ANCIENT NEAR EAST: RELATIVE CHRONOLOGY ANCHORED TO APPROXIMATE MODERN DATES

Near Eastern Chronology at a Glance JOHN LEWIS 11/5/05

1

YEAR BC

3000

2800

2600

2400

2200

2000
Early Minoan

1800

1600
Middle Minoan

1400

1200
Late Minoan

1000

800
Rise of the Polis Aetolia Settled

600

400
Peloponnesian War

Aegean Sea --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------13th Century Breakdown | | Hyksos 2nd New 18th Ramessids 3rd Invasions Intermed Kingd Dynasty | Intermed iate | 2400 Patriarchal 2000 Abraham | | 1700-1270 | [Egyptian Captivity---------] to Canaan | 1020 Kings 738 Assyrian Conquest 587-37 Babylonian Captivity

Predynastic

Archaic Dynastic

Old Kingdom

1st Intermediate

Middle Kingdom

Kushite Invasions

Persian Period

Ptolemiac Rule

Egypt ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Hebrews ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Amurru Ugarit, Alalakh, Emar | 13th Century Breakdown | Hittites Collapse Sack of Ugarit, Hazor | | | | | | | | | | |

Syria / Palestine-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Amorites Infiltrate

Hittite State

Middle Hittites

Lydians

Persians

Macedonians

Asia Minor -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Isin 1st Dynasty-]Assyria Larsa Dynasty --]Shamsiadad | | | Babylonia Hammurabi takes Babylonia

1500 Mittani

1360 Assyrian Middle

Assyria Tilgath Pilser I

Assyria 2nd Rise 880

NeoNinevah falls Assyrian to Babs, Medes 612

North Mesopotamia ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Lagash-umma War Uru’inimgina of Lagash Ur 3rd Dynasty Akkad—Sargon I Early Dynastic Periods: Late Uruk I: 2900-2750 IIIa: 2600-2450 Period: 3500-3100 II:2750-2600 IIIb: 2450-2350 Jamdet-Nasr Periiod: 3100-2900 | | | Kassites in | Nebuchadnezzar Babylonia ------------------] sacks Susa; ends | 2nd Elamite period | | | | | Elam takes | Babylonia 1155

Sumer Cities

Archaic UR

Fall of Ur to East Gudea of Lagash

Cyrus takes Babylon 539

South Mesopotamia ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Hammurabi takes Fars area

Middle Elamites

Rise of Cyrus Persians: 559 BC

East -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

the sail (?) 4300-3100: Uruk.ANCIENT NEAR EAST: RELATIVE CHRONOLOGY ANCHORED TO APPROXIMATE MODERN DATES Near Eastern Chronology in Detail Dates for Mesopotamia based largely on Van De Mieroop. 2005) D. Ur. 2 Origins: Uruk] [Grimal ch. Epic of Gilgamesh . Lagash. Sumerians.I & D. Aha United Upper and Lower Egypt: D. = 1 anno mundi [Van De Mieroop ch.2] 3100-2900 Jemdet Nasr Period Uruk III. Eridu. smelting Halafin culture Ubaid Potter’s wheel.m. southern Mesopotamia Late Uruk (Levels XIV-III) Jemdet Nasr period Cylinder Seals (some found in Egypt) Pictographic writing on clay HISTORIC PERIODS BEGIN 3150 Scorpion Macehead Archaic-Dynastic Period: Earliest Kings 3150-2700 Kings. 2004). kilns. plow invented. Dates for Egypt: Grimal A History of Egypt (Oxford: Blackwell. Narmer.1] Ubaid 3761: Year 1 of Jewish Calendar. 1] [Grimal ch. known as “Menes” Scorpion. Eanna. 2nd Naqada period. Thinite Period @ This near Abydos 2 Tombs of Wadjii @Abydos & Saqqara Stele of King Wadjii Narmer Palette Step Pyramid of Djoser @ Saqqara 3100: Reign of Aha ends Sumerian Cities: Uruk. AND COMMENTS [Van De Mieroop ch. A History of the Ancient Near East (Oxford: Blackwell.I = 1st Dynasty DATE BC EGYPT MESOPOTAMIA PREHISTORIC ERA 9000 8000 7000 6000 5000 4500 4000 3500 3300 Proto-Neolithic Neolithic 1st Predynastic Period:Chalcolithic 2nd Predynastic Preiod: Naqada I or Amratian @ el-Amra (near Luxor) 3rd Predynastic. Kish in competition Cuneiform writing on stone Pottery-Neoltihic 2 LEVANT COAST GREEKS SOURCES. Eanna Precinct Dramatic dating.II. Gerzean @ el Gerza (near Faiyum) 3rd Naqada period Aceramic-Neolithic Hassana: northern Mesopotamia Earliest seals. 1 a.

Nitocris (difficult succession) 2400 2400-2350 2350 Ur’inimgina of Lagash Bau-temple archive. 3 Competing City-States] [Grimal ch.” Autobiography of Weni. Ghiza D(ynasty).4-5] 2720-2560 Greeks: Herodotus on Egyptians 2560-2420 2500 2500-2350 2420-2270 King Mesilin of Kish Tablets from Fara and Abu Salabikh Lagash – Umma Border Wars D.V Userkaf.III: Djoser “Scorpion” (courtier = Imhotep). Expands into Nubia Pepy II (a long reign).IV Snofru. kingdom splits into 2 viziers. an official Merenre “Antiemdjaf” “Anti = war god. Girsu King Lugalzagesi of Umma Ebla Archives 2400-2000 Early Minoan Period . Adopts theocratic title “Golden Horus” and “Son of Ra” for monarchs. Step Pyramid at Saqqara D. Decline of Old Kingdom in growth of local official power.ANCIENT NEAR EAST: RELATIVE CHRONOLOGY ANCHORED TO APPROXIMATE MODERN DATES 3 2800-2350 2800 2780-20 Old Kingdom. Kings linked solidly to priesthood. EARLY DYNASTIC PERIOD Archaic Ur [Van De Mieroop ch. Cheops = Khufu Djedefre Chephren (pyramid) D. records Nubian expedition Pepy I Mery-Tawi “Loved in Two Lands. Pyramids at Sakkara.VI Teti Pacifies tension with nobles Tomb of Harkhuf at Aswan.

Building site for <3000 years. King Ibbi-Sin taken to Susa Amorites. Uruk Ur: Shulgi (son of Ur-Namma) Laws of Ur-Nammu or Shulgi (from copies made 300 years later. Last Theban prince. Akkad weakens in succession struggles Amorites (Semetic Bedouins) movement into Palestine cause displacements. Middle Kingdom D.12] [Grimal ch. 4 Political Centralization] [Grimal ch. Roots of Jews in Mesopotamia. List in Hall of Ancestors claims to D. Agade overthrows Lugalzagesi Dramatic date.X: “Wall of the Prince” built vs.VII-X Egypt fragmented politically D.6] 2269-55 2254-18 2217-2193 2189-69 2168-54 2100 2112-2095 2094-47 2061-10 2046-38 2037-29 2028-04 2025-1763 2010 2017-1793 Mentuhotpe II. Sinai Akkad (Agade): Sargon I Central Mesopotamia. Expedition to Red Sea.XI Earliest confirmed use of site at Temple of Karnak.7] [Van De Mieroop ch. Eridu. Semitic desert nomads. Theban king. to Canaan 4 [Van De Mieroop ch. 5 2nd Millen Near East] 2004 1998 Mentuhotpe IV. Fall of Ur to Eastern Kingdom Shimashki (held Elam). infiltrate Mesopotamia Greek: 2000-1580 Middle Minoan Jews: Abraham . Autobiography of Sargon Akkad: Rimush.ANCIENT NEAR EAST: RELATIVE CHRONOLOGY ANCHORED TO APPROXIMATE MODERN DATES 2334-2279 2278-70 2270-2100 Nebhepetre Mentuhotpe II last Old Kingdom ruler 1st Intermediate Period D. Nippur. at scribal schools in Nippur and Ur) Ur: Amar-Suen Ur: Shu-Sin Ur: Ibbi-Sin Larsa Dynasty (to 1763): Naplanum founds Mentuhotpe III S’ankhtawyef “He who breathes new life into Two Lands” 1st Dynasty of Isin (to 1793): Ishbi-Erra founds Jews: Patriarchal Period.III. to Nile Delta and elsewhere? Akkad: Manishtushu Akkad : Naram-Sin Victory Stele of Naram Sim Akkad: Sharkalishari Akkad: Dadu Shu-Turul Gudea of Lagash “Gudea Cylinders” Ur 3rd Dynasty period: Ur-Namma asserts Akkad rule Royal Graves of III Dynasty at Ur Legal / bureaucratic reforms 1st Ziggurats at Ur. [Grimal ch.

and sealing of borders The First Semneh Stele Karum-Kanesh level II Isin and Larsa at war 5 1910-1830 1897 1894-1595 1834 1822-1763 1810-1740 1808-1781 1800-1762 1795 1793 1792-50 1790-1633 1776 1766-62 1761 1749-12 1711-1684 1674-1552 Hyksos Period. Kingdom divides on his death. Deuteronomy 12-26 D. Assyria rises. End of Larsa Dynasty End of Eshnunna Babylon: Hammurabi conquers Mari Babylon: Samsuiluna loses control of southern Babylonia Babylon: Abi-eshuh [Van De Mieroop ch. Sesostris I 1928 Ammenemes II 1895 Sesostris II 1878 Sesostris III (main figure of legend) Conquest of Nubia.XVII Thebes 1800: Egyptian Tale of Sinuhe 1st Dynasty of Babylon: Samuabum (Amorite) founds Babylon and Assyria struggle after fall of Ur Larsa: Kudur-Mabuk dynasty Larsa: Rim-Sin I Karum-Kanesh level Ib Assur: Shamsi-Adad seizes throne. Semetic Foreign rule. Babylonian Law Code Death of Shamsi-Adad. Leviticus 17-26. 6 Territorial States] cf.XV & XVI Hyksos D. “Amun is at head” combines Amun w/ Heliopolis theology. Allows the Amorite Hammurabi (his vassal?) to rise Babylon: Hammurabi conquers southern Babylonia.8] . D. End of 1st Dynasty of Isin Babylon: Hammurabi I inherits throne. 1970: co-rule w/ son 1961 Ammenemes killed. Mari archives Ari under Yasmah-Addu rule Larsa: Rim-Sin conquers Isin.XII Ammenemes I.ANCIENT NEAR EAST: RELATIVE CHRONOLOGY ANCHORED TO APPROXIMATE MODERN DATES 1990-1790 D.XIII & XIV 1700-1270 Egyptian Captivity of Jews [Grimal ch. 6th king. Fars. Hebraic Laws at Exodus 21-23.XIV to 1633 D.

decline by 1200 Greek: Volcanic Destruction of Knossos (Rebuilt) Mycenaean Rise [Van De Mieroop ch. Raids through Palestine into Euphrates valley Amenhotep II. rise of Elamite language Kassites (Babylonia) until 1155 Middle Hittites (Anatolia) Mittani: Parattarna rules North Mesopotamia / Syria (later supplanted by Assyria) Smaller powers: Syro-Palestinian Ugarit. eastern Persian Gulf (w/ziggurat). Second Intermediate Period Old Hittite State (Hatta) Hattusili I (1650-20) founds Hittite Laws (copied through later centuries) Hatti: Mursili I Hittite Mursili sacks Babylon (Hammurabi II).ANCIENT NEAR EAST: RELATIVE CHRONOLOGY ANCHORED TO APPROXIMATE MODERN DATES 1650-1550 1620-1590 1595 1552 New Kingdom: Ahmose I ends Hyksos rule iaH-msi(w) (The Moon Is Born) D. End of Old Babylonian dynasty. Expands into Syro-Palestine 1401-1390 Tuthmosis IV Mittani: Artatama I Western Iran unified Ugarit Kingdom in Syro-Palestine Babylonia: Kadashman-Enlil I Greek: Fall of Knossos Greek: 1400 –1100 Late Minoan II Mycenaean Palaces Amenhotep III . Emar These powers rise. Construction of Liyan.9 Kassites. Kassites (“Mountain People”) rise Greek: 1580-1400 Late Minoan I 6 [Grimal ch. 7 Club of Great Powers] [Van De Mieroop ch.8 Western States] [Van De Mieroop ch.9] 1525 1500 Hatti: Telepinus Restores unity Main Regional powers: Middle Elamites (Western Iran) under Igi-halki. Alalakh.XVIII 1552-1350 Pyramid at Abydos (last royal tomb) His mummy from Deir el-Bahari The Autobiography of Ahmose 1526-06 Amenhotep I 1506-1493 Tuthmosis 1493-79 Tuthmosis II 1479-25 Tuthmosis III Egyptian Book of the Dead: Compiled Spells and Incantations. Assyrians and Elamites] 1486-1450 1425-01 1400 1400-1182 1390-52 Tuthmose III. first reintegration since Hammurabi’s attacks.

Similar. I Kings 1-2 7 1365-35 1363-18 1352-48 1350-1200 1348-38 1344-22 [Grimal ch. vassals made of Ugarit.ANCIENT NEAR EAST: RELATIVE CHRONOLOGY ANCHORED TO APPROXIMATE MODERN DATES 1363-28 1st Rise of Assyria: Assur-uballit I Limits strength of Babylonia in Tigris Valley Middle Assyrian Period Asyrian Empire lasts until 612 and fall of Ninevah Amarna Archive: Diplomatic Letters btw. Enum-Elish) Amenhotep IV Mittani: Tushratta Tale of Aghat. Ugarit. Joshua 24 1340 1325 1336-27 Tutankhamun 1327-23 Ay 1323-1295 Horemheb 1313-1280 1321-1295 1305-1207 1300 . At Carachemish Treaty of Suppiluliuma and Mattiwaza of the Mittani Babylonia: Burnaburiash II 1328: Death of Babylonia: Kurigalzu II Amurra: King Aziru: allegiance from Egypt to Hatti. Amurru and other former Mittani vassals. II Samuel 9-20. Deuteronomy. Qadash. Hittites and Egypt divided Syro-Palestine. Ugarite narrative Akhnaten: Experiment in Monotheism 1338-36 Smenkhkare Hatti: Suppiluliuma I. Subdues Mittani. Exodus 20-24. Egyptian (Amenhotep II / Akhnaten) & Mesopotamian Kings Ugarit: Niqmadu II Baal Cycle (Conflict myth: Baal defeats sea-god Yam. Amurru: Syro-Palestinian cities Amurru: Tuppi-Teshub Hatti: Mursili II (son of Suppiluliuma) Treaty of Mursili II and Tuppi-Teshub Assyria: sustained military expansion 1305-1274 Adad-nirari I Hatti: Muwatalli II Ziggurat w/ internal stairway at Chaga Zanbil (Elamite) cf. Viceroy est.10] Treaties: cf. Ugarite narrative Legend of King Kirta.

11 ref.21 Genesis 47. vs.XIX The Ramessids 1295-94 Rameses I 1294-79 Sethos I (Seti) 1279-1212 Rameses II (son of Sethos) Egyptian aggression ends peaceful division of Palestine with Hittites Mittani: Shattiwaza Assyria: 1273-44 Shalmaneser I Battle of Qadesh (Kadesh): Hittites under Muwatalli II limit Egypt’s expansion north under Rameses II. earliest non-biblical ref. people “of the countries of the sea. Exodus 1.10 Collapse of Regional System] 1207-00 Assyria: Tukulti-Ninurta I assassinated.11] 1275 1274 1272-67 1267-37 1260 1250 1237-09 1225 1209 1259 Rameses II and Hattusili III (Hittites) treaty Merneptah (1213-1204). Egyptian Account of the Battle of Kadesh Peace Treaty between Rameses and Mutwatalli II (Hittite version) Hatti: Mursili III Hatti: Hattusili III usurps Ca. Rameses area Jews Journey to Canaan Conquest of Canaan? Joshua Infiltrate Canaan? Judges 8 [Grimal ch. Assurnadinapli (1206-03) Hatti: Suppiluliuma II Merneptah Stele: only mention of Jews as people in Egypt literature . center from Pi-Rameses back to Memphis 1205: Merneptah Stele (Arnold & Beyer 50) Babylonia: Kadashman-Enlil II Assyria: Shalmaneser I controls Babylon Elam: Untash-Napirisha Hatti: Tudhaliya IV Babylonia: Kashtiliashu IV Assyria: Tukulti-Ninurta I (1243-07) sacks Babylon Amurra (Shaushga-muwa) and Hatti (Tudhaliya IV) treaty [Van De Mieroop ch.11.ANCIENT NEAR EAST: RELATIVE CHRONOLOGY ANCHORED TO APPROXIMATE MODERN DATES 1295-1188 D. to Jewish people (not a state) Moves admin.” Forays into SyroPalestine. 1270: End of Egyptian Captivity of the Jews: OT Exodus 12.

Revolt by David.XX 1188-86 Sethnahkte 1186-54 Rameses III Rameses III (1186-54) fights “peoples who come by sea” (Van de Meiroop 184) 1154-48 Rameses IV 1148-44 Rameses V 1144-36 Rameses VI 1136-28 Rameses VII 1128-25 Rameses VIII 1125-07 Rameses IX. end of Kassite dynasty. Political. OT Samuel I&II David King of Hebrews [Grimal ch. (Conflict myth w/ sea god.13] 1002 . Siege of Troy. Nubia breaks off. Egypt Assyria reduced to heartland Collapse of Hatti State in Anatolia. as Syrian cities become independent Arameans control Syrian countryside Philistines settle in Levant Coast Letters from Ugarit document “ships of the enemy” (Van De Mieroop183) Jews: 1st Archaeological evidence in Canaan Greek: End of Mycenaean Greeks. 9 1188-1069 1180 1175 1155 1150 1145 1140 D. Religious. Renewal of Legal. Death of Samuel. Elam. Order 1120 1069-945 1049-31 1030-19 1020 Babylonia: Nebuchadnezzar I (1125-04) sacks Susa (1110). 1107-1098 Rameses X 1198-69 Rameses XI 1069 Smendes Third Intermediate Period: D.) Assurnasirpal I Assyria: Shalmaneser II Period of Kings. laws: Middle Assyrian Laws Royal Records (Arnold/Beyer #39) Epic Enuma Elish. Babylonia. rule with Theban Chief Priest 1040-993 Psusennes I unites kingly and religious powers. Buried at Tanis. 2nd Dynasty of Isin (to 1026) Elam: Kutir-Nahhunte (son of Shutruck) Elam: Shilhak-Inshushinak Assyria: Assur-resha-ishi I Judges.XXI Tanite Kings. The kingdom built by Rameses II is falling aprart. Saul slain. Elam: Shutruck-Nahhunte I Elam: Shutruk-Nahhunte invades Babylonia. Challenges from priests at Thebes. Saul made king. Cyprus develops. Elamite kingdom subordinated (to 740 End of Middle Elamite period 1114-1076 Assyrian Reforms: Tiglath-Pileser I Collections of 14th c. Hazor.1185 Hittitedependent Emar sacked (west Euphrates) Sack of Ugarit.ANCIENT NEAR EAST: RELATIVE CHRONOLOGY ANCHORED TO APPROXIMATE MODERN DATES 1200-1150 1202-1199 Amenmesse 1202-1196 Sethos II 1196-90 Siptah 1196-88 Twosre Foreign attacks (“Sea Peoples”) limit influence of major states: Assyria.

850 840 835-827 Assyria: Shalmaneser III (son of Assurnasirpal. struggle to succeed.ANCIENT NEAR EAST: RELATIVE CHRONOLOGY ANCHORED TO APPROXIMATE MODERN DATES OT Samuel II 993 970 966-35 945-715 959-945 Psusennes II D. western coalition of Hamath. I Kings 9. 870-46 Jehosaphat r. reconciliation. Neo-Hittites 832-27: Shalmaneser III moves vs. against advance of Assyria into Nile Valley 850-825 Takelot II 839: Death of Chief Priest Nimlot. tyranny) “Black Obelisk” Tribute Stele (Arnold/Beyer #40) Battle of Qargar: Shalmaneser III (Assyria) 6-year campaign.XXII: Bubasite Kings 945-924 Shoshenq I: appoints son Priest at Amun. Orontes Valley.16. Coalition ends w/ death of Hadad-ezer of Syria Sarduri I unifies Urartian state (north of Assyria) Shalmaneser III to north (for tribute) vs. marches in Syria vs. Urartu 827-823 Assyria: rebellions on the heartland on death of [Van De Mieroop ch. Damascus and Israel. classic 2-gen. Thebes revolts. claims priesthood.11 Near East 1stMillenium] 846-41 Jehoram (Judah) 850-41 Joram (Israel) 841 Jehu (king of Israel) pays tribute to Assyria 830: King Mesha of Moab: Mesha Stele (Louvre) . military CinC and governor of Upper Egypt 993-984 Amenemope 984-978 Osorkon the Elder 978-959 Siamun Egypt (Siamun) wastes Philistine city Gezer. King OT Kings I & II: Death of David to fall of Judah 10 934-12 930 924-889 Osorkon I 890-889 Shoshenq II (Priest of Amun) 889-874 Takelot I 874-850 Osorkon II (allows Harsiese to follow father Shoshenq II as priest of Amun. hereditary priesthood est. kingdom divided 2nd Rise of Assyria: expands empire “yoke of Assur” Assurnasirpal II: “Asur guards 1stborn child” Assurnasirpal sets capital at Kalhu.12 Rise of Assyria] [Grimal 326: Assurnasirpal & Mosul] 883-59 878 858-24 853 Egypt policy supports Syro-Palestinians. Coast of Amurru. Conquers Northern / Middle Mesopotamia.) Equilibrium btw king and priest erodes Harsiese and Osorkon compete Assyria: re-emergence of text records Assyria: Asur-dan II Death of Solomon (I Kings 14. Prince Osorkon suppresses. Asssyria: Tilgath-Pileser II 897: Osorkon’s unsuccessful expedition against Judah (II Chronicles 14. Conflict with Thebes.21). Threatens Egypt. Assyrian advance halted. Judah [Van De Mieroop ch.8-15) Solomon.

645) (Urartu = Elamites) Assyria: conquest of Israel (734). spreads north Two Dynasties contend (until 656) [Van De Mieroop ch.XXV controls Egypt 716-02 Assyria annexes NW Syria. (Arnold & Beyer 51) with victory over Israel OT Kings: Israel victory over Moab 11 823-715 825: Death of Takelot II. son of Shamsi and Queen Sammuramat Ca. 721-05 Assyria: Sargon II .13 Assyria’s Domination] 738-20 727 f. major rival to Assyria. 736 f. Aeolia.XXIII 825-773 Shoshenq 817-793 Pedubastis I III bro.XIV] 747-656 D. D. Piankhy D.1100 (taken by Assyria.Nubians take Thebes (& Karnak temple site) Kushite Invasions: from Nubia into North Theban Tefnahkt unites northern coalition vs.XXII splits power w/ D. Restores Napata. sets 4 client rulers over north.6. Nubians. 800: Greek: Settlement of Ionian. Samaria (722) 726-22: Assyria: Shalmaneser V Israel conquered by Assyria II Kings 17.XXIII within the Delta D. 1st Olympics 776 760 745-525 754-45 Assur-nirari V Treaty of Mati-ilu of Abad and Bargayah (in Aramaic) Treaty: Assur-nirari V and Mati-ilu (in Akkadian) Rise of Neo-Assyrian Empire (to 612) Assyria: Tilgath-Pileser III reforms Victories Inscription (Arnold/Beyer #40) Babylonia: Nabonassar 747-34. Philistines. Defeated by Piankhy. Elamites 2nd rise. of Osorkon king at Leontopolis Priest of Thebes 793-87 Shoshenq IV 773-67 Pimay 787-59 Osorkon III 767-30 Shoshenq V 754-15 Iuput II Nubia rising in independent power. 744-16: Piankhy rules Kushites in Nubia.XXIV Theban: 747-672 754-15 Iuput II 742 740 D. Phoenicia.XXV Nubian: 747-656. Gebel-Barkal stele confirms Nubian rule Piankhy (Nubian) takes Memphis by siege.ANCIENT NEAR EAST: RELATIVE CHRONOLOGY ANCHORED TO APPROXIMATE MODERN DATES Shalmaneser III.XXII D. Damascus (732). forces separation from Egypt. struggle. [Grimal ch. Humban-nikash 1st attested ruler of Elam since Susa sacked by Nebuchadnezzar I c. celebrates sun-god at Heliopolis. Kashta on throne (Kushites) Late Period Assyria declines 823-811 Assyria: Shamsi-Adad V 811-783 Assyria: Adad-nirari.

ANCIENT NEAR EAST: RELATIVE CHRONOLOGY ANCHORED TO APPROXIMATE MODERN DATES Autobiography of Sargon written (?). Anatolia: Assyrian expansion. 12 720 717 Tefnahkt tries to re-establish in north . King Mita of Mushku in Anatolia (Midas). Did he claim Israel for propaganda? Battle of Dur: Assyria vs Babylonian / Elamite coalition Sargon II founds new capital at Dur-Sharrukin.

(Arnold and Beyer #43) Phrygia overrun by nomadic Cimmerians. Babylonians] 695 694 691 689 681 677 671 668-27 663 690 Death of Shebitku.XXVI 672-525 (Theban). struggle w/ Nubian D. Sennacherib.XXV.32. ends smaller kings. Tantamani to 656 (last Kushite Ruler of Egypt) 664-610 Psammetichus D. Stress on “traditional” values. Isaiah 36-37 13 [Van De Mieroop ch. Taharqa (son. Peace with Sargon II. who led troops vs Sargon) has best 26 years of Kushite rule (690-664) Lydians Dominate Western Asia Minor . Hamatam) Elam: Humban-nikash fought Sargon II Elam: Shutruck-Nahhunte II 704-681Assyria: Sennacherib (son of Sargon II). Retreats after fall of Jerusalem. who refuses to surrender Jerusalem. Death of Piankhy. Sargon II deports Mede Daiakko (Deioces in Herodotus. XXV continue 672-64 Necho I 664 Death of Taharqa. Judah vs. w/capital at Ecbatana. sieges Jerusalem. Sennacherib’s “Taylor’s Prism” Inscription: battle with Hezekiah. Siege of Jerusalem II Kings 1819.XXVI Assyria: Esarhaddon (680-69) captures Memphis from Nubians Assyria: Assurbanipal (at Ninevah) Shamashshumukin (at Babylon) Assurbanipal captures Thebes Elam invades Babylonia OT Chronicles II.ANCIENT NEAR EAST: RELATIVE CHRONOLOGY ANCHORED TO APPROXIMATE MODERN DATES 715 705 704 702 Death of Shabaka. Phoenicia / Palestine revolt 701 Sennacherib invades Judah. Son Shebitku (702690) aids Phoenicia. Egypt. Assyria back at war D. Gordion sacked Assyria: Sennacherib moves capital to Ninevah Battle of Halule: Sennacherib (Assyria) vs Humbannimena (Elam) and Iranian coalition Assyria: Babylon and and Elam revolt. Sennacherib sacks Babylon Sennacherib assassinated at Ninevah. brother Shabaka (716-02) runs D.14 Medes. mod.

Cf.ANCIENT NEAR EAST: RELATIVE CHRONOLOGY ANCHORED TO APPROXIMATE MODERN DATES 656 654 652 647 640 626-05 614 610 605 605-562 595 587 595-89 Psammetichus II 589-70 Apries 610-595 Necho II End of Kushite Rule D. End of Hebrews as a Nation and Judaism as religious community 14 585 570 560 . End of Elamite Empire. in BM) Death of Assurbanipal. sacks Susa. Rise of Medes: Umakishtar (Cyaxares in Hdt. Neo-Babylonian independent dynasty founded by Nabopolassar. Hdt 1. Medes expand into Anatolia Babylonia: Nabopolassar defeats Egyptians @ Carchemish Babylonia: Nebuchadnezzar II 587 Nebuchadnezzar II sacks Jerusalem Babylonian Chronicles (747-586) Babylonian account of events leading to siege of Jerusalem. sent to Ninevah Babylonian rebellion: Assurbanipal and Shamashshuma-ukin civil war Assurbanipal of Assyria has won civil war.) vs Assyria 612 Ninevah sacked by Medes and Babylonians. Elam’s King Tepti-Humban-Inshishinak decapitated. End of Assyrian Empire.XXVI to 525 (Theban) has sole rule Assurbanipal invades Elam: Battle at River Ulai (near Susa). ravages Elam. Cyaxeres stopped by Lydian Alyattes. a local official. Assyrian empire at height: Iran to Egypt Neo-Babylonian Laws (tablet from Nippur.74 for 5/25/585 battle at Kizik Irmak River (date by eclipse). OT Mede expansion into Anatolia halted. Assyria overthrown. 570-526 Amasis 561-60 Babylonia: Evil-Merodach Herodotus: Solon gets law from Amasis? Babylonian Captivity.

satrap Aryandes executed. Battle of Marathon Persia: Xerxes II (assassinated) Persia: 3rd attack on Greece.2-4. develops Susa as capital. 25 miles south. Pherendates satrap 486 Delta revolts against Persians Achaemenes. [Grimal ch. Cf. Thus Greeks call Persians “Medes” Nabonidus moves to Teima Persia: Cyrus conquers Lydia Cyrus captures Babylon Decrees: “Cyrus Cylinder”. Mycale Persia: Artaxerxes I Daniel. Bedouins assist. satrap 490-80 Athens builds navy 465 Xerxes assassinated Egyptians rise against Persia Inaros son of Psammetichus declares king Persia ends the revolt Egypt at peace for a generation Athenians assist Egyptians in revolt 445 Nehemiah. son of Xerxes. Battles of Thermopylae. Aramaic decree Ezra 6.23. Capital to Persepolis. a Jew in Babylon 15 [Van De Mieroop ch. Persia overextends into Africa Statue inscription of Udjahorresnet Persia: Bardiya Persia: Darius I usurps.ANCIENT NEAR EAST: RELATIVE CHRONOLOGY ANCHORED TO APPROXIMATE MODERN DATES 559-30 559-56 Babylonia: Neriglassar Rise of Persia: Cyrus II “Great” Out of SW Iran “Fars” area 1st Capital at Pasargadae in Fars Hdt 3.XXVII 1st Persian Period 52-17 Aryandes.90-94 on Persian tribute Babylonia: Labashi-Marduk Babylonia: Nabonidus Persia: Cyrus defeats Medes. (Arnold and Beyer #44). rebuilds walls of Jerusalem. II Chronicles 36.15 Persian Empire] 556 555-539 553-50 552 547 539 536: Cyrus releases Jews to Jerusalem. a Babylonian Jew. Salamis Persia: defeated by Greeks at Plataea.1-5. Law Book: Covenant btw. . OT Ezra 1.15 Persians and Greeks] 529-522 525-404 522 521-486 515 512 499-94 492 490 485-465 480 479 464-424 526-26 Psammetichus II. Behistun Inscription Persia: expansion into Black Sea Persia: attempts expansion into Europe Persia: Ionian revolt of Greek coastal cities Persia: 1st naval attack towards Greece wrecked Persia: 2nd naval attack on Greece. Persia: Cambyses Persia: Cambyses conquers Egypt. 534-516: Rebuilding of temple: Isaiah 44-45. defeated by Cambyses D. victory over Babylon.

ANCIENT NEAR EAST: RELATIVE CHRONOLOGY ANCHORED TO APPROXIMATE MODERN DATES Jews and Yahweh 424 423-05 415 404 401 399-380 404-399 Amyrtaeus revolts Claims D. XXIX 399-93 Nepherites I 393 Psammuthis 393-80 Achoris Persia: Greek expeditions.XXVIII (1 generation) D. Egyptian Priest. Samaria and Manetho. writes Greek history of Egypt (lost) . XXX 380-62 Nectanebo I 362-60 Tachos 360-43 Nectanebo II Persia: Artaxerxes III 2nd Persian Period 333 Khababash (last native ruler) Alexander rules Egypt Ptolemies rule Egypt Persia: Artaxerxes IV (Arses) Persia: Darius III Persia: Darius defeated by Alexander Alexander III of Macedonia “Great” rules Persia Hellenistic Period 404-359 Persia: Artaxerxes III 401: March of 10. pawn btw Seleucid Syria and Egypt Judea a Syrian Province Judea under Ptolemaic control Judea in Seleucid rule Maccabee uprising against worship of pagan deities Judea freed from Syrian control Romans in Syria. Pompey takes Jerusalem Antipater Prucurator of Jerusalem. in response to threatened invasion D.000 Greeks support usurper Cyrus Darius adopts conciliatory policy Persia: Xerxes II and Sogdianus struggle Persia: Darius II Jews ruled by Priests and Elders 16 Peloponnesian War 431-404 Athens expedition against Sicily 397 380-43 Death of Socrates 399 358-338 343-332 337-36 336-32 331 330-323 323 290 219 204 167 142 65-3 47 Rise of Macedonia Death of Philip Alexander sacks Corinth. invades Asia Minor Judea a satrapy of Syria.

Judea to Agrippa by Claudius Procurator Florus seizes temple treasures.ANCIENT NEAR EAST: RELATIVE CHRONOLOGY ANCHORED TO APPROXIMATE MODERN DATES 43 31 4 AD 6 AD 26 AD 33 AD 38 AD 41 AD 66-70 Death of Cleopatra VII Egypt a Roman Province Birth of Jesus. Jewish revolt. Herod made king. Roman siege of Jerusalem by Vespasian Galilee by Caesar Antipater assassinated. takes Jerusalem 17 Home John Lewis classicalideals@yahoo.com . death of Herod Judea a Roman Province Pontius Pilate Procurator Death of Jesus Jews persecuted for not worshipping Caligula Death of Caligula.

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