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The Methodology and logic of
the interdisciplinary science of networks: physics, biology, neurology, social science, cognitive science, engineering (pages 1-20) Part A hardware networks: physics, chemistry, biology, neurology 2. 3. 4. 66) Part B content and software networks: social sciences, cognitive science and linguistics 5. 6. 7. Social networks and the social science of networks (pages 66-90) Linguistic networks (pages 91-110) Cognitive networks and the cognitive science of networks (pages Physical networks and the physics of networks (pages 21-30) Biological networks and the biology of networks (pages 31-45) Neurological networks and the neurology of networks (pages 46-
111-176) Part C scientific, engineering and organizational networks 8. 9. 10. 11. Corporate networks and the organization of the networks (pages Learning networks (188-208) Scientific and research networks (pages 209-220) Engineering networks and the design of networks (pages 221-232)
260) 13.0 and humanities 2.Part D the future of networks 12. Social sciences 2.0 (pages 261-270) The social dark matter and dark energy of the crowd (pages 233- 14. Sources (pages 271-280) 2 .
1 The new science of network needs a new logic of networks In his article "Network Takeover" Barbashi (2012) shows how the network paradigm is replacing the reductionist paradigm. This paradigm leads to a new science: network science. is a network of approximately 300 genes mutations. from a network of synaptic connections between a large numbers of neurons. Because of the new methodology of the new network science. social science. in the genomic network. and gain empirical data on networks scales of millions of nodes and billions of connections between nodes. you cannot understand and cannot cure the cancer. but that consciousness. Without understanding the network connections between these 300 genes. like cancer. simulate. the collapse of the power grid or the Internet. cognitive science. Until the early 21st century. but each gene contains links to other genes. Similarly neurologists and cognitive scientists already understand that there is no one "neuron consciousness". The emergent properties of networks are also the causes of financial crises. biology. 3 . But at the beginning of the 21st century. etc. Biologists and physicians already understand that "cancer gene". engineering 1. the new concepts.Chapter 1 Introduction: The new methodology. is the result of emergent properties. there were no tools to view. we realize that one gene is not a separate instruction booklet to build a particular organ in the body. and the new logic of the interdisciplinary science of networks: physics.
which allows us to view and extract data from millions of billions of documents and links between documents in the case of Google.companies like Google and Facebook. and from the millions of people and billions of connections between them in the case of Facebook. that will enable us to diagnose and cure economic and political ills? Time will tell. serve not only as a telescope and a microscope of organizations. will in future. we see how the visualization of the Internet. Each point represents a document. enable the discovery of a universal basic law of the networks. under 4 . and it represents part of the WWW. but also as a stethoscope. or their successors. and networking technologies. Is it possible that Google and Facebook. became a kind of telescope and microscope. and each link represents a web address. In the above image. Barabasi discovered the law of Scale-free networks. and that we will deal with in the chapters on biological-medical networks. This is the first map (1999) of a large computer network.
biology. Perhaps as Descartes created a synthesis of algebra with geometry in analytic geometry. Partial theories explaining the behavior of the networks before "network science" were fractal and chaos theory. This law was discovered in the same year in which a first version of the algorithm Page-Rank of Google. but also networks of neurons. cognitive science. energy. genes. that could explain the astronomical observations of the period. finance. the theory of self-organization. paved the way for Newton's laws. etc. and more. There is a deep connection between the development of "optics of networks" (tools like Google and Facebook telescope and microscope). complexity theory. Google and Facebook have a double effect: First. The observations of Brahe. attracts more than 99% of the links. especially the law of gravity.which documents are gaining links according to Pareto Law. social science. Something similar happened in previous centuries regarding the relationship between the optics of the stars and understanding the laws of astronomy and their underlying physical laws. were discovered. mathematics. Second. they not only provide a wealth of data. they enable us to understand similar phenomena in the billions of connections between nodes. and of people (Facebook). not just networks of documents (Google). but also show lack a comprehensive theory of networks. and the development of "astronomy and physics of networks". What is common to all these theories is that they cross the old disciplines of physics. and as Newton created a synthesis of mathematics 5 . Kepler and Galileo. etc. namely that less than 1% of the documents.
2 The synergy between the fundamental laws of social networks creates new types of organization and social structures. we need new kinds of thinking. 1.).1. emergence. like the law of Scale-free networks in Figure 1 above. Metcalfe's law: The number of possible cross-connections in a network grows as the square of the number of computers in the network increases. for example. causality. The four following laws show that tools like search engines.Physics . evolution. that Kant's categories (space. are only part of the basic concepts of human cognition. Who said synthesis can contain only two disciplines? Why not four or seven disciplines? From all these disciplines we already revealed general network rules that apply to all disciplines. We need new basic categories (like self reference.Economy computer science. so we need today to create the synthesis of Mathematics . Kant's list is pre-network. and more). to the new science of networks. create amplified organizations and amplified social structures. time. In economics less than 1% of the population attract 99% of the wealth. logic and intuition. Thus. etc. that say that less than 1% of the documents attract more than 99% of the links. networks and smart phones. In epidemics less than 1% of carriers account for more than 99% infection.Biology . etc. Meta. the community value of a network grows as the square of 6 .2 The new discoveries in the book 1.with physics in mathematical physics.1. 1.99% of the mass in the universe. show that when dealing with social networks. It turns out.Sociology .1 The detailed analysis presented in the book of all types of networks. In physics less than 1% of the stars (black holes) attract more than .
political science. Social Networks are a kind of "microscope and telescope of the social sciences". and the dominant power of the social sciences. 1.1. politics and economics. and astronomical entities such as galaxies. Disciplines like history. and think the smoke is the moving force of the ship. The crowd has always been the key player of the history. McLuhan law: New types of media increase the entropy of organizations and societies." It seems that before Copernicus people thought that the earth is the center of the world and that the Sun orbits the Earth. as the horse pulling the wagon. economic theory and management science.1. Shirky law: The massive drop in collaboration costs between network members. which enable us to find tiny organisms such as bacteria.3 The discovery of the optics of the social network. Axelrod Law: The rapid growth of trust between network members is proportional to the number and frequency of iterations." 1. Social networks discovered the error. Copernican revolution showed that the Earth is a tiny 7 . relative to the static costs of the organization and management in the pre-network era.4 The "Copernican revolution" in history and the social sciences. stressed by the end of the 20th century. or as Tolstoy say: "Historians are like the farmer who sees the smoke emitted from the ship. so the social networks allows us to discover new phenomena in every area that concern networks. assert that the crowd is "the dark matter of history ".the number of its users increase. "the dark matter of the history and of the social sciences. Social networks allow "Copernican revolution" in all sciences. But scientists until now see only the tip of the iceberg. for example. As the telescope and the microscope were a kind of "amplifiers of the eyes". the central role of genius and leader.
network biology. We will show that leaders and geniuses have a marginal role in history.1. social network. it was understood mainly by the School of Toronto (Havelock. But only in the mid and late 20th century. But most researchers in the science of networks. that the preliterate mind have a different logic than that of the literate one. the reasoning and logic of the networked mind is different than the Aristotelian logic and the Turing machine. the logic of the illiterate person is different and does not follow the Aristotelian representational-inferential paradigm. Accordingly.1. Parry. "Turing Network. Studies in the field of artificial intelligence of Winograd and Dreyfus show that the dominant paradigm throughout the 20th century of artificial intelligence. In contrast. 1. 1. Ong)." 8 . failed because it was inferential and logical of the literate person. using Aristotelian pre-network logic. analyze networked entities (ants. The new network logic includes important implications for the domain of Artificial Intelligence (AI). Instead we need a network model. McLuhan. and in social life. network social science. This is a possible explanation for the failure of artificial intelligence project in the last 70 years. neural network). Heidegger understood this at the beginning of the 20th century. network linguistic.rock moving through the universe. but follow the emergent-embedded paradigm.5 The discovery of the network logic: the network science takes shape as key concept in understanding a wide range of disciplines: network physics. network cognitive science.6 The new network science shows that human natural intelligence is much more intuitive than thought from Aristotle to Turing.
However.1. 9 . while the Facebook algorithm EdgeRank is the social component.7 The possibility that there exist an Info-Social power that flow in social networks. only since the advent of social networking. like electro-magnetic power flowing in the electricity grid. Social networks are a "telescope and microscope" of the social sciences. this force could be detected empirically and in quantifiable mathematics.1. Google algorithm PageRank is the information component.
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