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Published by danielmahsa
A-level chem
A-level chem

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Categories:Types, School Work
Published by: danielmahsa on Apr 10, 2013
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Electrolysis is a process in which electrical energy is used to cause a nonspontaneous chemical reaction to occur. An electrolytic cell contains a pair of electrodes which are connected to a battery and dipped in to an electrolyte. Cathode – cations are attracted to cathode – negative terminal – reduction takes place Anode – anions are attracted to anode – positive terminal – oxidation takes place Electrolysis of pure molten ionic compounds: Electrolysis of molten lead(II) bromide At anode : Cathode: Overall reaction : For aqueous electrolytes When electrolysis is carried out for an aqueous electrolyte, the factors affecting selective discharge of species at each electrode are : Position of species in the electrochemical series – compare E values Concentration of ion Nature of electrode used is reduced in preference first at the

The cation with the most positive E cathode.

The anion with the most negative E is oxidised in preference first at the anode. Electrolysis of aq. CuBr2. At anode : At cathode : Comparing E values of H2O and Cu2+ Comparing E values of H2O and BrConcentration of ion: Electrolysis of concentrated sodium chloride solution Comparing Cl- and H2O Cl- is oxidised in preference because of its higher concentration, giving Cl2 gas as the product at the anode. At cathode : reduction of H2O occurs at the cathode. 1

Graphite is used as the cathode. when exposed to air. the impure copper is made the anode and a small strip of pure copper is made the cathode. The electrolyte can be aqueous CuSO4. Anodising of aluminium Aluminium forms a thin protective coat of Al2O3. Oxygen released at the anode reacts with the aluminium to form a thick porous oxide layer. The thickness of the Al2O3 layer can be increased by anodising. The electrolyte can be sodium dichromate or dilute sulfuric acid. In the electrolytic purification of copper.Equation : Electrolysis of aqueous copper(II) sulphate using copper electrodes: Calculations in electrolysis: Q=It Q = no. H2O  O2 Al + O2  Al2O3 2 . At the anode.60 x 10-19 C mass of substance deposited on an electrode is proportional to the quantity of electricity passed. The aluminium object is made the anode. Of moles of electrons involved in the electrolysis x F F : Faraday Constant = 96500 C mol-1 F=Le L : Avogadro constant e : charge on 1 electron = 1.

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