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Marxismo y Biología Celular-Puede perspectivas políticas enriquecer la ciencia

Marxismo y Biología Celular-Puede perspectivas políticas enriquecer la ciencia

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Marxism & Cell Biology: Can political perspectives enrich science?
Author(s): Douglas Allchin, Department Editor
Source: The American Biology Teacher, 70(5):303-305. 2008.
Published By: National Association of Biology Teachers
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1662/0002-7685(2008)70[303:MCBCPP]2.0.CO;2
URL: http://www.bioone.org/doi/full/10.1662/0002-7685%282008%2970%5B303%3AMCBCPP
%5D2.0.CO%3B2
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T|crc :· nc rcyaí rcaa tc ·c:cncc, ana cníy t|c·c v|c
ac nct arcaa t|c jat:gn:ng cí:mb cj :t· ·tccp pat|· |avc
a c|ancc cj ga:n:ng :t· ínm:ncn· ·nmm:t·.
Karl Marx, Da· Kap:taí

Icw liology ícachcrs havc lilcly hcarJ ol Alcx Noviloll
(1·1`1·87) (Iigurc 1), whilc surcly rccognizing íhc lruiís
ol his scicncc Hc hclpcJ Jiscovcr lysosoncs in 1·55, visual
izing íhc organcllc íhaí Chrisíian Jc Duvc haJ characícrizcJ
only cyíochcnically Hc JcnonsíraícJ íhc lirsí cnzync ol
íhc Golgi loJy (nuclcosiJc Jiphosphaíasc) Hc also Jcvcl
opcJ clccíron nicroscopc síains lor iJcníilying lysosoncs
(aciJ phosphaíasc) anJ pcroxisoncs (caíalasc), criíical ío
íhcir conplcíc síuJy Noviloll was also íargcícJ ly íhc aníi
Connunisí novcncní in íhc niJ!0íh ccníury In 1·5` hc
was JisnisscJ lron íhc Univcrsiíy ol Vcrnoní lor Jcclining
ío answcr qucsíions lclorc a Congrcssional conniíícc In
1·7+ hc was clccícJ ío íhc Naíional AcaJcny ol Scicnccs
His IBI lilc íhcn coníaincJ 8!! pagcs Noviloll's lascinaíing
casc (Holncs, 1·8·, Allchin, !007) raiscs inporíaní issucs
alouí how scicncc anJ poliíical iJcology rclaíc
In 1·8! íhc Ancrican Socicíy lor Ccll
Biology honorcJ Noviloll wiíh iís prcsíigious
E B Vilson AwarJ lor his lounJaíional
coníriluíions ío íhc cncrging liclJ In íhc
laíc 1·`0s hc was, inJccJ, a ncnlcr ol íhc
Connunisí Paríy Ior hin, ií cxprcsscJ his
qucsí lor social jusíicc anJ his apprcciaíion
ol Karl Marx's scicníilic posíurc íowarJs
socicíy Vhilc hc rcscarchcJ cxpcrincníal
cnlryology as a PhD síuJcní aí Colunlia
Univcrsiíy, hc also hclpcJ wriíc anJ Jisíril
uíc íhc Connunisí ncwslcíícr aí Broollyn
Collcgc, whcrc hc íaughí Poliíical cllorís ío
Jisrupí íhc ícachcrs union íhcrc ulíinaícly
lcJ ío sccrcí lilcs lisíing Noviloll as a sus
pccícJ Connunisí Vhcn VorlJ Var II
lcgan, Noviloll wanícJ ío scrvc íhc naíion
Hc applicJ lor a ncJical connission in íhc
niliíary Hc was íwicc JcnicJ, howcvcr, Juc
ío Joulís alouí his loyalíy Hc laícr consulí
cJ lor íhc Arny on íwo liological lilnsuníil
íhcy lounJ his vaguc Connunisí rccorJ (Onc wonJcrs DiJ
sonconc inaginc íhaí hc coulJ rcnJcr cnzyncs anJ carlo
hyJraíc ncíalolisn sulvcrsivc`¦) Laícr, Noviloll losí his
laculíy posiíionnoí lor any poliíical acíiviíy, luí lor invol
ing íhc Iilíh AncnJncní in aníiConnunisí hcaringsanJ
Jcspiíc rcconncnJaíions lron lcllow laculíy alouí his
¯íirclcss" rcscarch cllorís In shorí, culíural poliíics aJvcrscly
allccícJ Noviloll's scicníilic carccr
Noviloll's casc nay sccn aí lirsí ío cpiíonizc how sci
cncc anJ poliíics ¯Jon'í nix" Ycí ií also illusíraícs viviJly
íhaí scicncc is noí wholly insulaícJ lron culíurc, Jcspiíc
popular inagcs ol scicncc as purc anJ íransccnJcníal How
arc íhc íwo ío cocxisí` Thc casc nay sccn ío conlirn a wiJc
sprcaJ inprcssion íhaí poliíics can only Janagc or inícrlcrc
wiíh íhc conJucí ol scicncc Síill, onc nay proliíally consiJ
cr íhc assunpíion anoíhcr sacrcJ lovinc` íhaí scicncc is
lcsí shclícrcJ lron poliíical iJcologics
Noviloll's síory woulJ noí lc ncarly so cngaging nor
pcrhaps ncrií nuch luríhcr conncní il his poliíics JiJ
noí also posiíivcly inllucncc his worl Traccs ol Marxisí
iJcas pcrncaíc his conccpíual ouílool anJ his inícrprcía
íions ol cviJcncc, as wcll as
his prolcssional conJucí Ccll
liology, ol all suljccís, nay
sccn incrcJilly rcnoíc lron
poliíics Ycí Noviloll's worl,
carclully consiJcrcJ, shows
how poliíical iJcology nay
soncíincs coníriluíc lruiílully
ío íhc pracíicc, anJ cvcn íhc
conícní, ol scicncc Ulíinaícly,
such analysis nighí Jccpcn
rcllccíion on íhc naíurc ol sci
cncc anJ whaí síuJcnís nighí
lcarn alouí whaí nalcs lnowl
cJgc rcliallc
%JBMFDUJDT$FMMT
Noviloll canc lron a
poor, síruggling innigraní
lanily An ouísíanJing síu
Jcní, hc graJuaícJ lron high
school aí agc louríccn Vhcn
hc conplcícJ síuJics aí Colunlia Univcrsiíy, insíiíuíions
haJ lcgun liniíing opporíuniíics lor Jcws Dcspiíc sícllar
crcJcníials, Alcx was noí aJniíícJ ío ncJical school Hc was
liíícr anJ JcvclopcJ an unconpronising aJvocacy lor social
jusíicc Thosc lcclings wcrc igniícJ whcn hc lcgan ícaching
aí Broollyn Collcgc in 1·`1 anJ cncounícrcJ Jispariíics
.BSYJTN$FMM#JPMPHZ
Can pcí:t:caí pcr·pcct:vc· cnr:c| ·c:cncc`
S
A
C
R
E
D

B
O
V
I
N
E
S
DOUG L A S AL LC HI N, DEPARTMENT EDI TOR
SACRED BOVINES 303
&17).#5#..%*+0|a· tang|t bct| |:g| ·c|ccí ana ccíícgc b:cícgy
ana ncv tcac|c· H:·tcry cj Sc:cncc at t|c Ln:vcr·:ty cj M:nnc·cta,
M:nncapcí:·, MN 55+55, c-ma:í ·acrca.bcv:nc·Cnabt.crg. Hc :·
a Icíícv at t|c M:nnc·cta Ccntcr jcr t|c F|:íc·cp|y cj Sc:cncc
ana ca:t· t|c SH:FS Rc·cnrcc Ccntcr (·|:p·.nmn.can). Hc |:|c·,
p|ctcgrap|· í:c|cn, ana cn,cy· tca.
Figure 1. Alex Novikoff in 1955, at the elec-
tron microscope of Albert Einstein College of
Medicine. Photo by Jay Walker, courtesy of Phyllis Novikoff.
lcíwccn junior anJ scnior laculíy, llinJ ío aliliíy Ior Noviloll,
Connunisí iJcology ollcrcJ prospccíivc soluíions ío whaí
sccncJ an unjusí powcr sírucíurc
By 1·+5 Noviloll, narricJ, agc `!, haJ lornally scvcrcJ
íics wiíh íhc Connunisí Paríy Buí Marxisí paíícrns ol íhinling
rcnaincJ In onc papcr íhaí ycar, Noviloll (1·+5a) prolilcJ íhc
prollcns lor liology ol cxírcnc rcJucíionisn, on íhc onc hanJ,
anJ inplicií viíalisn, on íhc oíhcr París anJ wholcs nccJcJ ío
lc unJcrsíooJ íogcíhcr, hc urgcJ, using a ¯Jialccíical approach"
(p !15) Thc conccpí ol FKCNGEVKEU was lron Marx Ior Marx
socicíy cxhiliícJ a sírugglc lcíwccn íwo ccononic groups
íhosc who owncJ capiíal (anJ íhus hclJ powcr) anJ lalorcrs
Thcir conllicí woulJ lc rcsolvcJanJ worlcrs lrccJonly ly
gcncraíing a ncw sysícn íhaí conplcícly JissolvcJ íhc owncr
lalorcr rclaíionship anJ inícgraícJ cvcryonc aí a ncw lcvcl ol
connunisn Philosophically, íhcrc was a syníhcsis ol opposing
pcrspccíivcs Thaí was Marx's csscníial Jialccíic progrcss cncrg
ing lron inícgraíing polar opposiícs, as noJclcJ in poliíical his
íory Noviloll cchocJ íhaí conccpí anJ languagc Hc argucJ lor
rcconciling íhc íwo opposing liological vicws in whaí hc callcJ
¯íhc conccpí ol inícgraíivc lcvcls in liology"
Noviloll privilcgcJ nciíhcr aíonisn nor organicisn
Noncíhclcss, hc rcscrvcJ his sírongcsí criíicisns lor íhc rcJuc
íionisís Hc rcninJcJ rcaJcrs íhaí ío unJcrsíanJ cclls lully,
liochcnisíry, howcvcr csscníial, was noí cnough Onc also
nccJcJ lnowlcJgc ol ccll sírucíurc Lilcwisc, isolaícJ ccll lunc
íions alonc wcrc noí physiology Onc nccJcJ íhc Jcvclopncníal
conícxí Noviloll's prinary conccrn, howcvcr, was inícrprcíing
socicíy anJ Joing so scicníilically, as Marx aJvocaícJ Hc
JccricJ íhc nislcaJing organisnsocicíy analogy, as proposcJ ly
Hcrlcrí Spcnccr anJ his lollowcrs, íhaí rcJuccJ culíurc ío liol
ogy (5CETGF $QXKPGU, !007) Conllaíing lcvcls, hc claincJ, coulJ
lcaJ ío ¯crroncous anJ Jangcrous social conclusions" (p !1`)
Noviloll poinícJly iJcníilicJ as an cxanplc íhc lascisís (nancly,
íhc Nazis), who haJ allcgcJ íhaí ¯nan's liology JcciJcs his
social lchavior" (p !1+) Socioculíural inhcriíancc supplcncnís
gcncíics, hc olscrvcJ Disíincíly sociological principlcs (aí íhc
appropriaíc lcvcl) wcrc nccJcJ, hc nainíaincJ, ío lccp socicíy
¯lrcc anJ Jcnocraíic" (p !1+) Hcrc, his aníircJucíionisí sci
cncc was clcarly inlorncJ ly poliíical iJcology
Noviloll coníinucJ ío apply Marx's Jialccíical approach
lruiílully ovcr íhc ncxí íhrcc JccaJcs VQJKUKPXGUVKICVKQPUQHEGNNU
In a rcJucíionisí vcin, hc localizcJ liochcnical luncíions ío parís
wiíhin cclls Buí hc also JiJ noí losc sighí ol conícxí anJ norc
holisíic pcrspccíivcs Hc síuJicJ lysosoncs anJ pcroxisoncs
in Jivcrsc ccll íypcs anJ íissucs anJ in paíhological conJiíions
(such as laííy livcr, íunors or ncphrosis) Thaí rcvcalcJ how íhc
¯sanc" uniís JillcrcJ JcpcnJing on various ccllular conícxís, or
wholcs
In 1·65 Jancs Vaíson pullishcJ /QNGEWNCT $KQNQI[ QH VJG
)GPG Noviloll saw an unproJucíivc nolccular lias In 1·70 hc
aincJ ío rcncJy ií ¯Jialccíically" in coauíhoring his own ícxí
on %GNNU CPF 1TICPGNNGU Ií was onc ol íhc lirsí ícxílools ol ccll
liology, wiJcly uscJ íhrough íhrcc cJiíions Hcrc, parís anJ
wholcs rcccivcJ pariíy Alícr Jcscripíions ol íhc nany QTICPGNNGU
(as parís), Noviloll incluJcJ jusí as nuch covcragc on íhc nany
EGNN V[RGU, naJc lron rcconlining íhcn inío Jillcrcní wholcs
An unsíaícJ Marxisí pcrspccíivc highlighícJ how cclls (lilc
socicíics) JiJ noí rcJucc ío a sinplc sun ol íhcir inJcpcnJcní
conponcní parís
Noviloll's poliíical pcrspccíivc lcJ ío an apprcciaíion ol
how parís rclaícJ in lorning highcr lcvcls ol liological organiza
íion Ior cxanplc, whilc lysosoncs, pcroxisoncs, anJ cnJoplas
nic rcíiculun wcrc noí consiJcrcJ ¯Joninaní" organcllcs, hc
rccognizcJ íhc inplicií signilicancc ol íhcir ¯lalor" ío íhc wholc
anJ JcvoícJ síuJy ío íhcn Noviloll was also scnsiíizcJ ío scc
Jillcrcnccs in parís, wiíh íhcir inporí lor inícgraícJ wholcs In
an inporíaní 1·5` papcr, hc ccnírilugcJ lrolcn cclls inío ícn
lracíions, raíhcr íhan íhc cusíonary lour Thaí allowcJ a lincr
scalc analysis Hc ícsícJ cach lracíion lor íhc acíiviíy ol scvcn
carclully sclccícJ cnzyncs, íhcn noJilicJ íhc lracíions, aligning
íhc Jillcrcnccs ly naíching paríicular paríiclc sizcs wiíh cnzync
acíiviíy Ulíinaícly, hc haJ nappcJ íhc characícrisíic cnzyncs
ío UKZ organcllcs, íwo noí ycí lnown In a sinilar way, hc cxan
incJ livcr íissuc, Jcnonsíraíing íhaí cclls assuncJ ío lc all íhc
¯sanc" wcrc liochcnically anJ cyíologically Jillcrcní SíuJying
pcroxisoncs wiíh an cyc ío Jillcrcnccs also allowcJ Noviloll
ío Jiscovcr nicropcroxisoncs in 1·7! Hc also noíiccJ a closc
associaíion ol íhc Golgi loJy, cnJoplasnic rcíiculun anJ lyso
soncs, a hylriJ sírucíurc hc callcJ GERL, which hclpcJ clarily
lysosonc liogcncsis Noviloll's Jiscovcrics wcrc guiJcJ ly a
conccpíual nap ol whaí ncriícJ noíicc
.BUFSJBMJTN&WPMVUJPO
Thc 1·+5 papcr on inícgraíivc lcvcls cxhiliícJ anoíhcr corc
Marxisí principlc OCVGTKCNKUO Noviloll noícJ íhaí nany non
rcJucíionisís appcalcJ ío various guiJing lorccs in cvoluíion,
such as an ¯organizing írcnJ," inhcrcní progrcss, or Jirccíional
(oríhogcncíic) írajccíorics ToJay, such lorccs arc wcll ouísiJc
sounJ liology, luí all haJ lccn posíulaícJ ly liologisís in íhc
carly !0íh ccníury ío cxplain various lcaíurcs ol íhc lossil rccorJ
Noviloll criíicizcJ such nonnaícrialisíic lorccs as unsulsíaníi
aícJ anJ supcrlluous Hcrc, hc cchocJ Marx's vicw ol hisíory
Marx saw how ccononic rclaíions shapcJ socicíy, as wcll as
poliíical changcs íhrough hisíory Hc íhus rcgarJcJ inícllccíual
novcncnís as rcsponscs, noí causcs Hc cnphasizcJ insícaJ íhc
naícrial causal clcncnís ol hisíory AccorJingly, Marx vicwcJ
Darwin's íhcory ol Jcsccní wiíh noJilicaíion quiíc lavorally Ií
JcscrilcJ organic changc in naícrial ícrns Ior Marx, naíural
hisíory anJ hunan hisíory wcrc parallcl Thaí naícrialisí lranc
worl cnallcJ Noviloll ío iJcníily íhc liological wcalncsscs ol
íhc cvoluíionary conccpís
Noviloll's Jiscussion haJ poliíical ovcríoncs hcrc, as wcll
Many lollowcrs ol Spcnccr claincJ íhaí progrcss was ¯naíural,"
anJ íhaí hunans shoulJ noí Jisíurl ií, lcsí ií ccasc Thcy pro
noícJ a laissczlairc approach ío socicíy (5CETGF$QXKPGU, !007)
Iron a Connunisí pcrspccíivc, Noviloll coulJ casily scc íhaí
such an arguncní, aincJ aí prcscrving íhc síaíus quo, scrvcJ
only íhc inícrcsís ol íhc alrcaJy powcrlul Hc callcJ such írusí
in progrcss unsounJ laíalisn Raíhcr, ¯social progrcss," hc
JcclarcJ, ¯rcsís upon íhc planncJ acíiviíics ol ncn" (p !1+) In
a scnsc, hc scí poliíical acíion in a liological conícxí
Connunisí iJcology aincJ ío inspirc lalorcrs ío ací ío
changc hisíory naícrially Noviloll cchocJ íhosc scníincnís in
poríraying íhc cvoluíion ol hunans anJ íhcir íraiís Hc olscrvcJ
íhaí hunans arc allc ío conírol íhcir cnvironncní Thcy arc noí
lounJ ío íhcir poliíical hisíory Thcir iníclligcncc, lilcwisc, is
plasíic Poliíical changc is possillc Hc luríhcr conncnícJ íhaí
¯nan posscsscs a uniquc hcaJ anJ hanJ" (p !11), alluJing in
paríicular ío íhc powcr ol nanual lalorcrs Marxisí iJcology
gavc spccial rclcvancc ío ccríain lcaíurcs ol cvoluíion
Noviloll also vicwcJ scicncc concrcícly as a lorn ol worl
In íhc opcning anJ closing chapícrs ol his ícxílool, hc prolilcJ
íhc hisíory anJ ncíhoJs ol ccll liology Scicncc was noí síaíic
304 THE AMERICAN BIOLOGY TEACHER, VOLUME 70, NO. 5, MAY 2008
inlornaíion, luí an acíivc, cngaging liclJ íhaí íhc rcaJcr nighí
consiJcr pursuing Sinilarly, in a chilJrcn's lool on physiol
ogy, Noviloll JcscrilcJ nany hisíorical scicníisís scicncc as
a hunan cnJcavor Noviloll hinscll was cxírcncly acíivc Hc
worlcJ wiíh liíílc slccp Hc wroíc nosí ol his PhD íhcsis whilc
connuíing ío anJ lron school anJ worl In 1·55, hc collalo
raícJ wiíh Chrisíian Jc Duvc on lysosoncs Bccausc no clccíron
nicroscopc was availallc in Louvain, Bclgiun, hc paclcJ up íhc
ccll sanplcs in an iccJ íhcrnos aí íhc cnJ ol íhc Jay, íool íwo
írains ío a lal in Paris, anJ coníinucJ worling inío íhc nighí ío
proJucc íhc inagcs, rcíurning ío rcpcaí íhc rouíinc again íhc
ncxí Jay Collcagucs rcpcaícJly JcscrilcJ Noviloll's cllorís as
¯íirclcss" Hc ccríainly cxcnplilicJ íhc principlc valuing naícrial
worl
4PDJBMJTN
Iinally, onc nay noíc how Noviloll's Marxisí oricníaíion
allccícJ íhc pracíicc, noí jusí íhc conícní, ol his scicncc Socialisí
iJcals wcrc cxprcsscJ in nany ways Iirsí, Noviloll was onc ol
íhc lirsí ío wriíc scicncc lools lor chilJrcn Cí:mb:ng Onr Iam:íy
Trcc (1·+5l), an iníroJucíion ío cvoluíion, is a lanJnarl in
chilJrcn's liícraíurc Noviloll, noí ycí wiíh chilJrcn ol his own,
clcarly saw cvcn young rcaJcrs as inporíaní So íoo, prcsunally,
JiJ íhc Connunisí prcss íhaí pullishcJ íhc lool Thc ícxí is
inlornaíivc, whilc also highlighíing Marxisí íhcncs Noviloll
JranaíizcJ cvoluíionary innovaíionssuch as honcosíaíic inícr
nal cnvironncnís, íhc íransiíion ío lanJ, inícrnal Jcvclopncní,
anJ honcoíhcrnyas sícps in organisns lcconing lrccr lron
íhcir cnvironncní Thc linal chapícrs iníroJuccJ hunan socicíy,
íoo, as a proJucí ol cvoluíion, anJ unJcrscorcJ íhc lasis lor cul
íurc anJ coopcraíion ¯Mcn, worling wiíh cach oíhcr," hc con
cluJcJ, ¯can lcconc cvcr norc lrcccvcr norc hunan" (p ·`)
ScconJ, Noviloll vicwcJ íhc scicníilic connuniíy as onc ol
cqual pccrs (Noí all scicníisís Jo) Aí onc lcvcl, hc gcncrously
sharcJ crcJií lor worl Jonc Ncarly all his pullishcJ papcrs arc
coauíhorcJ Morc Jccply, hc was also opcn ío convcrsing wiíh
anyonc, nuch ío íhc surprisc ol síuJcnís anJ junior scicníisís
Such Jiscoursc pronoícs íhc cxchangc ol iJcas Givcn íhaí
Noviloll cnJorscJ Jialccíics, hc also cnjoycJ íhc opporíuniíy ío
vigorously Jclaíc alícrnaíc vicws wiíh anyonc ycí graciously
conccJcJ whcn shown ío lc wrong Thaí ¯socialisí" spirií con
íriluícJ ío criíical analysis anJ íhcrcly ío norc rolusí scicníilic
conclusions
*OUFSQSFUJOH1PMJUJDTJO4DJFODF
Noí all inllucnccs ol poliíics on scicncc arc posiíivc, surcly
Onc nay rcaJily poiní ío Lyscnlo's noíorious supprcssion ol
McnJclisn in íhc lorncr Sovicí Union Givcn Noviloll's casc,
howcvcr, onc nusí qualily any univcrsal ncgaíivc clain Onc nay
also lc ícnpícJ ío consiJcr Noviloll as ¯jusí a gooJ liologisí,"
his achicvcncnís wholly unrclaícJ ío his poliíics Howcvcr, such
a conclusion lails ío cxplain |cv Noviloll canc ly his slills
Thc languagc ol his 1·+5 pullicaíions, in paríicular, lcavcs no
Joulí alouí his conccpíual rooís To cxplain Noviloll's scicníilic
achicvcncnís lully, his pcrsonal hisíory anJ Marxisí pcrspccíivc
arc csscníial
Noviloll's scicncc was ¯scicncc" in parí lccausc ií was
noí cxcín·:vcíy Marxisí Nor JiJ Noviloll cvcr prcscní poliíical
arguncnís ío ,n·t:jy his conclusions (as Lyscnlo JiJ) Raíhcr,
his poliíical iJcology luncíioncJ in whaí philosophcrs ol sci
cncc soncíincs call íhc ¯conícxí ol Jiscovcry" AccorJingly,
Noviloll's iJcology was a valuallc íool lor gcncraíing alícrnaíivc
approachcs or proling possillc inícrprcíaíions Noviloll coulJ
soncíincs apprcciaíc whaí oíhcrs coulJ noí, Juc ío íhc llinJ
spoís ol íhcir conccpíual oricníaíions Scicncc also rclics on a
conplcncníary ¯conícxí ol jusíilicaíion," whcrc síanJarJs ol
cviJcncc apply Scicncc ¯cvolvcs" íhrough a coupling ol llinJ
variaíion ana sclccíivc rcícníion a proccss laniliar ío liologisís
Noviloll JiJ inJccJ rcspccí arguncnís lor alícrnaíivcs In
his 1·5` síuJy ol ccllular cnzyncs, lor cxanplc, hc lirsí inícr
prcícJ íhc hcícrogcnciíy ol his lracíions as variaíions in íhc sizc
anJ cnzync acíiviíy ol íhc lnown organcllcs, íhc niíochonJria,
anJ nicrosoncs (rilosoncs) Alícr Chrisíian Jc Duvc lcarncJ
ol íhc rcsulís, íhc íwo ncí in Ncw Yorl anJ chaíícJ in Ccníral
Parl Dc Duvc sharcJ his rcsulís inJicaíing íhc prcscncc ol
an unJocuncnícJ organcllc íhc lysosonc Noviloll acccpícJ
his inícrprcíaíion Thc íwo wcní on ío collaloraíc lriclly anJ
lccanc lilclong lricnJs Poliíical iJcology can lc proJucíivc, so
long as onc síill lisícns ío criíicisn anJ ninJs íhc cviJcncc
Ulíinaícly, Noviloll's Marxisí poliíical pcrspccíivc cnrichcJ
scicncc Ironically, such rcalanJ lruiílulinllucnccs wcrc ncvcr
íhc conccrn ol íhc aníiConnunisí Jcnagogucs who JoggcJ
Noviloll lor íhc allcgcJly sulvcrsivc conscqucnccs ol his poliíi
cal vicws
3FGFSFODFT
Allchin, D (!007) Social unDarwinisn T|c Amcr:can B:cícgy
Tcac|cr, 69(!), 11`115
Allchin, D (!007) Alcx Bcnjanin Noviloll Ncv D:ct:cnary cj
Sc:cnt:j:c B:cgrap|y, 2·, !81!85 Dcíroií, MI Charlcs Scrilncr's
Sons
Holncs, DR (1·8·) Staí|:ng t|c Acaacm:c Ccmmnn:·t Intcíícctnaí
Irccacm ana t|c I:r:ng cj Aícx Ncv:|cjj Hanovcr, VT Univcrsiíy
Prcss ol Ncw EnglanJ
Noviloll, A B (1·+5a) Thc conccpí ol inícgraíivc lcvcls anJ liol
ogy Sc:cncc, 101, !0·!15
Noviloll, A B (1·+5l) Cí:mb:ng Onr Iam:íy Trcc Ncw Yorl
Inícrnaíional Pullishcrs
Noviloll, A B & Holíznan, E (1·70) Ccíí· ana Organcííc· Ncw
Yorl Holí, Rincharí anJ Vinsíon
SACRED BOVINES 305
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2002 Addison Street, Suite 202
Berkeley, CA 94704
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www.costaricanadventures.com
510-649-1000 or 800-551-7887
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