Chapter 10- Curriculum Implementation

Nature of Implementation
Relationship to Planning
Incrementalism Communication Support

Implementation as a Change Process
 Theory of Change
Lovell and Wiles Lewin’s Force Field Analysis

 Change Typologies
Bennis Chin McNeil

 Resistance to Change  Improving Receptivity to Change

Lovell and Wiles
 Leadership  Communication  Release of Human Potential  Problem Solving  Evaluation

Lewin’s Force Field Analysis
 Driving Forces and Restraining Forces  Three Stage Change Process

Bennis’ Types of Change
 Planned Change  Coercion  Interaction Change

Chin’s Change Strategies
 Empirical-Rational  Normative-Reeducative  Power Strategies

McNeil’s Complexity Typology
 Substitution  Alteration  Perturbations  Restructuring  Value-Orientation Changes

Resistance to Change
 Lack of ownership  Lack of benefits  Increased burdens  Lack of administrative support  Loneliness  Insecurity  Norm Incongruence  Boredom  Chaos  Differential Knowledge  Sudden wholesale change  Unique points of resistance

Improving Receptivity to Change
Curriculum activity must be cooperative Some people like to change; some people do not like to change Innovations are subject to change Proper timing is a key to increasing people’s receptivity to change

Curriculum Implementation Models
Overcoming Resistance to Change (ORC) Organizational Development (OD) Organizational Parts, Units, and Loops Educational Change Model

Overcoming Resistance to Change Model
Ability to overcome staff resistance Power Equalization Ownership and Commitment

Organizational Development Model
Improve the organization’s problem solving and renewal process Emphasis on teamwork and organizational culture Curriculum implementation is ongoing and interactive

Organizational Parts, Units, and Loops
Likerts “Linking Pins” Argyris’ Organizational Learning

Educational Change Model
Fullen’s Factors Affecting Implementation

Key Players
Students Teachers Supervisors Principals Curriculum Directors Curriculum Consultants Parents and Community

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