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Published by danielmahsa
A-level chem
A-level chem

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Categories:Types, School Work
Published by: danielmahsa on Apr 10, 2013
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Electrolysis is a process in which electrical energy is used to cause a nonspontaneous chemical reaction to occur. An electrolytic cell contains a pair of electrodes which are connected to a battery and dipped in to an electrolyte. Cathode – cations are attracted to cathode – negative terminal – reduction takes place Anode – anions are attracted to anode – positive terminal – oxidation takes place Electrolysis of pure molten ionic compounds: Electrolysis of molten lead(II) bromide At anode : Cathode: Overall reaction : For aqueous electrolytes When electrolysis is carried out for an aqueous electrolyte, the factors affecting selective discharge of species at each electrode are : Position of species in the electrochemical series – compare E values Concentration of ion Nature of electrode used is reduced in preference first at the

The cation with the most positive E cathode.

The anion with the most negative E is oxidised in preference first at the anode. Electrolysis of aq. CuBr2. At anode : At cathode : Comparing E values of H2O and Cu2+ Comparing E values of H2O and BrConcentration of ion: Electrolysis of concentrated sodium chloride solution Comparing Cl- and H2O Cl- is oxidised in preference because of its higher concentration, giving Cl2 gas as the product at the anode. At cathode : reduction of H2O occurs at the cathode. 1

Oxygen released at the anode reacts with the aluminium to form a thick porous oxide layer. The electrolyte can be sodium dichromate or dilute sulfuric acid.Equation : Electrolysis of aqueous copper(II) sulphate using copper electrodes: Calculations in electrolysis: Q=It Q = no. Of moles of electrons involved in the electrolysis x F F : Faraday Constant = 96500 C mol-1 F=Le L : Avogadro constant e : charge on 1 electron = 1. The aluminium object is made the anode. The thickness of the Al2O3 layer can be increased by anodising. Graphite is used as the cathode. when exposed to air.60 x 10-19 C mass of substance deposited on an electrode is proportional to the quantity of electricity passed. H2O  O2 Al + O2  Al2O3 2 . Anodising of aluminium Aluminium forms a thin protective coat of Al2O3. At the anode. In the electrolytic purification of copper. The electrolyte can be aqueous CuSO4. the impure copper is made the anode and a small strip of pure copper is made the cathode.

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