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Balutan

Balutan

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PERTOLONGAN CEMAS

(FIRST AID)

Disediakan oleh; Kpt. (KRS) Rohaidah Bakar
Professionally coordinates by: Members and Affiliations:

DOLIDIAS Malaysia No. 21, Jalan P9B/10, Presint 9, 62500 Putrajaya Tel/Fax 03 8881 1925 . Cellphone 012 635 3070 . www.mainayaq.com

First Aid Unit

PERTOLONGAN CEMAS

Professionally coordinates by:

(1) PENGENALAN PERTOLONGAN CEMAS  Rawatan sementara waktu yang diberikan kepada mangsa.  Variasi nama: •First Aid •Bantu Mula •Pertolongan Cemas Professionally coordinates by: . sebelum tibanya bantuan perubatan.

(1) PENGENALAN PERTOLONGAN CEMAS OBJEKTIF  Menyelamat nyawa  Mengelak mangsa cedera lebih serius  Mengurangkan kesakitan  Menguruskan pemindahan ke hospital Professionally coordinates by: .

lebih mudarat dan mungkin menyebabkan kematian Professionally coordinates by: . kesakitan mangsa menjadi lebih serius.(1) PENGENALAN PERTOLONGAN CEMAS APA ITU KECEMASAN?  Sesuatu situasi kritikal yang mengancam nyawa  Jika tidak diberi rawatan segera.

waras dan tenang  Mengamati prinsip keselamatan diri  Berpengetahuan dan berkeyakinan  Terlatih Professionally coordinates by: .(1) PENGENALAN PERTOLONGAN CEMAS CIRI-CIRI SEORANG PENYELAMAT  Bertanggungjawab  Berjiwa cekal.

(2) PERALATAN PERTOLONGAN CEMAS 11) ISI ‘KOTAK FIRST AID’ 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) Professionally coordinates by: 10) Termometer Mangkuk Enamel Ubat Cium Asprin Panadol Ubat Melepuh Kain Pembalut Luka Kain Tekap Kapas Gunting 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) Kain Kapas Pin Semat Elastoplast Ubat Luka Papan Tuap Kain Segitiga Ubat Cuci Mata Pembalut Berelastik Pembalut Pembebat Pembalut Terbuka Adesif Lekat Sendiri .

.

Professionally coordinates by: .  Pembalut dilakukan untuk membantu pembebatan.(3) PEMBEBATAN & PEMBALUT  Pembebatan digunakan untuk menutup luka dan mengawal pendarahan.

(3) PEMBEBATAN & PEMBALUT PEMBEBATAN Professionally coordinates by: .

(3) PEMBEBATAN & PEMBALUT JENIS KAIN PEMBALUT Pembalut Tiga Segi  Pembalut Lebar  Pembalut Kecil  Pembalut Gulung  Professionally coordinates by: .

(3) PEMBEBATAN & PEMBALUT  Pembalut Tiga Segi Professionally coordinates by: .

(3) PEMBEBATAN & PEMBALUT  Lipatan Tiga Segi Professionally coordinates by: .

IKATAN. BALUTAN & ANDUH ? Ikatan ? Balutan ? Anduh Professionally coordinates by: .4.

BALUTAN & ANDUH IKATAN Simpul Sila Professionally coordinates by: .(4) IKATAN.

(4) IKATAN. BALUTAN & ANDUH JENIS BALUTAN LUKA  Luka Tangan  Luka Dada  Luka Bahu  Luka Peha  Luka Siku  Luka Lengan  Luka Lutut  Luka Jari Professionally coordinates by: .

BALUTAN & ANDUH 1 2 3 4 Professionally coordinates by: .(4)  Balutan Luka Tangan IKATAN.

(4)  Balutan Luka Tangan IKATAN. BALUTAN & ANDUH Professionally coordinates by: .

BALUTAN & ANDUH 3 4 Professionally coordinates by: .(4)  Balutan Luka Tangan 1 2 IKATAN.

(4)  Balutan Luka Dada IKATAN. BALUTAN & ANDUH Professionally coordinates by: Luka di bahagian depan .

(4)  Balutan Luka Dada IKATAN. BALUTAN & ANDUH Professionally coordinates by: Luka di bahagian belakang .

(4)  Balutan Luka Bahu 1 IKATAN. BALUTAN & ANDUH 2 3 Professionally coordinates by: .

BALUTAN & ANDUH 3 Professionally coordinates by: .(4)  Balutan Luka Peha 1 2 IKATAN.

BALUTAN & ANDUH 1 2 Professionally coordinates by: .(4)  Balutan Luka Siku 1 2 IKATAN.

(4)  Balutan Luka Lutut IKATAN. BALUTAN & ANDUH 1 2 3 Professionally coordinates by: .

(4)  Balutan Luka Lengan IKATAN. BALUTAN & ANDUH 1 2 Professionally coordinates by: .

BALUTAN & ANDUH 2 1 4 3 Professionally coordinates by: .(4)  Balutan Luka Jari IKATAN.

(4) IKATAN. BALUTAN & ANDUH JENIS ANDUH Anduh Besar  Anduh Kecil  Anduh Pergelangan Tangan  Anduh Menaik  Professionally coordinates by: .

(4)  Anduh Besar IKATAN. BALUTAN & ANDUH 2 3 1 Professionally coordinates by: 4 .

(4)  Anduh Menaik 1 2 IKATAN. BALUTAN & ANDUH 3 Professionally coordinates by: .

(4)  Pembalut Cincin 1 2 IKATAN. BALUTAN & ANDUH 3 Professionally coordinates by: .

(5) JENIS-JENIS LUKA 1) Luka Terhiris JENIS KEMALANGAN & CARA RAWATAN Professionally coordinates by: .

Professionally coordinates by: .

(5) JENIS KEMALANGAN & CARA RAWATAN 2) Luka Terkoyak Professionally coordinates by: .

Professionally coordinates by: .

(5) JENIS KEMALANGAN & CARA RAWATAN 3) Luka Tertikam / Tembus Professionally coordinates by: .

(5) JENIS KEMALANGAN & CARA RAWATAN 4) Luka Lebam Professionally coordinates by: .

(5) JENIS KEMALANGAN & CARA RAWATAN 5) Luka Kena Tembak Professionally coordinates by: .

CARA MENAHAN DARAH Professionally coordinates by: .

CARA RAWATAN Professionally coordinates by: .

(5) 6) Luka Kecil JENIS KEMALANGAN & CARA RAWATAN CARA RAWATAN Professionally coordinates by: .

(5) CARA RAWATAN JENIS KEMALANGAN & CARA RAWATAN Professionally coordinates by: .

(5) 7) Luka di Perut JENIS KEMALANGAN & CARA RAWATAN Professionally coordinates by: .

(5) 8) Luka di Dada JENIS KEMALANGAN & CARA RAWATAN Professionally coordinates by: .

9) Pendarahan bahagian dalam Telinga

Professionally coordinates by:

(5)

JENIS KEMALANGAN & CARA RAWATAN

4.PATUKAN

ULAR

Di Malaysia terdapat 141 spesis ular, di mana 37 daripadanya adalah berbisa. Terbahagi kepada 21 Ular Laut dan 16 Ular Darat.

Professionally coordinates by:

(5)

JENIS KEMALANGAN & CARA RAWATAN

SIMPTOM / TANDA AWAL
1)

2)

3) 4) 5)

6)
Professionally coordinates by:

Sepasang lubang bekas patukkan. Terasa sakit yang amat pada tempat yang kena patuk. Bengkak dan merah di sekeliling patukkan. Pernafasan yang tercungap-cungap Kemungkinan terhenti pernafasan. Berpeluh dan penglihatan berpinar-pinar.

Boleh membawa kepada maut.   Professionally coordinates by: . Mangsa rasa terkejut dan cemas.(5) JENIS KEMALANGAN & CARA RAWATAN BAHAYA  Patukan ular berbisa bergantung kepada spesis. kedudukan dan kedalaman patukkan. amaun racun.

(5) SAIZ PATUKAN JENIS KEMALANGAN & CARA RAWATAN Professionally coordinates by: .

(5) KESAN PATUKAN JENIS KEMALANGAN & CARA RAWATAN Professionally coordinates by: .

terbakar dan melecur adalah sama keadaannya. TERBAKAR DAN MELECUR  Terkelar.(5) JENIS KEMALANGAN & CARA RAWATAN 5. Kebiasaan terbakar melibatkan kecederaan yang lebih serius daripada melecur. Professionally coordinates by: .TERKELAR.  Perbezaannya hanya dari segi tahap kecederaan.

(5) JENIS KEMALANGAN & CARA RAWATAN Professionally coordinates by: .

(5) JENIS KEMALANGAN & CARA RAWATAN MELECUR DAN LEBAM Disebabkan terkena:  Air panas  Minyak panas  Wap panas Simptom:  Kulit melecur dan kemerahan  Bahagian terbakar mengelembung dan bengkak dengan cepat  Sakit yang amat sangat Professionally coordinates by: .

sejuk dan selesa. Professionally coordinates by: Baringkan mangsa di tempat teduh. dll. . cincin. 4. Hantar ke hospital jika perlu.(5) JENIS KEMALANGAN & CARA RAWATAN CARA RAWATAN 1. Tanggalkan pakaian dan perhiasan pada anggota tercedera seperti. 3. kasut. 2. Jika serius elakkan beri minuman dan makanan. jam tangan.

(5) JENIS KEMALANGAN & CARA RAWATAN CARA RAWATAN TERBAKAR RINGAN 1 2 Professionally coordinates by: .

Professionally coordinates by: .RENJATAN ELEKTRIK  Renjatan elektrik boleh menyebabkan maut. mungkin mereka yang cuba membantu turut menemui maut.6.

Professionally coordinates by: Gunakan galah yang panjang dan kering Kerusi kayu Tikar getah Kain sal (tuala yang kering) Plastik tebal Tali atau tali nylon yang kering . Menggunakan penebat untuk menyelamatkan mangsa: 1. 2. 5. 3. 4. 6.(5) JENIS KEMALANGAN & CARA RAWATAN LANGKAH YANG PERLU DIAMBIL   Matikan suis atau suis utama dan pastikan elektrik sudah terputus.

(5) JENIS KEMALANGAN & CARA RAWATAN CARA MENGALIH BAHAYA Professionally coordinates by: .

 Professionally coordinates by: .  Jika gagal segera lakukan CPR. pulihkan pernafasan dari mulut ke mulut.  Jika ada kesan terbakar beri rawatan terbakar.(5) JENIS KEMALANGAN & CARA RAWATAN CARA RAWATAN Sekiranya mangsa tidak bernafas.  Segerakan mangsa ke hospital.

tembakan atau perlanggaran dan sebagainya. Professionally coordinates by: .  Kemungkinan kecederaan boleh berlaku disebabkan pukulan secara langsung atau tidak langsung. terjatuh dari bangunan yang tinggi. tarikan otot anggota yang tertindih.(5) JENIS KEMALANGAN & CARA RAWATAN 7.PATAH & TERSELIUH  Kecederaan tulang meliputi patah atau retak.

(5) JENIS-JENIS PATAH JENIS KEMALANGAN & CARA RAWATAN Professionally coordinates by: 1 Patah tebu 2 Patah kayu muda .

(5) JENIS-JENIS PATAH JENIS KEMALANGAN & CARA RAWATAN Professionally coordinates by: 3 Patah riuk 4 Patah melarat .

(5) JENIS KEMALANGAN & CARA RAWATAN SIMPTOM  Lebam dan bengkak  Anggota tidak dapat digerakkan  Terluka atau berubah bentuk  Tajam/berbonjol pada kulit  Sakit Professionally coordinates by: .

CARA RAWATAN BLANKET LIFT: Preparation Professionally coordinates by: .

CARA RAWATAN BLANKET LIFT: Rolling On Professionally coordinates by: .

CARA RAWATAN BLANKET LIFT: Lifting Professionally coordinates by: .

8.TERCEKIK Professionally coordinates by: .

Professionally coordinates by: .

(5) 9.LEMAS DI AIR JENIS KEMALANGAN & CARA RAWATAN Professionally coordinates by: .

 Jika perlu lakukan CPR.  Periksa tahap kesedaran.(5) JENIS KEMALANGAN & CARA RAWATAN RAWATAN  Lakukan pemeriksaan asas seperti. periksa pernafasan dan nadi. buka salur pernafasan. Professionally coordinates by: .

Professionally coordinates by: .KERACUNAN  Apa-apa bahan jika dimasukkan ke dalam kuantiti yang mencukupi boleh mengakibatkan kemudaratan.10.

(5) JENIS KEMALANGAN & CARA RAWATAN PUNCA KERACUNAN  Mulut – makan. patukan. jarum  Kulit – semburan racun perosak Professionally coordinates by: . minum  Paru-paru – sedut gas/asap  Suntikan – gigitan.

2. Alihkan mangsa ke tempat yang selamat. 3.(5) JENIS KEMALANGAN & CARA RAWATAN RAWATAN 1. Jika tidak sedar – lakukan ‘primary survey’. Professionally coordinates by: . 5. Pastikan persekitaran dan diri anda selamat. Kesan melecur pada mulut – beri minum air atau susu sedikit demi sedikit. Jika sesak nafas. baringkan ke posisi koma. 4.

(6) PEMULIHAN PERNAFASAN TEKNIK-TEKNIK Melalui 1. 2. 3 cara: Resusitasi secara hembusan (mulut ke mulut) Resusitasi secara tekanan (kardio-pulmonari) Holger Nielson Professionally coordinates by: . 3.

1 Holger Neilson (6) PEMULIHAN PERNAFASAN Professionally coordinates by: .

2 Holger Neilson (6) PEMULIHAN PERNAFASAN Professionally coordinates by: .

Professionally coordinates by: .

.Rescue Breathing  Is a way of breathing air into an unconscious victim who is not breathing but has a pulse.

then 2 breaths.  .    Position the heel of the right hand on the lower half of the breast bone. After 3 sets of 15 and 2 check for signs of circulation. right between the nipples.5 – 2 inches.  15 chest compressions.CPR (on adults & large children) (see handout)  Giving chest compressions. Position shoulders directly over the hands and push straight down. pushing the breastbone down 1. Position left hand on top of the right hand.

 Ice   Compression  Wrap the injury to reduce swelling. Make sure it is not too tight! Raise the injured part above heart level to reduce swelling and drain blood and fluid from the area.  Elevation  . swelling and inflammation. Apply for 20 min cycles ASAP after injury occurs.RICE Treatment  Rest  For 24 to 72 hrs. Applying cold helps reduce pain. Longer rest may be required for severe injuries.

AED (Automated External Defibrillator)  What is an automated external defibrillator (AED)? An AED is a device about the size of a laptop computer that analyzes the heart's rhythm for any abnormalities and. directs the rescuer to deliver an electrical shock to the victim. This shock. called defibrillation. may help the heart to reestablish an effective rhythm of its own. . if necessary.

the AED will begin to monitor the victim's heart rhythm. Once the machine is turned on. Once applied.AED (Automated External Defibrillator)  How does an AED work? An AED is easy to operate. It uses voice prompts to instruct the rescuer. If a "shockable" rhythm is detected. . the machine will charge itself and instruct the rescuer to stand clear of the victim and to press the shock button. the rescuer will be prompted to apply two electrodes provided with the AED to the victim's chest.

and stadiums.  . schools.AED (Automated External Defibrillator) AED’s are required to be in most large public buildings.  Such as malls.

Splints A material or device used to protect and immobilize a body part.  A splint should be used only if it can be applied without hurting the victim. towels.  Two Types of Splints  Soft splints are made from blankets.  Rigid splints are made from rolled-up newspapers or boards. sheets.  . or bandages.

.Appling Splints… Attempt to splint the injury in the position you find it.  On Injured Joints  Must include the bone above and below the injured joint.  Make sure it is not too tight!  On Fractured Bones   Must include the joint above and below the injured bone.

Slings Is a wide piece of cloth looped under an inured arm for support.  Example: Triangular Bandage  .

Treatments for Common Injuries .

scissors. such a razor.  Incision   Laceration  . Is a cut caused by a sharp-edged object.Types Bleeding Wounds  Bruise  Is a wound blood vessels cause bleeding under the skin. Is a cut that causes a jagged or irregular tearing of the skin. broken glass.

 Avulsion   Puncture   . is a wound caused by rubbing or scraping away the skin. Is a wound in which skin or other body tissue is separated or completely torn away from the body.Types Bleeding Wounds  Abrasion  AKA a scrape. Is a wound produced when a pointed instrument or projectile pierces the skin. The risk of infection is high with this type of wound.

Controlling Bleeding  What is the procedure for controlling bleeding that we covered last class? .

weakness. dizziness. clammy skin.Shock Is a dangerous reduction in blood flow to the body tissues. rapid.  Signs of shock include…rapid.  What is the treatment for shock that we covered last class?  . shallow breathing. cold. and fainting. weak pulse.

apply ice.  Two Types   Open Fracture  There is also a break in the skin.  Closed Fracture  There  Treatment  Treat for bleeding and shock. . splint the injury.Fractures Is a break or crack in a bone. is no break in the skin.

Dislocations
Is the movement of a bone away from its joint.  Treatment

Splint above and below the dislocated joint, apply a cold compress.  Never try and set a dislocation!

Sprains and Strains
Sprain – is an injury to the ligaments, tendons, and soft tissue around a joint caused by undue stretching.  Strain – is an overstretching of muscles and/or tendons.  Treatment – Apply the RICE treatment.

Weather Related Injuries

Heat Cramps – are painful muscle spasms in the legs and arms due to excessive fluid loss through sweating.

Treatment – have victim rest in a cool, shaded area; drink cool water; and stretch stiff muscles.

Heat Exhaustion – is extreme tiredness due to the body’s inability to regulate its temperature.

Treatment – have victim lie down with feet elevated in a cool, shaded area; give cool water to drink.

.  Treatment – have victim lie in cool. place ice backs near the neck. Sweating ceases. wet towels or sheets.Weather Related Injuries  Heat Stroke – is an overheating of the body that is life-threatening. armpits. so that the body cannot regulate its temperature. and groin.

remove any wet clothing.Weather Related Injuries  Frostbite – is the freezing of body parts.  Hypothermia – is a reduction of the body temperature so that it is lower than normal. handle the affected area carefully and try to keep it warm. .  Treatment – do not attempt rewarming. often the tissues of the extremities.  Treatment – move the victim to a warm environment. cover their head with blankets.

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