MORPHOLOGICAL AND AGROBIOLOGICAL STUDY ON LOCAL GERMPLASM OF COMMON BEANS (PHASEOLUS VULGARIS L.) AND COWPEA (V. UNGUICULATA L.

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T. Stoilova 1 , M. Berova 2 1 Institute for Plant Genetic Resources, 4122 Sadovo 2 Agricultural University, Plovdiv Correspondence to: Tzvetelina Stoilova E-mail: tz_st@abv.bg

ABSTRACT
Among major food legumes the common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is the third most important worldwide, superseded only by soyabean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] and peanut (Arachis hypogea L.). Among the pulses (annual leguminous food crops that are harvested for dry seeds) the common bean is by far the most important. Common bean landraces are an important component of the Bulgarian small scale farmers. The bean phenotypic and genetic diversity is large, as in the all the world and in our country too. There are a lot of cultivated forms called landraces often are highly variable in appearance and usually have local names. They have particular properties or characteristics (early or late maturing) a reputation for adaptation to local climatic conditions. Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) is an ancient crop, little known in Bulgaria. Although, in South-East and South-West part of the country were collected local forms still cultivated at that conditions. Cowpea is the most important food legume crop for people of those regions. The general purpose of this study was to compare morphological and agrobiological traits of 15 accessions of dry beans and 3 accessions of cowpea with local origin, growing in the same conditions. The study was performed in the experimental field of the Institute of Plant Genetic Resources in Sadovo, during the period 2006-2008. The studied accessions of beans showed high degree of variation of some quantitative traits: plant height, number of node of main stem, number of seeds/plant and weight of seeds/plant. Cowpea accessions showed differences between duration of vegetation cycle, number of pods and seeds/plant, resulting to the yield potential, which is more stable in that dry conditions. Keywords: beans, characterization cowpea, landraces, morphological who maintain them (6, 7). Cowpea is also grain legume crop which is grown in the South parts of the country (Svilengrad and Petrich regions) and isn’t known in the North part of Bulgaria. Cowpea is interested with more drought tolerance comparing with common beans (2, 3). The aim of our study was to investigate the main morphological characters of common beans and cowpea, their variation and correlation coefficients in other to improve their utilization in practice and for breeding program.

Introduction
The common beans (Ph. vulgaris L.) collection is one of the biggest of grain legumes at IPGR. It is included at about 1800 accessions and is represented mainly from Ph. vulgaris and Ph. coccineus sp. (8). The collection includes local old varieties and populations, landraces and introduced accessions from abroad. Recently we pay attention to local material (landraces) which still grown in gardens to collect and conserve them. They are well adapted to agroclimatic conditions and grains are with high quality and very tasty. That’s why we try to collect, characterize and conserve them, because of the risk of extinction in rural area with old people,
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Materials and methods
The common beans (Ph. vulgaris L.) and cowpea (V. unguiculata L.) accessions were grown in IPGR (Sadovo) during period 2006-2008. The experimental field was in a
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pod width.3 CV(%) 8. Observations were made in 18 characteristics: days to flowering from sowing date. Qualitative traits observed on 15 local accessions of Phaseolus vulgaris L. biological yield. accordingly.2 0.03 0.2 0. to reach flowering and maturity cycle for a short period.4 39.6 0. weight of pods per plant. seed width. days to maturity from sowing date.4 24.04 3.№ 91E309 with 27 days and cat.5 49.3 0.7 0. One of the most important traits for grain legumes is their earliness.3g. These accessions are with medium vegetation period between 75 and 82 days to maturity (Table 1).3 All studied accessions are from 1st type of growth with plant height between 30 and 42cm with mean value 34cm. № 93E028.6 1.6 1. number of pods per plant.5 10 35.7 9. There is a big difference among accessions with number and weight of pods per plant. The first one has duration of vegetation cycle 75 days and the second 64 days to maturity.4 4.3 5 12.7 26.2 9.6 11.9 0.4 48 2.4 0.7 1. 27 20 64 30 9.4 37. which means these traits are the most variable.8 2.12 0. flowering duration. weight of seeds/plant.8 44. characteristics Days to flowering Duration of Flowering Days to maturity Plant height Biological Yield Height of the 1st pod Weight of plant without pods Number of pod/plant Weight of pods/plant Pod length Pod width Number of seed/pod Number of seed/plant Weight of seed/plant Seed length Seed width Weight of 100 seeds Min. Central South Bulgaria.4 6.8 1.4 9.1 27. except of pod and seed BIOTECHNOL. 91E293 and 91E302 with 100seeds weight 417.8 7.45 0. All observations were done follow the International Phaseolus Descriptor (4) and Cowpea Descriptor (5).1 7. number and weight of seeds per plant.06 4. 35 38 86 42 36.9 11. seed length. The accessions with biggest number of pods and seeds per plant are with cat. number of seeds/plant.3 11. These characters show low value of CV% between 7. The earliest accessions with shortest period to flowering stage were: cat.5 4.1 10.2 40.04 0.5 9.3 SD 2.5 8.1 0.4 42 10.2 3. There was considerable variation for all characters studied on V. In each genotype. TABLE 1.6 14. 23/2009/SE SPECIAL EDITION/ON-LINE 386 . EQ.5 19. & BIOTECHNOL.length and width and seed-length and width.1 Dissemi nation 8.01 0 20.7 1.6 1. 459 and 470. in this case they will avoid unfavorable high temperatures and low air humidity during flowering and podding stages (1). Among all studied accessions the biggest seeds belong to cat.3 0.8 20.9 0. which type is most appropriate for environments in this region. pod length.1 5. XI ANNIVERSARY SCIENTIFIC CONFERENCE 120 YEARS OF ACADEMIC EDUCATION IN BIOLOGY 45 YEARS FACULTY OF BIOLOGY The most constant characters with small differences among them are: pod.08 2.7 0.09 4.2 0.1 2. 5 plants per replication were randomly chosen for biometric measurements.4 3.4 5.4 Mean 32 30 78 34 18.3 4 0.6 14. plant height.06 1.02 1.7 21 44.1 5. 95E005 and 93E012.6 8.8 8.6 6. weight of 100 seeds.8 Max.3 3. The size of the grain is very important for consumers.4 8.7 1. № 91E292.7 30.4 6.1 6. unguiculata L.3 SE 0. weight of plant without pods.8 1. accessions.8 44. number of seed per pod.3 1. These characters are with the biggest value of CV%.4 0.02 0.96 1.9 17 0. that’s why one of the breeding direction is to select plants with bigger seeds and in the same time with good technological traits.77 38.12 0.3 and 11.9 8.7%.plot of 2 m length with two rows for each accession in two replications.23 2.6 20. height of the 1st pod.№ 97E003 with 28 days.1 7.6 2. Results and Discussion All accessions of common beans have vegetation period between 64 and 86 days (Table 1).08 7.

unguiculata L.02 0.5 1.8 22.8 0. days to flowering stage for common beans is 32 days and for the second crop 54.7 31.9 1 72. The Vigna has smaller size of seeds-22. Qualitative traits observed on 15 local accessions of V.3 34.2 24. are 24. The present study.04 2.1 1 0. The qualitative traits from Table 1 and Table 2 shows the main differences between these two grain legume crops.7 mean value.8 3.8 62. Plants of Ph. 100 seeds weight. Number of pods and seeds per plant are much more for V. yielded much better under environments of Central South Bulgaria.1 for common beans.9 20.1 3. Phaseolus vulgaris L and V. and Vigna unguiculata L. characterized with high temperatures and low air humidity.2 0.5 5.5g than common beans -38. unguiculata L.5 0.2 3.4 46.9 40.3 82.8 0.5 29.25 2.7 1.8 6. unguiculata L.7 73.6 15. unguiculata L.5 and 24. with local origin were established accessions with higher yielding.7 29.2 14. with early maturation produced more pods and seeds per plants.7 7. performed during the last two years will contribute to increase the interest of researchers and farmers in this crop. Comparing first character. comparing with Ph.2 27 4.4 0.9 0 0.5 57. The duration of maturity cycle is at about 82 days.1 33. producting bigger seeds and in the same time more suitable crop between Phaseolus vulgaris L.3 0. TABLE 2.7 173. vulgaris L.3 29. 56 23 85 92.03 0.7 7. unguiculata L.6 0. unguiculata L.03 12.9 23.8 11.08 5.6 26.5 Max.3 12.length and width and phonological observations (Table 2). V. The number of pods and seeds per plant for V.6 31.8 71. Plants belong to V.4 Dissemi nation 0.9 11.2 328 83.6 15.5 20.7 7.6 78. early maturing plants.84 10.4 31.5 0. different from others entered to the first phase later. unguiculata L.7 0. Vulgaris L.6 21.9 35.7 seeds per plant across the 24.8 10. The growth habit of these three accessions with local origin is semierect type.9 16.6 4.8 0.3 0.65 19.05 0.04 0. than for Phaseolus vulgaris L with mean value 173.1.5 6. for growing under environments of Central South Bulgaria.5 42.9 0. 23/2009/SE SPECIAL EDITION/ON-LINE in Sadovo.3g.7 0. yielded better under agroclimatic conditions BIOTECHNOL. The highest value was recorded on the yield components – number of pods and number of seeds for V.2 68. characteristics Days to flowering Duration of Flowering Days to maturity Plant height (cm) Biological Yield (g) Height of the 1st pod (cm) Weight of plant without pods (g) Number of pods/plant Weight of pods/plant(g) Pod length Pod width(cm) Number of seed/pod Number of seed/plant Weight of seed/plant(g) Seed length Seed width Weight of 100 seeds (g) Min.2 SD 0.5 21.8 CV(%) 0. with 8. 54 20 80 63 57.3 115 25. & BIOTECHNOL. unguiculata L.09 21.6 4.5 Mean 54.9 0.9 5.7 22.5 0.02 1.9 and 173. The earliest flowering plants need 54 days. REFERENCES XI ANNIVERSARY SCIENTIFIC CONFERENCE 120 YEARS OF ACADEMIC EDUCATION IN BIOLOGY 45 YEARS FACULTY OF BIOLOGY 387 .6 days.8 5.97 0.4 17 0.1 104.3 2.3 46.8 9.4 24.2 229.7 Conclusions According to the field evaluation of 15 accessions of Phaseolus vulgaris L and three accessions of V. EQ.3 23.9 SE 0.5 0 0 12.9 15.

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