding to a frame base shear resistance equal to 25 percent of V is given by and the seismic design moment at A is M~E = O. ~ Seismic Design Moment at A = M'QE It is elected to use the factored QE (option b) listed above.2.8 kipft 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Des ign Manual. or the Q~ value resulting from at least 25 percent of the design forces.1 .0) = 117. Vol. J may be found by factoring the combined frameshear wall system Q~ value such that Q~ corresponds to the action that would occur if the portion of the base shear resisted by the moment frame VF were to be at least equal to 25 percent of the design base shear V.shear wall system. :Calculations and Discussion  CodeReference OJ Design criteria According to the two listed requirements.
The slender configuration of the shear walls or bracing systems can actua lly load the moment frame at the upper levels of the combined model. while at the same time the primary system.§ 12 . 1 Example 33 • Du al Sy st em s I . I ) .25V . carries its proportio nal share of the design base shear. I' large aclions wou ld be muIlip ie db y VF I 1 I I I I I I I I I I I I I 128 2006 1BC Strucrural/Selsmic Design Manual. Vol. Comrriel1Jary Use of a dual system has the advantage of providing the structure with an independent vertical loadcarrying system capable of resisting 25 percent of the design base shear. either shear wall or braced frame. .2 . . Design Criterion la involving the design of the moment frame independent from the shear wall or bracing system for 25 percent of the design base shear should be considered for highrise buildings . where these O. For this configuration. and excessively large moment frame design actions would result from the use of Design Criterion Ib.5. the code permits use of a larger R value for the primary system than would be permitted without the 25percent frame system .
1. Vol. nor less than 280 Iblft 2006 IB C Str uctu ral/S eis mic D esig n Manual. I 129 .0 SDS= l.Example 34 • Lateral Forces for One. I 1.11 Fp = 0. Seismic Design Category D Top of parapet 4' Roof I = 1.1 1. Per § 12. the design lateral loading is determ ined using §12 . the force must be taken as no less than 400 lb/ft SDsI.1 wp where wp is the we ight of the wal l. Note that the panel is a bearing wall and shear wall.1 1 Ie 34 eteret orees for'OlleStar xa all Panels 12. For the tiltup wall panel shown bel ow.11 This example illustrates the determi nation of the total design lateral seismic force on a tiltup wall panel supported at its base and at the roof diaphragm level.40 SDsI wp ~ 0. Ground [!J Outofplane force for wall panel design ~ Shear and moment diagrams for wall panel design ~ Loading.2. determine the outofplane sei smi c forces required for the design of the wall section.Og Panel thickness = 8 inches Normal weight con crete ( 150 pe t) TillUp panel 20' Determ ine the followi ng. shear and moment diagrams for para pet design :Calculafions and Discussion Code Reference [!J Outo fpl ane fo rce for wall panel design Under § 12. T he fo llow ing information is given. assuming a uniformly distributed outofplane loading. This is usually done for a representative 1foot width of the wall length.Story Wall Pan els §12.
0 plf/ft uniform loading is also applied to the parapet. I . below. and moment diagrams are determ ined for a unit width of panel.(p.l1.0.0)w = O AOw The weight of the panel between the base and the top of the parapet is w\\' = L~) (150) (24) = 2400 lb per foot of width Fp = 0040 (2400) = 950 Ib/ft F p > 400 lb/ft SD sI = 400( 1)(1) = 400 lb/ft Fp > 280 lb/ft The force F p is the total force on the panel.0 P lflft ~ Shear and moment diagrams for wall panel design Using the uniformly distributed load. 40.§12. 1 requ ires the anchorage force (but not the wall force) to be incre ased. The force Fp is considered to be applied at the midheight (centroid) of the panel. but this must be uniformly distributed between the base and the. For design of the panel for outofplane forces. Vol.0)(1. See step 3. The 40.11 Ex ample 34 :I Lat eral Forc es for OneStory Wall Panels Note that if the diaphragm is flexible . the loading. For the given SDS = 1. the wall panel seismi c force is F p = OAO(1. shear. F p must be expressed as a distributed load. for the parapet design load.(p r JP = 960 Ib/ft 24 ft = 40. It acts at the centroid.0 and J = 1.top of parapet.0 plllft 4' RR ·3 20 20' 184 3 Rs 384 Loading Shear (Ib/ft) Moment IbftIft 130 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual. §12.2.
3.k. .0) 2. Note that the reaction at the roof RR is not necessarily the face used for walltoroof anchorage design.k. . Vol. I 131 .6 SD sIpW p = 640 lb/f] . The parapet is considered an elem ent with an attachment elevation at the rooflevel T 13. the total force on the panel is 40 . o.5 for the unbraced cantilever parapet portion of the wall panel.0 plf/ft (24 ft) = 960 lb ft The reaction at the roof and base are calculated as RR= 960(12) 20 = 576 Ib/ft RR = 960 .32) (Eq 13.2 (400) = 480 lb/ft < 1.576 = 385 lb/ft The shears and moments are the QE load actions for strength design.1.33) and > 0.4 (2.2Wp = 1.5)(1.31) F= p 0.Example 34 • Lateral Forces for One· Stoi"y Wall Pane ls §12.5 (1 + 2 20)w 20 p F p = 1.5 and Rp = 2.3 SD slpWp . 2006 la c Struct ural/Seismic Design Manual.0)(1. . .1 I This section requ ires that the design force for parapets (note that parapets are classified as architectural components) be determined by Equation 13. shear and moment diagrams for parapet design §13.31 with the Table 13.11 When the uniform load is also applied to the parapet. see rsc §1620. ~ Loading. (Eq 13.2.51 z=h The weight of the parapet is I I I I I Wp = (1~)(150)(4) = 400 lb per foot of width The concentrated force applied at the midheight (centroid) of the parapet is (Eq 13. o.51 values of ap = 2.
.§12. and Florida) the minimum wind forces may govern over the seismic forces. Mississippi. 132 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual. 'I Note that for a large portion ofthe lower southeast region of the USA (Texas.. Georgia... Vol.11 Example 34 • Lateral Forces for OneStory Wall Panels The equivalent uniform seismic force is h = 480 4 = 120 plf/ft for parapet design 120 plrJft 4' 480 960 Shear (Ib/ft) Loading Moment (lbfUft) ••f I . Louisiana.. I . Arkansas. .. . Alabama.
0)11'".0 = panel 20' Wall weight WI/' = 113 psf 38' 16' Wan section I I I I I Determ ine the fo llowing .11. I 133 . Th e followi ng information is given.2 Example 35 OutofPlane Seismic !Forces for TwoStory Wall Panel §12_11. 2: 0. The typica l wall panel in this building has no pilasters and the tiltup wall s are bearing walls. A typical solid panel (no door or window openings) is assume d. Th e ro of consists of 11/2inch. Seismic Design Category D S DS 2' Wall J = = 1. T his is considered a rig id diaphr agm . The seco nd floor consists of Iinch.Exampl e 35 • OutofPlan e Seismic Forces for TwoStory Wall Pan el §12. OA O ( 1.2 psf 2006 IBC Structural/Se ismic Design Manual. = OAO( 113) = I 45 . = OAOw".1. I Sgage compo site decking with a 2II2inch ligh tweight conc rete topp ing.1 r.2 This example illustrates determination of outofplane seis mic forces for the design of the twostory tiltup wall pane l shown below. [L] Outofplane forces for wall panel design Outofplane forces for wall anchorage design [3J [L] Calculations and Discussion Outofplane forces for wall panel design Requirements for outofp lane seismic forces are speci fied in § 1620.0 1.111'". 20gage metal deck ing on open web steel joists and has been determ ined to be a flexible diaph ragm. = = 0040 Soslw.0)( 1.7 Code Reference §12. Vol.1 and 12. Wa lls span from floor to floor to roof.1 §12.1 1.11. 11.
. 134 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual. with height z at parapet centroid 37 ft....0)( 1.)} '. [C:) (2.] Anchorage force for the flexible roof diaphragm r.1. the required shears and moments may be evaluated by using reaction va lues base d on the tributary area for the lft strip 16 ft ) 1" R 1( .11.2 plf ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 20' ~ ~ ~ ~ ...3.. Fp is appl ied as a uniform load ~ 2' ~ r . For the purpose of wall design. 11. ~ ~ 16' ~ .8 8 s/wl\' D (Eq 12.' ~ + 18(45..2 Examp l e 35 " OutofPlan e Seismic Forces for Tw oStory Wall Panel For a repre sentative 1footwide strip of wall length.1 §1 2.0)(1356) = 1085 plf Th e design forc e per anchor is Fp times the anchor spacing. 11.1 [!.~ [( 2~ ft) + 2ft](1 13 psf) ~ 1356 pl f Fp = 0. = 0.. Gp = 2.2YP= 8(45..5 ~ Outatplane torces tor wall anchorage design §12. Vol. For example if the spacing is at 4 feet. .111) where Ww is the we ight of the wall tributary to the anchor w.2) ~ 814 Ib Note that the 2foothigh parapet must be des igned for the seismic force F p specified in § 13.2. the anchor mus t be designed for (10 85) (4 ft) = 4340 lb. /p = Fp( I ft) = 45.8( 1. I .5 and Rp = 2..2) = 362 1 b R.§12..
For the case of rigid diaphragms the anchorage force is given by the greater of the following: a.1 §12.4(1.2 1 b. Vol. I 135 .11. z = 16 = the height of the anchorage of the rigid diaphragm attachment.1.11. and Wp is the weight of the wall tributary to the anchor 6 fl 2 )](113 pst) = 2034 plf [(2~ ft) + C ft Wp = F = 0. c. 2 ~ Anchorage force for the rigid second floor diaphragm .11.302Wp = 0.302(2034) 615 plf I I 1 I I 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual.0)(1.0) [I + 2 p ) = 2. The force set forth in §12.0)(1. A force of 400 SD sI (pit).!i)] 36 = IV p 0.E1Camp/~ 35 " Out·of·Plane Solsmic Forces for TwoStory Wall Panel §12.11. §12. 280 (pit) of wall.5 (.
the seismic anchorage forces are given in §12. the seismic outofplane forces for the design of the wall are not dependent on the height of the wall in relati onship to the total height of the building.11.2 and for SDCs C. E.2.1. For rigid diaphragms of SDCs A and B.11.1 §12.11. D.2.11. and F. the seismic anchorage forces are given in §12. and F. I I I I I I I I I I I I 136 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual. the seismic anchorage forces are given in §12.2.11. the seismic anchorage forces are given in §12. Vol.11.§12. For rigid diaphragms of SDCs C. §12. For flexible diaphragms of SDCs A and B. D. E.2 Example 35 • OutatPlane Seismic Forces for Two·Story Wall Panel 1 Commentary For flexible or rigid diaphr agms for all seismic design categories (SDCs). I I I .11 .
Att achment.31 [!J Design criteria Th e total des ign lateral seismic component force to be transferred to the structure is determined from (Eq 13..~ .. ~ NOndUCljle allachmenls Seismic Design Category D 5 DS Wp Level Roof ~ shallow expansion anchors = 1.Example 36 • RIgid Equipment § 13. including anchorage.1 = 1. [!J Design criteria ~ Design lateral seismic force at base ~ Design lateral seismic force at roof Ca/cu/~t(ons and Discussion Code Reference §13.0 r.1 Thi s example illustrates determination of the design seismic force for the attachments of rigid equipment (see commentary). bracing. The threestory building structure shown below has rigid electrical equipment supported on nond uctile porcelain insulators that provide anchorage to the structure. that "attach" the equipment to the structure. means those components. Vol. as used in the code.31) 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic D esign Manua l. Identical equipment is located at the base and at the roof of the building. and support mountings. I 137 . 12' 12' Ip Wp = 10 kips 2 12' Find the follow ing. 3.3. 1 Example 36 Rigid Equipmen §13.
.6 kips (Eq 13.3 Check S DS Jp W p r.32) :. Also note that for shallow expansion anchors Rp = 1.4(1 .6 SDS Jp Check Fp S 1. I . 1) (1.§13. Fp = 3.33) : .2.61.5/1.3 kips .1)(1 0 kips) [1+ 2 (36)] = 8.3.1 Ex amp l e 36 • Rig id Equipment Values of Q p and Rp are given in Table 13.1)(1 0 kips ) [1 + 2 (~)] = 2.3 .3 kips (Eq 13.8 ki (1.93 ki (1.g. T 13. Equation 13. see §13.3.4(1.. Fp = 8. .0)(1.4. item of equipment) is given in § 11. . Equation 1667 governs.3 SDs l p W p = 0. 138 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual.2. s 0.61 ~ Design lateral seismic force at base Zx §13.0) 10 = 3. and support mountings) that has a period less than or equal to 0. Vol.1) (1. bracing.6 S DS Ip Wp = 1.. Rigid equipment (including its attachments.33 governs ~ Design lateral seismic force at roof Zx = h.5. = 36 ft s P Wp F p = 0. pommentary The definition of a rigid component (e.1 states that Fp need not exceed 1. anchorages.31 =0 F p = 0.5/1.0) 36 Section 13.3 (1.0) 10 = 17.8 kips .6 (1.06 seconds.0) 36 s P Also § 13. 1 has a requi rementthat Fp be not less than 0.0)(1.
only equipment such as anchorage or attachmen ts or components need be designed for seismic forces. Where equipment.3 requires a component importance factor greate r than 1. Testing should comply with ICCES AC I56.2 (Eq 13.5 allows testing as an alternative to the analytical methods of § 13. the force in the connected part) is a function of l/Rp .5 for shallow anchors.5) for the following .4. (see § 13. which can be either flexible or rigid.6.1. the supporting frame must also meet the seismic design requirements of § 13. I 139 . Note that § 13. Section 13.Exa mple 36 • Rigid Equipm ent §13.2.e.1 The fundamental period Tp for mechanical and electrical equipment shall be determined by the formula given in § 13.61) Where: g = acceleration of gravity in inches/sec/ Kp = stiffness of resilient support system Tp = component fundamental period IV p = component operating weight The component anchorage design force Fp (i. Vol.4.2).0 (lp = 1. comes mounted on a supporting frame that is part of the manufactured unit.1. where Rp = 1. I • I I I I I I • • Life safety component required to function after an earthquake Components of hazardous materials Occupancy Category IV component s needed for continued operation of the facility 2006 IBC Structural/Seis mic Design Manual.3 .. Generally . This is discussed in § 13.
3. 1. bracing. / / / / / Find the following.1 This example illustrates determination of the design seismic force for the attachments of flexible equipment.31) 140 2006 IBC Str u c t ura l/Seis m i c Des ig n Manua l. that "attach" the equipment to the structure. I = 1. Vo l .0 = 10 kips 2 12' 1 '~ wp / / / .3.3. including anchorage. see commentary.1 Ex am p l e 37 " Flexible Equipment § 13.1 [!J Design criteria The tota l design lateral seismic component force to be transferred to the structure is determined from CEq 13. The threestory building structure shown below has flexible airhandling equipment supp orted by a ductile anchorage system. Attachment as used in the code means those components. Identical equipment is located at the base and at the roof of the building.§ 13. I . and support mountings. [!J Design criteria ~ Design lateral seismic force at base ~ Design lateral seismic force at roof 'Calculations and Discussion Code Reference §13 . Level Roof ~ '/DUClileall achmenls Seismic Design Category D 12' SDS= Ip W. Anchor bolts in the floor slab meet the embedment length requirements.
1)(10 kips) [I + 2~] = 4.0)( 10) = 3. ~ Design lateral seismic force at roof z = h = 36 ft I I I I I I I F p = 0.. Vol. / 14 1 .1)( 1.5/1.5 T 13.1)(10) = 17. Fp = 4 .4 kips .1 has a requirement that Fp be not less than 0.3.31 governs.3 kips : .0) 36 s p Section 13.1)(1 0 kip s) (2.3.33) r. Rp = 2.61 1 ~ Design lateral seismic force at base z =0 F p = 0.6 kips : .5/1.Exampl e 37 • Flexib le Equip ment § 13. F p = 13.2 kips .4(2.3 SvslpWp Chec k (Eq 13. Eq 13..3.2 ki 36 5 p Sect ion 13.2) Fp :s 1.61.6( 1. 1 Values of ap and Rp are given in Tabl e 13.3..0) [I + 2 36] = 13.1 governs . Eq 13.3 SvslpWp = 0.1 states that Fp nee d not exceed 1.5)(1. .4 ki (2. ~ 0.6 SvsWp = 1.4(2.6 Sos JpWp Ch eck CEq 13.3( 1.3. 20061BC Structural/Se ismic Design Manual.5)(1. Sin ce the equ ipment is flexible and has limited defonnability elements and attachm ents ap = 2.5.
is a function of l/Rp . Fp (i. and electrical systems and their components that are part of a designated seismic system.1 Example 37 • Flexible Equipment 1 I I I I I I 'commentary The definition of flexible equipment is given in § 11 . where anchorage of any kind is shallow (see § 13.21. only equipment anchorage or components need be designed for seismic forces. I . A certificate of compliance shall be submitted to both the registered design professional in responsible charge of the design of the designated seismic system and the building official for review and approval.2.3. I I I I I I I I I I A component importance factor greater than 1. the force in the connected part). bracing. ICC ES has published Acceptance Criteria (AC 156) that addresses the qualification test to satisfy the referenced code requirements. Also note that §13. "Architectural.1.e. has a period greater than 0. Vol .1 requires that.2.2). which can be either flexible or rigid. and support mountings).4. comes mounted on a supporting frame that is part of the manufactured unit. then the supporting frame must also meet the seismic design requirements of §13.2. mechanical. Generally.0 (Ip = 1.06 second . Where the equipment. Flexible equipment (including its attachments anchorages.3.5) is required for the following.. • • • Life safety component required to function after an earthquake Components of hazardous materials Occupancy Category IV components needed for continued operation of the facility 142 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual. and electrical components supports and attachments shall comply with the sections referenced in Table 13." Those architectural. It should be noted that the component anchorage design force. mechanical. as defined in §13.§13. shall be qualified by either test or calculation.
50 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual. A unique control panel fram e is attached to the floor framing at Levels 2 and 3 of the special steel moment frame building show n below.35) whe re b xA = b x.72 in 12' 4 by Ae R = = Cd 6 aA 8. This example illustrates appl ication ofthis requ irement.3.0 5. The follo wing information is given .by A = 1. I 143 . shape ~ Story drift to be considered ~ Induced moment and shear in frame Calculations and Discussion Code Reference ~ Story drift to be considered Sec tion 13.~ r"".015hx .2 Exa o11J Ie 38 e a i ve otion 0 S uipment ttachments 13.94 in Governs (Eq 13.Example 38 II Relative Mo tion of Eq uipment Attachments §13..2 requires that equipment attachments be designed for effects induc ed by Dp (re lative seismic disp lacement).3.5 3 12' 2 12' = O. Seismic Design Category D Occupancy Category II.. (}xAe = Level I.3.08 in C d = 5.3. Level v Panel frame: EI = lOx 104 kipin' 12' 1 ...2 Section 13. w Cd = bxAe= 1. s.2 requires that the design of equipment attachments in buildings have the effects of the relative displacement of attachment points considered in the lateral force design . Vol. Deflected Determi ne the following : Y.98 in 5. This is determined as follows.OR in 0. Dp = bxA .
144 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual.1('= 0.29 .0. . D p l<tf M _ 6EIDp _ 6(10 x 10 )(1.015 (432) = 6.L !1 hn 6. Adhesive is a "glued" attachment (e.3.5.72 in Cd = 5. It should be noted that attachment by adhesive is not the same as anchor bolts set in a drilled hole with an epoxy type adhesive. ~ M=P 2 H I 6EID v= 2M H The attachment details.98 in §13. attachment of pedestal legs for a raised computer floor).48 in = 36 ft x 12 = 432 in Thus : D p = 1..288) = 2. One example of a nonductile anchorage is the use of adhesive . should follow the applicable requirements of § 13.50 Note that Dp is not required to be taken as greater than = (x . 4 M~(~_ : I I v 0795 ki ..H2 (144)2 . Vol .5792 ki .. Ipm . if the anchorage is provided by shallow anchor bolts.98) .1'.§13.36) where x y !1 a :l = hsx 36 ft x 12 = 432 in =24ftxI2=288in = 0.g. then Rp = 1. including the body and anchorage of connectors.3.48 = (432 . When anchorage is constructed of nonductile materials.0 15 h« = 0. I .2 ~ Induced moment and shear in frame A liberal estimate of the moment and shear can be made using the following equations.26 432 (Eq 13..4. ipS H M H 72 v .t. For example.2 Example 38 • Relative Motion of Equipment Attachments 6.y ) E.2M _ 57. Rp = 1.
E. The secondlevel gravity loadbeari ng sy stem is a pos tten sione d flat plate slab supported on ordinary rein forced concrete columns.1 J Example 39 • D eformation Compatibility for Seismic D esign Cat eg or i es D. Vol. I ~ I I Find the follo wing.m ic Design Categories 0 . Seismic Design Ca tegory D lixc = 0. 12..fram e (SRCMF) located on each side of the stru cture.57 in R = 8. and F § 12. §12.1:iia mple 39 Deformation Compatibility for : Seis. 0.4 A twolevel concrete parking struct ure has the space frame shown be low .5 Column section = 12 in x 12 in Column clear heig ht = 12 ft Concre te E.0 Cd = 5. and F . [!J ~ Moment in ordinary column Detailing requirements for ordinary column 145 .".~~= fffff Plan at second level 0 I I I \ The foll owing information is given . 4 . The designated lateralforceresisting system con sists of a tw obay speci al rein forced concrete mom ent.25 ff ? 'SRCMF 5 r:l l J"jV Elevation L10e E 2006 IBC Structural/Se ismic Design Manual. 12. E. = 3 x 10J ksi 1 = 1.
12.a common approach is to use one half of the gross section properties.11.51) (144)2 3 = 1883 kipin Detailing requirements for ordinary column. Vol.57 ) I 1. In actual applications.4 Exam ple 39 • D efor mation Comp a tib ility for Seismic De sign Cat eg or i es D.815) The moment induced in the ordinary column due to the maximum inelastic response x on line E mu st be determined. displacement O For purposes of this example. I I I I I I I I I I . Section 2 1.51 in (Eq 12.4 ~ . 1 I I h = 12 ft x = bd 3 12 inches = 144 in 12 (12) 3 = 1728 in 4 12 I = 12 The cracked sec tion moment of inertia Ie can be appro ximated as 50 percent of the gross section 19 .§ 12. 11. such as the column. depending on the magnitude of the moments induced by ox.2 or §2 1. an d F 1 §12. 4 = .. JJ of ACI 31805 specifies requirements for frame members that are not part of the designated lateral forc eresisting system. For this example. Section 21.3.s. a fixedfixed condition is used for simplicity. that are assumed not to be part of the late ralforeeresisting sys tem must be det ailed according to ACI §2 1. fall under these requirements and must be checked for the moments induced by the maximum inelastic response displacement. t. = 864 In 2 M eol = 6(3 x 10 )(864 )(2.alcula. column moment is usually determined from a frame analysis. and the interior flat plate/column system. The ordinary columns located in the perimeter frames. I I J = ei l " = 5.1 1 of ACI 31 805 impl ies that the stiffness of elements that are part of the lateralforeeresisting system shall be reduced .. E. I .t !ons and Discussion Code Reference [!J Moment in ordinary column Section 2 1. 146 200 6 IBC Stru c tura l/ Se is mi c Des ig n Man ual .25 = 2.11. 12. the columns on line E wi ll be evaluated. This requirement also applies to elements that are not part of the lateralforeeresisting system.5(0.1 of ACI 31 805 requires that frame members.
ACI requirements for this configuration stress that the nonduc tile interior column must resist the structure lateral deformation by strength alone. or nonductile. Note that this example problem shows only one way to configure this structure . E. then design moments resulting from lateral structure seismic displacements need not be calculated for that column at all. 1 2006 (BC Structural/Seismic D esign Man ual.3.11. the code also permits an altern ative way to configure this structure .4 Gommentary 1 In actual applications. However./ 147 . Vo/. if interior concrete columns are detailed according to the requirements of ACI 3 I8 §21. the flat plate slab must be checked for flexure and punchin g shear due to gravity loads and the frame analysis actions induced by o x.that is to combine a ductile SRCMRF with an ordinary.E~ample 39 " Deformation Com p atibility i or Seismic Design Categories D. an d F §12.12. interior column. In this configuration.by combining the ductile SRCMRF with ductile interio r columns.
4 Example 40 A dj oining !}ligid Elements The concrete special reinforced concrete momentresisting frame (SRCMF) shown below is restrained by the partial height infill wall that is not considered to be a part ofthe seismic forceres isting system. = 854 in4 Determin e the following . the columns must be checked for ability to withsta nd the t.7. Under § 12. Seismic Design Category D t. The infill is solid mas onry and has no prov ision for an expansion jo int at the column faces.7. was computed according to the procedure given in §12. [::LJ I I Code Reference Deformation compatibility criteria ~ Approximate column shear Calculations and Discussion [::LJ Deformation compatibility criteria §12. in this case the masonry infill wall.5 in Column properties f: = 3000 psi E. Thus. The des ign story drift t. displacement of 2.or lateralloadresis ting ability of the SRCMF columns. it must be shown that the adjo ining rigid element.7. must not impair the vertical. I f = 2.6. which is not required by the desig n to be part of the latera lforceresisting system.5 inches whi le being simultaneously restrained by the 6foothigh infill walls. I . 7.8. I I I I I I 148 20 06 IBC St r uc tur al/ Se is mic D esign Ma n ual.4 EXllmp le 40 • Adj oining Rig id El em ent s 1 §12.§ 12. Ac = 3 x 10 = 144 3 Inrlll wall ksi Typ ical elevation in 4 t. Vol . is an adjo ining rigid element.4 The infi ll wall.4.
a gap must be provided betwee n the column faces and the infill walls. v col = l2E.9 ki s P 1 Column clear height = 72 in Because the SRCMF is the primary lateralforeeresisting system. such as a building torsional irregularity . it is far easier (and more reliable) to provide a gap sufficie ntly wide to accommodate 1:>. and correspon ds to a column shear stress of approximately 3. Also note the restrained column height is 6 ft or 72 inches. The induced column shear stress is '1.3JJ:. Alternately. ThiIS IS oneerg I I I I I I shear of205 kips. This should be evaluated if such restraints are present. t 149 . V./2 = 1.Example 40 • Adjoining Rigid Elements §1'. 2006 IBC Struc tural/S eismic Design Manual.. with resulting column shear I .25 in.5) = 205..Ill. . the expression for shear due to a fixedfixed condition will be used for simplicity. d coIumn IpS. the column clear height would be 144 inches. = 12(3 x 10 11 3 3)(854)(2 (72)3 . it would be necessary to either design the column for the induced shears and moments caused by the infill wall. 7 ki . I:>. For this example.I c" = 12(3 x 10 3)(854 3 )(2.Commentary It is also possib le that the restraint of the infill walls could cause an irregularity.. or demonstrate that the wall will fail before the column is damaged. with the restraining wall height equal to one half the column height. ht hofthe restrame . For purposes of the example. Generally. Vol. If this were provided. the gap should be greater than or equal to 1:>. Therefore.4 [f] Approximate co lumn sh ear Column shear will be determined from the frame design story drift.. This is approximately 26ff: Ac and would result in column shear failure.7. 1:>.5) (144) = 25 . = 1447 psi. has been determined by neglecting the stiffness of the rigid masonry..
such as the wall panels on a building. This can be taken as the average of the two ~} values at z equal to ZL and z" . that are attached to the building at two levels. Seismic Design Category D 12' Level 5 4 I = 1. in this case an exterior wall panel.0 Panel size: I I ft 11 in by 19 ft 11 in Panel thickness: 6in Panel weight: W p = 14. design lateral seismic forc es are determined from Equation 13.5. Vol. I . The following informa tion is given.3 Exa mp le 4 1 • Exter io r Elements : Wa ll Panel §13.0 1.3 For design of ext erior elements. [!J Design criteria Design lateral seismic force on a panel at the fourth story Design latera l seismi c force on a panel at the first story [I] @J Cijlculations and Discussion Code Reference [!J Design criteria §13.3 Th is example illustrates the determinat ion of the design lateral se ism ic forc e Fp on an ext erior element of a building .5. 150 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual.. The cladding on the exterior of the bu ilding consists of precast reinforced concrete wall panels.34.§13. Th e panels are attached at the two elevations ZL and z. ' Th e intent of the code is to pro vide a val ue of F p that represents the average of the acc eleration inputs from the tw o attachment locations. A fivestory moment frame building is shown below.4 kips S DS= 12' Ty pical exlerior panel 3 12' 2 12' 12' Find the following.5.
k.0.3 O.53 kips Check: Fp4 > 0.33) (Eq 13.4 11W P = 0.384Wp = (0. .3( 1. Z" =Ilft =0 ZL h = 60 ft 2006 IBC Structu r al/S eism ic Design Manual.k. .5 60 11' p = 0.5 p P [I 2 60 I Fp~ = Fpu + FpL 2 = (0. ] ~.0)(1.1 ~ Design lateral seismic force on a panel at the fourth story Assuming connections are I foot above and below the nominal 12foot panel height Z" =47 ft = ZL 37 ft 11 = ft 1 F pL = 0.4nPSOS IJ' [1 + 2'::.0)(1.32) 1.6Wp .357 W: 2. o. . Vol.0)(1.S. (Eq 13.6(1.1 = Example 41 • Exterior Elements: Wall Panel § 13. I 151 .3 SD slpW Rp 11 1. > 0.0)(1. o.5 (Eq 13.4(1.3 SDslpH' p Check: Fp4 ~ = 0.0)Wp = 0.357) w 2 p I I I I I Fp~ = 0.0)(1.6 SD slpWp ~ Design lateral seismic force on a panel at the first story The following are known.0) + (37)] W = 0.0)(1.4 (1.411 + 0.5.0)Wp = 1. Rp = 2.3Wp .0) [I + 2(47)] 2.31) = T 13. .384)(14. = 1.4) = 5.
5 .0)(1.5 2.32 kips 2 I I ~ " .2. Also FpL < Fpu < 0.30Wp . transportation.5 60 pu = 0. Vol.1.0)Wp = 0. I . not o.0)(1. .4( 1.3(1. Also note that the forces induced by disp lacement Dp from Equation 13.0) [I + 2 (~)]W 2.§13. 30 TVp 1 J Fpl = Fp u + FpL = 0.3 Example 41 • Exter ior Elemen ts: Wall Pan el F = 0.30Wp = (0.30)(14. use FpL = Fpu= O. . 'f 'h " (:ommentary Note that the design of the panel may be controlled by nonseismic load conditions of the fabrication process.35 need to be checked per § 13. and installation .4) = 4.3.30 TVp : .21 9 if': p p 1 1 1 Check that Fpu is greater than 0. I I I I 152 2006 IBC Structural/Seism i c Design Manual.k.3 SvsIpWp Fpu = 0.0)(1.
3 Th is example illustrates the det ermination of the total design seismic lateral force for the design of the conne ctions of an exterior wa ll pan el to a building.3 xample42 Exterior ons ruc turei all Elements: reces Panel §13. Seismic Design Category 0 S DS = 1.4.4 kips P = 1.0 = fi fp 1.0 per §12. where the pair of upper brackets must prov ide resistance to outofplane wind and seismic forces and inplane vertical and horizontal forces. The lower pair of rod connections pro vides res istance to only the outo fpl ane forces. I 153 .Ex ample 42 Q Ex terior Nonstructural Wall Elements: Precast Panel § 13. [!.5 Height to roof. An exterior nonb earing panel is located at the fourth story of a fivestory moment fram e bu ilding. Vol.3.2 2006 IB C Structural/Se ismic Des ign Manual.5.3.5.J Strength design load combinations ~ Lateral seismic force at centerofmass C of panel ~ Combined dead and seismic forces on panel and connections @J Design forces for the brackets ~ Design forces for the rods ' C~!~ulations and Dis _cussifJn Code Re(~relJce [!.1(3). the app licable strength design load combinations are §2. L = 0 = 12' Find the following. The panel support system is shown below.0 0. Panel live load. h = 60 ft Panel weight = 14. Th e panel is supported vertically from these bracket s.J Strength design load combinations For desi gn of the panel connections to the building.
Q£ is the load action on the connection due to the lateral load Fp applied either inplane or outo fplane at the panel centerofmass per § 13.9D + 1. upward resistan ce is equal to downward resistance.2D + 1. the equation reduces to lAD + Q£ . 154 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual.0E where. In the seismic load combinations. the equation reduces to l. for Q£ and D with same signs and type of load action.0E + )1" L = I. I I I I I I I I I I I I .§1J.3. and the bracket connections have shear resistance capacity independent of the direction of the Q£ shear load: for example. the equati on reduc es to 0.J Example 42 • Ex terior Nonstructural Wall Elem ents : Precast Panel J (Comb. this load combination is satisfied by lAD + Q£ for Q£ and D with the same signs. for Q£ and D with opposite signs.2D 1 J As Sos = 1.2 SDSD = 1.0g.2 SsoD = Q£ +0.9D + 1. 7) with E = pQ£ .2D As S DS = 1. This combination need not be considered since it is less than lAD + Q£.70D + Q£.0£ with E = pQ£ + 0. with E = pQ£+ 0. Vol . This combination need not be considered because the rod connections resist only the Q£ axial load.0g.lD + Q£ . for Q£ and D with same signs.0Q£ = I J + 0. Therefore.2D + 1. c) 0.2 SsoD (Eq 12A2) As SDS = LOg. 5) (Eq 12AI) a) 1.0.2(1. I (Comb. 7) (Eq 12AI ) b) 0.5.0)D Q£ +0 .0Q£ (Comb.
Fp will be determined as the avera ge of the Fp values for the upper bracket elevation level.5 60 p = 0.33) With the given values of Sos = 1. I .5 60 p 0.. ZL.4 11 Wp > 0. Vol . this average Fp would be essentially equal to the Fp value using Z = z. o. for body of connection T 13.k. The values of Rp and o p are given in Table 13.3 1 ~ Lateral seismic force at cen te ro fmass C of panel Section 13.51 1 IV p = weigh t panel = 14.3Wp Op (Eq 13.3 Wp . 11 p r.3(1.0.0) [I + 2 (47)] IV 2.4o pSDs l p ( 1+ 2p n. 155 2006 IB C Structural/Seis mic Design Manu al. at the panel centerofmass elevation.5.. requires that the connection seismic load actions be determined by the force Fp given by §13.5.0 (Eq 13. 5.4 kips I I I I I I At upper bracket connection level = Zu = 47 ft F pU = 0.k.0)IVp = 0. this use of elevations z = Zc may not be valid for the lower story levels because of the limitation of (Eq 13. To represen t the average seismic acceleration on the panel.1 for the body and fastene rs of the connection elements.1 applied to the centerofmass of the wall panel. and for the lower rod elevation elevati ons.0) [1 + 2 (37)] If' 2.3 SosIpIVp = 0. 2: 0. z. and Ip = 1. . However.0)( 1.I Example 42 • Exteri or Nonstructural Wa ll Elements: Precasl Panel §13 . For the higher story levels of the building. Item d.4(1.357 Wp > 0.0 and Rp = 2.3.31) z) IV F = O.33) = 1.3.3 SosIpWp = 0.3 IV p • • • o.5..4(1. = At lower rod connect ion level z =ZL = 37 ft = 0..
384(14.) = 5..2D + QE.2Wp = 1.2 I There are two seismic load conditions to be considered: outofplane and inplane . and vertical seismic forces are calculated as follows: g' .... ~ Dea d load.4) =20 . t  1.2Wp + O. I . seismic outofplane... . . In this examp le..•.§13. and vertical seismic for ces Panel connec tion reactions due to factored dead load.2.5.•_ ..53 kips This force is applied at the panel centroid C and acts horizontally in either the outofplane or the inplane direction.3. 0~ Fp = 5. I I I I I I I I I I I I I 156 2006 IBC S tr uctur al/S eismi c D esig n Ma n ual. outofplane seismic forces.411 + 0.5 3 kips f. _ . _ _ _. g' .5. _ ..384Wp = 0.... .. Combined dead and seismic forces on panel and co nnections §13. . Combination 5 of §2. These are shown below as concentrated forces . Vol.4Wp = 1... 1.53 = 1. _ _ f._. I. I~ .It I 5' . .357) 2 2 w I' = 0.. _ ••_ •• J 5' . is the controlling load combina tion.16 kips Each bracket and rod connection takes the following axial load due to the outofplane force Fp at centerofmass Ps + PR = Fp = 5.3 Ex ampl e 42 • Ex terior Nonstructural Wall Elements : Precast Pane l 1 J The required average.38 kips 4 4 where Pe is the bracket force and P R is the rod force.4 (14. _ . Fp Fp u + Fp L = (0.
. IpS 18 Each bracket takes the following downward force due to vertical loads: RB = 1. I 157 . Vol.4Wp 2 20. or seismic loading.53 ki = =2.. seismic inplane. because it carries only axial forces.5(F  18  5(5.53 kips 1. has no inplane. dead.08 kips 2 Under the inplane seismic loading .16 .5.53) I 54 ki .Examplo 42 IR Exterior Nonstructural Wall Elements : Precast Panel §13. 20D6 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual. inplane seismic forces . = . ~ Dead load.3 1 Each bracket takes the following downward inplane shear force due to vertical loads VB = .= 10.16 . = . each rod carries no force. and vertical seismic forces Panel connection reactions due to factored dead load.= 20. I AWp 2 20. 2 5.16 kips Each bracket takes the following inplane horizontal shear force due to lateral seismic load HB =  r.= 10.77 IpS 2 I I I I I Each bracket takes the following upward or downward shear force due to the reversible lateral seism ic load p) FB . and vertical seismic forces are calculated as 9' 9' 5' 5' c ./ F.08 kips 2 Note that each rod.4W. = 5.± .
0 and Rp = 2.3.31 kips axial load together with VB and = 10.125(2.77) = 8.1 the body of the connection must be designed for = 1.25 and Rp = 1.39 kips axia l load 1 58 20 06 IBC S tru ctural/Seismic Design Manua'.0 and R p = 2.5 P R = 1. Thus.38 axial load together with VB = 10.§13. and Table 13. Therefore.08 = 14.5. fasteners must be designed for u p = 1.1.5. These are the up and Rp values used for the determination of Fp .125) P B= 3.125(1.08 kips downward shear 3.08 = 11.25)(2.125(1. Vol .08 kips downward shear and H B = ± 2.125 because these values were based on ap = 1.54) + 10.0 and Rp = 2.5. Item d.38) = 4. The bracket must be designed to resist the following sets of load actions.125FB+ RB = 3.3 Example 42 • Exterior Nonstructural Wall Elem ents : Precast Pan el 1 @J Design forces for the brackets ~ Body of connection Up I Under §13.0.5.5.5) = 3.125HB= 3.3 and Tab le 13.77 kips horizontal shear together with FB+ RB= 1.5.54 + 10. I I I I I I I I . Fasteners must be designed to resist I J (3. I I PB = ± 1.. it is necessary to multiply the Fp load actions by ( 1. there is no need to change the load actions due to this force.89 kips downward shear ~ Design forces f or t he rods ~ Body of connection The body of the connection must be designed to resist a force based on ap = 1.66 kips horizontal shear together with 3.62 kips downward shear ~ Fasteners Under § 13.5.
0 (3. I 159 .125(1.3 1 [!J F asteners Fasteners in the connecting system must be des igned to resist a force based on ap = 1.1 1 Exampl e 42 s Exter ior Nonst ructura l Wall Elements: Precast P anel §13.25 and Rp = 1. I 25)PR = 3.38) = 4.5.31 kips axial load r I J I I I I I I I 2006 IBC Structural/Se ismic D esign Manual. Vol.
1. This force is designated as Fp . I . it is required to determine the "tie force" for design of the horizontal tie interconnecting the two simply supported beams.3.3 Th is example illustrates use of the beam interconnection requirement of §12.05H'p where wp is the weight of the smaller (shorter) beam Wp = 40 ft (D) = 40(6) = 240 kips 160 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual." Find the minimum required tie capacity for the connection between the two simple beams shown in the example below.1. The requirement is to ensure that important parts of a structure are "tied together.1.§12.133 SDSW p or F p = 0. Seismic Design Category D SDS = 1. Vol. given by the greater value of Fp = 0. 1. The following information is given.3 Example 43 • Beam Horizontal Tie Force EXa m p le 43 'Bea m H orizonta l Tie Force §12. For this particular example.3 .0 p~~~~~~~ k" Pin support "p" Dead Load D = 6 kip/ft Live Load L = 4 kip/ft [!J Determine tie force ~ Determine horizontal support force at "P" Calculations and Discussion Cod~ Reference [!J Determine tie force Requirements for ties and continuity are specified in §12.
0)(240) = 31. I 161 .0.9 kips Determine horizontal support force at "P" Section 12.3 1 ~ For S DS = 1.1.05(6 klf +4 kIf) (~O) = 10 kips I I I I I I I I 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Des ign Manual. the required design force at the pin support "P" is I I H=0.1. Given a sliding bearing at the left support of the 40foot beam.4 requires a horizontal support force for each beam equal to 5 percent of the dead plus live load reaction.Example 43 • Beam Hori zontal Tie Force §12 . Vol. the controll ing tie force is Fp = 0.133( 1.
has a partial interior shear wall on Line 2..5 no = 2. A collector is necessary to "collect" the diaphragm loads tributary to Line 2 and bring them to the shear wall. with special reinforced concrete shear walls and a panelized wood roof. Occupancy Category I 50' 50' for cctec tor 2 100' 3 Seismic Design Category D RP=.5 1 = 1.===ir:====r===u.82 will govern. In the example below. not shown .. Vol. Collectors are sometimes called drag struts...10.82) W= Interior shear wall 50' Collector Determine the following.4. Equation 12.3. Elevation Section AA [!J Collector unfactored force at tie to wall ~.2 Example 44 • Collector Elemen ts §12. a tiltup building. Special seismic load of §12. The purpose of this example is to show the determination of the maximum seismic force for design of collector elements.0 8 DS = 1.2 l 8W R structure weight above one half hi S (Eq 12. The following information is given . By inspection.§12 ..2 at tie to wall 162 2006 IBC Structural/SeIsmic Design Manual.. Base shear = V= DS W = 0.10.2 Collectors "collect" forces and carry them to vertical shearresisting elements. for the onestory shear wall build ing. I . Tributary roof area l_uColleclor R =5.20 Roof dead load = 15 psf Wall height = 30 ft. except collector. no parapet Wall weight = 113 psf lI=j::============!l Roofplan k""Shear walls Nole: Roof framing.
5) = 53.2 S p.218Wp l Wpl = tributary roof and outofplane wall weight 15 psf(lOO)(50) + 113 psf (3 0) (100) = 75.10. F.30Wpx Fp l min = 0.3 . Note: This force corresponds to the diaphragm design forces calcu lated using §12. WI P Fp l max = 0.10.2 Code Reference §12.10.1 Calculations and Discussion Example 44 • Collector Elements §12.15W = 1.3 kips. I 163 .J Collector unfactored force at tie to wall The seismic forc e in the collector is made up of two parts : I) the tribut ary outofplane wall forces. Fp1 = 0.2 at tie to wall §12.5 kips 2 Wp l = : .000 + 169.2 C!. This equat ion reduces to the following for a sing le story structure. = 0. I I Spec ial seismic load of §12.500 = 244.15 Sp. R W x = V = = design force at roof weight tributary to the collector element = structure wei ght above one half hi = W giving: Fp 1 = Wpl = V I I I I I W 0. including the shea r strength of connection between the diaphragm and collector.1.lWpx = T O. The design of the collector and its connections requires that the axial forces be amplified as shown below. The paneli zed wood roof has been determined to be flexible .lW pT p.101 used for diaphragm design. These forces are compared to the diaphragm shear strength . =w. Vol .4. and 2) the tributary roof diaphragm force.3 Sp. thus the tribut ary roof area is taken as the IOOfoot by 50foot area shown on the roof plan above.218(244. Seism ic forces for collector design are determined from Equat ion 12.2 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Man ual.10.
the overturning moment capacity of the shear wall can limit the required strength of the collector and its connection to the shear wall.§12.3.3) = 133.0)D = 0.2 Ex amp le 44 • Coll ec tor El em ents 1 J Given the force Fpl specified by Equation 12. 5) where (Eq 12.5(53. :'l Commentary Note that §12.5L + 0.45) Here.4(2250) + 0. and I J n oQ£ = 2.5)(10 psf) = 750 Ib The resultin g total factored vertical load is 1. Q£ is the horizontal collector desig n force Fpl = 53.2D + 0. Vol. .5L + Em I 1 §2.4 D + 0.5 plf on the 50foot length of the collector element.4.101..5 L I I with D = (50 ft + 50 ft)(50 ft)(l5 psf) = 2250 Ib L = (50 ft + 50 ft)(50 ft) (0.25 kips axial tension and compressio n load 0. n "Q£ = 2. I I I I I 1 64 200 6 IBC St ru ctural/Seismic Desig n Manu al.3) = 133.1 0. the collector elements.2( 1.1 specifies that the term noQ£ in Equation 12. and their connections to resisting clements shall have the design strength to resist the earthquake loads as defi ned in the Specia l Load Combinations of §12. splices .2 D = 1. For example.4.3 kips.2D vertical load The strength design of the collector and its connections must resist the following load components.47 need not exceed the maximum force that can be delivered by the lateralforceresisting system as determined by rational analysis .2. / .2 D + 0. The governing load combination is 1.3.5(53.3.2 (Comb .25 kips axial tension and compression load and vertica l downward load equal to 1.2 SDsD = 0.5(750) = 3525 lb which is applied as a uniform distributed load w = 3525/50 ft = 70.
11.11. Vol. 2006 IBC St ruc tural/S eis mic DesIgn Manual.1 for the desig n of the wall panel sections . [!J Design criteria ~ Wall anchorage force Calculations and Discussion Code Reference [!J Design criteria §12.Example 45 OutatPlene Wall Anch orage of Concrete or Masonry Walls to FlexIble Dia phragms §12.Plane Wall Anchorage of Concrete or Masonry Walls to Flexible Diaphragms §12. 1 am le45 Outof. The following equation is to be used to determine anchor design forces. I 1 65 .2. 4' Top of parapet Occu pancy Importance Category I Seismic Design Category D F.111) 2:: 400 8Ds/ lblft 2:: 280 lb/ ft of wall where WI\' is the weight ofa Ifoot width of wa ll that is tributary to the anch or.0 SDS = 1.2.2. 11. n: l• ++ Roof J = 1.2 § 12. 11. with minimum limit given in § 12. 11.11.8 SDS!ElVl\' CEq 12..2 and 12.0 Panel thickness = 8 in Normal weight concrete CI50 pet) .1 For the tiltup wall panel shown below.2... Fp = 0. the seismic force required for the design of the wall anchorage to the flexible roo f diaphragm is to be determined.1 Because of the frequent failure of wall/roof ties in past earthquakes. Assumed pin support 20' ~ ~ Ground Determine the following. I 1.2. The following information is given. This will be done for a representative Ifoot width of wa ll. the code requires that the force used to desig n wall anchorage to flexible diaphragms be greater than that given in §12.
2wp = 0. IV w = 150C~)(4 ft + 10 ft)(I ft) = 1400 lb/ft I ) For the given values of Sos = 1.k. o. ) I I I I I I I I I 166 2006 IBC Struc tural/Seismic Design Manua l." = Fp = I 120 Ib/ft This is the QE load in the seismic load combinations.8(1400 ) = 1120 Ib/ft > 400 (1. F"". o.2 §12.k. .0)(1.0 and 1= 1.0)wp = 1.. I . Equation 12. :. Vol..§12. .2. 11 .11. . 11) gives Fp = 0. 1 Ex am ple 4 5 • OutotPten e Wall Anchorage of Concrete or Ma so nry Walls to Fl exible Diaphragm s I ) ~ Wall anchorage force The tributary wall weight is onehalf of the weight between the roof and base p lus all the weight above the roof.8( 1.0 . > 280 Ib/ft .0) = 400 Ib/ft .0)( 1.
The ancho rage consists of two holddown elements . I 167 .11.e.2.1 as Fonch = 1680 lb/ft. The steel holddown elements of the anchorage system resist only the axial anchorage load and there are no dead or live load effects.. The manufacturer's catalog provides allowable capacity values for earthquake loading for a given type and size of holddown element. 2006 IBC Structural/Se ismic Design Manual. Vol . [IJ Design force for premanufactured steel anchorage element ~ Design force for wood subpurlin tie element Calculations and Discussion Code Reference [IJ Design force for premanufactured steel anchorage element. The wall anchorage connections to the roof are to be provided at 4 feet on center. one on each side of the subpurlin .Example 46 • Wall Anchorage to Flexible Diaphragms §12 .1 ample 4 6 all nchorage to Flexible iap ragms §12. The anchorage force has been calculated per § 12.11. Wall panel Wallroof tic detail Determine the strength' design requirement s for the followi ng.2.2. Th e drawing below shows a tiltup wall panel that is connected near its top to a flexible roof diaphragm. holddowns) that connect the tiltup wall pan el to the wood subpurlins of the roof diaphragm.11.1 Th is example illustrates use of the allowable stress design proced ure for the design of stee l and wood elements of the wall anchorage system in a building with a flexible roof diaphragm. The task is to desig n the steel anchorage elements (i.
7PE 0. the strength design axial load is E = QE = PE = Faae" (4) = (1680)(4) = ± 6720 Ib This example.4.. the paired anchorage embedment in the wall is likely to involve an overlapping pullout cone condition in the concrete : refer to ACI 3 I8 Append ix D for design requirements. Whenever holddowns are used in pairs. for the combined bend ing and axial stress including dead and live load effects. these must consider the effects of eccentricity.§12.1 1. double holddowns are preferred. When singlesided holddowns are used. as shown in the wallroof tie detail above. Generally. Also.7PE = 0.e.1 Example 46 • Wall An ch orage to Flexib le D i aph ragms J J For the 4foot spacing.7£ to be resisted with an increase in allowable stress based on duration (i. 16 8 2006 IB C S tr uctural/Seismic Design Man ual. I I ~ Design force for wood subpurlin tie element The strength design axial load on the wood element of the wall anchorage system is I I PE = (1680)(4) = ± 6720 lb Using the seismic load combinations of §2. but singlesided holddowns are often used with all eccentricities fully considered.7£ = 0. the throug hbol ts in the subpurlin must be checked for double shear bearing. where the applicable seismic load combinations permi t 0.4. uses the ASD load combinations of §2.7(6720) = ± 4800 lb From the manufacturer's catalog .7(6720) = 4800 lb applied at the anchored end. The allowabl e stress design axial load requirement for each pair of holddown elements is 0. I I I I I I I . select a holddown element having a capacity of at least ] J 4800 lb = 2400 Ib 2 The holddown detail must provide both tensile and compress ive resistance for this load.2. the Cd duration factor for wood) . Vol . can support a ± axial load of 0. select the wood element such that the allowable capacity of the element.
11.6 Wood 0. Vol.8 SoslW N/A Steel 1.2.4 per §12.8 SoslW) = 1.4(0. co ncrete.2. the load is divided by the dura tion fac tor Cd of 1.2. the load is increased by 1. I 169 . Material ASD 0.78 SoslW) I I I I I I I 2006 IB C Structu ra l/S eismic Design Manual.8SDsIW 1.5 SoslW (0.11. and steel elements are shown below. the forces acting on wood.35 SoslW) I I Concrete 0. For stee l. For wood.0 to permit comparison.1 1 1 Commentary For comparison .Example 46 l:f Wall Anchorage to Flexible Diap hragms §12.12 SoslW (0 .
I .1 This exampl e illustrates determination of the diaphragm design force Fpx of Equation 12. This type of roof construction can generally be shown to behave per flexible diaphragm assumptions. cp b o r 200 ' Normal wall The following information is given .0 R =5. 1. for the design of the roof diaphragm of a singlestory building.0 P = 1.1 Ex ample 4 7 Q De term i nation of Diaphragm Force Fp ::: Lowrise ~ mple 4 7 !# ermination of Diaphragm Force f px : Lowrise §12. 10. [!J 170 Diaphragm design force at the roof 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual. A singlestory tiltup bui lding with special reinforced concrete shear walls and a panelized wood roof is shown below. Occupancy Importance Category I Seismi c Design Category 0 Roof plan J 1.1. Vol.§12.'10.0 Diaphragm weight = 15 psf Wall weig ht = 80 psf = Roof diaphragm Elevation through building Find the following.101.0 S DS = 1.
2wp ) < O.. for a lfootw ide strip Wpl = weight of diaphragm = + weight of onehalf height of normal walls IOO( 15) + 2( I0)(80) = 3100 Ib/ft (1.2 SDs/Wp.0)(1.10.0) 5.t:::: 0.1) with limits of 0.101 becomes (see commentary below for derivation) with the given val ues of SDS = 1.1.4wp.4 SDs/Wp. R = 5. . Vol.2(3 100) = 620 lb/ft Check limits: 0.10.2wp. Equation 12.0 and 1 = 1.'px n lV j 2: F.1. 2006 IBC Structura l/Seismic Design Manua l.t = 0.0 11'p.t < 0.Examp le 47 • Det ermin ation of Diaphragm Forc e F px: Lowrise §12.10. 2: i.1 §12.0.0 I I I I I I I I I are For a short period single story building.1 requires that the design seismic force for diaphragms be determined by 1 Fp:r = ~= l t.t n (Eq 12.t :::: Fp.k.0 and.2 Wpl F pl = = 0. which for S DS = 1. 1 Calculations and Discussion Code Reference [!J Diaphragm design force at the roof §12. Note that the redundancy factor of p is to be applied to the Q£ load actions due to Fp l (such as chord forces and diaphragm shear loads in the diaphrag m). o.1. I 17 1 .10.t •.
5 sec (k = J . (Eq 12. 1 Example 47 • Determ ination of Diaphragm Force Fpx: Lo wrise 1 ] Commentary I. The we ight W p.812) For a singlestory building. = }\'. x = 1.. m 2: F. in the direction of the force.8.r for short period of < 0.§12. and W 11 = I I I I 2: i.I 11'.lz. 1 1 . (Eq 12. i = I I .h. = and Equation 12.0) .( J • n w. Vol..11 gives F) = W /I. w.811 ) where C. Fps = ~w •• px (Eq 12.10. 2._ . Walls parallel to the direction of the seismic forces are usually not considered in the. The sing lestory building version of Equation 1665 is derived as follows .. I I I I .101) 2: Wi I I I F X = CIX V = v • 2: W/l: i.detennination of the tributary roof weight because these walls do not obta in support. from the roof diaphragm. V= V I I 1 172 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Des ign Manual. includ es the weight of the diaphragm plu s the tributary weight of elem ents nonnal to the diaphragm that are onehalf story height belo w and above the diaphragm level.1.
for the single story building.11' s! R 1'1 \ I 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic D esign Manual. 1.81 and 12.82) Finally.1 where Examp le 47 ~ Determ ination of Diaphragm Forc e Fpx: Lowrise §12.101 is F P1 =  1 I I I F. Vol. I 17 3 . 10. IV 11' 1'1 =  V IV lV 1'1 50 = . 1 1 I V= C W = 50 S ! IV 5 R (Eq 12. Equation 12.
167 0.757.144 0.3 5.812 .058 0.233 0.039 0. The ninestory moment frame bui lding shown below has the tabulated design seismic forces P.044 0.6 10.h. These were determined from Equations 12.§12.106 0.183 0.1 This example illustrates determination of the diaphragm design force Fpx of Equation 12.005 174 2006 IB C St r uctural/S eismic Des ig n Man ua l.812 Level 1 < 27' * '1 27':J 1 Weight.762 0. .071 0.1 for a representative floor of a multistory building.8 kips k = 2 for Eq 12.762 kips C. = 0. Vol.0 P = 1. the design base shear.344 vr WJ l" t L I\'.134 0.7 16.6 2.811 and 12. Seismic Design Category 0 W = 3.153 0.3 I = 1.1 Example 48 D Determ ination of Diaphragm Force F px : H ighrise ample 48 .079 0.013 0.8 32.4 42.De termina tion of Diaphragm Force Fp x : Highrise t §12.10. The following information is given.3 33.010 FI Fx =Cl·.024 0.06 sec V = CW= 233.024 0.8 54. I 0.r:. 10. kips 214 Story 12 12' 12' 12' 12' 9 8 7 6 405 405 405 584 422 5 4 3 2 1 422 440 465 20 ' / / ' // / //// // / / / ' / k C = Level x 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 I Totals: h (ft) 11 6 104 92 80 68 56 44 h 2 I\' kips II'h 2879584 4380480 3427920 2592000 2700416 1323392 816992 450560 186000 18.rV 35.0 T = 1. 0.8 IV 32 20 13456 10816 8464 6400 4624 3136 1936 1024 400 214 405 405 405 584 422 422 440 465 3. I .3 233.06215 8Ds = 1.138 0.
Example 48 • Delerminallon of Diaphragm Forc e FpK: Highrise
§ 1Z. 10. 1
1
1 1
~Calqulations and iiiscus~ion
Code Reference
[I]
Diaphragm force at Level 7
§12.101
Seismic forces on the floor and roof diaphragm are specified in § 12.101. The following equation is used to determine the diaphragm force Fpx at Level x
(Eq 12.101)
Section 12.10.1.1 also has the following limits on F px
For Level 7, x = 7
F
J
p7
= (42.8 + 54.4 + 35.8)(405) = (0.130)(405) = 52.6 ki
(405 + 405 + 214)
s
P
Check limits:
0.2 SD sIwpx
=
0.2wpx
0.2(405) = 81.1 kips > 52.6 kips ... not o.k.
=
I ,
0.4 SD sIwpx
= =
O.4wpx
0.4(405) = 121.5 kips > 52.6 kips . . . o.k.
I I I I I
:. Fp7 = 81.1 kips...minimum value (0.2 SDsIwpx) governs.
Note that the redundancy factor, in this example p = 1.3, is to be applied to the load Q£ due to F P.f (such as chord forces and floortoframe shear connections). Also note that Equation 12.101 will always govern for the design of the diaphragm versus Equation 12.812.
2006 IBC Structural/Seism ic Design Manual, Vol. I
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§12.12.3
Example 49 • Building Separations
i#.a.~ple 49
SUilding Separations
..
§12.12.3
Building separations are necessary to prevent or reduce the possibility of two adjacent structures impacting during an earthquake. Requirements for building separations are due to the prescribed given in §12.12.3. In this example, the static displacements lateral forces of § 12.8 and information about each structure are given below. Note that the displacements given are at the plan view edges of the building.
oxe
.r1~ ~aralion ""'~
.
3
II
Structure J
Structure 2
Levelr
0..
1.38 in. 1.00
2
2
I
0.47
o
o
Structure 1
o
R= 6 C,/ =5
0.75 in 0.35 0
Structure 2
Find the required separations for the following situations.
[!J
[!J
Separations within the same building Separation from an adjacent building on the same property
~ Separation from an adjacent building on another property
Calculatiqns and Discussion
Code Reference
§12.12.3
[!J
Separation within the same building
Expansion joints are often used to break a large building or an irregular building into two or more parts above the foundation level. This effectively creates separate structures within the same building. The code requires that the structures be separated by the amount OMf where
OMI =
maximum inelastic displacement of Structure 1
~aximum
0,"12 =
inelastic displacement of Structure 2
176
2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol . I
J
where
Example 49 ., Bu ild ing Separ<Jtlo ns
§ 12.12.J
U/d
s _« )
Ux
max  
_
CJ 6,n.
/
(Eq 12.81)
The required separation is determined in the following two steps.
~
I
Determine ine lastic displacements of each structure To determine the min imum separation between parts of the same building that are separated by an expansion joint, the maximum inelastic floor disp lacements 6" must be determined for each structure. These are at level, x= 2 For Structure I
s, 
§I2.8.6
C~2J _ 5.5(1.0)  5 5 .
/ 
U '\(I 
1.0
 . in
(Eq 12.815)
For Structure 2
6M2 = CJ/6 22 = 5.0(0.75) = 3.75 in
1.0
(Eq 12.8 15)
~
Dete rmine t he required sep aration The requi red separation is determin ed from the individual maximum inelastic disp lacements of each structure as
§I 2.I2.3
I
I
I
~
6MT
= 6,\11 + 6M2 = 5.5 + 3.75 = 9.25 in
Separation from an adjacent building on the same property
If Structures I and 2 above are adjacent, individual buildings on the same property, the solution is the same as that shown above in Step I . The code makes no distinction betw een an "internal" separation in the sam e building and the separation required betw een two adjacent buildings on the same property.
I
I I
6U T
=
9.25 in
2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I
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912.12.3
Example 4 9 • Building Separations
J
§12.12.3
~ Separation from an adjacent building on another property
If Struc ture I is a building under design and Structure 2 is an existing bu ilding on an adjoining property, we would ge nera lly not have information about the seismic displacem ents of Structu re 2. Often even basic information about the struc tura l sys tem of Struc ture 2 may no t be known. In this case, separa tion must be based on ly on info rmation about Struc ture I. The larges t elastic displ acement of Struc ture I is 0)<= 1.38 inch es and occurs at the roof (Level 3). Th e maximum inelastic displacement is calculated as 0 ,/ = CdO J , = 5.5(1.38) = 7.59 in r I 1.0 (Eq 12.815)
J
Structure I must be set back 7.59 inches from the property line, unless a sma ller separation is justifie d by a rati onal analys is ba sed on maximum ground motion s. Such an analys is is difficul t to perform, and is ge nerally not requ ired except in very special cases.
I
J
I
I
178
2006 IBC Structural/Seismic D esign Manual, Vol. I
I I I I I I I
20.70.30 kip/in =. = 1. the mass is assum ed to be located at the top of the tower.4. 5 Example 50 Flexible onbuildiJ1Jg' TUC UTe §15. Seismic Design Category D Weight of towe r and maximum normal operating co ntents = 150 kips Occupancy Category III Site Class D I = 1.30 kip/in Determ ine the following.calculations and Discussion Code Reference [TI Period of vibration.4. I 17 9 . S. For calculation purposes.Ex ample 50 • Fl exible Nonbuilding Structure § 1 5.25 per Table 11. the vessel does not qual ify as a rigi d nonbuilding structu re and thus is considered flexible. [TI Period of vibration ~ Design base shear ~ Vertical distribution of seismic forces ~ Overturning moment at base .4.51 S.2. See § 15. 2006 IBC St ructura l/Se ism ic D esig n Man ual. 1 36 sec Because the period is greater than .65 The stiffness of the supporti ng tower is 8.65 SDS = 1.= 2n k /f n 150 kips/(386 kip/in/sec") 8. Vol.06 second. The tower sits on symmetrically braced legs The following information is given.5 A tall steel bin tower is supporte d by a con crete found ation. The period must be determined by § 15.. = 0. SD/ = 0. T = 2n .
8. 12.0 CD = 2.25 180 2006 lac Structural/Seismic Design Manual.2. W= 0.85) I I I I I I I where SDS= I = 1.1.42 15.42 11. should not be calculated using any of the approximate methods in §12. nonbuilding structures.4 of the 1999 SEAOC Blue Book for further discussion. computed in accordance with Eq. Vol.42 15. I . I v = C. In addit ion.5 Example 50 • Flexible Nonbuildlng Str ucture It should be noted that the value of the period. These are given in §12.82) where SOl = 0.55 kip s where C .65 R = 3.20 1.0 I = 1.1. = 0.36 sec I I I I But C.2 R = 3.199 C R t!)T (Eq 12.82) T T T T 1. such as the vessel.8.§15. T.2.25 SDS = 15.25 T = 1.01 (Eq 12. = R /I SDS = 0.5 I = 1. nor is it intended to be subject to the limitations presented in §12.0 Q o = 2.217 (150 kips) = 32. I I ] ~ Design base shear The des ign base shear for nonbuilding structures is calculated from the same expressions as for buildings.8. 1.5.82 need not exceed C s = S DI =0. shall not be taken less than C.51 The value of C. must also sat isfy the requirements of §15.50 (Eq 12. Refe r to Section CI 09. This is because the approximate method presented is intend ed for buildings and is not applicable to structural systems that differ significantly from typical building configurations and characteristics.
= 0. Thu s. because the Isecond spectral response SI is equal to 0.60g ). the value of the seismic response coefficient C. (RI l) = 0.5S. shall not be taken as less than c. (S. I I I I I I I 2006 IBC Structural/Seism ic D esign Manual. it would be assigned to SDC E (§11. ~ 0.86) SI =0.65. the height would be limited to 100 ft per Tabl e 15. 5 No te that for this tower.second period S" equal to or great er than 0. = where 0.42.25 Thus: C.65 R = 3.1 Example 50 • Fl ex ible Nonbu ilding Stru cture § 15. Vol.75g.6). I 181 .199 governs Also note that if this tower (Occupancy Category 11) were located on a site with mapped maximum considered earthquake spectral response accele ration at I.135 (Eq 12.0 [ = 1.
Note that an interm ediate reinforced concrete moment frame (lRCMF) building structure is not permitted for SDC D.§15. Determine the following.33) = 0.5. _ .0) 1(1 . see § 15.. The total base shear in a given direction is determined from V= CsW (Eq 12..4. Occupancy Importance Category 1" 1 = 1. E.0 Site Class D 2.4. Sf = 2. or F per Tab le 15.4.0 Example 51 • Lateral Force on Nonbui/ding Structure I. Weights U~ and W2 include the maximum normal op erating weights of the storage bins and contents as well as the tributary frame weight.0 S Ail = 1. I . Vol. and the structu re is similar to a building. Also note that the value for R is 8 for normal design of an SRCMF.33 SOl = 1. §15. SI = 1.00 T = 2..0) (Eq 12. See § 15.5. the period T > 0.166 (8.82) 182 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual.2. see § 15.4.e.1 and Table 11. = S DS = (R I I) (1.4 must be used. 1) the general expressio ns for design base shear given in § 12.0 S DS = 1.1.4 Because this is a flexible structure.0 A nonbuilding structure with a special reinforced concrete mom ent frame (SRCMF) supports some rigid aggregate storage bins.4 and § 15.8. 30' [!J Design base shear ~ Vertical distribution of seismic forces .. 1 The follow ing information is given. §15.1) where C.0 sec TV = 300 kips S MS= 15' Level 2 F.06 sec.0.C~/culations and Discussion Code Reference [!J Design base shear. 1.xaniple 51 Lateral Force on Nonbuilding Structure . (i.
V= C.0 R = 8.0 T =2 .9 kips) (Eq 1641) 2006 lac Structural/Se ismic Design Manual.0 (Eq 12.0 I = 1. = 1.0 T =2.063 Equat ions 12. §12 .0) = 0.063 x (R I I) (. Lat er al F or ce on NOll buJldi ng Structure §15..5S.0) for T :::J L = 0. Vol. = 0. = (0.33 R =8 I = 1.9 kips Vertical distribution of seismic forces The design base shear must be distributed over the height of the structu re in the same manner as that for a building struc ture. 2: 0.0 (Eq 12.0 J where 5DS = 1.86) 5..83) 5D/ = 1. shall not be taken less than (Region 1. F 2216) I where C = 0. = c. (Eq 12. I 183 .Exa mple 51 .063)(300) = 18. = SOl = (1.81) V = C.0 R =8 I = 1.6g I \ Thus: C.~ ( 18.5)(1 . computed in accordance with Equation 12.0 The value of C.063 (R II)T (8/ 1.83 and 12.82 need not exceed J where C.0 Check T'S TL = > TL = 12.86 govern..0 Note 5.rV= (0.!) 1.0)2.82 I I I r.0 sec The value of C.
0 for T 2: 2. Vol.0 2.50 sec k = 2.50 sec k = interpolate between 1 and 2.0 0..01_ _  I I 1.811) L " j.5 T Now for T = 2.§15. = n CEq 12.0 Example 51 • Lat eral Force on Nonbulldlng Structure I ] J where C".0 sec k = 1.50.0 1.5) = 1.0 2.0 ( 2.0 + 1.75 2.5 I I I I I I 184 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual.0 for T ~ 0. I .5 sec ] J J and and Thu s: K 2.I ' " W il l J where k = 1.5 o o .
Jl. in kips 194825. " rep Sa effective story acceleration I I I I I 2006 IBC Structural/Se ismic Design Manual.17 3.9 18. = C.076 0.1 Example 51 • Lateral Force on Nonbuilding Structure §15.9) c.75 It.00 F.h.037 156369. I 185 .45 38455. 200 100 300 W.9 Sa 0 .17 18.73 V. 15.197 1.f I C. .28 F.75) Story Force Story Shear Height Weight J Level 2 1 Iz:r 45 30 !t . (18. Vol. = W .56 I W.·x 0.t 781.85 384 .. / = Sa = F. in feet W.803 0.83 194825. 15.T / W.0 1 Sto ry Shears (k = 1.28 J Note: k = 1.
Rigid NonbuiJding Structure 1 '~ample 52 '''igid Nonbuilding_ Structure §15.7 kips) 186 2006 IBC Str uctural/S eismic Design Manual.3S os I W= 0.'x (119.4.2 ) The code has special requi rements for the determination of seismic forces for design of rigid nonbuilding structures.399W (Eq 15. [!J Des ign base shear Vert ical distribution of seismic forces [3J I J Design base shear For rigid nonbuilding structures. I I I I I .4 . Equation 15.0) W= 0.45) = 0.81 1) Fx = C.33) (1. In this example.8.0 0.2 V = O.45 is used to determine design base shear.3 (1.§ 15.2 Example 52.4.399 (100 + 200) = 119.3 I I I I I (Eq 12. The following information is given. Vol. SOS = 1. rigid ore crushing equipment is supported by a massive concrete pedestal and seismic design forces are to be determined.7 kips Vertical distribution of seismic forces The force shall be distributed with height in accordance with § 12.. §15.33 I = = T 1.02 sec 100 kips W SUPPORT = 200 kips W EQUlPAfENT = 30' 20' Grade Determine the following ..V = C.
c De sign Manual. 51. F. 100 200 300 W ..2 (Eq 12. Vol.571 1.>.25 68.7 119.sm. (1 19.1 Example 52 • Rigid Nonbuildin g Structure §15. 1 rr.429 0.35 119.Jlx 3000 4000 7000 k e ll.t k W.45 I I I Note: 11. I 187 .516 0. in feet Wx in kips k = WxlzJ fx= c. .7 kips) ~ c. 4.342 2 1 30 20 30 20 0.00 51. v.812) Height Level Iz x Weight Story Force Story Shear h.lzx k Sa = Fx / fV.7 Sa 0. nPSa = effective story acceleration 2006 IBC StructuraUSe..
~ample 53 .0 w = W/L = 120.000 (0.6 and Discussion Code Reference [!J The tank is a nonbu ilding structure.0 Weight of tank and max imum normal operating contents = 120 kips = 0. similar to Example 51 where = 20 ft L D = 10ft LID = 20/10 = 2.7. I .50 inch = Slab Grade I3J 'C~/c.000 Ib/20 = 6000 plf = 0. This secti on requires that seismic forces be determined using the procedures of §15.7.6. Vol .50/12) t 188 2006 IBC Struc tu r al/S ei smi c D es ig n Manua l.440. The following informati on is given. and seismic requirements for tanks with supported bottoms are given in §15.!In With Supported Bottom §15. The period may be computed by other rational methods.20 20' I W = 1. SDS= 1.6 A small liquid storage tank is supported on a concrete slab.7.4.50 in I 6000(10) wd 1.6 Example 53 • Tank with S up p or t ed Bottom .yla tions Find the design base shear §15.7. The tank does not contain toxic or explosive substances.§15.2.
3SD sIW=0.36W = (Eq 15.3.000) = 0. "Welded Steel Tanks for Oil Storage" for more detailed guidance. .2 kips where SD S= 1.0367 sec < 0. 7.1 Now: T = Example 53 • Tank With Supported Bottom §15.00 W = 120 kips The design lateral seismic force is to be applied at the centerofmass of the tank and its contents.20 I = 1. 6 7.36 ( 120) = 43.. rigid nonbuilding structure. I I I I I I 2006 lac Structural/Seismic Design Manual.8. Note that the centerofmass of the contents and of the tank do not normally coincide. The distribution of forces vertically shall be in accordance with § 12.0)2 (1.65 X 106 (2. For large diameter tanks . I 189 . § 15.4.06 . Refer to American Wate r Works Association Standard ANSI! AWWA D100 "Welded Steel Tanks for Water Storage.440 . Vol.2 The lateral force shall be obtai ned as follows V =0." or American Petroleum Institute Standard 650. the effects of sloshing must be considered.45) 0. rigid 1 Thu s. Commentary The procedures above are intend ed for tanks that have relati vely small diameters (less than 20 feet) and where the forces generated by fluidsloshing modes are small.
Piles are located around the perimeter of the building.a '" @) C o 6 9 o 10 o 11 Foundation plan Determ ine the following.2. The foundation plan of the building is shown below.1 A twostory masonry bearing wall structure has a pile foundation. Original grade Seismic Design Category 0 J = 1.23. The following information is given.IBC §180B.0 Pile cap size: 3 feet square by 2 feet deep Grade beam: I foot 6 inches by 2 feet Allowable lateral bearing = 200 psf per foot of depth below natural grade. I . 2'·0" 2'· 0" Section AA: Typi cal pile cap Pile Cap Dead Load 46 kips 58 Reduced Live Load 16 kips 16 Seismic QE N/S E/W 14 kips 14 0 0 3 10 ~ A t a <0 II N f f f 4 11iI 2S' = 100 ' :=lA 0 2 0 0 r 5 3 A 4 ®.2. for the very dense granular soil at the site.23.1 Example 54 • Pile Interconn ections ample 54 Pile Interconnections IBC'§1808. [!J Interconnection requirements ~ Interconnection force between pile caps 3 and 10 [!J 190 Required "tie" restraint between pile caps 3 and 10 2006 IBC Stru c tu r al/Seism ic D esign Ma n ua l.0 SDS = 1. Vol.
. This system is shown below and . The ties must be capable of resisting in tension and compression a minimum horizontal tie force equal to 10 percent of the larger column vertical load. reduced live.2.2 ft 1200 plf This is greater than 3'0" pile cap wid th. [2(200) + 4(200)] Passive press ure = (2 ft) = 1200 plf 2 .23.10 (74) = 7. I 1 91 . tie beam ) connecting pile caps 3 and 10. but pile cap and a tributary length ofN/S grade beam on either side of the pile cap may be designed to resist tie forces using the passive pressure. An exception to §1808.. is provided by the confinement of very dense granular soil at the site. Interconnect ion force between pile caps 3 and 10 Maximum loads on each pile cap under E/W seismic forces are Pile cap 3 = 46 + 16 + 0 = 62 kips Pile cap 10 = 58 + 16 + 0 = 74 kips Minimum horizontal tie force Sos II 0 = 0. or to try to use passive pressure restraint on the pile cap in lieu of a grade beam. if this is properly designed . in this example.1 Calculations and Discussion .Example 54 § Pilc Interconnections IBC §1BOB.23. 2006 IB C Stru ctural/S eismic Design Manual.23.e. Code Reference [!J Intercon nection requirements IBC §1808. the passive pressure resistance is . The column vertical load is to be considered the dead. no grade beam between pile caps 3 and 10 (or similar caps) is required. Vol. This is specified in § 1808.23. and seismic loads on the pile cap. 7400lbs Required length = = 6.1.2.2.2 I The code requires that individual pile caps of every structure subject to seismic forces be interconnected with ties.10 times the largest column vertical load P = 0.1 allows use of "equivalent restraint" which .2. For the allowable lateral bearing = 200 psf per foot of depth below natural grade.1. The latter is considered an "equivalent restraint" (by soil confinement or bearing pressure) under the exception to rae §1808.40 kips I I I I I I I [!J Req uired "tie" restraint between pile caps 3 and 10 The choices are to add a grade beam (i.
and twostory buildings.. are possible.. In the design of relatively lightweight one. the exception to the interconnecting tie requirement of § 1808.200 plf .2. buildings on pile foundations are required to have interconnecting ties between pile caps.. 2.IBC §1808. I . ..~::::: ::::~ '<~4 E. ::::~:::: 2'·0" ~:::::::::::~ ::::. Ties are essential in tall buildings. 6.23.2' 800 psflf! Equivalent restraint system in plan Section 88: Grade beam Normally.. a geotechnical engineer should confirm the appropriateness of this decision.. or geotechnical hazards. This is particularly true in the case of highrise buildings and buildings with heavy vertical loads on individual pile caps..1 may permit a more economical foundation design... Ties are also necessary when the site soil conditions are so poor that lateral movements. •. 192 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual. when interconnecting ties are omitted. Vol. such as liquefaction.1 Example 54 • Pile Interconnections 1. and the project specifications should call for the backfill and compaction methods necessary to provide required passive pressure resistance. However. 23 .
4 The following is an example of the simplified wind load procedure of ASCE/SEI 705.5) x. Minnesota .Classify as Enclosed.0 Structure: The structure is an Xbraced steel frame with evenly distributed braces on all four exterior walls.7.4 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual. I I I I I I Design Method: To utilize ASCE/SEI 705 Simplified Procedure (Method 1) all ofthe following criteria must be met. The second floor is concrete slab on metal form deck on steel floor beams.6 Enclosure: §62 Topography: Height of adjacent hills is less than 60 feet . = 1.13 ft and 12 ft). nor is it in a hurricane region. I 193 .1 ~l Example 55 D Simplified Wind Loads on 2 aStory BUildings §6.5. Dimensions : 100 ft wide by 120 ft long by 25 ft high (2 stories . The building has no unusual openings in the envelope.5. as defined in §62 2) The building height is less than 60 feet and least horizontal dimensions 3) The building is enclosed and not prone to windborne debris 4) The building is regular shaped 5) The building is rigid with a period less than I second 6) The site is not subject to wind speedup effects 7) The building is symmetrical 8) For a building with well distributed MWFRS torsional load case in note 5 of Figure 610 will not govern the design. Suburban office park surrounded by trees and typical suburban construction on all sides . Vol. so no concerns for windborne debris .90 mph zone .Wind speedup effects not a concern. Calculate the wind loads on the following building.1.Therefore the exposure category is B. Therefore design by Method 1 §6. (§6. 1) With no breaks in the roof or floor (structural separations) the diaphragms are simple. Importance: The facility is an office building with no special functions . F 61 I Wind Speed: Located in Minneapolis. The roof is metal roof deck on steel joists on steel joist girders. Exposure: §6.Therefore the building category in Table II is Category II.
4 Example 55 • Simplified Wind Loads on 2·Story Buf/dings 25' Determine the following.2.4. 194 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual.1. I . The equation for ps is shown in §6.7. the simplified design wind pressure ps is the product of the base simpl ified design pressure ps30 taken from Figure 62 and multiplied by the Height and Exposure Adjustment Factor A from Figure 62.4. [!J ~ ~ Main wind force MWFRS end zone width MWFRS design wind pressures ~ Components and cladding ~ Edge Strip ~ Design wind pressure on components [1J Main WindForce Resisting SystemMWFRS (Lateral Load Structural Frame) Using Method 1 §6. the Edge Strip Width. Vol . so first calcu late a. I Eq 61. and by the Importance Factor J from Tabl e 6. the Top ographic Factor K=I from §6.§6. ~ Calculate the MWFRS End Zone Width End Zone = 2a.5.
8 8.00 I ~ 8. Design Pressure Type Zone Surface Wall Roof Wall Roof Wind Lee Wind Lee Label A B P 130 Base A HI.00 A A A 1.00 A 1. Factor K:1 Topographic 1 Import.0 rt p. so the End Zone = 2a = 2 x 10 ft = 20 ft ~ Calculate the MWFRS design wind pressure Using Equation 61: p.00 A 1.00 .4 8." With the mean roof height of 25 feet and the exposure being "B".00 10. = A Kjp.. and importance factor. Design Pressure Type Zone Surface Label P IJ O End Horiz Int End Ven Int W all Roof Wall Roof Wind Lee Wind A B C D E Roof Angle 0'" to 5'" 12. Exposure B.5 psf Nn Roof Proiection for Flat Roofs A 1.15.00 8.0. topography.7 psf A 1.00 I A 1. Height 25.8 10 .7 psf A 1.I.00 .8 psf Lon gitudinal M W FRS .4 Edge Strip = a = Lesser of: 1 But not less than: • 10% of the least horizontal dimension = 0.00 I A 1.8 psf No Roof Projection for Flat Roofs A 1.00 6.5 15.00 A 1. For a building Category II as defined in Table I.00 A 1.8 A HI.0 rt p.0.7 6.12.00 1.90 mph . Since the building site r = 1. x. Factor Factor F G H Lee A 1.7 6.5 psf No Roof Pro 'ecticn in Lonzitudinal Direction ).3o Look up the base pressures P. the is level from §6.00 .12.00 A 1. End 12.00 A 1.00 A 1.00 A 1.00 IA 1.00 A 1.00 .4 8. Press.30 from Figure 62 then modify for height.00 A 1. the Height and Exposure Adjustment Factor A from Figure 62 = 1.00 A 1.00 1.00 1.0.8 8. exposure. Height 25.7.8.00 A 1.00 = 10. A 1.8 psf x = =  2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual.90 mph.15. No interpolation is required because the flat roof angle falls in the row of "O to 5. & Exp.8 psf A 1. & Exp. Vol.00 8.4 psf x 1.00 A 1.10 x 100 ft = 10ft · 40% of the eave height = 0040 x 25 ft = lOft ·4% of the least horizontal dimension = 0.8 psf 1.00 A 1.5.Ex ampl e 55 • Simp lifi ed Wind Loa ds on 2·Story Building s §6 .00 .00 I )" 1.00 A 1. E xposure B. I 195 .4 psf A 1.5 ·15.8 psf No Roof Projection in Lonaitudi nal Direction A 1. Topographic 1 Import. K= Importance Factor I = 1.00 A 1.8 Horiz Int End Vert Int C D E F G H Factor Factor Factor A 1.  J Tran svers e MWFRS .00 ·6.8 10.04 x 100 ft = 4 ft • 3ft Therefore : a = 10ft.
The loading diagrams shown should be mirrored about each axis of the building until each of the four comers has been the "reference comer" as shown for each load case. I ." When it is parallel to the ridge .4. Vol.1 must also be checked.2." When the roof is flat (slope ~5 · ) . as shown in the following diagram. and all vertical zones equal to O. the minimum load case from §6. Th e designations of "Transverse" and "Longitudinal" are keyed to the direction of the MWFRS being evaluated.1. create a load case with all horizontal zones equal to 10 psf.2. usin g Eq 6. do not combine with the case from §6. App ly a load of 10 psf on the buildin g projection on a vertica l plane normal to the wind.] In addition. It should be applied in each direction as well.§6. it is classifie d as "Longitudinal.4. its direction is classified as "Transverse. the loading diagram becomes the same in each direction. 196 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual. Check this load case as an independent case.1 .4 Example 55 • Simp lified Wind Loads on 2Story Buildings App ly the pressure s to the building as described in Figure 62. and thus has no ridge line. Design wind pressures p. In other words . When the resisting system being designed is perpendicular to the ridge line of the gable or hip roof.
Vol. 2006 IBC Struc tural/S eismic D esign Manual. KztlP nel30 Look up the base pressures directly from Figure 63. Since the building is a leve l site from §6.1. = 1.1.1.0. Exposu re.00. ~ Calculate the Edge Strip.5. all "bu ildings . a = lOft ~ Calculate the design wind pressure on several components using Equation 6·2 pnel =A. With the mean roof height of25 feet and the exposure being "B. 4 <: i I 1 Minimu m design wind loadi ng ~f"'enc. a Previously ca lculated in the MWFRS calcu lations. Therefo re. all parts of the exterior building envelope and any load paths. should be designed as Components and Cladding (C&C) . I 197 . the Importance Factor f lO' = 1. Eq 62.00.4. Corner L Being Evacuated I I I I I I I I ~ Components and Cladding (Everything except the Lateral Load Structural Frame) Accordi ng to §6. that are not part of the main windforceresisting system (lateral frame).4.2.1 1 EYsmple 55 Q Simp lified Wind Loads on 2Sr ory Buil din gs §6. then modify for Height.2.7. . and for a Building Category II .." the Height and Exposure Adjustment Factor from Figure 63 = 1. Topography and Importance Category..and all components and cladding" must be designed for wind loads. the C&C can be designed using §6. For buildings such as this that qualify under §6. K.2.
3 +5.00 x 1.00 x 1.00 x 1.00 x 1.15.9 +5.00 x 1.00 x 1.00 x 1.6 + 13.& +5.& 14.3 +5.00 x 1.5 .00 x 1.00 Factor Positive < 10 sf Ne gative Screw Roof Dec k None Required Non e Required 20 sf 12 sf 10 sf +5.9 +4.00 x 1.3 sf .00 x 1.9 36 .00 x 1.00 x 1. Vol.00 x 1.00 x 1.00 x 1.& · 23.4 I 2 1.5 +14.00 x 1. Ku Topo.6 None Required None Required None Required 20 sf 10 sf 17. Negative Positive Neg ative None Required None Required 10 s f 20 sf 17.4 +5.00 x 1.00 x 1.8 + 14.5 +14.00 x 1.9 + 14.6 .& .3 sf < 10 sf ::: .8 +5.00 x 1.14.00 x 1.00 x 1.00 x 1.90 mph.0 ft Direction Interpolation Pnl:tJO x HI.00 x 1.& 14.3 sf 10 s f 20 sf Negative .15.00 x 1.00 x 1.& 14.& 23.00 x 1.& +5.14.18.3 sf Posi tive Int + 14.00 x 1.6 .6 +5.7 15. 6 x 1.9 + 14.9· 36.00 x 1.& 35.00 x 1. & · .00 x 1.4' +5 .00 x 1.00 x 1.& + 14.5 ) > 100 sf None Required +4.1 198 2006 IBC StructurallSelsmlc Design Manual.4.00 x 1.0 0 x 1.00 x 1.00 x 1.00 x 1.4 Example 55 • Simplifi ed Win d Loads oh 2· Story Bu ild.15.00 x 1.19.00 x 1.5 12 sf 35.& · 35 .00 x 1.00 x 1.00 x 1.& +5 .7· 13.00 x 1.00 x 1. 1 . & 10sf 20 sf 12 sf .2.6 1 9.00 x 1.5 No ne Req uired +5.1 Stud 17.00 x 1.00 x 1.0 0 x 1.00 x 1. 1 .. A minimum pressur e of 10 psf 15 required per§6.00 x 1.6 1 9.00 x 1.5 1 Positive Int ( I) 12 sf Negative Joist Deck '".00 x 1. & Exp.14.& I 20 sf 30.5 +4 .9 14.00 x 1.00 x 1.2 .6 15.1&.3 sf (4) 17.00 x 1.00 x 1.14.2.00 x 1. 1 .2 1 &.7 15.5 +4 . Base I Imp ort.00 x 1.00 x 1.6 +5.3 < 10 sf Stud Siding 17.00 x 1.7* 15.1 15. P JJO 1 Design Pressure Area Deck Press Factor x 1.00 x 1.00 x 1.§6.00 x 1.00 x 1.00 x 1.00 x 1.00 +5 . I .7· .& 23. > 100 sf < 10 sf Positive Neg ative Positive Negative Positive Negati ve Positive Nega tive Pos itiv e Negative I ) None Required None Required None Required None Required 10 s f I 20 sf 12 sf 24. 1 10 s f 20 sf 17.00 x 1.9 +4 .00 x 1.00 x 1.00 x 1.15.15.00 x 1. 6 • Note.9· 14.ngs ] C & C .3 sf + 14.9 No ne Required •0 s 0 0 Screw Roof Deck Joist Deck "~ Edge (2) 12 sf > 100 sf None Required None Requ ired Screw Roof Deck JOiSl Siding Int (4) < 10 sf Positive Comer (3) 12 s f Negative Posi tive Negati ve Posi tive Negat ive Positive None Required None Required 10 sf 36.00 Factor x 1.7 1 3.6 + 13.1 .3 + 14. Heigh t Type Zo ne Item EfT Wind = 25.1& .9· 24.00 x 1.3 + 14.6 +5.9 24 . Ex posu re B.5 +4 .00 x 1.15.
.Zone 21Walls .. Vol.Zone 5 Comer Zones Roofs. I 199 .Zone 3 I 1 1 I 2006 IBC StructuraUSeismic Design Manual.4 The component and cladding pressures should be applied as described in Figure 63 and as shown in the diagram below. Roofs.1 Examp / a 55 • Si mplified Win d Load s o n 2· S tory B uil din gs § 6.Zone 4 End Zones '. O Q Interior Zones Roofs.Zone 1f\Nalis.
[}J Wind loads on MWFRS at Grid A ~ Wind loads on secondstory wall mullion 200 20D6 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual. The following information is given .4. Vol. wind loads can be determined using simplified provisions.4 Example 56 • Simplifi ed Wind Loads on Low R ise Buildings Per §6. for conform ing lowrise bui ldings. I .§6. A B c 1  / Main windforceres isting system 2 Typ I 1< 100' 3story office build ing located in urban/subu rban area ofNW Texas . 1.situated on fiat ground b (0 3  PLAN Flexible Diaphragm Typ /' 10 ns WaII mu II" spaced 5 ~eel typ ) 1/ Longitudinal Elevation T ra nsve rse Eleva tion Determin e the following.1 .
gabled or hipped roof Yes Yes Yes Yes §6. Regular shape 5.6 for exposure category definitions Examp le bu ilding in urban/suburban area is considered exposure B Mean roof height (h) = 35 ft (see defin ition §6. = 1.2 §6.2 Yes Yes Yes §6.5.I N=0.1 §6.4.2 Yes §6.3 sec N = Number of Stories 6.05 Topographic factor F 6la F 62 K. F 6. simp le diaphragm") 2. simp lified provisions are app lica ble Determine basic parameters NW Texas basic wind speed = 90 mph The desig n professional should contact the local building department to confirm design wind speed . Heig ht and exposure adjustment 'A.I(3)=0.1Check applicability of simplified provisions I . Torsiona l irregularities not a concern Note 5.0 §6. Low rise building (Mean roof height < 60 ft and building widt h) 3.5 .1 . See §6. Building enclosed 4. No special wind characteristics 7.2 §6. Not flexible (II) > l hz) (T < I sec) T=O.7 2006 IBC Stru ctural/Se ismic Design Ma nual.2 I I I I I I I I 8. Simple diaphragm building (See definition under "building.2) (8 < 10") Adjustment fac tor from Fig ure 62.I Ex amp l e 56 g Simp lified Win d L oa ds on Low Ri s e Buildings §6A 1 [!J Wind loads on MWFRS at Grid A 1 1a. Flat.10 Therefore. J 201 . Vol. 8 = 1.
3D Horizontal load at wall : In end zone [A] = (1. Zone E F G H WW LW WW LW Roof Roof Roof Roof 15.4 ft or ~3ft Note 10.42 : . 6.1.75 kips < 10.0 (Category II Build ing from Table 1.8. F 62 I I I I I I I I End Zone 2a = 12 ft F 62 1 e.4.4. roof angle = arctan 10 7.7 .15.8 6.05)(1.0 11d·1 Determine end zone dimensions Edge Strip a = 0. 1 Interpolating: For examp le. I I I .8 10. Governs or = 0.42 kips Min load §6. Zone A 8 C D Wall Roof Wall Roof 12. .4 psf*12 ft + 9. 1 pst) = 9.4 psf In interior zone [C] = (1.1.8 15. .1 10. J P.5 11.05)(1.4 (use 0) 9.1.4.9 4.1.7 .8 17.7 = 7.8 (use 0) .0 2.6" 6.4 8.dO (p sf) F 62 V 90 mph Load Dir. Vol.10 (60) = 6 ft .1Determine load on MWFRS at Grid A Forces determined using Eq 61 ps = A K.1 I I I I I I Check minimum requirement: Horizontal load Eq 61 = (14.4 Exam ple 56 • Simplified Wind Loads on Low Rise Buildings ] T 61 Importance Factor J = 1.4..7 7.3.1Obtain tabulated load s Simplified Design Wind Pressure P.6 psf*(2512))*35 ft = 10.7 pst) = 14.04 (60) = 2.6.0)(13. check 10 psf minimum over projected area of vertical plane §6. 2.10.7 .4 10.§6.1 .7 4.1 does not govern 202 2006 IB C S tr uc tural/ Seismic D esign Ma nual.0)(1.0)(9.6" 13.6 psf Per §6.6 o to Transverse 5" 20" Vertical Loads End Zone lnt.1) I 1 1 c. 1 = {I0 psf* 25 ft)*35 ft = 8.40 (35) = 14 ft but not less than ~ 0. Roof Angle Horizontal Loads End Zone Int.4 9.7 8.0)(1.
6 psfl'(25 ft . I 203 .12) = 340 plf= .21 kif uplift Note : Forces applied to Grid A are sho wn as a distri buted loa d along the frame length .Ex ample 56 8 Simplified Wind Loads on Low Rise Bu ildings §6.5 ft Elevation 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual.0)(15.se' k > > ) Trib.0 psf) = 7.6 psfl'( 25 ft . A more detai led analysis of for ces based on roof frami ng would include a sm aller distributed load and upli ft point loa ds at locations where beams frame into the grid A moment frame at grids I. 10 ft/2 = 5 It 10 ft/2 + 10 ft/2 = 10 n V2 = 3.2 ft) 12.4 ps f" 12 ft + 9.2 £1» 10 ft = 2976 Ib 2 nd Floor Load (12 .4 pst) = 16.05)( 1. 2.6 psfl'(25 ft .2 psf)(12 ft) + (7.34 kif VR = 1.56 psf)(25 . HI. Vol. and 3.05)( 1. Vertical load at roof: Win dward Roof .49 k V3 = z.72 10 ft/2 + 15 ft/2 = 12.12) = 210 plf = .34 kif uplift Leeward: (11.4 psf" 12 ft + 9. 0.4 ps f" 12 ft + 9.2 ft» 5 ft = 1488 Ib cd 3 Floor Load (10 ft tributary ht) V3 = (14.7 psf) = 11.0)( 1.0)(9.4 Hori zonta l point loads to frame : Roof Load (5 ft tributary ht) VR=(14. 05)( 1.56 psf In interi or zon e [H] = ( 1. Alternatively.5 ft = 3720 Ib Note: Forces to Grid A are shown based on a tributary basis that is conservative for the analysis of Grid A .In end zone [E] = (1.2 psf)( 12 ft) + (9. the forces could be distribu ted to gr ids A and C by ap plying the loads as a simple span beam.0)( 1.0)(10.0)(7 .I n end zone [F] = (1.0)( 1.35 psf)(25 .2 psf Leew ard Roof.2 psf In interior zone [G] = (1. 1 psf) = 9 .0)( 1.35 psf Vertical uniform loads to frame : Win dward: (16 .05)( 1.5 ft tributary ht) V2= (14.
1 .6 psI x Trib HIS 14./ = 75 plf or 68. I .2 . lJ 204 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manua l.2.4./ .0 pSfposilive)(5 ft tributary) = 68..05)(1.4 psI x Trib HI §6.0)(1.5 plf = (1..4.§6.4 Example 56 • Simplified Wind Loads on Low Rise Buildings 0r Load Cases: cr C( cr :JD r l 5 9.Zone 4 Effective wind area = 5 ft (10 ft) = 50 sq ft Wind Loads pne130 ps F 63 = AK ztl Pnel30 §6.0)(14.2 . ps r~ ( = 3'· floor .1 10 psI x Trib HI §6.0)(13.0)(1.5 plf ( 2nd floor .2 (Eq 62) = 13.3 pSfnegalive)(5 ft tributary) = 75 plf F 63 p.1 Plan [!J Wind loads on second story wall mullion ~ Determine zone of mullion Interior of wall area . Vol.0 psfpositive = 14..3 psfnegative (suction) = (1..4.05)(1.
Located in an urban/suburban area ofN. Texas 3" 12' 12' Elevation Determ ine: [TI Wind loads on MWFRS Icai~ulationsJ!n(f Discussion [TI Wind loads on MWFRS Chapter 6 I 1 1 1 a. Vol. Find the latera l forces on the frame due to wind. I 205 .1 Determine basic wind speed Ut ilize ASC E/ SEI 705 §6 Use meth od 2 analytical procedure §6.5 I 2006 IB C Structural/S eismic Design Manual. 50' 4 1 ~I 12' 12' 12' 12' 12' 12' Office build ing 50 ft by 50 ft in plan with MWFRS at exterior. Floor Vibrations A 9sto ry building has a momentresisting frame for a lateral forceresisting system.W.Ex ample 58 .
9 Therefore: Rigid structure G= 0.4) Importance factor I = 1.57 0.4.5. Table 11) Exposure Category B Velocity pressure coeff K= (Case 2) §6.5.5.Analytical Proce dure Confirm building is regular shaped and not subject to across wind loading.62 0.6.= 1.76 0.4.2 §6.89 0.8.1(9) = 0.03 • 1. instability due to galloping or flutter .5.5.85 0.8 §9.70 0.5.6 §6.5.3.66 0.85 206 2006 IBC S tr uct ur al/S eism i c Design Ma nual. Vol.93 0.2la) §6.§6.0 0.7 §6.9 sec 1 Natural frequency = . T64 §6. no nearby hills) Gust effect factor G 9story building Natural period = 0.1 Hz > 1.3 and §2.5.5.3 §6. F 61 1 l ib ·1 I I I Determine velocity pressure Wind directionality factor Kd = 0.4. T 61 §6.5 Example 57 • Wind Loads .2 (Eq 9.5.5.6.5.85 (applies when using load combina tions in ASCE/SEI 705 §2. vortex shedding.00 (Structural Category II.96 0.1 Design procedure Basic wind speed V = 90 mph §6.99 1. or does not have a site locatio n for which channeling effects or buffet ing in wake of upwind obstructions warrant special conditions §6.5.81 0.5.3.5.04 By Interpolation Topographic factor K Z1 = I (example building on flat land.1 I I I I I I I I . I §6. T 63 I I 0· 15 fl 20 25 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 11 6 120 " Exposure 8 Case 2 0.
6 12.85)(90)2( 1.00256K=( 1.5. I 207 .0) 015 ft 20 25 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 116 10.5.18 Case 1: Internal Pressure Inward Case 2: Internal Pressure Ou tward External pressure coefficients .0)(0.Cp For example building.0 psf 10.4 18.9 11. F 65 §6.9 17.00256K2 K2kKdV / = 2 §6.3 15.15 0.1.11 §6.2 11 c.0 15.11.Examp le 58 a Floor Vibra tions Enclosure Classification Example building enclosed Velo city Pressure q== O. 10 Eq 6. F 66 L Plan (Note: Internal pressures must be added to or subtracted from external pressures typical L Elevation 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual.11.5.2.7 16.00256K=KrK2 V 2/ = O.1 Determine pressure and force coefficients Internal pressure coefficients .9 §6.GCpi GCpi = ±0.5.4 14.5. Vol. monoslope roof'B = 0 §6.4 16.3 13.
1 208 2006 IBC Structura l/Seismic Design Man ual.0.12 §6.0 L 50 h c. = . Roof  =0.2 11.7 F 66 q"GCp = 18.8 psf 11 6 = =2.85)(0 .5 Example 5 7 • Wind Lo ads .85)(.36 9.04) = x 16.2 psf q"GCp = 18.§6.5.5 50 p B L ll 6 fi F66 q" = q " ' = 18.72 10. 1 psf lid·1Design wind loads Main windforceresisting system Rigid building §6.8 (Area Reduction Factor) = 1.2.2 (0.3 > 1.41 7.8 12.5) = 7. (0 .4 I I Leeward wall 50 = .2 psf(0.7 11. I . = 0.GC = n .1.= 1 > C = .8 II 0· 15 20 25 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 116 .Analytical Procedure I F 66 Windward wall C. 12.04 F 66 q"GCp = 18.2 (0.5.74 psf Side walls I I I I I I I I I I I I I I c.2 §6.3 x 0. Vol .2 10.5.80 7.11 9.8) 6.l 2.5 11.85)(xI.89 8.0.85)(.7) = 1 0.0.
7.5 Case 1 shown 015 ft 20 25 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 116 14.Example 58.qh (GCp i ) p = .2(0. 18) =3.0 14.18.14.18) = I 1.7 11.1 8) = .2(+0.2(0.6 12.18.2(0.1 18.74 1 8.1B.4 . Vol.4 psf 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual.2)(0.28 psf(±) Ii p = CJ=GCp .2(0. 12.8 .1 Case 2 Leeward wall p = q"GCp .5 14.7 . Floor Vibra:ions C Eq 617) Windward wall qh(GCp i ) = (18.18) =9.0 13.0 psf Case 1 Case 2 Side walls = 10.) 10.4.5 psf p = .19.2 11.18) = .74 1 8.18) = 15.7 Case 1 15. 1 10.4 . I psf Roof = 1 6.7. I 209 .2(0.8 / Sample Calculation 15 I P = 12.4 13.18) = .Q1J(GCp .
I .4.0 = 21... 19.l~ Wind ~I~ 11.. §6.:Jf'LL.1 + 11. multiply pressures by tributary width = 50/2 = 25 ft or perform Rigid Diaphragm Analysis 210 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual.) Elevation Case 1: Internal Pressure Inwa rd Case 2: Internal Pressu re Outward Verify projected load is greater than 10 psf 10.1 psI . .1 psf Plan Wind .5 psf Case 1 11.7 psI Case 2 9..k.5 Example 57 a Wind Loads .1 To obtain frame loads.graphically rrrr.1. .4 ps f Cas e 1 15.Analytical Procedure 11 e.1> 10 psf. Vol.o.0 psf 4..1 Design wind loads .0 psI Case 2 14.§6.
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