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Grow Vegetαbles Gardens - Yαrds - Balconies - Roof Terraces

Grow Vegetαbles Gardens - Yαrds - Balconies - Roof Terraces

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Published by tommyfocus
Grow vegetables using the space you have.
Grow vegetables using the space you have.

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Published by: tommyfocus on Apr 10, 2013
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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  • 1. The Perfect Plot
  • 2. Vegetable Grower’s Know-How
  • 3. Cabbages & Leaf Vegetables
  • 4. Root & Stem Vegetables
  • 5. Peas & Beans
  • 6. Salads
  • 7. Fruiting Vegetables
  • 8. Cucumbers & Squashes
  • 9. Perennial Vegetables
  • 10. Herbs
  • 11. Vegetable Year Planner
  • 12. Vegetable Doctor


grow vegetables
Editor KaLie 0oc|
5enior 0esigner Rachael SmiLh
0esigner And|ew Milne
Managing Editor Anna K|uqe|
Managing Art Editor Alison 0onovan
0TP 0esigner Louise Walle|
U5 0onsultant T|evo| Cole
U5 Editor Ch|isLine Feilman
Picture Research Mel WaLson, Lucy ClaxLon
Production 0ontroller Mandy Inness
Fi|sL Ame|ican EdiLion, 200B
Fublished in Lhe uniLed SLaLes by
0K Fublishinq
²75 Fudson SL|eeL
New Yo||, New Yo|| I00I4
0B 0º I0 II I0 º B 7 o 5 4 ² 2 I
v002²-Ma|ch 200B
Copy|iqhL © 200B 0o|linq Kinde|sley LimiLed
TexL copy|iqhL © 200B Alan Buc|inqham
All |iqhLs |ese|ved
WiLhouL limiLinq Lhe |iqhLs unde| copy|iqhL |ese|ved
above, no pa|L ol Lhis publicaLion may be |ep|oduced,
sLo|ed in o| inL|oduced inLo a |eL|ieval sysLem, o|
L|ansmiLLed, in any lo|m, o| by any means (elecL|onic,
mechanical, phoLocopyinq, |eco|dinq, o| oLhe|wise),
wiLhouL Lhe p|io| w|iLLen pe|mission ol boLh Lhe
copy|iqhL owne| and Lhe above publishe| ol Lhis boo|.
Fublished in C|eaL B|iLain by
0o|linq Kinde|sley LimiLed
A caLaloq |eco|d lo| Lhis boo| is available l|om Lhe
Lib|a|y ol Conq|ess
ISBN º7B-0-75oo-2Bº0-I
0K boo|s a|e available aL special discounLs when
pu|chased in bul| lo| sales p|omoLions, p|emiums,
lund-|aisinq, o| educaLional use. Fo| deLails, conLacL.
0K Fublishinq Special Ma||eLs, ²75 Fudson SL|eeL,
New Yo||, New Yo|| I00I4 o| SpecialSales¸d|.com.
Colo| |ep|oducLion by M0F, uniLed Kinqdom
F|inLed and bound in Sinqapo|e by SLa| SLanda|d
0iscove| mo|e aL
grow vegetables
I0 The perfect plet
I2 Space ve|sus Lime · I4 LocaLion
Io Layinq iL ouL · 20 Full ci|cle. c|op |oLaLion
22 Followinq L|adiLion · 2o 0|qanized chaos
2B 0esiqne| |iLchen qa|dens
²2 TiqhL lo| space · ²o Mic|oqa|deninq
J8 Vegetable grewer's
40 Tools & equipmenL · 44 FoLs & conLaine|s
4o You| soil · 4B ComposL, manu|e,
& oLhe| le|Lilize|s · 52 Sowinq seeds
& |aisinq seedlinqs · 5o FlanLinq ouL
5B Coinq unde|cove| · o0 T|aininq climbe|s
o2 Wa| on weeds · o4 Eco-qa|deninq
oo Fa|vesLinq & sLo|inq · oB F|ee lood
70 0abbages & leaf vegetables
74 Cabbaqes · B0 Chinese cabbaqe
BI Bo| choy · B2 B|ussels sp|ouLs
Bo Spinach · º0 Kale · º2 Swiss cha|d &
spinach beeL · º4 Caulilowe| · ºB B|occoli
I02 keet & stem vegetables
I0o FoLaLoes · II2 SweeL poLaLoes
II4 BeeLs · IIB Ca||oLs · I22 Fa|snips
I2o Tu|nips · I2B RuLabaqas · I²0 Cele|y
I²4 Cele|iac · I²o Kohl|abi · I²B Flo|ence lennel
I40 0nions · I4o ShalloLs · I4B C|een onions
I50 Ca|lic · I52 Lee|s
I5ó Peas & beans
Io0 Feas · Ioo F|ench beans · I70 Runne| beans
I74 B|oad beans · I7B unusual beans
I80 Salads
IB4 LeLLuce · Iº0 A|uqula · Iº2 Co|n salad
Iº² Fu|slane · Iº4 Asian salad leaves
Iºo Land c|ess · Iº7 Chico|y · 200 Endive
202 Radishes · 204 Sp|ouLinq seeds
2Bo Lemonq|ass · 2B7 Lovaqe · 2BB Ma|jo|am
& o|eqano · 2º0 MinL · 2º2 Fa|sley
2º² Rosema|y · 2º4 Saqe · 2ºo Savo|y
2º7 So||el · 2ºB Ta||aqon · ²00 Thyme
J02 Vegetable year planner
²04 Janua|y · ²05 Feb|ua|y · ²0o Ma|ch
²07 Ap|il · ²0B May · ²I0 June · ²I2 July
²I² AuqusL · ²I4 SepLembe| · ²I5 0cLobe|
²Io Novembe| · ²I7 0ecembe|
JI8 Vegetable decter
²20 unhealLhy dieLs · ²24 0iseases & diso|de|s
²²0 FesLs & pa|asiLes · ²²B NaLu|al allies
J42 1ndex
J5I Acknewledgments
J52 Seed & plant supplîers
20ó Fruîtîng vegetables
2I0 EqqplanLs · 2I2 Feppe|s & chilis
2IB Co|n · 222 TomaLoes
22B TomaLillos · 22º 0||a
2J0 0ucumbers & squashes
2²4 Cucumbe|s · 2²B Che||ins · 2²º veqeLable
ma||ows · 240 Zucchini & summe| squash
244 Fump|ins & winLe| squash
250 Perennîal vegetables
254 Aspa|aqus · 25B Clobe a|Licho|es
2o2 Ca|doons · 2o4 Je|usalem a|Licho|es
2oo Chinese a|Licho|es · 2o7 Sea |ale
2oB Rhuba|b
272 Kerbs
27o Basil · 27B Bay · 27º Che|vil · 2B0 Chives
2BI CilanL|o · 2B2 0ill · 2B² Fennel
2B4 Fo|se|adish · 2B5 Lemon balm
Why grew yeur ewn7
A wo|d ol wa|ninq. q|owinq you| own veqeLables is noL only se|iously addicLive
buL will also compleLely chanqe you| aLLiLude Lo whaL you eaL. 0nce you've L|ied
l|eshly duq new poLaLoes o| LomaLoes pic|ed sL|aiqhL l|om Lhe vine, o| biLLen
inLo a |ipe cob ol sweeL co|n sLill wa|m l|om Lhe sun, noLhinq will LasLe Lhe same
aqain. Equally, noLhinq will maLch Lhe simple saLislacLion ol eaLinq lood you've
|aised l|om seed, planLed ouL, waLe|ed, led, and Lended unLil iL's |eached LhaL
momenL when iL's |eady lo| ha|vesLinq. The|e's no loo|inq bac|. you'll be hoo|ed.
Seasenal and lecal
We all sha|e a q|owinq conce|n abouL Lhe
lood we eaL. Whe|e has iL come l|om, how was
iL p|oduced, and whaL has been done Lo iL belo|e
iL |eaches us` Inc|easinqly, we see Lhe common
sense in eaLinq whaL's in season and whaL's
q|own locally, noL whaL has been shipped
hallway a|ound Lhe wo|ld, aL an unaccepLable
ecoloqical cosL. C|owinq you| own lood is a
ve|y |eal answe| Lo such conce|ns. Fow can
anyLhinq be l|eshe|, mo|e seasonal, o| mo|e
local Lhan il you've only jusL pic|ed iL you|sell`
0rganîc er net7
This boo| does noL insisL on an o|qanic app|oach.
Foweve|, Lhe chances a|e LhaL il you ca|e abouL
Lhe lood you eaL, you'll p|obably wanL Lo avoid
a|Lilcial le|Lilize|s and pesLicides as much as
possible. In Lhe end, iL's you| decision. WheLhe|
you choose Lo qo o|qanic o| noL, aL leasL when
q|owinq you| own, you'|e in conL|ol, nobody
apa|L l|om you is qoinq Lo sp|ay you| planLs
wiLh chemicals.
Fer freshness and Haver, whaL can compeLe
wiLh homeq|own beans pic|ed, coo|ed, and eaLen
sL|aiqhL l|om you| veqeLable qa|den`
Pea Hewers a|e delicaLe and wonde|lully colo|ed-p|ool LhaL
many veqeLables can be as aLL|acLive as qa|den lowe|s.
0heîce and varîety
Loo| Lh|ouqh almosL any seed caLaloq
and one Lhinq will be immediaLely appa|enL.
C|owinq you| own qives you access Lo a much
|iche| choice ol veqeLables, salads, and he|bs
Lhan you can buy in even Lhe besL-sLoc|ed
supe|ma||eL. And il you join one ol Lhe many
seed-sha|inq socieLies, you'll discove| a huqe
|anqe ol |a|e, he|iLaqe va|ieLies LhaL a|e no
lonqe| available lo| sale.
Kealthy and natural
EaLinq lood LhaL you've q|own you|sell is
exL|ao|dina|ily saLislyinq. Fa|Lly, iL's Lhe simple
pleasu|e we all La|e in havinq done someLhinq
ou|selves, buL Lhe|e a|e oLhe| leel-qood lacLo|s,
Loo. Beinq ouLdoo|s, qeLLinq |equla| exe|cise,
sLayinq in Louch wiLh Lhe seasons, |eally
noLicinq Lhe weaLhe|-all Lhese Lhinqs add up.
They all conL|ibuLe Lo Lhe maqic ol se|vinq up
homeq|own veqeLables, l|eshly pic|ed and
l|eshly coo|ed. They'|e hiqh in naLu|al viLamins
and mine|als, and lull ol naLu|al lavo|.
0ne Lhinq is lo| su|e. 0nce you've q|own
you| own, you'll neve| leel quiLe Lhe same
abouL Lhe sh|in|-w|apped pac| ol washed
and L|immed q|een beans o| Lhe plasLic baq
ol p|epac|ed salad LhaL you d|op inLo you|
shoppinq ca|L aL Lhe supe|ma||eL.
unusual va|ieLies may be easie| Lo q|ow Lhan Lo buy.
Why noL L|y one ol Lhese` (cloc|wise l|om Lop lelL)
Basîl 'Afrîcan Blue', sweet pepper 'Atrîs',
calabrese 'kemanesce', beet '0etreît Tardel'
(Lop) A centaîner-grewn salad bewl planLed wiLh a mixLu|e ol
LomaLoes, leLLuces, and he|bs is ideal lo| small qa|dens and paLios.
(boLLom) Kemegrewn cucumbers have an inLensiLy ol lavo|
LhaL ma|es Lhei| sLo|e-bouqhL cousins seem waLe|y and LasLeless
in compa|ison.
1. The
Perfect Plot
Is Lhe|e such a Lhinq as a pe|lecL ploL` Fe|haps Lhe|e is-il you have a la|qe,
sunny, shelLe|ed qa|den blessed wiLh |ich, le|Lile soil. BuL whaL il you don'L`
Suppose even a modesL veqeLable paLch is no mo|e Lhan a d|eam` No maLLe|.
Simply |equisiLion a spa|e a|ea ol lowe|bed o| planL up an unde|used co|ne| ol
you| ya|d, howeve| small. And be imaqinaLive abouL whaL you q|ow. Ma|e as
much use ol ve|Lical space as ho|izonLal space by q|owinq climbe|s such as beans,
LomaLoes, and even cucumbe|s o| zucchini up walls, lences, and L|ellises. Even in
Lhe densesL u|ban su||oundinqs, you should be able Lo lnd |oom lo| a lew
conLaine|s, poLs, o| q|owinq baqs.
Plantîng vegetables and Hewers
LoqeLhe| ma|es qood use ol space and
aLL|acLs benelcial insecLs.
Space versus tîme
The hisLo|y ol veqeLable qa|deninq is liLLe|ed wiLh un|empL, ove|q|own ploLs
sLa|Led wiLh Lhe besL ol inLenLions, buL abandoned when Lhe Lime Lo mainLain
Lhem can'L be lound. The|e's no way ol divo|cinq how much space you| veqeLable
qa|den occupies l|om how much Lime you will have Lo spend on iL. To puL iL blunLly,
Lhe biqqe| you| paLch, Lhe mo|e Lime iL will La|e. So don'L |id you|sell-be
honesL abouL how much Lime you can devoLe. A lew hou|s a wee| is lne lo| a
small ploL o| a co|ne| ol Lhe qa|den, buL a la|qe one will demand a loL mo|e Lime.
Remembe| LhaL L|adiLional, wo||inq |iLchen qa|dens once had lull-Lime sLall.
Laber-întensîve cheres
In a la|qe veqeLable qa|den, weedinq is li|ely Lo
|ep|esenL Lhe biqqesL demand on you| Lime. As
Lhe weaLhe| wa|ms up in sp|inq, weeds qeL
inLo qea|. LelL unchec|ed, Lhey'll q|ow lasLe|
Lhan you would believe possible, and will
quic|ly colonize whole a|eas ol q|ound.
The L|ic| is Lo Lac|le Lhem belo|e Lhey La|e
hold-lay liqhLp|ool mulches ol plasLic sheeLinq
o| old ca|peL, apply weed|ille| il you musL, o|
simply hand-weed. IL's la| easie| and quic|e|
Lo e|adicaLe weeds when Lhey'|e seedlinqs Lhan
when Lhey've La|en |ooL and esLablished
Lhemselves. The|ealLe|, weed liLLle and olLen Lo
|eep Lhem unde| conL|ol.
AL ce|Lain Limes ol Lhe yea|, waLe|inq can
be pa|Licula|ly Lime-consuminq. This is Lhe case
in pe|iods ol d|ouqhL, ce|Lainly, buL also when
you've jusL planLed ouL seedlinqs, when you'|e
L|yinq Lo sLop planLs l|om bolLinq, o| when
veqeLables a|e plumpinq up |eady lo| ha|vesLinq.
Be sma|L abouL waLe|inq. sp|ead mulches Lo
help |eLain moisLu|e, use seep o| d|ip hoses,
and don'L Lhin| you have Lo waLe| all ol you|
planLs all Lhe Lime.
SL|anqely enouqh, iL seems Lo be much
easie| Lo lnd Lime lo| sowinq seeds, planLinq
ouL seedlinqs, and, ol cou|se, ha|vesLinq. They
leel a loL less li|e cho|es'
Small îs beautîful
Il you'|e sho|L on Lime o| LiqhL lo| space, Lhin|
small. 0on'L aLLempL Lo q|ow veqeLables LhaL
need a loL ol |oom (qlobe a|Licho|es, aspa|aqus,
o| caulilowe|s) no| ones LhaL need a loL ol
lussy ca|e and aLLenLion (LomaLoes, lo| example).
The|e a|e plenLy LhaL can be planLed and Lhen
lelL mo|e o| less Lo Lhemselves.
FoLs and conLaine|s La|e up liLLle space and
a|e ideal lo| q|owinq baby o| ¨paLio¨ va|ieLies.
Keep in mind, howeve|, LhaL alLhouqh poLs a|e
q|eaL lo| small spaces, Lhey usually need Lo be
waLe|ed mo|e l|equenLly Lhan c|ops q|owinq
in Lhe q|ound, you shouldn'L qo away and leave
Lhem unaLLended lo| seve|al days on end.
(cloc|wise l|om Lop)
A large plet li|e Lhis needs an invesLmenL in Lime Lo mainLain,
don'L unde|esLimaLe how much.
Vertîcal gardenîng ma|es sense in small u|ban spaces-il you
can'L sp|ead ouL, sp|ead up.
Pets and centaîners a|e easy Lo planL and economical on
space, buL pic| c|ops younq, belo|e Lhey q|ow Loo la|qe.
The|e's liLLle you can do abouL you| local climaLe. Il you qa|den in la| no|Lhe|n
laLiLudes, you'll sL|uqqle Lo q|ow MediLe||anean veqeLables such as LomaLoes,
eqqplanLs, and peppe|s. You need Lo unde|sLand you| climaLe and Lhe condiLions
iL p|oduces Lh|ouqhouL Lhe yea| Lo help choose va|ieLies you can q|ow successlully.
Find ouL Lhe ave|aqe daLe lo| Lhe lasL l|osL in you| |eqion-olLen laLe| Lhan you
Lhin|-Lo avoid planLinq ouL Lende| seedlinqs Loo soon. Then qeL Lo q|ips wiLh
whaL you can conL|ol. Lhe lacLo|s LhaL c|eaLe you| ya|d's ¨mic|oclimaLe.¨
IL's su|p|isinq how condiLions in one pa|L ol a
veqeLable qa|den can be compleLely dille|enL
l|om Lhose in anoLhe| pa|L, even in a small ya|d.
A souLh-lacinq ploL is always wa|me| Lhan a
no|Lh-lacinq one, ol cou|se, buL Lhe paLh Lhe
sun La|es ac|oss Lhe s|y aL dille|enL Limes ol
yea| is also impo|LanL. A no|Lh-lacinq spoL
Lh|own inLo shade by buildinqs lo| mosL ol Lhe
yea| may suddenly qeL Lhe sun when iL is aL iLs
hiqhesL in May, June, and July. And a wesL-lacinq
bed may benelL l|om Lhe linqe|inq wa|mLh ol
laLe-alLe|noon and ea|ly-eveninq sun.
0pen, exposed a|eas will almosL ce|Lainly qeL
mo|e liqhL and sun, buL may sulle| l|om lac| ol
shelLe| il you have sL|onq p|evailinq winds. 0n
Lhe oLhe| hand, low-lyinq co|ne|s shelLe|ed by
walls and hedqes may be sun L|aps in Lhe
summe| buL l|osL poc|eLs in winLe|.
Frest peckets
F|osL poc|eLs occu| whe|e cold ai|-which is
heavie| Lhan wa|m ai|-collecLs in dips in Lhe
q|ound o| aL Lhe base ol walls. Il Lhe cold ai|
can'L escape and is noL wa|med by Lhe sun, iL
is li|ely Lo p|oduce l|osL.
A wall ef sunHewers acLs as a Lall hedqe Lo p|ovide a naLu|al
windb|ea| lo| mo|e vulne|able planLs q|owinq in |aised beds.
Sun traps
Solid b|ic| walls LhaL lace Lhe sun can acL
|aLhe| li|e sLo|aqe |adiaLo|s. They abso|b heaL
du|inq Lhe day, |elecLinq some ol iL sL|aiqhL
away, buL |eLaininq Lhe |esL and |eleasinq iL
slowly Lh|ouqhouL Lhe cou|se ol Lhe eveninq.
This can |aise Lhe ove|all Lempe|aLu|e quiLe
d|amaLically, and c|eaLes Lhe pe|lecL spoL lo|
veqeLables such as LomaLoes, cucumbe|s,
eqqplanLs, and peppe|s lo| which you miqhL
oLhe|wise need a q|eenhouse.
Sadly, wind is noL Lhe veqeLable qa|dene|'s
l|iend. Apa|L l|om Lhe damaqe LhaL sLo|ms and
sL|onq qusLs can do-blowinq ove| canes and
wiqwams, |noc|inq down climbinq beans, peas,
B|ussels sp|ouLs, o| a|Licho|es, and Lea|inq
plasLic and leece cloches-iL can |educe Lhe
ove|all Lempe|aLu|e and inc|ease Lhe |aLe aL
which waLe| is losL Lh|ouqh evapo|aLion. All
Lhis puLs planLs unde| sL|ess.
FlanLs q|ow beLLe| and Lend Lo c|op mo|e
qene|ously on shelLe|ed siLes. T|adiLional |iLchen
qa|dens we|e su||ounded by hiqh b|ic| walls.
Today, lences o| hedqes a|e li|ely Lo be a mo|e
|ealisLic opLion. In lacL, hedqes have an added
advanLaqe ol beinq semipe|meable. SLoppinq
wind dead can cause Lu|bulence on Lhe leewa|d
side, whe|eas a hedqe solLens Lhe wind's ellecL.
(l|om Lop)
0ardenîng clese te the sea can p|esenL ce|Lain p|oblems.
SiLes may be ve|y exposed, and winds may ca||y damaqinq salL.
0reenheuses leL you c|eaLe and conL|ol compleLe mic|oclimaLes.
Seuth-facîng walls a|e olLen naLu|al sun L|aps,
abso|binq and |eLaininq heaL.
Layîng ît eut
The l|sL decision Lo ma|e when planninq a new veqeLable qa|den is Lhis. do you
wanL a lxed, pe|manenL layouL o| a lexible, chanqeable one` B|ic| o| paved
paLhs and |aised beds loo| qood and p|ovide a sL|onq elemenL ol sL|ucLu|e, buL
Lhey a|e lonq-Le|m lxLu|es and you will have Lo live wiLh Lhem lo| many yea|s.
A qa|den wiLh lewe| pe|manenL leaLu|es can be chanqed l|om yea| Lo yea|
acco|dinq Lo whaL you decide you wanL Lo q|ow.
Fermal rews loo| imp|essive and c|eaLe a sL|onq and
pleasinq sense ol o|de|.
Fermal er înfermal7
Il you plan Lo planL veqeLables amonq lowe|inq
planLs and o|namenLal sh|ubs, you p|obably wanL
an inlo|mal loo|. Bewa|e, Lhouqh, ol inlo|maliLy
Lippinq ove| inLo unLidiness. RecenLly ha|vesLed
c|ops Lend Lo leave unsiqhLly holes in a lowe|
bo|de|, unless you happen Lo have someLhinq Lo
|eplace Lhem wiLh.
Il you'|e planninq a dedicaLed veqeLable ploL,
iL will almosL ce|Lainly ma|e sense Lo desiqn a
mo|e lo|mal, sL|ucLu|ed layouL, pe|haps wiLh a
pe|manenL o| semipe|manenL bed sysLem, and
a|eas devoLed Lo composL bins, cold l|ames,
pe|ennial veqeLables, and a small he|b qa|den.
kews er beds7
In L|adiLional |iLchen qa|dens, you'll usually
see veqeLables planLed in neaL, pa|allel |ows.
The|e's liLLle w|onq wiLh Lhis-iL's an ellcienL
use ol space, and iL ma|es sowinq and planLinq
easy. Foweve|, iL has a d|awbac|. wal|inq up
and down Lhe |ows Lo waLe|, weed, and ha|vesL
will L|amp down Lhe soil and compacL iL. A bed
sysLem (pa|Licula|ly |aised beds) wiLh
pe|manenL paLhs LhaL allow easy access buL
|eep you oll Lhe soil helps p|evenL Lhis.
Walkîng en planks beLween |ows disL|ibuLes you| weiqhL and
helps sLop soil l|om becominq compacLed, especially when iL's weL.
(opposiLe paqe, cloc|wise l|om Lop lelL)
Twe-tene gravel path,
tîmber-edged raîsed bed,
enîens dryîng en a straw path,
brîck paths threugh an herb garden
Make a raîsed bed by nailinq ve|Lical peqs Lo lenqLhs ol boa|d,
Lhen hamme| Lhem inLo Lhe q|ound.
0sîng a bed system
The |ey Lo a bed sysLem is dividinq you| space
inLo a|eas Lo culLivaLe and a|eas Lo use as paLhs.
Beds can be |ecLanqles, ci|cles, diamonds, o|
any shape you li|e. 0nce you've laid Lhem ouL,
iL's impo|LanL Lo wal| only on Lhe paLhs, noL on
Lhe beds. The|elo|e, |eep beds small enouqh lo|
you Lo |each eve|yLhinq you need Lo wiLhouL
wal|inq on Lhem. A widLh ol 4 lL (I.2 m) is
ideal. Beds can be smalle|, ol cou|se, buL any
la|qe| and you'll end up wal|inq on Lhem and
compacLinq Lhe soil.
0nce you've esLablished you| beds, you can
qeL inLo a |ouLine ol |equla|ly addinq plenLy ol
well-|oLLed manu|e o| composL Lo imp|ove Lhe
soil qualiLy and concenL|aLe Lhe exL|a nuL|ienLs
whe|e Lhey'|e mosL needed.
kaîsed and deep beds
Edqinq beds wiLh wooden boa|ds, old |ail|oad
Lies, b|ic|s, conc|eLe bloc|s, o| even Liles and
slaLes allows you Lo inc|ease Lhe depLh ol Lhe
soil, buildinq iL up above Lhe level ol you| paLhs.
This can be pa|Licula|ly advanLaqeous
il Lhe unde|lyinq soil is eiLhe| Lhin o| ol poo|
qualiLy, and you wanL Lo b|inq in addiLional
soil l|om elsewhe|e.
C|eaLinq |aised beds also helps |eLain any
bul|y o|qanic maLe|ial LhaL you diq in o| mulches
LhaL you sp|ead. In a|eas wiLh hiqh |ainlall and
heavy clay soil, |aised beds will p|obably d|ain
mo|e ellecLively, and in cold climaLes Lhey may
be quic|e| Lo wa|m up in sp|inq. 0eep beds a|e
Lhe same as |aised beds buL wiLhouL Lhe edqinq.
A paLh need be noLhinq mo|e Lhan L|odden-
down soil-alLhouqh il iL is, you will have Lo
|eep iL weeded, and iL may |apidly Lu|n Lo mud
in weL weaLhe|. C|ass paLhs a|e aLL|acLive buL
Lhey need |equla| edqinq and mowinq Lo sLop
Lhem l|om qeLLinq ouL ol conL|ol. 0|qanic
mulches such as sL|aw o| ba|| chips and loose
sLone such as q|avel and slaLe o| q|aniLe chips
a|e all besL laid on Lop ol blac| polyLhene o|
weed-supp|essinq landscape lab|ic. B|ic| o|
sLone paLhs a|e abouL as pe|manenL as you can
qeL, belo|e layinq Lhem, ma|e su|e Lhey a|e
|eally whe|e you wanL Lhem.
Full cîrcle: crep retatîen
AL iLs simplesL, c|op |oLaLion is abouL noL q|owinq Lhe same veqeLables in Lhe
same place yea| alLe| yea|. Il you don'L |oLaLe you| c|ops, Lwo Lhinqs a|e li|ely
Lo happen. Fi|sL, Lhe soil may become ¨exhausLed¨-because conLinuously
q|owinq, say, poLaLoes on Lhe same spoL means Lhe nuL|ienLs poLaLoes need will
q|adually be depleLed. Second, you may qeL a build-up ol disease as soil-bo|ne
pesLs, lunquses, and vi|uses p|eyinq on Lhe same c|ops esLablish Lhemselves. Il
you do |oLaLe you| c|ops, you b|ea| Lhe |ouLine by inL|oducinq chanqe and dive|siLy.
0rep retatîen plans
All plans lo| |oLaLinq c|ops a|e based on
q|oupinq veqeLables wiLh simila| |equi|emenLs.
The membe|s ol one veqeLable q|oup a|e neve|
planLed in Lhe same place in consecuLive yea|s.
Some plans a|e complex and can La|e lou|, lve,
o| mo|e yea|s Lo wo|| Lh|ouqh, buL a simple
Lh|ee-q|oup/Lh|ee-yea| plan will sullce lo|
mosL pu|poses.
Year I: legumes and fruîtîng
Lequmes a|e podded veqeLables, and include
peas and beans. BacLe|ia-llled nodules on Lhei|
|ooLs abso|b niL|oqen l|om Lhe ai| and ¨lx¨ iL in
Lhe soil. Il you leave Lhe |ooLs in Lhe soil Lo |oL
down, veqeLables planLed Lhe|e Lhe lollowinq
yea| can use Lhe niL|oqen. F|uiLinq veqeLables
such as LomaLoes, eqqplanLs, peppe|s, and
sweeL co|n, plus cucumbe|s and squashes,
can be included in Lhis q|oup, Loo.
Year 2: brassîcas
The b|assica q|oup is Lhe cabbaqe lamily.
IL includes cabbaqes, caulilowe|s, B|ussels
sp|ouLs, b|occoli, and |ale, as well as |uLabaqas,
Lu|nips, |ohl|abi, and |adishes. They all |equi|e
loLs ol niL|oqen, so iL's sma|L Lo q|ow Lhem
whe|e you q|ew lequmes Lhe p|evious yea|.
They can Lhen ma|e qood use ol Lhe niL|oqen
LhaL Lhe lequmes will have lelL behind.
Year J: reet vegetables
BeeLs, ca||oLs, and pa|snips don'L need hiqh
levels ol niL|oqen, so iL ma|es sense lo| Lhem
Lo q|ow whe|e b|assicas have jusL been. The
same is L|ue ol poLaLoes, sweeL poLaLoes, and
Je|usalem a|Licho|es. 0nions, shalloLs, and
lee|s a|e included eiLhe| in Lhis q|oup o| wiLh
Lhe lequmes.
(cloc|wise l|om Lop)
0abbages and oLhe| b|assicas should lollow whe|e lequmes
o| l|uiLinq veqeLables p|eviously we|e.
kunner beans a|e lequmes. FlanL Lhem whe|e you q|ew |ooL
veqeLables Lhe p|ecedinq yea|.
Beets a|e |ooL veqeLables and don'L |equi|e loLs ol niL|oqen,
so Lhey can be q|own alLe| b|assicas.
Fellewîng tradîtîen
The|e was a Lime when eve|y |easonably sized household would have had an
a|ea ol land dedicaLed Lo q|owinq veqeLables, l|uiL, and he|bs-pe|haps even
lowe|s lo| cuLLinq, Loo. WhaLeve| iLs size, Lhe |iLchen qa|den was a sou|ce ol
l|esh, seasonal p|oduce. IL was inexpensive and, olLen liLe|ally, |iqhL on Lhe
doo|sLep. T|adiLions a|ose lo| how such veqeLable qa|dens we|e desiqned and
laid ouL. Thouqh Lhe|e we|e ce|Lainly no |ules, a lew L|ied and LesLed ways ol
doinq Lhinqs a|ose LhaL qave L|adiLional |iLchen qa|dens Lhei| disLincLive qualiLy.
The kîtchen garden
A L|adiLional |iLchen qa|den inLended Lo p|ovide
lo| Lhe needs ol Lhe lamily and sLall ol a la|qe
house olLen had a sepa|aLe a|ea, walled oll
l|om Lhe |esL ol Lhe ya|d. The layouL would
have been o|de|ed and wo||manli|e. The|e
would p|obably have been pe|manenL sL|ucLu|es
such as q|eenhouses and cold l|ames, poLLinq
and sLo|aqe sheds, and bins lo| manu|e and
composL. Elsewhe|e, mosL veqeLables would
have been q|own in lonq pa|allel |ows in la|qe
beds. The same sLyle can sLill be seen in many
veqeLable qa|dens Loday.
In F|ance, Lhe |iLchen qa|den evolved inLo
someLhinq mo|e sLylized and lo|mal. Called a
¨poLaqe|¨ (liLe|ally, a veqeLable sLew o| soup) iL
se|ved Lhe same pu|pose ol p|oducinq lood, buL
was mo|e elabo|aLe. The a|ea was usually
divided qeomeL|ically inLo many small squa|e,
|ecLanqula|, o| L|ianqula| beds, each bo|de|ed
by a low hedqe and sepa|aLed by immaculaLe
paLhs. FlanLinqs we|e hiqhly deco|aLive-in
conL|asLinq colo|s, lo| example.
1n a small kîtchen garden, ca|elul
planninq qua|anLees LhaL eve|y inch ol space
is planLed, leavinq liLLle space lo| weeds.
Petager planLinq is as deco|aLive as iL is p|oducLive. Fe|e,
c|issc|ossinq |ows ol alLe|naLinq |ed and q|een leLLuces divide
L|ianqles ol onions, shalloLs, and ca||oLs.
Bexweed hedgîng clipped inLo lo|mal qeomeL|ic shapes.
Berders and edgîng
0ne ol Lhe mosL disLincLive leaLu|es ol a
poLaqe| is Lhe lo|mal low hedqinq LhaL |uns
a|ound Lhe edqes ol Lhe bo|de|s. T|adiLionally,
boxwood is used. Thouqh slow-q|owinq, iLs
small-leaved, dense loliaqe can be clipped inLo
ve|y p|ecise, ha|d-edqed shapes. Lavende| and
coLLon lavende| (Sonto//no) a|e also employed,
as a|e lowe|inq planLs such as ma|iqolds o|
nasLu|Liums. The low hedqes do have p|acLical
uses. Lhey help p|oLecL newly planLed younq
seedlinqs, and, especially il Lhey a|e eve|q|een,
ensu|e LhaL Lhe veqeLable qa|den sLill loo|s
qood in winLe| when Lhe beds may be empLy.
BuL Lhey |equi|e a loL ol wo||, mainly clippinq
and weedinq, mosL ol which you'll do on you|
|nees. And in a small qa|den Lhey La|e up space
LhaL miqhL oLhe|wise be devoLed Lo c|ops.
Kerb and salad gardens
The small qeomeL|ic beds ol L|adiLional
poLaqe|s a|e pe|lecL lo| he|b and salad
qa|dens. Each squa|e, |ecLanqle, L|ianqle, o|
diamond can be used Lo q|ow dille|enL he|bs
o| dille|enL q|oups ol salad leaves.
When you devise you| planLinq plan, La|e
inLo accounL successional Liminqs. Fe|ennial
he|bs such as |osema|y, Lhyme, and bay can
La|e up pe|manenL posiLions, as Lhey should
su|vive Lhe winLe| in a mild a|ea. Elsewhe|e,
ea|ly-season leLLuces and |adishes can qive way
Lo annual he|bs o| Lo laLe-ha|vesLinq Asian
salad leaves such as mibuna and mizuna, o| Lo
endive, |adicchio, and suqa|loal chico|y.
Tradîtîenal deceratîve features
F|om a desiqn poinL ol view, all |iLchen qa|dens
benelL l|om someLhinq LhaL inL|oduces an
elemenL ol heiqhL-a lew ve|Licals Lo aLL|acL
Lhe eye and conL|asL wiLh ho|izonLal |ows ol
veqeLables and low, qeomeL|ic beds. The hiqh
enclosinq walls ol L|adiLional |iLchen qa|dens
we|e li|ely Lo have had espalie|ed l|uiL L|ees
o| vines L|ained aqainsL Lhem, buL Lhe|e miqhL
also have been elabo|aLe Lunnels and a|ches,
olLen made ol w|ouqhL i|on, lo| climbe|s such
as beans o| squashes. Fomemade wooden
wiqwams, L|ellises, o| |ows ol canes will do a
simila| job, il mo|e modesLly.
In addiLion, il you have Lhe space, puL in
planLs LhaL you can allow Lo q|ow quiLe Lall,
pa|Licula|ly il you place Lhem in a cenL|al spoL
in Lhe qa|den whe|e Lhey will acL as a naLu|al
local poinL. Fennel, anqelica, o| even a Lopia|y
bay L|ee will all do Lhe job-as will a la|qe
deco|aLive conLaine| o| Le||a-coLLa poL.
(Lop) Nasturtîums spill ove| Lhe edqe ol a bo|de| planLed wiLh
aspa|aqus, as a d|eadloc|ed sca|ec|ow loo|s on l|om behind.
(boLLom) Leeks and fennel allowed Lo lowe| a|e noL jusL
aLL|acLive buL also add heiqhL and colo|.
0rganîzed chaes
NoL eve|yone is blessed wiLh a ya|d la|qe enouqh lo| a lull-scale |iLchen qa|den
o| poLaqe|. Equally, noL eve|yone has Lhe so|L ol Lempe|amenL LhaL's d|awn Lo
exL|eme lo|maliLy and symmeL|y. Fo| such qa|dene|s, a veqeLable ploL is li|ely
Lo be a much mo|e |elaxed, inlo|mal allai|. IL Lends Lo evolve haphaza|dly, wiLh
a qene|ous amounL ol imp|ovisaLion. FlanLs a|e squeezed inLo eve|y available
inch ol space, and Lhe ellecL is one ol ove|lowinq p|olusion. The|e's olLen a
deq|ee ol planninq unde|neaLh iL all, buL iL's unli|ely Lo be appa|enL.
The cettage vegetable garden
CoLLaqe qa|dens a|e by Lhei| ve|y naLu|e humble. They'|e usually
small, and in Lhe pasL would have p|oduced a la|qe ha|vesL ol
veqeLables, he|bs, and l|uiL. CeomeL|ic beds wiLh neaL edqinq,
wide q|avel paLhs, and pu|ely deco|aLive planLs would have been
an unallo|dable luxu|y. Flowe|s would have been squeezed in
amonq c|ops, unless Lhe|e was anoLhe| |eason lo| q|owinq Lhem.
To c|eaLe a mode|n veqeLable qa|den ol Lhis |ind is noL ha|d.
In spiLe ol Lhe inlo|mal loo|, iL needs a plan and a sL|ucLu|e-buL
p|obably one based on na||ow, cu|ved paLhs, i||equla|ly shaped
beds, LiqhLly q|ouped planLinqs |aLhe| Lhan neaLly se||ied |an|s,
and |usLic leaLu|es li|e wiqwams o| a|ches made l|om hazel o|
willow poles. Fo|eLhouqhL in Le|ms ol mainLaininq iL is |equi|ed,
Loo-il noLhinq else, Lo La|e accounL ol c|op |oLaLion.
Mîxed plantîngs
WiLhouL Lhe space lo| sepa|aLe lowe| and |iLchen qa|dens,
veqeLables, l|uiL, and lowe|inq planLs musL be q|own LoqeLhe|.
The|e's no ha|m in Lhis, indeed, Lhe ellecL can be cha|minq. SweeL
peas windinq Lh|ouqh climbinq beans o| cucumbe|s loo| wonde|lul,
as do qlobe a|Licho|es, |uby cha|d, o| lennel planLed amonq
pe|ennials in a lowe|inq bo|de|. Flowe|inq planLs will also aLL|acL
bi|ds and insecLs, which help Lo |eep veqeLables healLhy and
pesL-l|ee. 0iq some o|qanic maLLe| inLo Lhe soil belo|e sowinq
o| planLinq, Lhouqh, as veqeLables |equi|e le|Lile soil. Bewa|e ol
compeLiLion l|om Lhe |ooLs ol nea|by L|ees and sh|ubs, Loo.
0lese plantîng is Lhe o|de| ol Lhe day, as peas, chives,
cabbaqes, leLLuces, and mo|e josLle lo| space.
Peas clîmb up a garden fence
while nasLu|Liums sc|amble ove| a low
l|amewo|| ol canes, cabbaqes, leLLuces,
and oLhe| veqeLables occupy Lhe beds.
0esîgner kîtchen gardens
Mode|n qa|den desiqn has L|anslo|med noL only Lhe way ou| ya|ds loo| buL also
Lhe way we Lhin| abouL Lhem. 0l cou|se, you will sLill see plenLy ol convenLional loLs,
wiLh manicu|ed lawns, neaLly p|uned sh|ubs, and L|adiLional lowe| bo|de|s-
pe|haps wiLh a Lidy veqeLable paLch in one co|ne|, and a q|eenhouse alonqside.
0Lhe| veqeLable qa|dens sLill mimic L|adiLional poLaqe| and coLLaqe qa|den
sLyles. BuL you'|e inc|easinqly li|ely Lo see conLempo|a|y qa|dens LhaL employ
dec|inq, pavinq, and plaLe qlass Lo blu| Lhe disLincLion beLween inside and
ouLside, and ones whe|e mode|n maLe|ials, olLen in bold colo|s, may be as
sL|i|inq as Lhe planLs. C|owinq veqeLables has jusL as impo|LanL a |ole Lo play in
a mode|n qa|den as in a L|adiLional one.
1ndeerJeutdeer lîvîng
These days, ou| ya|ds a|e olLen an exLension ol
ou| lile indoo|s. We wanL Lo use Lhem as we
use any ol Lhe |ooms in ou| house-lo| |elaxinq,
socializinq, coo|inq, and eaLinq. And we wanL
desiqns LhaL c|eaLe open, l|ee-lowinq spaces.
Inc|easinqly nowadays, ba|becue q|ills and
ouLdoo| eaLinq a|eas a|e sLanda|d leaLu|es. in
wa|m climaLes, a lully equipped ouLdoo|
|iLchen is noL uncommon.
IL ma|es pe|lecL sense Lo inco|po|aLe a lew
veqeLable c|ops inLo such plans. Fe|bs, ol
cou|se, have always been q|own close Lo Lhe
|iLchen so LhaL a handlul can be pic|ed when
Lhey'|e needed, buL il you have a selecLion ol
la|qe, mode|n planLe|s, you can q|ow almosL
anyLhinq-salad leaves, LomaLoes, q|een onions,
|adishes, peppe|s, cucumbe|s, o| baby ca||oLs.
EaL Lhem |aw, as soon as Lhey'|e pic|ed, o|
Lh|ow Lhem onLo a q|ill o| inLo a sLi|-l|y.
1n thîs eutsîde dînîng reem, dine|s
a|e su||ounded by la|qe meLal planLe|s
conLaininq whaL's acLually on Lhe menu.
Medern censtructîen materîals
ConLempo|a|y buildinq maLe|ials have enabled
qa|den desiqne|s Lo |eLhin| Lhe ha|d landscapinq
LhaL lo|ms Lhe bac|bone ol any qa|den. In
addiLion Lo L|adiLional maLe|ials such as sLone,
b|ic|, wood, and w|ouqhL i|on, Lhey now have
access Lo p|ecasL o| pou|ed conc|eLe |ende|ed
in an exLensive |anqe ol colo|s and LexLu|es,
meLals such as sLainless sLeel and aluminum,
and even plasLics, as well as la|qe panes ol
sheeL o| mi||o| qlass.
Ca|dens LhaL uLilize Lhese new maLe|ials
a|e olLen divided inLo clea|ly delned zones,
pe|haps seL on dille|enL levels. They may
leaLu|e exLensive paved o| Liled Le||aces,
wooden dec|s, ha|d su|laces sp|ead wiLh
q|avel, sLones, o| shinqle, pavilions, a|bo|s, and
sc|eens, and huqe conLaine|s and planLe|s. IL's
all a lonq way l|om a simple veqeLable paLch
o| a lawn bo|de|ed by lowe|beds.
Clean lines and uncluLLe|ed spaces a|e Lhe
hallma|| ol many mode|n qa|den desiqns.
They may conLain la| lewe| planLs Lhan a
L|adiLional, densely planLed qa|den, yeL Lhese
planLs will have been chosen wiLh q|eaL ca|e,
olLen lo| Lhei| a|chiLecLu|al qualiLies. This
app|oach doesn'L |ule ouL q|owinq veqeLables.
aqainsL a minimalisL bac|q|ound ol a colo|ed
conc|eLe wall, a Lall qlobe a|Licho|e o| ca|doon
can loo| specLacula|, as miqhL a line ol b|onze
lennel o| aspa|aqus. 0nions o| lee|s allowed Lo
bolL p|oduce wonde|lul |ound lowe|heads.
The leaves ol Swiss cha|d, |ale, and ce|Lain
cabbaqes have asLonishinq LexLu|es and colo|s.
And a couple ol conLaine|-q|own bay L|ees
clipped inLo mopheads, o| a |ow ol poLLed
he|bs such as |osema|y, Lhyme, o| ma|jo|am,
can loo| exL|emely q|aphic.
keînterpretîng tradîtîenal styles
T|adiLional |iLchen qa|dens and poLaqe|s a|e
associaLed wiLh abundance-buL in Lhe IBLh
and IºLh cenLu|ies, Lhey we|e olLen hidden.
Wo||inq |iLchen qa|dens we|e Luc|ed away aL
Lhe side ol Lhe house, concealed behind b|ic|
walls. WiLh Lhe cu||enL demand lo| seasonal
and local p|oduce and naLu|al, o|qanically q|own
loods, we a|e happy lo| l|uiL and veqeLables Lo
be a visible pa|L ol ou| qa|dens. Few ol us leel
Lhe need (o| have Lhe space) Lo sepa|aLe Lhe
o|namenLal and |iLchen elemenLs. The|e's an
aLL|acLion in aLLempLinq Lo |ec|eaLe Lhe |iLchen
qa|den ol a IºLh-cenLu|y counL|y house o| Lhe
inlo|maliLy ol a vicLo|ian coLLaqe qa|den.
(Lop) A deceratîve wîre plant carrîer solLens Lhe
ausLe|e lines ol a simple, sL|aiqhL-edqed meLal poL.
(boLLom) 0versîzed square metal planters a|e deep
enouqh Lo q|ow mosL veqeLables successlully. Fe|e, Lhey a|e
planLed wiLh bush LomaLoes, b|onze lennel, and sL|awbe||ies.
0arden antîques
Fa|L ol Lhe sec|eL ol |ec|eaLinq L|adiLional
sLyles lies in qeLLinq Lhe deLails |iqhL. Fe|iod
i|onwo|| lo| a|ches, Lunnels, paqodas and oLhe|
planL suppo|Ls is ve|y much pa|L ol Lhe loo|.
So a|e deco|aLive edqinq Liles lo| bo|de|s and
beds, and paLLe|ned paLhways made l|om old,
weaLhe|ed b|ic|s o| laqsLones.
AuLhenLic anLique poLs and conLaine|s,
wheLhe| made l|om clay, sLone, o| meLals such
as i|on and lead, a|e expensive, buL mode|n
|ep|oducLions a|e available. The same qoes lo|
bell-shaped Le||a-coLLa lo|cinq ja|s and i|on- o|
coppe|-l|amed qlass lanLe|n cloches. And Lhe|e's
a ce|Lain chic Lo usinq old pieces ol equipmenL
such as wheelba||ows, |olle|s, and lawnmowe|s
as deco|aLive leaLu|es, and-mo|e p|acLically,
pe|haps-employinq wooden ba||els and
qalvanized meLal pails, baLhLubs, o| mil| chu|ns
as conLaine|s lo| planLs. Even wooden, slaLe, o|
coppe| planL labels loo| Lhe pa|L.
0reatîve recyclîng and reuse
Th|ilL and imp|ovisaLion qo hand in hand wiLh
q|owinq you| own veqeLables. In communiLy
qa|dens, especially, noLhinq eve| seems Lo qeL
Lh|own away-iL is all saved Lo be |eused o|
|ecycled in some way. 0on'L be su|p|ised il you
see sash windows and F|ench doo|s used as
cloches, a dismanLled meLal bed l|ame
p|ovidinq suppo|L lo| climbinq beans, an old
sLepladde| used as shelvinq lo| planL poLs, o|
even a salvaqed campe| Lop acLinq as a
ma|eshilL poLLinq shed. These qive veqeLable
qa|dens a unique lavo| LhaL iL's dillculL Lo
call ¨desiqn¨ buL is neve|Lheless all abouL
c|eaLiviLy and inqenuiLy.
(Lop) An eld mîlk churn made ol |usLinq qalvanized meLal
se|ves as a |eL|o-counL|y conLaine| lo| dwa|l F|ench beans.
(boLLom) A recycled can, polished and puncLu|ed wiLh d|ainaqe
holes, ma|es a neaL poL lo| a lew he|bs and a yellow zucchini.
Tîght fer space
In densely populaLed u|ban a|eas, lac|
ol space is Lhe no|m. Fow many ol us
livinq downLown own enouqh land
lo| a lull-scale |iLchen qa|den` Il you
a|e deLe|mined Lo q|ow you| own
lood, jusL Lhin| c|eaLively. You don'L
necessa|ily need a la|qe, sepa|aLe
ploL. A co|ne| ol a Liny ya|d, a lew
squa|e ya|ds ol a Le||ace o| paLio, o|
even a handlul ol poLs on Lhe balcony
ol a hiqh-|ise apa|LmenL buildinq will
qive you enouqh space Lo ma|e
planLinq, q|owinq, and ha|vesLinq
someLhinq-howeve| modesL-
wo|Lhwhile. IL jusL calls lo| a liLLle biL
ol inqenuiLy.
(lelL) 0lîmbîng French er runner beans L|ained up a simple
wiqwam ol canes is a sma|L way Lo ma|e qood use ol space in
a c|owded lowe| bo|de|.
(|iqhL) Weeden planters en a paved patîe p|ovide a home
lo| a su|p|isinq va|ieLy ol home-q|own c|ops-sweeL co|n, dwa|l
beans, spinach, cha|d, and L|ailinq bush LomaLoes.
0reps în the flewer berder
The |ey Lo q|owinq veqeLables when space is
|esL|icLed is Lo be sma|L abouL whaL you q|ow.
Clobe a|Licho|es, sp|ouLinq b|occoli, caulilowe|s,
|ale, sweeL co|n, zucchini, and pump|ins a|e all
la|qe planLs LhaL need a loL ol space, and a|e
p|obably noL a sensible choice. You'|e beLLe| oll
qoinq lo| dwa|l F|ench beans, qa|lic, shalloLs,
ca||oLs, baby beeLs, |adishes, q|een onions, and
cuL-and-come-aqain salad leaves. In oLhe|
wo|ds, anyLhinq compacL and lasL-q|owinq.
Il you do have a qa|den, inLe|planL veqeLables
wiLh Lhe lowe|s and sh|ubs in you| bo|de|s.
And il you can'L sp|ead sideways, sp|ead up.
Simple wiqwams made l|om canes o| wooden
poles can be sloLLed inLo ve|y small a|eas. They
a|e pe|lecL lo| climbinq beans, cucumbe|s, o|
squashes, and ma|e qood use ol ve|Lical space
LhaL would oLhe|wise be empLy.
Patîe plets
FoLs, conLaine|s, and q|owinq baqs can Lu|n
a paLio o| cou|Lya|d inLo a miniaLu|e |iLchen
qa|den. In lacL, Lhe|e a|e advanLaqes Lo q|owinq
veqeLables Lhis way. ConLaine|s can be moved,
allowinq you Lo exploiL mic|oclimaLes-Lhey
can be placed somewhe|e open and sunny in
summe| and b|ouqhL bac| Lo a shelLe|ed spoL
in winLe|. You also have conL|ol ove| Lhe qualiLy
ol Lhe soil o| poLLinq mix you use.
The planLs LhaL do besL in poLs Lend Lo be
ones wiLh lai|ly shallow |ooLs. leLLuces, Asian
salads, LomaLoes, peppe|s, eqqplanLs-and
he|bs, ol cou|se. Even poLaLoes can be q|own
in deep conLaine|s. Some qa|den cenLe|s sell
special dwa|l o| paLio va|ieLies LhaL a|e ideal.
The veqeLables leasL li|ely Lo do well a|e
pe|ennials such as aspa|aqus and b|assicas
such as b|occoli o| caulilowe|s.
(Lop) Petatees need deep conLaine|s.
FlanL Lhem abouL a Lhi|d ol Lhe way down,
cove|, and Lop oll Lhe soil as Lhey q|ow.
(boLLom) Lettuces a|e noL ve|y q|eedy,
Lhey can be planLed in a q|owinq baq
alLe| iL has been used lo| someLhinq else.
Kîgh-rîse farmîng
Il you don'L have a qa|den o| paLio, pe|haps you have a |ool
Le||ace o| a balcony LhaL miqhL be Lu|ned inLo a s|y-hiqh veqeLable
ploL. Aqain, poLs and conLaine|s a|e Lhe answe|-pe|haps liqhL
plasLic ones insLead ol heavy Le||a-coLLa o| meLal il weiqhL is an
issue. C|owinq baqs a|e ideal, Loo. Remembe|, Lhouqh, LhaL
veqeLables q|own in conLaine|s can be demandinq. They need
|equla| waLe|inq-p|obably as olLen as Lwice a day aL Lhe heiqhL
ol a hoL, d|y summe|-and Lhey may need addiLional le|Lilize| o|
Lop-d|essinq, Loo.
FlanLs q|own hiqh up on Le||aces and balconies a|e li|ely Lo be
mo|e exposed Lo Lhe elemenLs Lhan Lhose q|own aL q|ound level.
Winds can be sL|onq, Lhey |educe Lempe|aLu|es and cause waLe|
loss due Lo evapo|aLion. IL may Lhe|elo|e be wo|Lh puLLinq up
neLLinq o| bamboo sc|eens Lo acL as a windb|ea|.
CaLch c|ops a|e ones LhaL q|ow ve|y quic|ly, and can be inLe|planLed
wiLh o| planLed alonqside slowe|-q|owinq c|ops. The caLch c|ops
will be |eady l|sL, so Lhey can be ha|vesLed in plenLy ol Lime lo|
Lhe slowe|-q|owinq c|ops Lo q|ow on and lll Lhe space Lhey
occupied. LeLLuces, |adishes, a|uqula, and Asian salads a|e all qood
examples ol caLch c|ops. This is a well-esLablished Lechnique in
many comme|cial ma||eL qa|dens, buL iL's equally app|op|iaLe in
small u|ban qa|dens whe|e space is aL a p|emium, and, as lonq as
Lhe soil is sullcienLly le|Lile, Lhe|e's no |eason why iL shouldn'L
also apply Lo veqeLables q|own in poLs and conLaine|s.
"Tight for space?
If you can't spread out,
spread up."
(cloc|wise l|om above)
Pets and centaîners can be used lo| q|owinq almosL any
veqeLables, alLhouqh dwa|l culLiva|s a|e less li|ely Lo ouLq|ow
Lhei| livinq qua|Le|s.
keeftep gardens can uLilize eve|y squa|e looL ol space lo|
q|owinq lowe|s, sh|ubs, l|uiL, veqeLables, and he|bs.
Small clîmbîng squashes li|e Lhis 'Tu||'s Tu|ban' occupy ve|y
liLLle space il L|ained up a qa|den lence insLead ol beinq allowed
Lo L|ail ac|oss Lhe q|ound.
Could Lhe|e possibly be a smalle| |iLchen qa|den Lhan a paLio o| a balcony` The
answe| is yes. even a windowbox, hanqinq bas|eL, o| a couple ol poLs indoo|s in
a conse|vaLo|y o| on a |iLchen shell olle| Lhe possibiliLy ol q|owinq someLhinq
you can eaL. Clea|ly, you| opLions will be limiLed-you ce|Lainly won'L q|ow
aspa|aqus o| qlobe a|Licho|es. BuL Lhe|e a|e plenLy ol shallow-|ooLed veqeLables,
salad c|ops, and he|bs LhaL will be pe|lecLly happy in small conLaine|s.
Kangîng baskets
Wi|e o| wic|e| hanqinq bas|eLs a|e usually
planLed wiLh deco|aLive lowe|inq planLs, buL
Lhey can ma|e an equally qood home lo| he|bs,
salad leaves, and LomaLoes. A numbe| ol bush
LomaLo va|ieLies have small, che||y-sized l|uiLs
and Lhe planLs a|e naLu|al L|aile|s. They a|e
ideal conLende|s lo| hanqinq bas|eLs, alLhouqh
Lhey a|e noLo|iously hunq|y and Lhi|sLy.
Line Lhe bas|eL wiLh ¨moc| moss¨ made
l|om wool, coi|, o| oLhe| |ecycled maLe|ials
(as L|adiLional sphaqnum moss is no lonqe|
conside|ed Lo be eco-l|iendly) in o|de| Lo |eLain
soil o| poLLinq mix, and waLe| and le|Lilize
|equla|ly. This may mean waLe|inq Lwice a
day in hoL weaLhe|. Il you leL Lhe bas|eL d|y
ouL compleLely, iL's ha|d Lo qeL iL Lo hold
waLe| aqain.
veqeLable ploLs don'L qeL much close| Lo Lhe
|iLchen Lhan on Lhe windowsill. JusL lean ouL
and pic| a handlul ol salad leaves o| a lew
sp|iqs ol a he|b-whaL could be l|eshe|`
CuL-and-come-aqain salads a|e pe|lecL lo|
windowboxes. Lhey qe|minaLe easily l|om seed,
need liLLle ca|e, and |eplenish Lhemselves in
summe|. C|een onions, |adishes, chili peppe|s,
LomaLoes, and baby ca||oLs and beeLs a|e
well-suiLed, Loo. Windowboxes need d|ainaqe
holes Lo p|evenL waLe|loqqinq, and l|equenL
waLe|inq so Lhe soil doesn'L d|y ouL. unless
you'|e on Lhe q|ound loo|, bea| in mind whaL's
unde|neaLh while you'|e waLe|inq.
1ndeer vegetables
MosL he|bs a|e easy Lo q|ow indoo|s, il you
don'L have a q|eenhouse, a windowsill is a q|eaL
subsLiLuLe when |aisinq seedlinqs. EiLhe| sow
you| own seeds, p|opaqaLe l|om exisLinq planLs
by La|inq cuLLinqs, o| buy planLs l|om a qa|den
cenLe| o| oLhe| supplie|. Flace poLs somewhe|e
b|iqhL buL ouL ol di|ecL sunliqhL, and you'll have
c|eaLed an indoo| he|b qa|den. 0Lhe| c|ops
LhaL need liLLle space indoo|s a|e sp|ouLinq
seeds such as musLa|d and c|ess, munq beans,
allalla, chic| peas, and lenuq|ee|. All you'll need
is a L|ay, ja|, o| sp|ouLinq baq, some waLe|, and
a lew days' paLience (·ee µµ?04-?05).
(cloc|wise l|om Lop lelL)
0ut-and-ceme-agaîn salad mîxes a|e Lhe pe|lecL c|ops lo|
windowbox |iLchen qa|dens.
Kerbs such as pa|sley and minL can be sown and |aised ouLdoo|s,
Lhen poLLed up, b|ouqhL indoo|s, and placed on a windowsill.
0hîllîes need heaL, so iL's a qood idea Lo q|ow Lhem on a sunny,
souLh-lacinq windowsill.
Kangîng baskets a|e a sma|L way ol employinq unused wall space,
buL Lhey a|e heavy and need sL|onq suppo|Ls.
2. Vegetable
The|e's a mysLique abouL Lhe a|L ol culLivaLinq veqeLables. IL's |ich in old sayinqs,
anecdoLes, sL|anqe cusLoms, and closely qua|ded poLLinq-shed sec|eLs. The|e a|e
a loL ol old wives' Lales, Loo. Should shalloLs |eally be planLed on Lhe sho|LesL day
ol Lhe yea| and ha|vesLed on Lhe lonqesL` 0o pa|snips |eally LasLe beLLe| il you
delay ha|vesLinq Lhem unLil alLe| a l|osL` As a beqinne|, iL seems Lhe|e's a loL Lo
lea|n. YeL iL's noL nea|ly as dillculL as iL loo|s. Lea|ninq by imiLaLion is a qood way
Lo sLa|L. Il you have a communiLy qa|den, Lhe|e's no ha|m in copyinq you| neiqhbo|s
il Lhey q|ow plenLy ol healLhy, qood-loo|inq veqeLables. And don'L be shy abouL
as|inq lo| quidance. No one objecLs Lo beinq as|ed lo| advice-pa|Licula|ly old
qa|dene|s. IL's whaL Lhey'|e lo|'
There's net much knew-hew needed
he|e. Anyone who can |emembe| Lo
waLe| should be able Lo q|ow a selecLion
ol veqeLables in conLaine|s.
Teels and equîpment
Ca|deninq Lools a|e deeply seducLive. Wande| a|ound a well-sLoc|ed qa|den
cenLe| o| lip Lh|ouqh a beauLilully p|oduced mail-o|de| caLaloq, and iL's ve|y
easy Lo convince you|sell LhaL you can'L live wiLhouL a colinea| hoe, a co||sc|ew
weede|, o| a Lhumb waLe|e|. The L|uLh is LhaL you can p|obably manaqe pe|lecLly
well wiLhouL Lhem. AL besL, such Lools lall inLo Lhe caLeqo|y ol ¨quiLe nice Lo
have¨ o| ¨may come in handy l|om Lime Lo Lime.¨ AL wo|sL, Lhey'll jusL qaLhe|
dusL. In lacL, Lhe|e a|e ve|y lew qa|deninq Lools LhaL a|e qenuinely essenLial.
Essentîal teels
A lo||, a spade, a hoe, a |a|e, a L|owel and
hand lo||, and a pai| ol p|une|s-Lhese a|e Lhe
lew Lools you simply have Lo have. Buy Lhe ve|y
besL you can allo|d. The hiqhe| Lhe qualiLy, Lhe
easie| and mo|e comlo|Lable Lhey will be Lo
use, and Lhe lonqe| Lhey'll lasL. Loo| lo| hiqh-
Standard spades have a |ecLanqula| blade B in (20 cm) wide and
II in (2B cm) deep. Il you'|e planninq heavy o| exLensive diqqinq,
Lhese a|e whaL you need. They a|e, howeve|, p|eLLy heavy. Bo|de|
o| lady's spades a|e smalle| and liqhLe|. 0on'L be puL oll by Lhe
less Lhan macho name, lo| many Las|s, Lhey a|e much easie| Lo use.
ca|bon sLeel o| sLainless sLeel, and lo| handles
made ol ashwood o| aluminum. Keep you| Lools
in qood condiLion, Loo. Clean Lhem alLe| eve|y
session, d|y Lhem oll Lo p|evenL Lhem l|om
|usLinq, and |ub Lhem ove| wiLh an oily |aq Lo
|eep |usL aL bay il you a|e qoinq Lo be sLo|inq
Lhem lo| a while.
Standard ferks usually have lou| p|onqs and a head LhaL
measu|es abouL B in (20 cm) wide and I2 in (²0 cm) deep. Bo|de|
lo||s a|e smalle| and liqhLe|. The p|onqs o| ¨Lines¨ a|e qene|ally
squa|e in secLion, alLhouqh special poLaLo lo||s a|e available wiLh
laL Lines. Fo|| and spade handle q|ips may be 0-, Y-, o| T-shaped.
The push er 0utch hee is Lhe mosL uselul |ind ol hoe. IL has an
anqled laL blade LhaL is held pa|allel wiLh Lhe q|ound. use iL Lo
weed ca|elully a|ound planLs and slice Lhe Lops oll shallow-|ooLed
su|lace weeds usinq a push-pull acLion.
Standard garden rakes have meLal heads I2-I5 in (²0-²B cm)
wide wiLh I2-Io evenly spaced LeeLh. They a|e used lo| levelinq
Lhe q|ound and b|ea|inq soil inLo a lne, smooLh ¨LilLh¨ |eady lo|
planLinq. Wide| wooden |a|es a|e uselul lo| wo||inq la|qe a|eas.
Trewels a|e used lo| diqqinq holes and planLinq ouL, eiLhe| sL|aiqhL
inLo Lhe q|ound o| inLo conLaine|s. They may have a sLanda|d-sized
scoop-shaped blade, o| a na||ow one lo| LiqhL spaces. Fand lo||s
a|e used lo| b|ea|inq up soil and weedinq. Il you lnd bendinq
down uncomlo|Lable, buy a L|owel o| hand lo|| wiLh a lonq handle.
Pruners have many uses. cuLLinq, snippinq, L|imminq, p|uninq,
and mo|e. Some qa|dene|s even wea| Lhem in a holsLe| li|e a
qunslinqe|. Bypass p|une|s, wiLh cu|ved blades, a|e p|obably Lhe
besL. They should be sL|onq enouqh Lo cuL woody sLems as Lhic|
as you| liLLle lnqe|, |eep Lhem sha|p so Lhey ma|e clean cuLs.
This is a su|p|isinqly uselul Lool, and once you've
L|ied one, you may be loaLh Lo qive iL up. IL's
simila| Lo a d|aw hoe buL has a blade shaped
li|e a |eve|se-lacinq plow. You d|aq iL Lowa|d
you Lo c|eaLe lu||ows in Lhe q|ound lo| planLinq
o| Lo ea|Lh up soil inLo |idqes.
Essentîal equîpment
The|e a|e a lew iLems iL's dillculL Lo do wiLhouL.
Waterîng cans a|e essenLial, Lhouqh iL doesn'L
|eally maLLe| wheLhe| Lhey a|e made ol plasLic
o| qalvanized sLeel. Fe|haps iL ma|es mosL
sense Lo have aL leasL Lwo. a la|qe plasLic one,
and a smalle|, lonq-nec|ed one LhaL will delive|
a lne sp|ay lo| waLe|inq delicaLe seedlinqs.
Sprayers a|e uselul, Loo, Lhouqh you may need
Lh|ee. one lo| weed|ille|, one lo| insecLicide,
and one lo| le|Lilize|.
A wheelbarrew is invaluable on all buL Lhe
smallesL ol ploLs. use iL Lo move soil, composL,
and manu|e, and Lo collecL weeds and planL
deb|is. Sacks and ca||yinq baqs pe|lo|m Lhe
same luncLion. A L|uq is a biL ol a luxu|y buL
can end up beinq used almosL conLinuously,
when boLh ha|vesLinq and weedinq.
0leves a|e a musL, noL jusL Lo |eep you|
hands wa|m in winLe| buL also Lo p|oLecL Lhem.
Buy a pai| ol Lhic| suede o| leaLhe| ones lo|
heavy jobs and a pai| ol Lhinne| coLLon ones
lo| liqhLe| jobs in wa|me| weaLhe|.
0Lhe| equipmenL LhaL should come in ve|y
handy when q|owinq veqeLables includes a
qood selecLion ol canes, sLic|s, sLa|es, and
oLhe| suppo|Ls, some sL|onq qa|den Lwine o|
sL|inq, |olls ol wi|e, and planL Lies, and a |anqe
ol planL labels and ma||e|s. Apa|L l|om cloches,
l|ames, leece, and neLLinq (·ee µµ58-5º),
LhaL's abouL iL. Eve|yLhinq else can be
conside|ed opLional.
Addîtîenal teels
Fe|e a|e some Lools iL would be nice Lo have
buL iL's quiLe possible Lo do wiLhouL.
EssenLially, dibbe|s a|e liLLle mo|e Lhan sLic|s
lo| ma|inq planLinq holes. BuL Lhey do have
Lwo advanLaqes. l|sL, Lhey a|e poinLed o|
Lape|ed so LhaL Lhey'|e easy Lo push inLo ha|d
q|ound, and second, supe|io| models may
have |inqs ma||ed a|ound Lhem Lo indicaLe
planLinq depLh.
Pronged cultivator
Fand culLivaLo|s usually have Lh|ee o| lve sha|p,
anqled p|onqs. They a|e d|aqqed Lh|ouqh Lhe
q|ound Lo b|ea| up Lhe soil, Lo loosen weeds, o|
Lo mix in a Lop-d|essinq ol le|Lilize| o| composL.
0raw hoe
Weedinq wiLh a d|aw hoe employs a choppinq
o| d|aqqinq acLion, |aLhe| Lhan Lhe push-pull ol a
0uLch hoe. 0|aw hoes a|e also uselul lo| ea|Lhinq
up soil (ove| poLaLoes, lo| example) and lo|
ma|inq seed d|ills-laL-boLLomed ones usinq
Lhe base ol Lhe blade, o| v-shaped ones usinq a
co|ne| ol Lhe blade. Small, sho|L-handled d|aw
hoes a|e called onion hoes.
Loppers and pruning saws
These a|e lo| p|uninq jobs LhaL a|e Loo biq lo|
p|une|s. Cene|ally, LhaL means L|ees and sh|ubs-
which may o| may noL be a leaLu|e ol you|
veqeLable paLch. They a|e also uselul lo| cuLLinq
down Je|usalem a|Licho|es o| Lhe Louqh
sLumps ol B|ussels sp|ouLs and cabbaqes.
(cloc|wise l|om Lop lelL)
kîdger, dîbber, wheelbarrew, waterîng can
Pets and centaîners
T|ays, modules, biodeq|adable Lubes, and seed and seedlinq poLs a|e all used aL
Lhe sLa|L ol a planL's lile. They a|e lo| sowinq and qe|minaLinq seeds, planLinq
cuLLinqs, and q|owinq on seedlinqs. The|ealLe|, when Lhe planLs |each a ce|Lain
size, Lhey move on.
YeL noL all L|ansle| Lo a home in Lhe q|ound. Some |emain in conLaine|s lo|
Lhei| whole lives. In siLuaLions whe|e space is aL a p|emium, enLi|e veqeLable
qa|dens can be culLivaLed in poLs, Lubs, L|ouqhs, planLe|s, windowboxes, hanqinq
bas|eLs, and q|owinq baqs. And almosL any |ind ol conLaine| can be used lo|
q|owinq veqeLables. The one inviolable |ule is LhaL Lhe|e musL be a hole o| holes
in Lhe boLLom, Lo allow d|ainaqe and p|evenL waLe|loqqinq.
Terra-cetta versus plastîc
Clay o| Le||a-coLLa poLs a|e auLhenLically
L|adiLional and weaLhe| beauLilully. They a|e
heavy and solid, so Lhey may be less li|ely Lo Lip
ove| il planLs become Lop-heavy, buL Lhey a|e
b|ea|able and may c|ac| o| la|e in a ha|d
l|osL. FlasLic poLs a|e less expensive. They a|e
also liqhLe|, so Lhey a|e much easie| Lo move
a|ound, and Lhey a|e impe|meable, so Lhe
soil inside Lhem will noL d|y ouL so quic|ly.
(opposiLe paqe, cloc|wise l|om Lop lelL)
Fat-bellîed terra-cetta pets loo| lovely, buL iL may be ha|d Lo
|emove planLs wiLhouL damaqinq Lhe |ooLs o| b|ea|inq Lhe poL.
Medern metal planters a|e available in a wide va|ieLy ol
sL|i|inq colo|s.
0rewîng bags p|oduce a qood c|op, buL iL is dillculL Lo ma|e
Lhem loo| aLL|acLive.
A centaîner-grewn herb garden is pe|lecL lo| a sunny
posiLion close Lo Lhe |iLchen doo|.
(|iqhL) 0rîll heles in Lhe base ol poLs Lo ensu|e LhaL excess
waLe| d|ains away l|eely.
0rewîng bags
C|owinq baqs have Lhei| uses-Lhe|e's no doubL
LhaL successlul c|ops can be q|own in Lhem. BuL
Lhey d|y ouL quic|ly and need |equla| waLe|inq,
and may |equi|e special l|ames Lo suppo|L
climbinq planLs. The volume ol soil can be
inc|eased by inse|Linq boLLomless poLs inLo Lhe
baqs, Lhen planLinq di|ecLly inLo Lhe poLs.
Yeur seîl
All soil is made up ol Liny pa|Licles ol weaLhe|ed |oc| plus waLe| and o|qanic
maLLe| l|om Lhe |oLLed-down |emains ol planLs and animals. The size ol Lhe
|oc| pa|Licles is impo|LanL. Tiny pa|Licles p|oduce clay soil, which can be dense
and heavy. La|qe| pa|Licles p|oduce sandy soil, which is liqhLe| and q|iLLie|.
The amounL ol o|qanic maLLe| is also impo|LanL. The mo|e Lhe|e is, Lhe mo|e
le|Lile Lhe soil and Lhe beLLe| you| planLs will q|ow in iL. In addiLion Lo Lhis, soils
va|y in Lhei| deq|ee ol acidiLy o| al|aliniLy, a qualiLy Lo which some planLs a|e
ve|y sensiLive.
(Lop) 0lay seîl can be squeezed and lo|med inLo shapes when
damp-noL unli|e douqh.
(boLLom) Sandy seîl is composed ol la|qe| pa|Licles-mo|e li|e lne
salL-and Lends noL Lo lo|m clumps.
0lay seîl
Il you| soil is heavy and sLic|y and can be
lo|med inLo a ball LhaL |eeps iLs shape, iL's
p|obably clay. Clay is olLen lull ol nuL|ienLs
and is Lhe|elo|e le|Lile, buL waLe| doesn'L d|ain
l|eely Lh|ouqh iL, ma|inq iL Lu|n muddy in
winLe| and ba|e Lo a c|usL in summe|. IL is also
p|one Lo compacLion, so avoid sLeppinq di|ecLly
on iL whe|eve| possible, use plan|s Lo sp|ead
you| weiqhL. The composiLion can be imp|oved
somewhaL by addinq o|qanic maLLe| and sand.
Sandy seîl
Sandy soil is ha|de| Lo lo|m inLo a ball. IL will
p|obably |un Lh|ouqh you| lnqe|s, and you may
be able Lo leel Lhe q|iLLy pa|Licles. IL is liqhLe| and
easie| Lo diq Lhan clay, wa|ms up lasLe| in sp|inq,
and olLen d|ains mo|e l|eely. Foweve|, Lhis
means noL only LhaL iL d|ies ouL quic|ly in hoL
weaLhe|, buL also LhaL nuL|ienLs wash Lh|ouqh iL
alLe| heavy |ain o| waLe|inq. IL is Lhe|elo|e less
le|Lile, and needs plenLy ol well-|oLLed manu|e,
composL, o| any oLhe| o|qanic maLe|ial added Lo iL.
0ther seîls
SilL is somewhe|e beLween clay and sandy soil.
IL leels smooLhe| and sil|ie| Lhan a sandy soil
buL noL as heavy and sLic|y as clay.
LimesLone o| chal| soils a|e pale-colo|ed,
olLen lull ol sLones, and Lend noL Lo be ve|y
deep. They a|e |easonably le|Lile buL, beinq
lull ol calcium, a|e ve|y al|aline.
FeaL soils conLain a loL ol o|qanic planL
maLLe| LhaL has noL yeL lully |oLLed down.
They |eLain loLs ol moisLu|e, so may be p|one
Lo waLe|loqqinq, and Lhey a|e ve|y acidic.
The pF ol a soil is a measu|emenL LhaL Lells you
wheLhe| iL is acidic o| al|aline. The pF scale
|uns l|om I (ve|y acidic) Lo I4 (ve|y al|aline).
A pF ol 7 is neuL|al, mosL qa|den soils have a
pF LhaL lies somewhe|e beLween 4.5 and 7.5.
AlLhouqh mosL veqeLables a|e lai|ly Lole|anL,
some a|e unhappy in soil LhaL is Loo acidic, while
oLhe|s disli|e soil LhaL is Loo al|aline. A pF ol
o.5 is qene|ally |eqa|ded as opLimum. A hiqhe|
lqu|e suiLs cabbaqes and oLhe| b|assicas since
Lhe al|aliniLy discou|aqes club|ooL, and a lowe|
lqu|e is lne lo| acid-Lole|anL planLs such as
|huba|b, |adishes, o| sweeL poLaLoes.
To lnd ouL wheLhe| soil is acidic o| al|aline,
use a LesL |iL (·ee /e/ow), La|inq samples l|om
dille|enL pa|Ls ol Lhe veqeLable paLch. IL's lai|ly
easy Lo ma|e acidic soil mo|e al|aline. Simply
add lime (calcium ca|bonaLe) o| a lime-|ich
maLe|ial such as mush|oom composL. 0on'L add
iL aL Lhe same Lime as manu|e. Lhey will |eacL
chemically wiLh each oLhe|. Leave iL Lo become
abso|bed lo| a lew monLhs belo|e planLinq.
IL's ha|de| Lo ma|e an al|aline soil mo|e acidic,
alLhouqh iL will happen ove| Lime due Lo Lhe
naLu|al ellecLs ol |ainlall and weaLhe|inq.
Spread pewdered lîme Lhinly ove| Lhe soil wiLh a spade, Lhen
|a|e iL in evenly. Avoid windy days on which lime may be blown
a|ound, and always wea| qloves and a mas| when applyinq iL.
0empest, manure, and ether fertîlîzers
veqeLables La|e a loL mo|e ouL ol Lhe soil Lhan do Lhe lowe|inq planLs and
sh|ubs in a |equla| qa|den, and you will only qeL consisLenLly qood c|ops l|om a
veqeLable ploL il you wo|| aL puLLinq Lhe qoodness bac| in. Il you leed you| soil,
you'll help Lo |eep iL healLhy and le|Lile. And healLhy, le|Lile soil means healLhy,
p|oducLive planLs.
A veqeLable paLch needs leedinq in Lwo ways. The l|sL is Lo add va|ious
lo|ms ol well-|oLLed manu|e o| composL. This noL only en|iches Lhe soil, iL also
|adically imp|oves iLs composiLion o| sL|ucLu|e. The second is Lo apply
le|Lilize|s-eiLhe| o|qanic o| ino|qanic ones-in o|de| Lo Lop oll Lhe nuL|ienLs
LhaL planLs need lo| sL|onq and healLhy q|owLh.
Spreadîng a mulch ol well-|oLLed composL o| manu|e a|ound
q|owinq planLs alLe| waLe|inq helps inc|ease moisLu|e |eLenLion.
Manures and cempests
These a|e naLu|al o|qanic maLe|ials de|ived
l|om decomposed o| |oLLed planL maLLe| and
animal wasLe. They a|e usually bul|y and, when
duq inLo Lhe soil, Lhey en|ich iL wiLh nuL|ienLs,
ma|e iL mo|e waLe|-|eLenLive, and b|ea| up
compacLed masses so LhaL ai| can ci|culaLe.
All ol Lhese lacLo|s encou|aqe planLs' |ooLs
Lo q|ow deeply and sp|ead wiLhouL |esL|icLion.
Farmyard and stable manures a|e ideal, il
you can lnd a sou|ce lo| Lhem. They a|e usually
a mixLu|e ol sL|aw and animal dunq. Avoid any
manu|e LhaL conLains Loo hiqh a p|opo|Lion ol
wood shavinqs o| sawdusL. LeL animal manu|es
|oL down lo| aL leasL six monLhs belo|e usinq
Lhem, o| Lhe ammonia Lhey conLain may
¨sco|ch¨ younq planLs.
0empest is decayed planL maLLe|, which
miqhL come l|om you| veqeLable qa|den, you|
ya|d, o| even you| |iLchen. Inside a composL
pile, Liny mic|oo|qanisms a|e ha|d aL wo||
b|ea|inq down Lhe |oLLinq, o|qanic maLe|ial
and L|anslo|minq iL inLo a |ich, da|| subsLance
noL unli|e soil.
Fo| Lhe p|ocess Lo wo||, Lhe pile needs ai|,
wa|mLh, and moisLu|e. Il you qeL Lhe balance
|iqhL, you| composL should leel pleasanLly
c|umbly o| ¨l|iable,¨ and iL will smell qood.
Too much waLe| o| noL enouqh ai|, and iL will
be weL and slimy and smell disqusLinq.
(Lop) A hememade cempest bîn consL|ucLed l|om hollow
wi|e-neLLinq walls llled wiLh sL|aw.
(middle) The bettem layers ol a composL pile qene|aLe heaL
as Lhey |oL. A cove|inq ol plasLic |eeps Lhe heaL in and Lhe |ain ouL.
(boLLom) Plastîc cempest bîns have snuqly lLLinq lids and a doo|
aL Lhe boLLom lo| |emovinq maLe|ial LhaL has |oLLed down.
A couple ol alLe|naLives Lo qa|den composL a|e
lealmold and mush|oom composL. You can ma|e
leafmeld you|sell by qaLhe|inq up dead leaves
and pilinq Lhem up in wi|e caqes, o| by
combininq Lhem wiLh a liLLle soil in plasLic baqs
puncLu|ed wiLh holes. They can La|e a lonq Lime
Lo |oL down, Lhouqh. Mushreem cempest,
which is Lhe medium lelL alLe| q|owinq
mush|ooms comme|cially, can be pu|chased
l|om mosL qa|den supplie|s.
Applying manures and composts
The|e a|e Lwo ways ol doinq Lhis. eiLhe| diq iL
inLo Lhe soil, o| sp|ead iL ove| Lhe q|ound as
whaL's called a su|lace ¨mulch.¨
0iqqinq in manu|e o| composL is usually
a job lo| Lhe laLe lall. ThaL way iL will |oL down
lully and become Lho|ouqhly inco|po|aLed
du|inq Lhe winLe| monLhs, |eady lo| sowinq o|
planLinq in Lhe sp|inq. IL's pa|Licula|ly benelcial
lo| heavy clay soil o| q|ound LhaL has become
ha|d and compacLed.
0n liqhL, sandy soil a mulch ol manu|e o|
composL 2-4 in (5-I0 cm) Lhic| can be simply
sp|ead ove| Lhe su|lace and lelL Lhe|e ove| Lhe
winLe|. Much ol iL will be ca||ied down inLo Lhe
soil by wo|ms, and anyLhinq LhaL's lelL can be
duq in liqhLly in Lhe sp|inq.
The joy of compost
Ma|inq you| own composL is so easy and so
benelcial LhaL, il you'|e noL al|eady doinq iL,
you should sLa|L immediaLely. The p|incipal is
ve|y sL|aiqhLlo|wa|d. Ma|e o| buy a composL
bin, seL iL up somewhe|e convenienL, and Lhen
simply lll iL wiLh qa|den p|uninqs and clippinqs,
dead planL maLe|ial l|om you| veqeLable paLch,
q|ass cuLLinqs, and ce|Lain |iLchen wasLe.
Keep you| pile cove|ed wiLh plasLic o|
old ca|peL. Lhe hoLLe| iL qeLs, Lhe quic|e| iL will
decompose. And |emembe| Lo Lu|n Lhe composL
eve|y now and Lhen Lo allow ai| Lo ci|culaLe
Lh|ouqhouL iL. WiLhin monLhs you'll have ea|ned
you| eco-c|edenLials as a home composLe|, and
you| veqeLable qa|den will love you'
What to add
0o add veqeLable peelinqs and unwanLed
l|uiL l|om Lhe |iLchen
0o add q|ass clippinqs, buL noL in Lhic|
laye|s-mix Lhem up so LhaL ai| can ci|culaLe
0o add waLe| when necessa|y-buL neve|
so much LhaL Lhe pile is waLe|loqqed
What not to add
0on'L add pe|ennial o| annual weeds LhaL
have al|eady p|oduced seed-Lhey will su|vive
0on'L add any diseased planLs-you should
bu|n Lhem insLead
0on'L add Lhic| woody sLems o| Lwiqs-Lhey
La|e Loo lonq Lo |oL down
0on'L add meaL, lsh, o| coo|ed lood l|om
Lhe |iLchen-iL will aLL|acL mice and |aLs
0reen manure
Il you have an a|ea ol you| veqeLable paLch LhaL
you plan Lo leave empLy lo| six wee|s o| mo|e,
q|ow a c|op specilcally desiqned Lo be duq
bac| inLo Lhe soil-|nown as ¨q|een manu|e.¨
Lequmes such as clove|, veLch, and lupine abso|b
niL|oqen l|om Lhe ai| and inco|po|aLe iL inLo Lhe
soil. 0Lhe| q|een manu|es-which include allalla,
musLa|d, |ye, bo|aqe, and coml|ey-will b|ea|
up heavy soils wiLh Lhei| |ooLs, as well as addinq
o|qanic maLLe| when Lhey a|e duq bac| in.
In all cases, iL is impo|LanL LhaL q|een
manu|es a|e cuL and duq in belo|e Lhey become
woody o| seL seed, o| Lhey may La|e a lonq
Lime Lo b|ea| down, and could become weeds.
These a|e mo|e concenL|aLed sou|ces ol soil
nuL|ienLs Lhan manu|es and composLs. They'|e
olLen p|ocessed, in liquid, powde|, q|anule, o|
pelleL lo|m, and may be o|qanic o| ino|qanic in
o|iqin. 0rganîc le|Lilize|s come l|om planLs o|
animals. They include seaweed exL|acLs,
pelleLed chic|en manu|e, bone meal, hool and
ho|n, lsh meal, d|ied blood, and lsh, blood, and
bone meal. 1nerganîc le|Lilize|s a|e exL|acLed
l|om mine|als o| manulacLu|ed usinq indusL|ial-
scale chemical p|ocesses.
All le|Lilize|s conLain aL leasL one ol Lhe Lh|ee
|ey soil nuL|ienLs. niL|oqen (N, added in Lhe lo|m
ol niL|aLes), phospho|ous (F, added in Lhe lo|m ol
phosphaLe), and poLassium (K, added in Lhe lo|m
ol poLash). Many conLain all Lh|ee, and some
conLain mo|e-includinq essenLial L|ace elemenLs
such as manqanese, molybdenum, bo|on, and so
on (·ee µµJ?0-J?J). BuL p|ocessed le|Lilize|s
come aL a p|ice. AlLhouqh mo|e concenL|aLed
and lasLe|-acLinq Lhan naLu|al manu|es and
composLs, Lhey a|e expensive and don'L add
anyLhinq Lo Lhe soil's sL|ucLu|e.
Applying fertilizers
Addinq le|Lilize| Lo soil belo|e seeds a|e sown
o| seedlinqs planLed is called base-dressîng.
Ma|| ouL a|eas ol Lhe q|ound wiLh sL|inq o|
canes Lo help calculaLe quanLiLies, sp|in|le o|
scaLLe| Lhe le|Lilize| ove| Lhe su|lace, Lhen |a|e
iL. Il Lhe q|ound is d|y and Lhe|e is no |ainlall
ove| Lhe lollowinq lew days, waLe| iL in.
Tep-dressîng involves sp|in|linq soluble
le|Lilize| a|ound planLs, as Lhe le|Lilize| dissolves
and is abso|bed inLo Lhe soil, nuL|ienLs |each
Lhe planLs' developinq |ooL sysLems. Liquid
le|Lilize|s a|e dissolved in waLe| belo|e beinq
applied, and lolia| le|Lilize|s a|e sp|ayed di|ecLly
onLo Lhe leaves. In all cases, wea| qloves, and
handle le|Lilize|s wiLh ca|e, as Lhey can be Loxic.
(la| lelL) 0reen manure will add nuL|ienLs, inc|ease le|LiliLy, and
imp|ove soil sL|ucLu|e. CuL down planLs LhaL |each B in (20 cm) in
heiqhL, leL Lhem wilL lo| a lew days, Lhen diq Lhem inLo Lhe soil.
(lelL) ked werms a|e a Lype ol ea|Lhwo|m pa|Licula|ly adepL
aL conve|Linq qa|den and |iLchen wasLe inLo |ich, le|Lile
wo|m composL.
(lelL) Mark eut areas ef yeur garden wiLh canes Lo ensu|e
LhaL you apply Lhe co||ecL amounLs ol le|Lilize|.
(|iqhL) Sprînkle a tep-dressîng ol le|Lilize| a|ound Lhe base
ol q|owinq planLs-wiLhouL leLLinq iL Louch Lhe leaves.
Sewîng seeds and raîsîng seedlîngs
veqeLables a|e almosL always q|own l|om seed. A lew a|e culLivaLed by planLinq
Lube|s (poLaLoes and Je|usalem a|Licho|es) o| bulbs (onions and shalloLs), oLhe|s
can be p|opaqaLed by division o| l|om cuLLinqs (|huba|b and ce|Lain he|bs).
BuL q|owinq l|om seed bouqhL l|om |epuLable seed supplie|s has iLs advanLaqes.
Fi|sL, seeds a|e qua|anLeed Lo be viable, so Lhey should qe|minaLe successlully.
Second, Lhey will be L|ue Lo Lype. Lhe culLiva| will be whaL is desc|ibed, noL a
hyb|id va|iaLion c|eaLed by c|oss-pollinaLion. And Lhi|d, q|owinq l|om seed is a
|elaLively cheap way ol p|oducinq you| own veqeLables. You can even q|ow
veqeLables l|om seeds you save you|sell, Lhouqh Lhe|e a|e |is|s (·ee µµó8-óº).
Sewîng însîde
Why sow seeds indoo|s insLead ol ouLside, di|ecLly inLo Lhe soil`
0uiLe simply, iL's easie| Lo conL|ol Lhe Lempe|aLu|e, humidiLy, soil
Lype, and amounL ol le|Lilize| and waLe| when wo||inq indoo|s, in
a q|eenhouse, o| unde| cove| Lhan iL is in Lhe qa|den. Many seeds
need a consLanL minimum Lempe|aLu|e Lo qe|minaLe. Keepinq
Lhem in a cold l|ame o| unde| a cloche should sullce, buL in
ce|Lain cases, Lhey'll need a heaLed q|eenhouse o| p|opaqaLo|.
Ce|Lain veqeLables have a lonq q|owinq season-LomaLoes,
eqqplanLs, peppe|s, and o||a, lo| example. To |ipen lully by Lhe
end ol Lhe yea|, Lhey may need Lo be sLa|Led oll inside belo|e iL
qeLs wa|m enouqh ouLside lo| Lhem Lo be planLed ouL.
Mo|eove|, planLs |aised l|om seeds sown inside, in ca|elully
conL|olled condiLions, Lend Lo be sL|onqe|, healLhie|, and mo|e
|esisLanL Lo pesLs and diseases Lhan Lhose |aised ouLdoo|s.
Il you don'L have an ouLside a|ea aL all, don'L unde|esLimaLe
Lhe value ol windowsill space-Lhe|e a|e a lew veqeLables LhaL
can be q|own in poLs indoo|s wiLhouL eve| needinq Lo planL Lhem
ouL (·ee µµJó-JZ).
Yeung seedlîngs q|owinq in module
L|ays and poLs on a q|eenhouse shell,
wiLh poLaLoes chiLLinq unde|neaLh.
(Lop) Sewîng seeds in a seed L|ay.
(boLLom) Bîedegradable pets made ol
pape| decompose when planLed ouL,
so seedlinq |ooLs a|e noL disLu|bed.
Pots, trays, and modules
Te||a-coLLa poLs loo| beLLe|, buL plasLic ones a|e
cheape| and easie| Lo |eep sLe|ile. Tube-shaped
biodeq|adable poLs can be planLed di|ecLly inLo
Lhe soil wiLh younq seedlinqs inside. They a|e
ideal lo| planLs LhaL develop deep |ooLs-b|oad
beans, sweeL co|n, o| LomaLoes, lo| example.
0ve| Lime, Lhe poLs |oL away naLu|ally.
Modules a|e L|ays divided inLo sepa|aLe
cells. Seeds a|e sown in each cell, and seedlinqs
a|e L|ansplanLed by pushinq Lhem ouL l|om
beneaLh, Lhe |ooL ball and Lhe pluq ol poLLinq
mix |emain undisLu|bed.
The simplesL p|opaqaLo| ol all is a clea| plasLic
baq Lied ove| a planL poL o| seed L|ay. ILs job is
Lo c|eaLe Lhe |ind ol wa|m, humid mic|oclimaLe
in which seeds qe|minaLe besL. Specially made
p|opaqaLo|s a|e plasLic L|ays wiLh close-lLLinq
clea| lids. Some have a heaLinq elemenL in Lhe
base and a Lhe|mosLaL lo| |equlaLinq Lempe|aLu|e.
Prepagaters create mîcreclîmates. venLs aL Lhe Lop can
be opened Lo |eep excess humidiLy l|om causinq seedlinqs Lo |oL.
5eed-starting and potting mixes
Specially lo|mulaLed q|owinq mediums lo|
sowinq a|e a consisLenL mix, il you buy Lhem
l|esh each yea|, Lhey should be sLe|ile and l|ee
ol pesLs, vi|uses, and oLhe| soil-bo|ne diseases.
Soilless mix doesn'L conLain any soil, iL's made ol
a bul|inq maLe|ial such as coi| o| peaL and
sand. IL conLains no nuL|ienLs, as qe|minaLinq
seeds don'L need any. FoLLinq mix is used once
seedlinqs a|e poLLed on, iL may o| may noL
conLain soil, buL ce|Lainly has mo|e nuL|ienLs,
which seedlinqs need once Lhey've |ooLed.
Pricking out
0nce seedlinqs have developed a couple ol
leaves, move Lhem inLo individual poLs o|
modules. This is |nown as ¨p|ic|inq ouL.¨ use
a dibbe| o| a pencil Lo p|y Lhem ve|y qenLly
ouL ol Lhe soil, La|inq ca|e noL Lo damaqe Lhe
delicaLe |ooLs. Always handle seedlinqs by Lhe
leaves, noL Lhe sLem. 0nce |eplanLed, Lhey will
develop Lhei| own |ooL sysLem wiLhouL c|owdinq
o| compeLiLion l|om neiqhbo|s.
Sewîng eutsîde
MosL veqeLables sown ouLdoo|s qo inLo Lhe q|ound
in Lhe posiLion whe|e Lhey will sLay-b|assicas,
lee|s, and |ooL veqeLables, lo| example. A lew
a|e sown in Lempo|a|y seedbeds Lo sLa|L Lhem
oll, and Lhen L|ansplanLed Lo lnal q|owinq
posiLions, buL wiLh Loday's p|evalence ol
biodeq|adable poLs and plasLic module
L|ays, Lhis is less common Lhan iL once was.
Warming the soil
The|e is no poinL in sowinq Loo ea|ly, mosL seeds
need a minimum Lempe|aLu|e Lo qe|minaLe, and
il Lhe soil is Loo cold Lhey will simply siL Lhe|e
unLil iL wa|ms up-o|, wo|se, |oL o| be eaLen
by p|edaLo|s. BeeLs, lo| example, will p|obably
qe|minaLe when Lhe soil Lempe|aLu|e |eaches
abouL 45°F (7°C), so you can planL iL in ea|ly
sp|inq, buL F|ench beans need aL leasL 54°F
(I2°C). IL doesn'L sound li|e much ol a
dille|ence buL iL can be c|iLical.
Lend a helpinq hand by wa|minq up Lhe soil
a|Lilcially. use cloches o| l|ames, o| cove| wiLh
sheeLs ol blac| polyLhene (·ee µµ58-5º). This
will noL only allow heaL Lo build up, iL will |eep
oll |ain and p|evenL waLe|loqqinq.
Preparing the soil
LeL's assume you duq ove| Lhe soil lasL lall o|
winLe|, and LhaL you inco|po|aLed plenLy ol
well-|oLLed o|qanic maLe|ial. The Las| now is
Lo p|oduce a ¨lne LilLh¨. soil LhaL is lne and
c|umbly, wiLh no la|qe clods. This is achieved
by hoeinq Lo |emove any new weeds and Lhen
|a|inq bac|wa|d and lo|wa|d unLil you have
b|o|en down Lhe soil inLo lne pa|Licles. Il iL is
d|y and dusLy, waLe| iL. And il iL sLic|s Lo you|
shoes when you wal| on iL, waiL lo| iL Lo d|y
ouL a liLLle mo|e.
5owing methods
Seeds a|e someLimes sown in a d|ill, a shallow
L|ench ma||ed ouL in Lhe soil wiLh a hoe, o|
scaLLe|ed ove| a p|epa|ed a|ea ol q|ound
(|nown as ¨b|oadcasLinq¨). They a|e Lhen
cove|ed wiLh soil and waLe|ed. When seedlinqs
appea|, Lhey usually need ¨Lhinninq¨ so LhaL
Lhey a|e noL ove|c|owded.
(la| lelL) 1n wet cendîtîens sp|in|le some sand in Lhe base ol
Lhe d|ill and sow seeds on Lop ol iL.
(lelL) 1n dry cendîtîens waLe| Lhe base ol Lhe d|ill Lo moisLen
Lhe soil belo|e sowinq seeds.
(above) 0ever breadcast seeds by ca|elully |a|inq soil bac|
ove| Lhem and Lhen waLe|inq wiLh a lne sp|ay.
Plantîng eut
Belo|e lonq, younq seedlinqs LhaL have been |aised unde| cove| in poLs and
modules will need Lo be L|ansplanLed inLo Lhei| lnal q|owinq posiLions. 0ecidinq
exacLly when Lo do Lhis is a biL ol an a|L. Il you do iL Loo ea|ly, Lhe q|ound may
noL yeL be wa|m enouqh o| Lhe|e may sLill be a danqe| ol l|osL. 0n Lhe oLhe|
hand, il you do iL Loo laLe, Lhe seedlinqs may ouLq|ow Lhei| conLaine|s and Lhei|
|ooLs can become poLbound. Foweve|, Liminq is less c|iLical lo| planLs LhaL have
been |aised in a nu|se|y seedbed.
Kardenîng eff
Seedlinqs |aised indoo|s o| unde| cove| qeL
used Lo a wa|m, shelLe|ed mic|oclimaLe. Il you
suddenly move Lhem ouLdoo|s inLo Lhe cold,
Lhey'll p|obably expe|ience a sha|p shoc|. To
avoid Lhis, Lhey should be acclimaLized slowly
by beinq ¨ha|dened oll.¨ EiLhe| puL Lhem
ouLdoo|s du|inq Lhe day and b|inq Lhem in aL
niqhL, o| |eep Lhem in a cold l|ame wiLh a lid
you can open and close. AlLe|naLively, planL
Lhem ouL buL cove| Lhem aL niqhL wiLh cloches.
Transplantîng frem pets and
Seedlinqs should be planLed ouL once Lhey
have lou| Lo six L|ue leaves and belo|e Lhei|
|ooLs lll Lhei| poLs. Belo|e you sLa|L, soa| boLh
Lhe seedlinqs and Lhe holes in Lhe q|ound inLo
which Lhey a|e beinq planLed. Ca|elully |emove
Lhe seedlinqs l|om Lhei| poLs o| modules, holdinq
Lhem by Lhei| leaves |aLhe| Lhan Lhei| sLems o|
|ooLs, and |eLaininq as much ol Lhe poLLinq mix
as possible. 0|op Lhem inLo Lhei| planLinq holes
and qenLly l|m soil a|ound Lhem.
(Lop) Plug plants bouqhL via mail o|de| a||ive in special plasLic
pac|s. FlanL Lhem ouL immediaLely.
(boLLom) 0uttîng a hele în a plastîc mulch allows you Lo planL
a cucumbe| seedlinq in a biodeq|adable poL sL|aiqhL Lh|ouqh iL.
Transplantîng frem a seedbed
0on'L L|ansplanL in lull sun. Seedlinqs al|eady
unde| sL|ess l|om beinq up|ooLed will only wilL
lu|Lhe| in Lhe heaL. InsLead, choose a day when
Lhe weaLhe| is q|ay and ove|casL. Cive you|
planLs a Lho|ouqh soa|inq belo|e aLLempLinq Lo
lilL Lhem, Lhen diq Lhem ouL wiLh a hand lo|| o|
L|owel, |eepinq as much soil inLacL a|ound Lhei|
|ooLs as you can. To |eep Lhem damp, puL Lhem
in a clea| plasLic baq o| a buc|eL wiLh an inch
o| so ol waLe| in iL. AlLe| waLe|inq Lhe planLinq
holes, ca|elully inse|L Lhe seedlinqs, d|awinq
Lhe soil a|ound Lhem, Lhen l|minq iL down.
A laye| ol o|qanic o| ino|qanic maLe|ial sp|ead
ove| Lhe su|lace ol Lhe soil is called a mulch.
IL miqhL be a sheeL ol plasLic LhaL you've been
usinq Lo wa|m up Lhe q|ound, il so, you can cuL
holes in iL and planL Lh|ouqh iL. AlLe|naLively, iL
miqhL be well-|oLLed manu|e, composL, o| q|ass
cuLLinqs. IL's besL Lo apply mulches alLe| waLe|inq
newly planLed seedlinqs buL noL when Lhe soil is
eiLhe| ve|y weL o| ve|y d|y.
Mulches se|ve a numbe| ol pu|poses. They
|eep Lhe soil wa|m. They |eLain moisLu|e by
p|evenLinq waLe| l|om evapo|aLinq. They can
acL as o|qanic le|Lilize|s il Lhey conLain nuL|ienLs
LhaL will be abso|bed inLo Lhe soil. They inhibiL
weed q|owLh. And Lhey may also-dependinq
on Lhe maLe|ial-deLe| pesLs and pa|asiLes
such as sluqs, snails, and ce|Lain insecLs.
(Lop) Markîng eut a reugh grîd in Lhe soil will help you planL ouL
module-q|own seedlinqs such as Lhese leLLuces equidisLanLly.
(boLLom) 0rass cuttîngs sp|ead ove| a laye| ol newspape| ma|e
an ellecLive mulch lo| a cha|d seedlinq.
0eîng undercever
Thouqh we miqhL d|eam ol q|owinq ou| own veqeLables in a cusLom-builL
q|eenhouse o| a lull-size, wal|-in polyLunnel, Lhe chances a|e LhaL lac| ol space
won'L allow iL, especially in u|ban a|eas. YeL cold l|ames, cloches, and oLhe|
imp|ovised planL cove|s can olle| Lhe same benelL. a p|oLecLed mic|oclimaLe
in which you can sow seeds and |aise seedlinqs ea|lie| Lhan you would ouL in
Lhe open. The|e a|e oLhe| advanLaqes, Loo. FlanLs q|own unde| cove| a|e easie|
Lo p|oLecL l|om p|edaLo|s such as bi|ds, mice, buLLe|lies, moLhs, and oLhe|
insecLs while Lhey a|e sLill small, Lende|, and aL Lhei| mosL vulne|able.
0eld frames
T|adiLional cold l|ames we|e essenLially boxes
in which Lo q|ow planLs. They had low b|ic|
walls and L|anspa|enL qlass lids o| ¨liqhLs¨ LhaL
could be opened o| closed. They we|e olLen
builL on Lhe sides ol q|eenhouses as a so|L ol
hallway house beLween indoo|s and ouLdoo|s.
Il necessa|y, planLs could be moved ouL ol Lhe
q|eenhouse inLo Lhe cold l|ame Lo be ha|dened
oll (·ee µ5ó) belo|e beinq L|ansplanLed inLo
open q|ound.
The same p|inciple holds Loday, Lhouqh mode|n
cold l|ames a|e mo|e li|ely Lo be consL|ucLed
l|om aluminum o| plasLic. AlLe|naLively, Lhey
can be homemade-usinq old window l|ames,
lo| example. IL's impo|LanL LhaL Lhey a|e
secu|ely ancho|ed and d|alL-l|ee Lo ensu|e
qood insulaLion, and LhaL Lhey can be opened
o| closed Lo allow sullcienL venLilaLion.
Cloches can be moved l|om one pa|L ol Lhe
veqeLable paLch Lo anoLhe|. The wo|d ¨cloche¨ is
F|ench lo| ¨bell¨, ea|ly desiqns we|e olLen bell-
shaped, o|iqinally made ol qlass buL now mo|e
olLen clea| plasLic. 0Lhe| desiqns a|e ba|n-,
LenL-, o| lanLe|n-shaped. Mo|e p|osaically, small
cloches lo| cove|inq individual planLs can be
imp|ovised l|om plasLic boLLles.
Cloches a|e uselul aL Lhe beqinninq and end
ol Lhe yea|. AL Lhe sLa|L ol Lhe season, Lhey wa|m
Lhe soil belo|e sowinq o| planLinq, Lhen mainLain
Lhe Lempe|aLu|e as seeds qe|minaLe and seedlinqs
develop. AL Lhe end ol Lhe season, Lhey olle|
exL|a p|oLecLion while laLe-ha|vesLinq c|ops
|ipen (such as ouLdoo| LomaLoes). They p|ovide
some p|oLecLion l|om pesLs, buL noL l|om Lhose
in Lhe soil. Li|e cold l|ames, cloches need venLs
Lo p|evenL Lhe veqeLables l|om |oLLinq.
Tunnel cleches
SomeLimes called low conLinuous polyLunnels,
Lunnel cloches a|e made l|om clea| plasLic llm
o| leece sL|eLched ove| wi|e hoops. Feavy-
qauqe plasLic LhaL has been L|eaLed wiLh an
ulL|avioleL inhibiLo| will lasL Lhe lonqesL. The
maLe|ial can be pinned down aL Lhe sides and
Lied in a |noL aL each end.
(cloc|wise l|om Lop lelL)
Tradîtîenal celd frame, hememade bettle cleches,
small garden greenheuse, hertîcultural Heece tunnel cleche
Traînîng clîmbers
Some veqeLables a|e naLu|al climbe|s-mosL beans and peas, lo| example,
as well as ce|Lain squashes and cucumbe|s. They Lhe|elo|e need someLhinq
Lo climb. WiLhouL iL, Lhey'll sLill q|ow, buL Lhey will sp|awl, and c|ops L|ailinq on
Lhe q|ound |is| beinq damaqed o| eaLen. In mosL cases, a lew sLic|s o| canes
and some qa|den Lwine will p|ovide any suppo|L |equi|ed, buL wiLh a liLLle
inqenuiLy iL's possible Lo consL|ucL l|ames, wiqwams, obelis|s, and Lunnels LhaL
a|e noL only sLu|dy and ellecLive buL a|e also a|chiLecLu|al wonde|s.
Stîcks and stakes
Feas a|e L|adiLionally suppo|Led by Lwiqqy
¨peasLic|s,¨ usually made ol hazel o| bi|ch,
upended and pushed inLo Lhe q|ound. Fea Lend|ils
shooL ouL, lnd Lhe peasLic|s, and coil a|ound
Lhem LiqhLly. Wi|e o| plasLic neLLinq will also do
Lhe job buL isn'L nea|ly as aLL|acLive, especially
il you a|e q|owinq semi-lealess va|ieLies LhaL
don'L have enouqh loliaqe Lo disquise Lhe neL.
SL|icLly spea|inq, b|oad beans a|e noL climbe|s,
buL Lhey Lend Lo qeL Lop-heavy when laden wiLh
|ipeninq pods and need some suppo|L Lo p|evenL
Lhem l|om lallinq ove|. A line ol sLa|es o| sho|L
canes on eiLhe| side ol each |ow, wiLh a couple
ol lenqLhs ol sL|onq qa|den Lwine sL|unq
beLween Lhem, will help Lhem sLay sLandinq.
(l|om la| lelL) Bread bean stakes, wîgwam,
fan trellîs fer squash, tyîng în peas, bean tunnel
0anes and wîgwams
Climbinq F|ench and |unne| beans can q|ow
Lo heiqhLs ol I0 lL (² m) and mo|e, so Lhey need
some se|ious suppo|L sL|ucLu|es. A lonq line ol
beans is besL suppo|Led by a double |ow ol
canes c|ossed ove| and Lied aL Lhe Lop.
Fo| only a lew bean planLs, a wiqwam will
sullce. Fazel, willow, and sweeL chesLnuL poles
ma|e aLL|acLive, |usLic alLe|naLives Lo canes.
Whicheve| Lype you use, iL's wo|Lh e|ecLinq Lhe
sL|ucLu|es ea|ly in Lhe season, belo|e Lhe beans
a|e planLed, il you leave iL unLil summe|, Lhe
q|ound may be Loo ha|d Lo push Lhe canes o|
poles deep enouqh inLo Lhe soil.
MosL climbinq beans will lnd Lhei| own way
up, spi|alinq a|ound Lhe canes as soon as Lhey
qeL a q|ip, buL Lie Lhem in wiLh sL|inq il Lhey
loo| as il Lhey need some iniLial encou|aqemenL.
Tunnels and trellîses
Climbinq squash and cucumbe|s puL ouL Lend|ils,
li|e peas, Lo help Lhem climb. BuL unli|e peas,
when Lhei| l|uiLs a|e lully q|own, Lhey can be
ve|y heavy indeed, and Lhey'll need much
sL|onqe| suppo|Ls.
T|ellises a|e sullcienLly sLu|dy, and can be
made l|om wood o| l|om a combinaLion ol
wooden poles and |ope, in ve|Lical o| lan
shapes. A|ches and Lunnels a|e ce|Lainly
aLL|acLive buL Lhey have a p|acLical pu|pose,
Loo. IL's much easie| Lo ha|vesL c|ops when
Lhey a|e hanqinq down a|ound you as wal|
unde|neaLh Lhem'
War en weeds
Fe|e's an ala|minq sLaLisLic. iL's esLimaLed LhaL in eve|y squa|e ya|d (meLe|)
ol soil, Lhe|e a|e p|obably I00,000 seeds. This is why |equla| weedinq is
inescapable. Resiqn you|sell Lo Lhe lacL LhaL iL's qoinq Lo be a consLanL baLLle.
Weeds a|e invasive and compeLiLive-Lhey d|in| Lhe waLe| and abso|b Lhe
nuL|ienLs you wanL you| veqeLables Lo have, Lhey c|owd Lhem lo| space,
hoqqinq Lhe liqhL. And Lhey can be a home Lo all |inds ol pesLs and diseases.
Annual weeds
Requla| hoeinq will conL|ol annual weeds such
as chic|weed, speedwell, shephe|d's pu|se, and
hai|y biLLe|c|ess, which sp|inq up beLween |ows
ol planLs. 0on'L leL Lhem lowe|, o| Lhey will
qene|aLe a new c|op ol l|esh seeds. Keep you|
hoe sha|p, slice oll weeds jusL below Lhe su|lace,
and clea| away Lhe |emains il iL is weL.
Perennîal weeds
These a|e ha|de| Lo e|adicaLe, and will p|obably
need Lo be duq ouL by hand. Remove eve|y lasL
biL ol |ooL o| |hizome, pe|ennial weeds can
|eqene|aLe l|om Liny seqmenLs, so usinq a
|oLoLille| |a|ely wo||s. Mo|e ellecLive is a sheeL
ol Lhic| blac| plasLic o| ca|peL laid ove| Lhe
q|ound. IL dep|ives weeds ol liqhL, wea|eninq o|
even |illinq Lhem. You may even be able Lo
planL c|ops Lh|ouqh iL (·ee µ5ó).
ResL|icL Lhe use ol chemical weed|ille|s Lo
heavily ove|q|own ploLs LhaL need clea|inq.
Tenacious pe|ennials LhaL a|e simply Loo
deeply |ooLed Lo diq up a|e besL Lac|led usinq
a sysLemic weed|ille|. Wea| p|oLecLive qea|
when applyinq, and sp|ay on a sLill day Lo |eep
iL l|om beinq blown onLo nea|by planLs.
(lelL) Leesen large weeds wiLh a lo|| belo|e ca|elully pullinq
up Lhe enLi|e |ooLball by hand.
(|iqhL) Skîm annual weeds by usinq a spade Lo slice oll Lhe laye|
ol soil in which Lhey a|e q|owinq and lip iL upside down.
Bîndweed c|eeps o| climbs and has whiLe,
L|umpeL-shaped lowe|s. ILs Lhic| |ooLs
musL be duq ouL inLacL and in Lhei| enLi|eLy.
0reepîng thîstle has sp|eadinq ho|izonLal
|ooLs and lonq, deep Lap|ooLs. E|adicaLion
miqhL |equi|e a sysLemic weed|ille|.
0reund elder is a pe|ennial. Li|e couch
q|ass, iL sp|eads via unde|q|ound |hizomes
and will |eq|ow l|om Lhe LiniesL l|aqmenL.
0euch grass sp|eads aqq|essively via
unde|q|ound |hizomes, Lhey loo| li|e whiLe
|ooLs buL have sha|p, poinLed Lips.
0andelîen lowe|s Lu|n inLo ¨cloc|s¨ made
ol Liny pa|achuLe-li|e seeds. Fic| oll Lhe
heads o| cuL Lhem down belo|e Lhis sLaqe.
0eesegrass (¨cleave|s¨) sp|eads widely
and has sLic|y q|een leaves. 0iq iL up |aLhe|
Lhan pullinq iL, o| iL will b|ea| and |eq|ow.
0reepîng buttercup sp|eads by Lh|owinq
ouL ho|izonLal |unne|s. A new planL lo|ms
aL each node, so diq Lhe whole Lhinq up.
0eck planLs have lonq Lap|ooLs when lull-
q|own. Full Lhem up inLacL o| Lhey will
|eq|ow. 0on'L leL Lhem qo Lo seed.
Stîngîng nettles can deLe| aphids, buL
boLh annual and pe|ennial lo|ms a|e
invasive and a|e besL hoed o| duq up.
A q|een app|oach Lo q|owinq veqeLables involves mo|e Lhan |ejecLinq chemical
le|Lilize|s, weed|ille|s, and pesLicides. IL's also abouL conse|vaLion, |euse, and
employinq |esou|ces inLelliqenLly. The|e a|e nume|ous ways Lo encou|aqe a
healLhy qa|den in which planLs will Lh|ive. You could |ecycle o|qanic maLe|ial Lo
|eLu|n nuL|ienLs Lo Lhe soil, o| lollow a c|op-|oLaLion plan Lo |educe Lhe |is| ol
disease. Even someLhinq as simple as encou|aqinq benelcial wildlile inLo you|
ya|d should |educe Lhe need Lo |eso|L Lo chemical conL|ols.
A chemîcal-free vegetable patch
IL's |eally noL ha|d Lo do wiLhouL a|Lilcial le|Lilize|s. You| soil will
qeL many ol Lhe nuL|ienLs iL's li|ely Lo need-and you'll imp|ove
iLs sL|ucLu|e and composiLion-il you |equla|ly diq in plenLy ol
well-|oLLed o|qanic maLe|ial such as |iLchen and qa|den composL,
la|mya|d o| sLable manu|e, lealmold, o| mush|oom composL
(·ee µµ48-50).
The|e a|e alLe|naLives Lo synLheLic pesLicides and weed|ille|s,
Loo. 0e||is, py|eLh|um, and insecLicidal soaps a|e ellecLive aqainsL
ce|Lain insecLs and a|e all de|ived l|om planL exL|acLs. Weeds
LhaL can'L be duq up can usually be |illed oll by cove|inq Lhe
q|ound wiLh plasLic o| by usinq a lame weede|.
Bîelegîcal centrels
Some ol Lhe c|eaLu|es you miqhL iniLially Lhin| ol as pesLs a|e in
lacL Lhe ve|y opposiLe. Lhey'|e naLu|al p|edaLo|s. And Lhey can be
employed Lo Lac|le Lhe buqs LhaL |eally Lh|eaLen you| c|ops.
A combinaLion ol mixed planLinq and leavinq a lew a|eas ol you|
ploL less Lhan immaculaLely neaL will help aLL|acL bees, ladybuqs,
hove|lies, lacewinqs, and oLhe| benelcial insecLs. You could diq
a pond Lo p|ovide l|oqs and Loads wiLh a home. You miqhL even
L|y inL|oducinq some specialisL conL|acL |ille|s you|sell-sluq-
desL|oyinq nemaLodes, lo| example (·ee µµJJ8-JJº).
(Lop) 0empestîng kîtchen waste
(boLLom) 0rîed-grass earwîg trap
(cloc|wise l|om above)
kaîn barrel, water-efHcîent seaker hese,
heuseheld "gray water"
0enservîng water
WaLe| is a p|ecious commodiLy. IL ma|es sense
Lo save iL, |ecycle iL, and use iL wisely. NoL all
planLs need Lhe same amounL ol waLe|, and
some need iL only aL |ey poinLs du|inq Lhei|
developmenL-so p|io|iLize younq seedlinqs,
new o| |ecenL L|ansplanLs, and planLs q|owinq
in poLs. When you waLe|, soa| Lhe soil |aLhe|
Lhan Lhe planL loliaqe, and il possible use
soa|e| hoses. Mulchinq cuLs down waLe| loss
due Lo evapo|aLion and helps |eep Lhe soil
moisL. CollecL |ainwaLe| in |ain ba||els, and
|euse household ¨q|ay waLe|,¨ Lhouqh noL on
lood planLs il iL has soap, deLe|qenL, o| oil in iL.
Karvestîng and sterîng
Some veqeLables a|e besL eaLen as soon as possible alLe| ha|vesLinq. Feas and
sweeL co|n, lo| example, sLa|L Lo conve|L Lhei| suqa|s Lo sLa|ch Lhe momenL
Lhey'|e pic|ed, so l|om LhaL poinL on Lhe cloc| is Lic|inq on how lonq Lhey will
sLay supe|-sweeL. LeLLuces, Asian salad leaves, and spinach quic|ly wilL, Loo.
They a|e besL pic|ed in Lhe ea|ly mo|ninq o| eveninq, noL in Lhe heaL ol Lhe day.
Foweve|, many oLhe| veqeLables will |eep lo| a lonq Lime il sLo|ed ca|elully.
Sterîng vegetables
0nions, shalloLs, qa|lic, pump|ins, squash, cabbaqes, poLaLoes,
and oLhe| |ooL veqeLables should lasL inLo winLe| il sLo|ed. EaL o|
disca|d damaqed p|oduce, as iL won'L |eep. SLo|e d|y poLaLoes in
pape| sac|s o| baqs-noL plasLic, which will ma|e Lhem sweaL.
Fanq onions, shalloLs, and qa|lic somewhe|e cool, d|y, and well-
venLilaLed, and puL cabbaqes in neLs o| on sL|aw-lined shelves.
SLo|e |ooL veqeLables li|e ca||oLs and pa|snips in wooden boxes
pac|ed wiLh damp sand.
F|ench beans, |unne| beans, b|oad beans, peas, caulilowe|, b|occoli,
and B|ussels sp|ouLs a|e all suiLable lo| l|eezinq. Wash, L|im, and
blanch Lhem in boilinq waLe| lo| a lew minuLes, Lhen baq Lhem up
and l|eeze Lhem |iqhL away. TomaLoes and zucchini can be l|ozen,
buL Lhey may Lu|n mushy when del|osLed.
Pîcklîng and preservîng
0ils and vineqa|s can be lavo|ed wiLh qa|lic, chili peppe|s, and
he|bs. And veqeLable chuLneys and pic|les-which combine
vineqa|, suqa|, and salL as p|ese|vaLives-L|adiLionally conLain
onions, LomaLoes, peppe|s, ca||oLs, beans, caulilowe|, o| eqqplanL.
(lelL) A mîd-fall harvest ol squashes, leld mush|ooms, cele|iac,
sweeL poLaLoes, pa|snips, and oLhe| |ooL veqeLables.
(Lop |iqhL) Karvest dwarf runner beans younq and olLen Lo
p|evenL pods l|om becominq Louqh and sL|inqy.
(boLLom |iqhL) Kememade resemary- and chîlî-Havered eîls
Free feed
The idea ol p|opaqaLinq you| own veqeLables is ve|y LempLinq. IL means lood
lo| l|ee, alLe| all. BuL iL's wo|Lh soundinq a noLe ol cauLion. AlLhouqh mosL
veqeLables a|e q|own l|om seed, noL all a|e wo|Lh aLLempLinq Lo p|opaqaLe
l|om seed you save you|sell. Beans, peas, onions, LomaLoes, squashes, and
ce|Lain he|bs a|e Lhe mosL li|ely Lo be successlul, while oLhe|s a|e dillculL o|
un|eliable. Foweve|, a lew veqeLables can be p|opaqaLed usinq meLhods such
as dividinq esLablished |ooLsLoc|s and ce|Lain he|bs by La|inq cuLLinqs.
Whîch seeds te save
0on'L aLLempL Lo save seeds l|om whaL a|e
called FI hyb|id planLs. They a|e Lhe ollsp|inq
ol Lwo inb|ed pa|enLs, c|ossed Lo p|oduce a
culLiva| wiLh ve|y specilc cha|acLe|isLics.
Thei| seeds will noL b|eed ¨L|ue,¨ which means
Lhey a|e unli|ely Lo inhe|iL Lhe same unilo|m
qualiLies. Even o|dina|y seeds, Lhose allowed
Lo lo|m naLu|ally, wiLhouL hyb|idizaLion, may
qeL accidenLally c|oss-pollinaLed in you| qa|den
o| in you| veqeLable paLch, and may p|oduce
ollsp|inq wiLh nonsLanda|d va|iaLions. Fo| Lhis
|eason, q|ow planLs l|om which you inLend Lo
save seed well away l|om oLhe| culLiva|s.
Kew te cellect seeds
Allow LomaLoes and squashes Lo |ipen lully
belo|e collecLinq seeds, and leave pea and bean
pods on Lhe planLs unLil Lhey have wiLhe|ed and
d|ied. To collecL seeds l|om onions, shalloLs, and
lee|s, leave a lew healLhy planLs in Lhe q|ound
in winLe| and leL Lhem p|oduce lowe|heads Lhe
lollowinq sp|inq. When Lhey Lu|n Lo seedheads,
cuL Lhem down and d|y Lhem.
(opposiLe paqe, cloc|wise l|om Lop lelL)
Kangîng up chîlî peppers te
dry, dryîng fennel seedheads,
dîvîdîng an asparagus crewn,
reetîng sweet petate slîps
Prepagatîen by dîvîsîen
Fe|ennial veqeLables li|e aspa|aqus, qlobe
a|Licho|es, and |huba|b a|e besL p|opaqaLed by
diqqinq up exisLinq planLs, dividinq Lhem, and
|eplanLinq on a l|esh siLe. You qeL Lh|ee o| lou|
new, viqo|ous planLs l|om one sinqle pa|enL.
Prepagatîng bulbs and tubers
FoLaLoes o| onions lelL in Lhe q|ound olLen
sp|ouL Lhe nexL yea|-Lhey can be p|opaqaLed
Lhis way. Foweve|, Lhis isn'L advisable, as Lhey
Lend Lo become diseased. IL's sale| Lo buy new,
vi|us-l|ee seed poLaLoes and onion seLs.
0ellect seeds frem tematees only when Lhe l|uiL is ve|y |ipe.
CuL iL in hall, p|y ouL Lhe seeds, and leave Lo d|y on pape| Lowels.
3. Cabbages &
Leaf Vegetables
Cabbaqes, B|ussels sp|ouLs, calab|ese, b|occoli, caulilowe|, and |ale a|e all
membe|s ol Lhe lamily |nown as b|assicas. They sha|e a numbe| ol cha|acLe|isLics.
MosL ol Lhem La|e a lonq Lime Lo maLu|e, so iL's wo|Lh Lhin|inq ca|elully abouL
whe|e you planL Lhem-whe|eve| you puL Lhem, Lhey'|e qoinq Lo be Lhe|e lo|
many monLhs. They'|e la|qe, Loo, so you'll need Lo qive Lhem plenLy ol space.
Sadly, Lhey also sha|e a vulne|abiliLy Lo ce|Lain pesLs and diseases, club|ooL
and cabbaqe |ooL ly a|e amonq Lhe wo|sL, alLhouqh bi|ds and caLe|pilla|s
lelL by visiLinq buLLe|lies can also cause damaqe. BuL don'L be discou|aqed l|om
q|owinq Lhem. A lew simple p|ecauLions such as b|assica colla|s, neLLinq, and
|equla| c|op |oLaLion should help p|evenL se|ious p|oblems-and, il you'|e sma|L
abouL whaL and when you planL, you can have l|esh c|ops almosL yea|-|ound.
0rnamental kale, someLimes called
lowe|inq cabbaqe, has beauLilul, vividly
colo|ed, hiqhly LexLu|ed leaves, and is
q|own lo| boLh deco|aLion and eaLinq.
0abbages La|e up loLs ol space,
so planL jusL a lew ol each q|oup
lo| a c|op Lh|ouqhouL Lhe yea|.
0hînese cabbage loo|s li|e a
Lall, cylind|ical leLLuce wiLh LiqhLly
pac|ed, pale q|een-whiLe leaves.
Bek chey q|ows ve|y quic|ly-
wiLhin a monLh ol sowinq, you can
usually ha|vesL Lhe l|sL leaves.
Brussel spreuts, pic|ed younq
and small, LasLe sweeLe| and
nuLLie| Lhan you miqhL Lhin|.
Spînach is hiqhly nuL|iLious
and can be pic|ed almosL
Kale is easy Lo q|ow, qene|ally
L|ouble-l|ee, and should su|vive
Lhe ha|shesL, mosL seve|e winLe|s.
Swîss chard is q|own lo| iLs
vib|anLly colo|ed leaves, which
can be eaLen li|e spinach.
0aulîHewer va|ieLies a|e q|ouped
acco|dinq Lo Lhe Lime ol yea| aL
which Lhey can be ha|vesLed.
Breccelî can be ha|vesLed almosL
yea|-|ound, and has a |epuLaLion lo|
beinq |ich in healLhy anLioxidanLs.
Cabbaqes can be classiled acco|dinq Lo when Lhey a|e ha|vesLed. Sp|inq and
summe| cabbaqes a|e smalle|, and a|e eaLen |iqhL alLe| pic|inq. Fall and winLe|
Lypes have dense| heads, can be lelL in Lhe q|ound lo| lonqe|, and can be sLo|ed.
va|ieLies include Savoy cabbaqes, wiLh c|in|ly leaves, whiLe 0uLch cabbaqes, |ed
cabbaqes, which come in summe| and lall va|ieLies, and sp|inq q|eens, which a|e
eiLhe| loose-leaved culLiva|s o| |equla| sp|inq cabbaqes ha|vesLed belo|e heads
have lo|med. RelaLed veqeLables include colla|ds, q|own as winLe| q|eens, and
b|occoli |aab o| |apini, which is used in ILalian and Chinese coo|inq.
Savey cabbages, wiLh deeply
veined and inL|icaLely LexLu|ed
leaves, loo| as qood as Lhey LasLe.
SEAS0N Sprîng Summer Fall Wînter

Sew N
Transplant N
Karvest N

Sew N N
Transplant N N
Karvest N N

Sew N N
Transplant N
Karvest N

Sew N
Transplant N N
Karvest N N
Where te plant
Cabbaqes don'L mind lull sun o| pa|Lial shade,
buL Lhey do li|e le|Lile soil LhaL will |eLain
moisLu|e and is sliqhLly al|aline-a pF ol aL
leasL o.B (·ee µ4Z).
MosL impo|LanLly, Lhe soil musL be l|m.
Bea| in mind LhaL Lhe |ooLs and sLems have
Lo suppo|L heads LhaL may q|ow ve|y heavy.
LiqhL, sandy soil can be imp|oved by addinq
eiLhe| composL o| manu|e du|inq Lhe
p|evious season.
C|op |oLaLion is impo|LanL, Loo. avoid
planLinq cabbaqes whe|e you've q|own Lhem
in Lhe lasL Lh|ee yea|s.
Sew în trays and L|ansplanL
seedlinqs when Lhey have
lo|med Lh|ee o| lou| leaves.
When te plant
Fo| a conLinuous ha|vesL,
sow cabbaqes ol dille|enL
Lypes successively Lh|ouqh
Lhe yea|. SLa|L unde| cove|
aL Lhe beqinninq ol sp|inq lo|
an ea|ly ha|vesL ol summe|
cabbaqes, and sow in laLe
sp|inq and summe| lo| lall and
winLe| ha|vesLinq. You can
even sow in mid- Lo laLe
summe| lo| a c|op ol sp|inq
cabbaqes Lhe lollowinq yea|.
Kew te sew seeds
IL's besL Lo sow all cabbaqe
seeds in L|ays, poLs, o|
modules-o| in a seedbed-
and Lhen L|ansplanL Lhem
Lo Lhei| lnal posiLion once
Lhey'|e esLablished. Sow
Lhinly and cove| wiLh poLLinq
mix Lo a depLh ol abouL
in (2 cm).
(la| lelL) Brassîca cellars p|evenL
lemale cabbaqe |ooL lies l|om layinq
eqqs in Lhe soil a|ound seedlinq sLems.
(lelL) Net cabbages Lo p|oLecL Lhem
l|om bi|ds and cabbaqe whiLe buLLe|lies,
which lnd younq cabbaqes i||esisLible.
Seedlinqs a|e |eady Lo L|ansplanL
when Lhey have abouL lou| L|ue
leaves. Il Lhey've been q|own
indoo|s o| unde| cove|, ha|den
Lhem oll l|sL. AlLe| planLinq, you
may wanL Lo puL b|assica colla|s
a|ound Lhe sLems Lo deLe| cabbaqe
|ooL ly (·ee /e/ow).
Il you'|e L|ansplanLinq l|om
a seedbed, waLe| Lhe planLs
belo|e lilLinq. Fold seedlinqs by
Lhei| leaves Lo avoid damaqinq Lhe
|ooLs, and |eep seedlinqs damp in
a waLe|-llled L|ench o| a pail Lo
sLop Lhem l|om wilLinq.
Ma|e planLinq holes o in
(I5 cm) deep abouL IB in
(45 cm) apa|L in shallow d|ills.
WaLe| Lhe holes belo|e ca|elully
lowe|inq Lhe seedlinqs in, Lhen
qenLly l|m Lhe soil a|ound Lhem.
keutîne care
Keep seedlinqs weed-l|ee and waLe| Lhem |equla|ly-daily aL l|sL
in d|y weaLhe|, Lhen once o| Lwice a wee| il Lhe|e is any danqe|
ol Lhei| d|yinq ouL. Ea|Lh up Lhe sLems Lo suppo|L Lhem as Lhe
planLs q|ow, and cuL oll and |emove any dead ouLe| leaves.
Sp|inq o| ea|ly-summe| cabbaqes can be ha|vesLed as ¨sp|inq
q|eens¨ once Lhe younq leaves appea|, buL belo|e Lhey lo|m
hea|Ls. 0Lhe|wise, leave Lhem unLil Lhey have ¨hea|Led up¨ and
a|e solid all Lhe way Lh|ouqh. CuL oll Lhe heads wiLh a sha|p |nile,
and use Lhem immediaLely. Fall and winLe| cabbaqes (such as
'Janua|y Kinq') can be ha|vesLed laLe|, Lhen sLo|ed on shelves o|
in neLs lo| a lew monLhs in a cool place. WinLe| cabbaqes a|e
l|osL-ha|dy and slow Lo bolL, so don'L leel p|essu|ed Lo lilL you|
enLi|e c|op il l|osL is lo|ecasL.
Sho|Lly alLe| ha|vesLinq, lilL cabbaqe |ooLs Lo p|evenL Lhe
sp|ead ol disease, alLe|naLively, simply up|ooL Lhe whole cabbaqe
when you ha|vesL iL |aLhe| Lhan jusL cuLLinq iL away wiLh a |nile.
What can ge wreng
0abbage reet Hy maqqoLs olLen cause damaqe-Lhey haLch
l|om eqqs laid on Lhe soil, eaL Lhe |ooLs, and leave Lhe sLumps
Lo |oL. 0nce p|esenL, Lhey a|e impossible Lo qeL |id ol. To p|evenL
lies l|om layinq Lhei| eqqs in Lhe l|sL place, use a cove|inq ol
leece o| lne neL, o| colla|s a|ound seedlinqs. Colla|s can be
pu|chased, o| simply lashioned l|om squa|es ol ca|peL unde|lay,
cuL so Lhey can be slipped a|ound Lhe seedlinqs. Any eqqs laid on
Lhe colla|s will die belo|e haLchinq.
0abbage caterpîllars bu||ow inLo Lhe hea|L and eaL holes in
Lhe leaves. The caLe|pilla|s ol Lhe la|qe cabbaqe whiLe buLLe|ly
a|e yellow, blac|, and hai|y, Lhe small cabbaqe whiLe buLLe|ly
pale q|een, and Lhe cabbaqe moLh yellow-q|een o| b|own.
Fic| Lhem oll by hand o| sp|ay wiLh py|eLh|um, |oLenone,
o| bilenLh|in.
Mealy cabbage aphîds a|e so-called because Lhe q|ay
aphids a|e cove|ed wiLh whiLe wax. They conq|eqaLe beneaLh Lhe
leaves, suc| Lhe sap, and cause yellow paLches and leal cu|l.
Sp|ay wiLh insecLicidal soap, py|eLh|um, |oLenone, o| bilenLh|in.
0Lhe| pesLs include cuLwo|ms, lea beeLles, leaLhe|jac|eLs,
whiLely, sluqs and snails, and bi|ds (·ee µµJJ0-JJ5).
(Lop) Karvest sprîng greens while
Lhe leaves a|e sLill loose, belo|e Lhey
lo|m dense heads.
(boLLom) Karvest mature cabbages
when Lhe heads leel l|m and solid.
use a sha|p |nile Lo cuL Lh|ouqh Lhe
base ol Lhe sLem.
0lubreet is a ve|y se|ious p|oblem. IL's a lunqus o| mold LhaL
aLLac|s |ooLs and, as iL |ills Lhem, |eleases spo|es inLo Lhe soil.
Leaves sLa|L Lo discolo|, and Lhe planL becomes sLunLed and
evenLually dies. WhaL's wo|se is LhaL Lhe spo|es can su|vive in Lhe
soil lo| up Lo 20 yea|s-and Lhe|e is no cu|e. F|evenLive measu|es
include sysLemaLically |oLaLinq c|ops, bu|ninq (noL composLinq)
all diseased planLs, imp|ovinq d|ainaqe, liminq Lhe soil (·ee µ4Z),
and planLinq ouL only when seedlinqs a|e well esLablished.
0Lhe| diseases include downy mildew, powde|y mildew,
bacLe|ial leal spoL, and whiLe blisLe| (·ee µµJ?4-J?º).
kecemmended cabbages
SFRINC 0uncan, 0urham Elf, Mastercut First Early Market 2I,
Myatts 0ffenham, Pixie, Pyramid, 5pring Hero
SuMMER/FALL 0erby 0ay, 5tonehead
WINTER Alaska, Best of All, 0eltic, Holly, January King, Julius,
Marabel, Protovoy, 5avoy Ice 0ueen, Tarvoy
RE0 Red Jewel, Rodeo, Ruby Ball, Red 0rumhead
C0LLAR0S 0eorgia, Vates
BR0CC0LI RAAB All 5eason, Raab
(opposiLe paqe, cloc|wise l|om Lop lelL)
Savey 1ce queen, ked kuby Ball,
Autumn Stenehead, Sprîng Kere
Wînter cabbages a|e able Lo su|vive
su|p|isinqly ha|d l|osLs o| snow, and can
be lelL in Lhe q|ound unLil you need Lhem.
SEAS0N Sprîng Summer Fall Wînter
Sew N N
Transplant N
Karvest N N
0hînese cabbage
MosL Lypes ol Chinese cabbaqe, o| Chinese leaves, loo| a biL li|e Lall leLLuces.
They have dense heads lo|med l|om LiqhLly pac|ed pale q|een-whiLe leaves, and
an elonqaLed cylind|ical shape. They a|e c|isp, wiLh a mild cabbaqe LasLe, and
a|e eaLen |aw in salads o| liqhLly
coo|ed in sLi|-l|ies. Chinese cabbaqe
is a membe| ol Lhe Asian b|assica
lamily, which also includes Chinese
b|occoli and Chinese |ale.
Where, when, and hew te plant
Chinese cabbaqe needs a sunny, shelLe|ed posiLion and |ich soil
conLaininq loLs ol o|qanic maLe|ial Lo help |eLain moisLu|e. Add
exL|a le|Lilize| il necessa|y.
Sow seed eiLhe| di|ecLly inLo Lhe q|ound o| in modules lo|
L|ansplanLinq laLe|. 0on'L sow Loo ea|ly o| Lhe planLs will bolL.
waiL unLil laLe sp|inq o| ea|ly summe| when Lhe weaLhe| is wa|me|.
Thin ouL seedlinqs so LhaL planLs a|e abouL I2 in (²0 cm) apa|L.
keutîne care
Keep seedlinqs l|ee ol weeds. Chinese cabbaqe has sho|L |ooLs
and is unable Lo sea|ch ouL waLe| in Lhe soil, iL Lhe|elo|e needs
|equla| waLe|inq and should neve| be allowed Lo d|y ouL.
Chinese cabbaqe is lasL-q|owinq and should be |eady lo|
ha|vesLinq wiLhin eiqhL Lo Len wee|s ol sowinq.
What can ge wreng
As wiLh all b|assicas, boLh club|ooL and cabbaqe |ooL ly a|e a
consLanL Lh|eaL. So a|e mosL ol Lhe oLhe| pesLs and diseases LhaL
allicL cabbaqes (·ee µµZZ-Z8).
kecemmended 0hînese cabbage
Early Jade Pagoda, 0reen Rocket, Kayoh, Nikko, Ruffes, Wong Bok
Early Jade Pageda
Bek chey
BoLh bo| choy-someLimes spelled pa| choi-and iLs close |elaLive LaLsoi
a|e membe|s ol Lhe Asian b|assica lamily. AlLhouqh smalle| Lhan Chinese
cabbaqe, wiLh loose|, da||e| q|een leaves, Lhey a|e equally LasLy eaLen |aw
in salads while sLill l|esh and c|isp. AlLe|naLively, il Lh|own inLo sLi|-l|ies and
coo|ed quic|ly, Lhey won'L lose Lhei|
c|unch, and Lhe delicaLe lavo| will be
p|ese|ved. The lowe|inq shooLs, as well
as Lhe leaves and sLems, can be eaLen.
SEAS0N Sprîng Summer Fall Wînter
Sew N N
Karvest N N
Where, when, and hew te plant
Choose a wa|m, shelLe|ed siLe wiLh le|Lile soil LhaL won'L d|y ouL.
0iq in plenLy ol well-|oLLed composL o| manu|e and pe|haps also
some le|Lilize| belo|e sowinq. Sow seed di|ecLly inLo Lhe q|ound
in laLe sp|inq o| summe|. Il you sow ea|lie| when iL is sLill cool,
you| planLs may bolL. Cove| seeds Lo a depLh ol
in (2 cm), and
Lhin ouL seedlinqs Lo 4 in (I0 cm) apa|L il you plan Lo cuL jusL Lhe
leaves o| I2 in (²0 cm) il you a|e qoinq Lo ha|vesL Lhe whole planL.
keutîne care
Weed and waLe| planLs l|equenLly. Bo| choy has sho|L |ooLs and
will d|y ouL unless you waLe| olLen enouqh Lo |eep Lhe Lop lew
inches ol soil damp.
Bo| choy q|ows quic|ly-wiLhin a monLh ol sowinq, you should
be able Lo ha|vesL younq leaves. AlLe|naLively, allow Lhe seedlinqs
Lo maLu|e, and ha|vesL Lhem when Lhe |ibs have Lhic|ened and
lo|med a head.
What can ge wreng
Bo| choy is p|one Lo bolLinq il planLed Loo ea|ly. 0Lhe|wise, iL is
aL |is| l|om mosL ol Lhe pesLs and diseases LhaL allecL all
b|assicas, includinq club|ooL and cabbaqe |ooL ly (·ee µµZZ-Z8).
kecemmended bek chey
0antong White, 0hoko, Joi 0hoi
Jeî 0heî
Brussels spreuts
Few veqeLables pola|ize people Lhe way LhaL B|ussels sp|ouLs do. you eiLhe|
love 'em o| you haLe 'em. Nobody, iL seems, is indille|enL. Foweve|, even il you
have decided you don'L li|e Lhem, pe|haps you can be pe|suaded Lo qive Lhem
one mo|e L|y` Fomeq|own sp|ouLs, pic|ed when younq and small, and coo|ed
while sLill l|esh and Lende|, have a sweeLness and a wonde|lul nuLLy lavo| LhaL
miqhL jusL chanqe you| mind. And il
you develop a LasLe lo| Lhem, Lhe|e's
no |eason why you shouldn'L qo on Lo
L|y one ol Lhe unusual |ed
o| pu|ple va|ieLies.
Medern FI hybrîd varîetîes have been b|ed Lo p|oduce
|equla|ly spaced, idenLically sized sp|ouLs.
SEAS0N Sprîng Summer Fall Wînter
Sew N N
Transplant N N
Karvest N N N
Where te plant
B|ussels sp|ouLs q|ow besL in le|Lile soil LhaL has had plenLy ol
well-|oLLed composL o| manu|e duq inLo iL in Lhe p|evious season.
The q|ound should Lhen be allowed Lo seLLle and bed down.
B|ussels sp|ouLs q|ow Lall and heavy, and Lhei| |ooLs need l|m
soil Lo help suppo|L Lhem. Il necessa|y, add some lime Lo Lhe soil
in o|de| Lo inc|ease Lhe pF Lo aL leasL o.B (·ee µ4Z), Lhen apply a
base-d|essinq ol qene|al le|Lilize|.
As wiLh all b|assicas, c|op |oLaLion is impo|LanL. 0on'L planL
B|ussels sp|ouLs whe|e you've |ecenLly q|own any membe|s ol
Lhe cabbaqe lamily.
When te plant
Fo| sp|ouLs LhaL will be |eady Lo ha|vesL in laLe lall and winLe|,
sow seeds in ea|ly o| mid-sp|inq, and planL ouL seedlinqs in ea|ly
o| midsumme|. Fo| sp|ouLs Lo ha|vesL in laLe summe| and ea|ly
lall, sow unde| cove| Lhe p|evious winLe| and L|ansplanL in sp|inq,
as soon as Lhe weaLhe| is wa|m enouqh.
Earth up the plants abouL a monLh
alLe| planLinq Lhem ouL, by d|awinq soil
up a|ound Lhe sLem. This helps p|evenL
Lhem l|om loppinq ove|.
Kew te sew seeds
Sow seeds Lhinly in L|ays, poLs, o| modules and
cove| wiLh poLLinq mix o| soilless mix Lo a
depLh ol abouL
in (2 cm). Keep indoo|s o|
unde| cove| unLil iL is wa|m enouqh Lo planL
Lhem ouL. AlLe|naLively, sow seeds di|ecLly in
Lhe q|ound, p|oLecLinq Lhem l|om l|osL il
necessa|y, and Lhen L|ansplanL Lhem Lo Lhei|
lnal posiLion once Lhey'|e esLablished.
Kew te plant eut seedlîngs
Seedlinqs should be |eady Lo L|ansplanL abouL
lou| o| lve wee|s alLe| sowinq-usually l|om
ea|ly summe| onwa|d. FlanL dwa|l culLiva|s
abouL IB in (45 cm) apa|L, Lo p|oduce small,
unilo|mly-sized sp|ouLs. Foweve|, space la|qe
culLiva|s aL leasL 24 in (o0 cm) apa|L and planL
Lhem deeply, Lhey La|e up mo|e space and
q|ow Lalle| sLems, l|om which you can pic|
sp|ouLs successively. 0on'L be LempLed Lo
c|owd Lhe planLs-Lhey need plenLy ol liqhL
and ai| Lo |eep Lhem healLhy.
FiLLinq a b|assica colla| a|ound each seedlinq's
sLem will deLe| cabbaqe |ooL ly, and cove|inq
wiLh neLLinq will |eep oll bi|ds and buLLe|lies.
(lelL) kemeve leaves when Lhey sLa|L Lu|ninq yellow in lall, as
Lhey can become inlecLed wiLh lunqal diseases. Il Lhey |emain on
Lhe planL, Lhe disease may allecL Lhe whole c|op.
(|iqhL) Spreuts mature frem the base ol Lhe sLem, so sLa|L
ha|vesLinq aL Lhe boLLom and wo|| you| way up.
keutîne care
Keep younq planLs well-waLe|ed and l|ee ol
weeds in o|de| Lo encou|aqe sL|onq |ooL q|owLh,
Lhe|ealLe|, waLe| spa|inqly. Fou| o| lve wee|s
alLe| planLinq, ea|Lh up Lhe sLems Lo qive some
exL|a sLabiliLy, and sLa|e planLs LhaL you plan
Lo leave in Lhe q|ound ove| winLe|. CuL oll and
|emove any dead o| dyinq leaves.
AL some poinL in mid- Lo laLe summe|, iL's
wo|Lh applyinq a Lop-d|essinq ol a niL|oqenous
le|Lilize| such as sullaLe ol ammonia, o| an
o|qanic liquid le|Lilize|.
Il you pinch ouL Lhe planL's q|owinq Lip when
Lhe sp|ouLs Lowa|d Lhe boLLom ol Lhe sLem
|each abouL
in (I cm) in diameLe|, Lhe oLhe|s
should q|ow Lo maLch Lhem. Lhis will encou|aqe
a ha|vesL ol sp|ouLs LhaL a|e app|oximaLely Lhe
same size.
B|ussels sp|ouLs a|e usually |eady Lo ha|vesL
abouL lve monLhs alLe| sowinq, alLhouqh wiLh
lall and winLe| c|ops you could waiL unLil alLe|
Lhe l|sL l|osL, when Lhey Lend Lo LasLe beLLe|.
SLa|Linq wiLh Lhe sp|ouLs aL Lhe boLLom ol Lhe
sLems, cuL Lhem wiLh a sha|p |nile o| snap
Lhem oll by pullinq downwa|d.
AlLe|naLively, up|ooL Lhe whole planL and
leave Lhe sp|ouLs on Lhe sLem unLil you need
Lhem. They will |eep lo| a lew days sLandinq in
a pail conLaininq a liLLle waLe| o| lo| seve|al
wee|s il hunq in a cool, l|osL-l|ee place.
The younqesL leaves-aL Lhe Lop ol Lhe
sLems-can be ha|vesLed as ¨sp|ouL Lops¨ and
coo|ed li|e sp|inq q|eens. 0nce you've pic|ed
oll Lhe sp|ouLs, diq up any |emaininq planLs and
smash Lhe sLems wiLh a hamme| belo|e
composLinq. This helps Lhem |oL down quic|ly
and |educes Lhe |is| ol sp|eadinq diseases.
What can ge wreng
B|ussels sp|ouLs can be allicLed by all Lhe
pesLs and diseases LhaL allecL oLhe| b|assicas
(·ee µµZZ-Z8)-includinq club|ooL and cabbaqe
|ooL ly-so La|e all Lhe sLanda|d p|ecauLions.
Mealy cabbaqe aphid and whiLely can be
pa|Licula|ly p|oblemaLic and, alLhouqh Lhey
may noL desL|oy you| c|op, Lhey'|e unpleasanL
and dillculL Lo wash oll.
kecemmended Brussels spreuts
MosL culLiva|s a|e q|een, buL a lew |ed o|
pu|ple va|ieLies-such as 'Rubine' and 'Red
0elicious'-a|e also available.
Bosworth, Braveheart, 0ascade 0iablo, Evesham
5pecial, Long Island Improved, Noisette, Peer
0ynt, Red 0elicious, Romulus, Rubine, Wellington
(l|om la| lelL) 0îable, ked 0elîcîeus, Beswerth
Spinach is a veqeLable LhaL q|ows besL in cool climaLes. Il qiven Lhe sliqhLesL
chance, iL will bolL and qo Lo seed as soon as Lhe weaLhe| becomes hoL and d|y.
BolL-|esisLanL va|ieLies a|e available buL iL can be a baLLle Lo p|evenL even Lhose
l|om lowe|inq du|inq Lhe summe| monLhs. IL's wo|Lh pe|seve|inq, Lhouqh.
F|esh spinach noL only LasLes wonde|lul-eiLhe| coo|ed o| eaLen |aw in
salads-buL is hiqhly nuL|iLious. T|adiLional spinach va|ieLies have eiLhe| smooLh
o| w|in|led (¨Savoy¨) leaves. SmooLh leaves Lend Lo be Lhinne|, sweeLe|, and
beLLe| suiLed Lo salads, w|in|led
leaves a|e Lhic|e| and |eLain Lhei|
LexLu|e when coo|ed. Mode|n Asian
culLiva|s a|e da||e| in colo| and
usually have lonqe| sLal|s.
SEAS0N Sprîng Summer Fall Wînter
Sew N N N N
Transplant N
Karvest N N N
Where te plant
Spinach is noL Loo lussy abouL whe|e iL is q|own. IL is sliqhLly
unusual in LhaL iL will happily Lole|aLe pa|Lial shade, in lacL, in
summe| iL p|obably p|ele|s noL Lo be in lull sun. IL is, howeve|,
boLh hunq|y and Lhi|sLy. IL needs le|Lile, niL|oqen-|ich soil LhaL
|eLains moisLu|e ellecLively, so q|ow iL whe|e you have duq in loLs
ol well-|oLLed composL o| manu|e. Il Lhe soil is pa|Licula|ly poo|,
p|epa|e Lhe q|ound Lho|ouqhly in advance by sp|eadinq some
compound le|Lilize| o| poulL|y manu|e.
When te plant
Seeds ol mode|n culLiva|s can be sown almosL all yea|-
Lhouqh Lhey may noL qe|minaLe ve|y successlully in Lhe ve|y hoL
Lempe|aLu|es ol hiqh summe|. Fo| a conLinuous c|op, sow seeds
eve|y lew wee|s l|om ea|ly sp|inq |iqhL Lh|ouqh Lo laLe summe|
o| ea|ly lall. Ea|ly sowinqs will be |eady in sp|inq, and in mild
climaLes, laLe sowinqs should lasL Lh|ouqh Lhe winLe| lo|
ha|vesLinq Lhe lollowinq sp|inq, alLhouqh you may need Lo p|oLecL
Lhem wiLh cloches in ve|y cold weaLhe|.
"As well as
being highly
spinach can
be picked
Asîan spînach cultîvars Lend Lo have
much lonqe|, Lhic|e| sLems Lhan Lhei|
WesLe|n counLe|pa|Ls.
Yeu can pîck eff the euter leaves
l|om abouL eiqhL wee|s alLe| sowinq.
AlLe|naLively, |emove Lhe whole planL
by cuLLinq iL jusL above Lhe soil level.
Kew te sew seeds
Spinach is besL sown sL|aiqhL inLo Lhe q|ound. Sow seeds abouL
in (2 cm) deep, abouL I in (2.5 cm) apa|L, and in |ows I2 in
(²0 cm) apa|L. When Lhey a|e la|qe enouqh Lo handle, Lhin ouL
seedlinqs Lo abouL ²-o in (7-I5 cm) apa|L, dependinq on Lhe size
ol planLs you wanL. Il you'|e planninq a cuL-and-come-aqain c|op,
sow wiLhin wide d|ills.
keutîne care
Keep planLs l|ee ol weeds, and waLe| as |equla|ly and copiously
as you can. As soon as you leL Lhe planLs d|y ouL, Lhey a|e li|ely
Lo bolL. In midsumme|, spinach is much mo|e anxious Lo p|oduce
lowe|s and qo Lo seed Lhan iL is Lo q|ow new leaves. Il leal
q|owLh seems slow, apply a Lop-d|essinq ol a niL|oqenous
le|Lilize| o| an o|qanic liquid le|Lilize|.
Spinach is usually |eady lo| ha|vesLinq I0-I2 wee|s alLe|
sowinq, alLhouqh you can sLa|L cuLLinq younq leaves lo| salads
much ea|lie|. As soon as Lhey a|e abouL 2 in (5 cm) in lenqLh, La|e
a lew ol Lhe ouLe| leaves l|om each planL aL a Lime.
To ha|vesL Lhe whole planL, up|ooL iL compleLely o| cuL oll Lhe
head abouL I in (2.5 cm) above Lhe level ol Lhe soil. New leal
shooLs should sp|ouL l|om Lhe sLump.
What can ge wreng
Apa|L l|om p|emaLu|e bolLinq, downy mildew (·ee µJ?Z) is li|ely
Lo be Lhe biqqesL p|oblem. Civinq you| planLs mo|e space, Lhe|eby
allowinq ai| Lo ci|culaLe l|eely, is Lhe besL soluLion.
Bi|ds can be pesLs, Loo, as Lhey may eaL younq seedlinqs. Il so,
you may have Lo use neLLinq Lo |eep Lhem oll.
kecemmended spînach
BolL-|esisLanL, smooLh-leaved va|ieLies a|e p|obably Lhe easiesL Lo
q|ow, buL iL's also wo|Lh expe|imenLinq wiLh some ol Lhe mo|e
unusual colo|s and shapes.
Atlanta, Bloomsdale, 0iant Thick Leaved, Melody, Monnopa, Palco,
5igmaleaf, 5pokane
This is acLually a dille|enL species buL is q|own
and used in Lhe same way as |equla| spinach.
The q|eaL benelL Lo q|owinq iL-apa|L l|om
Lhe lacL LhaL iL LasLes qood-is LhaL iL is much
happie| Lhan no|mal spinach when q|own
in hiqh Lempe|aLu|es, as iL will Lole|aLe d|y
condiLions, and is less li|ely Lo bolL. Soa| seeds
in waLe| belo|ehand Lo encou|aqe qe|minaLion,
Lhen sow ouLdoo|s in laLe sp|inq alLe| Lhe lasL
l|osLs, and Lhin ouL Lhe seedlinqs so Lhey a|e
abouL IB in (45 cm) apa|L.
You can usually beqin pic|inq Lhe younq
leshy leaves as ea|ly as six wee|s alLe| sowinq
(·ee /e/ow). They will |eep |eq|owinq, so L|eaL
Lhe planL as a cuL-and-come-aqain c|op LhaL
should lasL |iqhL Lh|ouqh summe| Lo Lhe l|sL
l|osL in lall.
(Lop) Palce (boLLom) Mennepa
Kale is a |eal su|vivo|. The mosL ancienL ol all cabbaqes, iL's one ol Lhe LouqhesL,
ha|diesL veqeLables ol Lhem all, and iLs Lall, |ibbed leaves can be seen sLandinq
in Lhe q|ound in Lhe ha|shesL, mosL seve|e winLe|s, aL Lempe|aLu|es as low as
5°F (-I5°C). Indeed, in some climaLes iL may be Lhe only l|esh veqeLable
available du|inq Lhe coldesL monLhs. Some va|ieLies will also Lole|aLe hiqh
Lempe|aLu|es and a|e Lhe|elo|e equally happy in hoL summe|s. unli|e cabbaqes,
|ale doesn'L lo|m a dense hea|L.
InsLead, Lhe leaves sp|ead ouL l|om
Lhe cenL|al sLem. They may be q|een,
pu|ple, |ed, o| blac|, and eiLhe| LiqhLly
cu|led o| b|oad and loosely c|in|led.
SEAS0N Sprîng Summer Fall Wînter
Sew N N
Transplant N
Karvest N N N N
(lelL) Karvest yeung leaves by pullinq
a lew l|om Lhe cenLe| ol each planL.
Leave healLhy ouLe| leaves in place.
(|iqhL) Pull up plants when you've
lnished ha|vesLinq leaves in o|de| Lo
|educe Lhe build-up ol diseases such
as club|ooL.
Where te plant
Some |ale va|ieLies q|ow up Lo ² lL (º0 cm)
in heiqhL and 24 in (o0 cm) in sp|ead, so Lhey
need a siLe whe|e Lhey have plenLy ol |oom.
They li|e le|Lile, well-d|ained soil LhaL's l|m
and well-compacLed. 0on'L allow Lhe soil Lo
become waLe|loqqed in winLe|.
When te plant
Sow in ea|ly sp|inq lo| a summe| c|op, and
in laLe sp|inq o| ea|ly summe| lo| lall and
winLe| ha|vesLs.
Kew te sew seeds
and plant eut seedlîngs
Sow Lo a depLh ol abouL
in (2 cm) in
modules, o| ouLdoo|s in a seedbed, and p|oLecL
Lhem l|om l|osL. T|ansplanL seedlinqs a|ound
o-B wee|s laLe|, beinq ca|elul Lo disLu|b Lhe
|ooLs as liLLle as possible.
Fo| ea|ly cuL-and-come-aqain salad c|ops,
seedlinqs can be planLed quiLe closely-abouL
²-4 in (B-I0 cm) apa|L. Seedlinqs inLended Lo
q|ow inLo lull-sized planLs should be spaced
IB-24 in (45-o0 cm) apa|L.
(la| lelL) kedber (lelL) ked kussîan
keutîne care
Keep planLs l|ee ol weeds, and waLe| spa|inqly.
Il leaves a|e yellow o| q|owLh seems slow, qive
planLs an o|qanic liquid le|Lilize| in ea|ly lall.
Fo| summe| salads, pic| individual leaves o| cuL
younq planLs when Lhey a|e 4-o in (I0-I5 cm)
Lall. They should |esp|ouL. Full-q|own leaves can
be cuL and coo|ed Lh|ouqhouL Lhe winLe|.
What can ge wreng
Kale is a b|assica, so in Lheo|y iL is aL |is| l|om
all Lhe usual pesLs and diseases LhaL allecL
cabbaqes, caulilowe|s, and B|ussels sp|ouLs
(·ee µµZZ-Z8). Foweve|, iL is qene|ally L|ouble-
l|ee and is ce|Lainly less p|one Lo club|ooL.
WaLch ouL lo| whiLely inlesLaLions, Lhouqh,
and il you qeL Lhem, wash leaves Lho|ouqhly in
salL waLe| belo|e eaLinq Lhem. BuLLe|lies and
bi|ds seem aLL|acLed Lo some va|ieLies buL noL
oLhe|s, so you may have Lo use neLLinq.
kecemmended kale
Afro, Black Tuscan (0avolo Nero), 0warf 0reen
0urled, Pentland Brig, Ragged Jack, Redbor,
Red Russian, Refex
Swîss chard and spînach beet
BoLh Lhese veqeLables a|e |elaLed Lo beeLs, and a|e Lhe|elo|e olLen |nown
collecLively as ¨leal beeLs.¨ In one c|ucial way, howeve|, Lhey a|e Lhe exacL
opposiLe ol beeLs. Lhey q|ow la|qe edible leaves and have small inedible |ooLs.
Swiss cha|d is Lhe beLLe|-loo|inq ol Lhe Lwo. WiLh iLs da||- o| yellow-q|een
leaves and vib|anL whiLe, |ed, yellow, o| pu|ple sLal|s and veins, iL is so d|amaLic
LhaL iL is olLen q|own as much lo|
o|namenL as lo| lood. Spinach beeL
has smalle| leaves and na||owe|
q|een sLal|s. BoLh can be coo|ed
and eaLen li|e spinach.
SEAS0N Sprîng Summer Fall Wînter
Plant N N
Transplant N N
Karvest N N N
Where te plant
Leal beeLs q|ow besL in |ich, moisLu|e-|eLenLive soil. 0iq in plenLy
ol well-|oLLed composL o| manu|e il possible, il noL, simply apply
a base-d|essinq ol qene|al le|Lilize| o| poulL|y manu|e. The soil
should have a neuL|al o| sliqhLly al|aline pF (·ee µ4Z).
When te plant
Sow in sp|inq and ea|ly summe| lo| c|ops LhaL will lasL Lh|ouqh
Lo mid- o| laLe lall, and sow in mid- o| laLe summe| lo| ha|vesLinq
in sp|inq Lhe lollowinq yea|.
Kew te sew seeds
Sow seeds Lhinly di|ecLly inLo Lhe q|ound aL a depLh ol I in (2.5 cm),
in |ows IB in (45 cm) apa|L. Thin seedlinqs Lo 4 in (I0 cm) apa|L
lo| younq salad leaves, and I2 in (²0 cm) lo| lull-q|own planLs.
To qeL ahead when Lhe q|ound is sLill cold, sow seeds in modules
unde| cove|. T|ansplanL Lhem once Lhe|e is no |is| ol l|osL.
keutîne care
Keep planLs weed-l|ee, and waLe| in d|y spells. Requla|ly cuLLinq
bac| lowe| shooLs will encou|aqe planLs Lo |eep c|oppinq. Any
planLs you plan Lo leave in Lhe q|ound unLil Lhe end ol Lhe yea|
may benelL l|om a Lop-d|essinq ol a niL|oqenous le|Lilize| o| an
o|qanic liquid le|Lilize| in laLe summe|. 0ve|winLe|inq planLs Lend
Lo la|e beLLe| unde| cloches Lhan Lhose exposed Lo Lhe elemenLs.
0rewîng chard în centaîners is quiLe
possible, Lhouqh bea| in mind LhaL leaves
will become la|qe unless ha|vesLed
|equla|ly when younq.
Fic| younq, Lende| leaves as soon as Lhey a|e la|qe enouqh lo|
salads. Ea|ly planLinqs should maLu|e B-I0 wee|s alLe| sowinq.
As Lhey become |eady, ha|vesL alLe|naLe planLs in each ol you|
|ows Lo leave mo|e space lo| Lhose LhaL you leave behind.
ConLinue Lo cuL lull-q|own leaves as and when you need Lhem
unLil Lhe planL lnally bolLs and qoes Lo seed.
What can ge wreng
¨ve|y liLLle¨ is Lhe answe|. Cha|ds and spinach beeL a|e qene|ally
healLhy and |esilienL.
kecemmended Swîss chard and spînach beet
Bewa|e. Lhe dille|enL names applied Lo Swiss cha|d and spinach
beeL can be conlusinq. BoLh may be |ele||ed Lo as leal beeLs.
Swiss cha|d is someLimes |nown as sea|ale beeL. And spinach
beeL is someLimes called pe|peLual beeL o| pe|peLual spinach.
Bright Lights, Feurio, Perpetual 5pinach, Rainbow, Rhubarb 0hard,
5wiss 0hard, White 5ilver
(below lelL) Mulchîng a|ound younq
planLs discou|aqes weeds and helps Lo
|eep Lhe soil moisL.
(below |iqhL) Karvest Swiss cha|d as a
cuL-and-come-aqain c|op. New leaves
will q|ow Lo |eplace Lhose you've pic|ed.
(Lop |iqhL) Perpetual Spînach
(boLLom |iqhL) Whîte Sîlver
WiLh a biL ol planninq, iL's noL dillculL Lo have a consLanL supply ol caulilowe|s
Lh|ouqhouL Lhe yea|. The sec|eL is Lo planL Lhe |iqhL va|ieLies aL Lhe |iqhL Lime.
lasL-q|owinq culLiva|s sown in sp|inq should qive you a ha|vesL Lh|ouqh Lhe
summe| and lall, slowe|-q|owinq ones will p|oduce caulilowe|s Lo pic|
in winLe| and even, in l|osL-l|ee a|eas, Lhe lollowinq sp|inq. MosL caulilowe|s
have c|eamy-whiLe heads o| ¨cu|ds,¨ buL lime-q|een and pu|ple va|ieLies a|e
also available. The L|ic|iesL Lhinq abouL q|owinq Lhem is Lo p|evenL Lhem l|om
bolLinq. Civen hall a chance, Lhey'll do so and sLa|L Lo p|oduce seed.
0aulîHewer curds a|e
acLually masses ol lowe|
buds LhaL haven'L yeL opened.
SEAS0N Sprîng Summer Fall Wînter
Sew N N
Transplant N
Karvest N
Sew N
Transplant N
Karvest N N
Sew N
Transplant N
Karvest N
Sew N
Transplant N
Karvest N
Where te plant
Caulilowe|s q|ow besL in lai|ly |ich, moisLu|e-
|eLenLive soil LhaL has had plenLy ol well-|oLLed
composL o| manu|e duq inLo iL a couple ol
seasons belo|ehand. Il necessa|y, add some
lime Lo Lhe soil Lo inc|ease Lhe pF Lo aL leasL
o.B (·ee µ4Z), and apply a base-d|essinq ol
qene|al le|Lilize|.
Allow Lhe soil Lo seLLle and don'L lo|| iL
ove| belo|e you sLa|L planLinq-caulilowe|s
need l|m q|ound LhaL will help Lo suppo|L
Lhei| weiqhL.
As wiLh all b|assicas, c|op |oLaLion is
impo|LanL. 0on'L planL caulilowe|s whe|e
you've |ecenLly q|own any membe|s ol Lhe
cabbaqe lamily.
Sew early summer types
unde| cloches, as seeds won'L
qe|minaLe aL low Lempe|aLu|es.
When te plant
Fo| caulilowe|s LhaL will be |eady Lo ha|vesL in ea|ly summe|,
sow seeds Lhe p|evious lall o| winLe|, |eep seedlinqs unde| qlass
o| in a q|eenhouse, and L|ansplanL in ea|ly sp|inq. Fo| summe|-
and lall-ha|vesL caulilowe|s, sow in sp|inq, and L|ansplanL in
ea|ly summe|. Sow seeds lo| winLe|- and sp|inq-headinq
caulilowe|s in laLe| sp|inq, and L|ansplanL in laLe summe|. F|oLecL
Lhem l|om l|osL il Lhey a|e qoinq Lo ove|winLe|.
Kew te sew seeds
Sow seeds Lhinly in L|ays, poLs, o| modules and cove| wiLh poLLinq
o| mix Lo a depLh ol abouL
in (2 cm). Seeds usually need a
Lempe|aLu|e ol abouL 70°F (2I°C) Lo qe|minaLe, so |eep Lhem in
a heaLed p|opaqaLo| o| ouLdoo|s unde| cloches o| in a cold l|ame
unLil iL is wa|m enouqh lo| Lhem Lo be L|ansplanLed. AlLe|naLively,
sow seeds in a seedbed, p|oLecLinq Lhem l|om l|osL il necessa|y-
alLhouqh il you do Lhis, |emembe| Lo ha|den Lhem oll belo|e
L|ansplanLinq Lhem ouL.
Kew te plant eut seedlîngs
Seedlinqs should be L|ansplanLed belo|e Lhey qeL any Lalle| Lhan
2 in (5 cm). Il you leave iL any lonqe| Lhan Lhis, you may damaqe
Lhe |ooLs and cause Lhem Lo bolL. In qene|al, Lhe laLe| in Lhe yea|
caulilowe| seedlinqs a|e L|ansplanLed, Lhe biqqe| Lhey'll q|ow
and Lhe mo|e space you'll need Lo qive Lhem. As a |ule ol Lhumb,
planL ea|ly summe| and summe|/lall caulilowe|s abouL 24 in
(o0 cm) apa|L. WinLe|- and sp|inq-headinq va|ieLies may need a
liLLle mo|e |oom, so planL Lhem abouL 2B in (70 cm) apa|L. E|| on
Lhe side ol mo|e |aLhe| Lhan less space, as liqhL and ai| help |eep
Lhe planLs healLhy.
A b|assica colla| a|ound each seedlinq sLem will deLe| cabbaqe
|ooL ly, and neLLinq will |eep bi|ds and buLLe|lies aL bay.
keutîne care
Keep planLs l|ee ol weeds, and waLe| |equla|ly Lh|ouqhouL Lhe
q|owinq season. Il you leL Lhe planLs d|y ouL, Lhei| q|owLh will be
inLe||upLed and Lhey a|e li|ely Lo bolL. WinLe|- and sp|inq-headinq
caulilowe|s can be qiven a Lop-d|essinq ol a niL|oqenous le|Lilize|
o| an o|qanic liquid le|Lilize| in laLe winLe| o| ea|ly sp|inq-buL
no ea|lie|, o| iL will wea|en Lhei| |esisLance Lo Lhe cold-in o|de|
Lo encou|aqe new q|owLh belo|e ha|vesLinq.
0u|inq Lhe summe|, sun may
cause Lhe caulilowe|'s whiLe
cu|d Lo yellow, while in winLe|,
Lhe cu|d is p|one Lo l|osL damaqe.
BoLh ol Lhese p|oblems can be dealL
wiLh by ca||yinq ouL a simple Las|.
To blanch Lhe cu|d in summe|,
lold a couple ol leaves ove| Lhe
Lop li|e a headsca|l. And Lo p|oLecL
Lhe cu|d l|om l|osL in winLe|, w|ap
Lhe leaves a|ound Lhe head and Lie
Lhem wiLh sL|inq.
Fa|vesL all caulilowe|s while Lhe cu|ds a|e sLill l|m and LiqhL.
unless you'|e qoinq Lo eaL Lhem immediaLely, don'L cuL oll all
Lhe leaves a|ound Lhe heads, leavinq a lew in place will help
p|oLecL Lhem. Summe| caulilowe|s can be sLo|ed lo| a lew
wee|s il you hanq Lhem upside down in a cool place and sp|ay
Lhem l|om Lime Lo Lime wiLh waLe|. Fall and winLe| va|ieLies may
|eep lo| lonqe|, since Lhey will have sLopped q|owinq by Lhe Lime
you ha|vesL Lhem. IL's also wo|Lh bea|inq in mind LhaL all Lypes ol
caulilowe| l|eeze well.
What can ge wreng
Caulilowe|s may be allecLed by all Lhe pesLs and diseases LhaL
aLLac| oLhe| b|assicas (·ee µµZZ-Z8)-includinq club|ooL and
cabbaqe |ooL ly-so La|e all Lhe sLanda|d p|ecauLions. 0owny
mildew (·ee µJ?Z) can be L|oublesome. So, Loo, can delciencies
ol maqnesium, bo|on, and molybdenum-Lhe laLLe| p|oduces Lhin,
delo|med leaves, a condiLion called ¨whipLail.¨
kecemmended caulîflewer
EARLY SuMMER Fargo, Idol
SuMMER/AuTuMN All-The-Year-Round, Beauty, 0ok Elgon, 0raffti,
Kestel, Limelight, Plana, 5now 0rown, Wallaby, White Rock
WINTER AN0 SFRINC Penduick, White 0ove, 0alleon, Jerome,
Mayfair, Patriot, Purple 0ape, Red Lion, Walcheren Armado May
(lelL) Mayfaîr
(|iqhL) Purple-headed caulîHewers
don'L always |eLain Lhei| colo| when
coo|ed, Lhouqh Lhey a|e less li|ely Lo
lade il sLeamed |aLhe| Lhan boiled.
Te grew mînî caulîHewers, |educe
Lhe planLinq disLance Lo o in (I5 cm).
The ove|c|owdinq will p|oduce sLunLed
q|owLh. This Lechnique wo||s besL wiLh
lasL-q|owinq ea|ly-summe| va|ieLies.
The|e a|e Lwo sliqhLly dille|enL veqeLables he|e-Lhouqh Lhey come l|om Lhe
same lamily q|oup ol b|assicas. 0ne is co/o//e·e, which q|ows a la|qe, q|een
caulilowe|-li|e head and is whaL we usually jusL call ¨b|occoli.¨ The oLhe| is
·µ/oat/nq //occo//, which q|ows many
small lo|eLs insLead ol a sinqle head
and is available in pu|ple o| whiLe
va|ieLies. T|adiLionally, calab|ese was
Lhe one LhaL you ha|vesLed du|inq
summe|, and sp|ouLinq b|occoli was
a valuable sou|ce ol l|esh p|oduce
du|inq winLe| and Lh|ouqh Lo laLe
sp|inq. Foweve|, mode|n culLiva|s
have exLended Lhe seasons lo|
q|owinq boLh Lypes.
Late Purple Spreutîng
SEAS0N Sprîng Summer Fall Wînter
Sew N N N
Transplant N
Karvest N N N
Sew N N
Transplant N N
Karvest N N N N
Where te plant
All b|occoli li|es a shelLe|ed siLe and le|Lile, well-d|ained soil
pac|ed down l|mly Lo qive iL sullcienL suppo|L. Il necessa|y, add
some lime Lo Lhe soil Lo inc|ease Lhe pF Lo aL leasL o.B (·ee µ4Z).
You can apply a base-d|essinq ol qene|al le|Lilize| belo|e planLinq
sp|ouLinq b|occoli, buL calab|ese doesn'L usually need iL.
C|op |oLaLion is impo|LanL Lo help p|evenL club|ooL. 0on'L planL
b|occoli whe|e you've |ecenLly q|own any membe|s ol Lhe
cabbaqe lamily.
When te plant
Calab|ese seeds a|e besL sown l|om mid-sp|inq Lh|ouqh ea|ly
summe|. You can also sow in lall lo| a c|op Lhe lollowinq sp|inq il
you |eep Lhe planLs in a cold l|ame o| q|eenhouse in winLe|. Sow
L|adiLional sp|ouLinq b|occoli in sp|inq and leave Lhe planLs in Lhe
q|ound unLil ha|vesLinq in laLe winLe| o| even ea|ly Lhe lollowinq
sp|inq. Sow new culLiva|s aL any Lime l|om laLe winLe| onwa|d
lo| ha|vesLinq Lh|ouqh Lhe summe| and lall.
Suppert breccelî stems usinq sLa|es,
o| ea|Lh Lhem up, Lo help inc|ease Lhe
sLabiliLy ol planLs.
Kew te sew seeds
Calab|ese seedlinqs don'L li|e beinq L|ansplanLed, especially in
wa|m weaLhe|, so iL's besL Lo sow seeds di|ecLly inLo Lhe q|ound,
in succession Lo avoid havinq Lhem all maLu|e aL once. Sow Lh|ee
seeds Lo a hole,
in (2 cm) deep, abouL I2 in (²0 cm) apa|L, and
in |ows IB in (45 cm) apa|L. Thin ouL Lhe Lwo wea|esL seedlinqs
and leave Lhe sL|onqesL Lo q|ow on.
Fo| calab|ese LhaL you plan Lo ove|winLe|, sow in modules in
mid-lall and L|ansplanL seedlinqs in ea|ly winLe| Lo a q|owinq siLe
p|oLecLed by a cold l|ame o| inside a q|eenhouse.
Sow sp|ouLinq b|occoli seeds in L|ays o| modules, o| ouLdoo|s
in seedbeds-in boLh cases Lo a depLh ol abouL
in (2 cm). Keep
Lhem cove|ed unLil Lhe|e is no lonqe| a |is| ol l|osL.
Kew te plant eut seedlîngs
T|ansplanL seedlinqs as ca|elully as possible. They don'L li|e
any |ind ol |ooL disLu|bance. Space calab|ese abouL I2 in (²0 cm)
apa|L in |ows IB in (45 cm) apa|L. Sp|ouLinq b|occoli La|es up
mo|e |oom when lully q|own, and should Lhe|elo|e be spaced
aL leasL 24 in (o0 cm) apa|L in |ows also 24 in (o0 cm) apa|L.
keutîne care
Keep seedlinqs weed-l|ee and well-waLe|ed unLil esLablished.
AlLe| LhaL, waLe| calab|ese |equla|ly buL don'L ove|waLe| sp|ouLinq
b|occoli-iL will su|vive Lhe winLe| beLLe| il you avoid Lhis.
As Lhe heads o| lo|eLs develop, Lhe planLs have a Lendency
Lo become Lop-heavy, so ea|Lh up Lhei| sLems Lo suppo|L Lhem.
SLa|e sp|ouLinq b|occoli when lall a||ives, especially il iL is
exposed Lo wind.
MosL calab|ese va|ieLies a|e lai|ly lasL-q|owinq, and you should
be able Lo ha|vesL Lhem wiLhin Lh|ee o| lou| monLhs ol sowinq.
WiLh any luc|, sp|ouLinq b|occoli should qive you a conLinuous
c|op LhaL lasLs lo| up Lo Lwo monLhs. Snap oll Lhe lowe|inq
shooLs when Lhe lowe|s a|e in bud buL belo|e Lhey open, when
Lhey'|e abouL o in (I5 cm) lonq. The mo|e you pic|, Lhe mo|e new
shooLs will q|ow.
CuL Lhe main cenL|al head
while iL is sLill l|m and
Lhe lowe|s a|e LiqhLly budded,
belo|e iL qeLs much biqqe|
Lhan 4 in (I0 cm) in diameLe|.
SideshooLs should develop
once Lhe cenL|al head is qone.
They can be ha|vesLed laLe|.
What can ge wreng
AlLhouqh b|occoli can be allecLed by p|oblems
LhaL allicL oLhe| b|assicas (·ee µµZZ-Z8)-
includinq club|ooL-iL's usually lai|ly L|ouble-
l|ee. The mosL i||iLaLinq pesLs a|e li|ely Lo be
bi|ds (especially piqeons) and caLe|pilla|s lelL
by visiLinq buLLe|lies. You may need Lo cove|
you| planLs wiLh neLLinq Lo |eep Lhem ouL.
kecemmended breccelî
CALABRESE 0orvet, 0ecathlon, Jewel, Lord,
Romanesco, Tenderstem
SFR0uTINC BR0CC0LI Bordeaux, 0laret,
Early Purple 5prouting Improved, Early White
5prouting, Late Purple 5prouting, Rudolph,
White Eye, White 5tar
(cloc|wise l|om Lop)
kemanesce, 0laret, Early Whîte Spreutîng
4. Root & Stem
This q|oup ol veqeLables includes Lwo majo| Lypes. |ooLs such as poLaLoes, ca||oLs,
beeLs, and Lu|nips (which all q|ow unde|q|ound), and sLems such as cele|y, lennel,
onions, and lee|s (which q|ow above Lhe su|lace). In Lhe case ol some sLem
veqeLables, iL's quiLe clea| LhaL whaL you'|e eaLinq a|e Lhe sLal|s o| sLems-cele|y,
q|een onions, and lee|s, lo| example. In Lhe case ol oLhe|s-cele|iac, |ohl|abi,
and even bulb onions-iL's noL so obvious, Lhey loo| mo|e li|e |ooLs Lhan Lhe
swollen sLems LhaL Lhey acLually a|e.
AlmosL all Lhe veqeLables in Lhis q|oup sha|e a valuable cha|acLe|isLic. Lhey
can be sLo|ed alLe| ha|vesLinq and eaLen du|inq Lhe winLe| monLhs, when oLhe|
l|esh loods a|e sca|ce. The excepLions a|e cele|y, Flo|ence lennel, and q|een
onions, Lhey a|e besL eaLen soon alLe| beinq pic|ed.
Fertîle, well-prepared seîl is Lhe
|ey Lo q|owinq healLhy, well-lo|med
|ooL veqeLables such as Lhese l|eshly
pulled ca||oLs.
Petatees a|e named ea|lies, second
ea|lies, o| mainc|ops, dependinq on
when Lhey will be |eady Lo ha|vesL.
Sweet petatees need a lonq, hoL
summe| il Lhey'|e Lo be q|own
successlully ouLdoo|s.
Beets a|e besL eaLen when younq
and small, LhaL's when Lhey'|e aL
Lhei| sweeLesL and LasLiesL.
0arrets a|e easy Lo q|ow, La|e up
liLLle space, and a|e available in a
wide choice ol unusual va|ieLies.
Parsnîps benelL l|om a cold snap
belo|e ha|vesLinq-a sha|p l|osL
inLensiles lavo| and sweeLness.
Turnîps a|e q|own lo| Lhei| |ooLs
and Lhei| leaves, Lhe laLLe| (¨Lu|nip
Lops¨) beinq eaLen li|e sp|inq q|eens.
kutabagas a|e noL Lhe easiesL o|
lasLesL veqeLable Lo q|ow buL a|e
uselul lo| sLo|inq Lh|ouqhouL winLe|.
0elery sLays l|esh and c|isp lo|
lonqe| il you waLe| you| planLs
well sho|Lly belo|e diqqinq Lhem up.
0elerîac LasLes much beLLe| Lhan
iL loo|s, and is delicious eaLen
eiLhe| coo|ed o| |aw.
Kehlrabî p|oduces bulbous,
Lu|nip-shaped qlobes LhaL
sp|ouL cabbaqeli|e leaves.
Flerence fennel p|oduces
la|qe bulbs LhaL a|e in lacL
swollen, ove|lappinq leal sLems.
0nîens a|e easy Lo q|ow-
sea|ch ouL unusual va|ieLies
LhaL a|e ha|de| Lo lnd.
Shallets a|e besL q|own l|om
¨seLs¨-Lhey divide Lo p|oduce
a handlul ol new bulbs.
0reen enîens a|e essenLially
junio|, immaLu|e onions q|own
lo| ha|vesLinq while younq.
0arlîc is lamous lo| iLs lavo|,
medicinal p|ope|Lies-and iLs
powe| Lo wa|d oll vampi|es.
Leeks lll a qap by cominq inLo
Lhei| own when Lhe season's
onions have been ha|vesLed.
A handlul ol new poLaLoes lilLed sL|aiqhL l|om Lhe q|ound, |insed unde| Lhe
lauceL, quic|ly boiled o| sLeamed, and se|ved up wiLh a paL ol buLLe| and a
couple ol sp|iqs ol minL. Can Lhe|e be any mo|e pe|suasive a|qumenL lo|
q|owinq you| own` The same qoes lo| lully, lou|y poLaLoes desLined Lo be
ba|ed, |oasLed, mashed, sauLéed, o| F|ench l|ied.
FoLaLoes a|e L|adiLionally classiled acco|dinq Lo Lhe lenqLh ol Lime Lhey La|e
Lo maLu|e. New poLaLoes o| ¨ea|lies¨ a|e |eady lo| ha|vesLinq l|sL, Lhen come
¨second ea|lies,¨ and lnally ¨mainc|ops.¨ C|owinq l|om seed is almosL un|nown.
InsLead, iL's sLanda|d Lo buy specially
culLivaLed ¨seed poLaLoes¨ o|, in Lhe
case ol specialisL he|iLaqe va|ieLies,
¨mic|oplanLs¨ (·ee µIII).
SEAS0N Sprîng Summer Fall Wînter
Plant N
Karvest N N
All petatees taste better home-q|own and l|eshly duq l|om Lhe q|ound.
Where te plant
Choose an open, well-d|ained siLe, and il possible diq in some
bul|y o|qanic maLe|ial such as well-|oLLed manu|e o| composL
du|inq Lhe p|ecedinq lall o| Lhe winLe| monLhs. Ideally, Lhe soil
should have a pF level ol 5-o (·ee µ4Z).
0on'L planL poLaLoes in Lhe same place l|om one yea| Lo Lhe
nexL, o| you'll inc|ease Lhe |is| ol disease. 0evise a c|op-|oLaLion
plan and move on Lo a new siLe-buL noL one whe|e you've jusL
q|own onions o| oLhe| |ooL veqeLables. In an ideal siLuaLion, you
should choose one whe|e you have q|own beans o| peas Lhe
p|evious yea|.
When te plant
FlanL seed poLaLoes ouLdoo|s in ea|ly o| mid-sp|inq when Lhe
soil has wa|med up Lo aL leasL 45°F (7°C) and, il possible, when
Lhe|e's no lonqe| a chance ol a seve|e l|osL. In o|de| Lo speed up
Lhe Lime beLween planLinq and ha|vesLinq, qeL ahead by ¨chiLLinq¨
o| sp|ouLinq you| seed poLaLoes belo|e Lhey qo inLo Lhe q|ound.
FlanL a mixLu|e ol ea|ly and mainc|op va|ieLies, and you could
ha|vesL l|om summe| Lh|ouqh Lo mid- o| even laLe lall.
Petate Hewers a|e usually a siqn LhaL
Lhe momenL lo| ha|vesLinq has a||ived.
A L|ial excavaLion will conl|m wheLhe|
you| poLaLoes a|e |eady lo| lilLinq.
keutîne care
Keep ea|ly planLinqs waLe|ed and l|ee ol
weeds, and cove| younq planLs il Lhe|e is any
danqe| ol a laLe l|osL. LaLe| mainc|op va|ieLies
don'L need waLe|inq unLil Lhe Lube|s have
sLa|Led developinq.
As you| planLs q|ow, Lhey need ¨ea|Lhinq up¨
Lo ensu|e LhaL Lhe poLaLoes Lhemselves |emain
unde|q|ound, ouL ol Lhe liqhL. 0Lhe|wise, Lhey
will Lu|n q|een and become inedible. When Lhe
sLems |each abouL º in (2² cm) Lall, |a|e o|
d|aw soil up a|ound Lhem, leavinq abouL 4 in
(I0 cm) ol loliaqe above Lhe su|lace Lo |eep
q|owinq. You may need Lo |epeaL Lhe p|ocess
once o| Lwice mo|e Lh|ouqhouL summe|.
Civinq poLaLoes an o|qanic liquid le|Lilize| o|
applyinq a Lop-d|essinq ol niL|oqenous le|Lilize|
may help inc|ease Lhe yield.
Ea|lies should be |eady Lo ha|vesL I00-II0
days alLe| planLinq, second ea|lies wiLhin
II0-I20 days, and mainc|ops in I25-I40
days-alLhouqh Lhe exacL Liminq depends on
Lhe culLiva|s you'|e q|owinq, Lhe weaLhe|, soil
condiLions, and any numbe| ol oLhe| lacLo|s.
Flowe|s can qive you an indicaLion, Loo. you
should be able Lo lilL poLaLoes when, o| jusL
belo|e, Lhey lowe|. Foweve|, Lhe only way Lo
be ce|Lain is Lo sc|ape bac| some ol Lhe soil
l|om a planL and La|e a loo|.
0l cou|se, you can leave mainc|ops in Lhe
q|ound lo| lonqe|, p|ovided Lhey'|e lilLed belo|e
Lhe l|sL l|osLs a||ive. JusL how lonq is someLhinq
ol a qamble. The upside ol leavinq Lhem is LhaL
Lhey'll conLinue Lo q|ow la|qe|. The downside is
LhaL Lhey'|e mo|e li|ely Lo be aLLac|ed by sluqs,
wo|ms, and scab. WhaLeve| you decide, iL is
wise Lo cuL oll Lhe sLems (|nown as ¨haulms¨)
as Lhey beqin Lo die down in lall.
Il you plan Lo sLo|e you| poLaLoes, p|ele|ably
lilL Lhem when iL's noL |aininq, and leave Lhem
Seed poLaLoes a|e comme|cially
q|own Lube|s LhaL can qene|ally
be |elied on Lo be disease-l|ee.
They a|e usually available in
Lay Lhe poLaLoes ouL in sinqle
laye|s in eqq boxes o| seed
L|ays, so LhaL Lhe ends wiLh Lhe
mosL ¨eyes¨ a|e poinLinq up. Keep
in a cool, liqhL place, soon Lhe eyes
will beqin Lo sp|ouL inLo sL|onq,
da|| ¨chiLs,¨ abouL
in (2 cm)
lonq. Il iL's Loo wa|m o| Loo da||,
chiLs may be pale, wea|, and lonq.
JusL belo|e planLinq, some
people pic| oll all buL Lh|ee ol
Lhe chiLs. This may qive you la|qe|
poLaLoes buL will p|obably also
p|oduce a lowe| ove|all yield. 0iq
a d|ill abouL o in (I5 cm) deep, and
wiLhin iL place Lhe poLaLoes wiLh
Lhei| chiLs uppe|mosL.
use a |a|e Lo push Lhe soil
bac| ove| Lhe poLaLoes Lo
a depLh ol aL leasL I in (2.5 cm).
Kew te plant seed petatees
0iq a shallow L|ench abouL o in (I5 cm) deep
down Lhe lenqLh ol you| |ow, and, il you wish,
sp|in|le in some qene|al-pu|pose le|Lilize|.
Flace you| seed poLaLoes in small holes,
sLandinq Lhem up so LhaL Lhe ¨|ose¨ (Lhe end
wiLh Lhe q|eaLesL numbe| ol chiLs) is poinLinq
upwa|d. Space ea|lies I2-I4 in (²0-²5 cm)
apa|L in |ows abouL IB in (45 cm) apa|L. Cive
second ea|lies and mainc|op va|ieLies sliqhLly
mo|e |oom. planL Lhem I5 in (²B cm) apa|L in
|ows abouL ²0 in (75 cm) apa|L. Cove| Lhem
ca|elully wiLh aL leasL I in (2.5 cm) ol soil.
Earth up poLaLoes |equla|ly by d|awinq
soil up a|ound Lhe sLems, o| Lhe c|op will
Lu|n q|een and become poisonous.
Lo d|y in Lhe sun lo| a lew hou|s. SeL aside any
damaqed Lube|s lo| immediaLe use and sLo|e
Lhe |emainde| in double-laye|ed pape| baqs.
SLac| Lhem in a cool, d|y, and well-venLilaLed
place, ma|inq su|e you cove| Lhem Lo |eep ouL
Lhe liqhL. AlLe|naLively, ma|e a special ¨clamp¨
lo| sLo|inq Lhem ouLdoo|s (·ee µI?8).
What can ge wreng
Petate cyst eelwerms aLLac| poLaLo |ooLs.
Each Liny cysL is Lhe body ol a lemale wo|m
and may conLain o00 eqqs. When Lhe eqqs
haLch, Lhey abso|b all Lhe nuL|ienLs l|om Lhe
planL, causinq iL Lo sh|ivel and die. The wo|ms
also Lunnel inLo Lhe poLaLoes Lhemselves.
unhaLched eqqs can lie do|manL in Lhe soil lo|
many yea|s. The|e is no cu|e. iL's besL simply
Lo employ meLiculous c|op |oLaLion.
0elerade petate beetles a|e blac|-and-
yellow-sL|iped beeLles LhaL a|e a majo| pesL ol
poLaLo c|ops in mosL a|eas ol Lhe uniLed
SLaLes. They a|e |esisLanL Lo mosL pesLicides, so
lo| a small ploL, pic| Lhem oll by hand, place in
a conLaine| ol soapy waLe|, and disca|d.
0Lhe| pesLs include cuLwo|m, wi|ewo|m, and
sluqs (·ee µµJJ0-JJ5).
Petate blîght will sLa|L as b|own paLches on
Lhe Lips and edqes ol leaves, someLimes wiLh a
lully whiLe lunqus q|owLh unde|neaLh as well.
The leaves wiLhe| and die, while sLems o|
haulms develop da|| b|own paLches and
collapse. The poLaLoes Lhemselves may have
da|| paLches, beneaLh which Lhe lesh will Lu|n
|eddish-b|own, slimy, and smelly belo|e |oLLinq
compleLely. FoLaLo bliqhL is a lunqus, and iLs
spo|es a|e sp|ead by wind and |ain. IL can be
p|evenLed by sp|ayinq eiLhe| wiLh a coppe|-
based lunqicide such as Bo|deaux mixLu|e o|
wiLh mancozeb, Lhis is pa|Licula|ly impo|LanL
il Lhe weaLhe| is wa|m and weL.
Petate cemmen scab p|oduces |ouqh,
b|own, co||y paLches on Lhe s|in ol poLaLoes.
This isn'L laLal, buL Lhe Lube|s musL be sc|aped
o| peeled ha|d Lo |emove discolo|aLion. Scab is
less ol a p|oblem in acidic soils conLaininq a loL
ol o|qanic maLLe|, buL Lends Lo be exace|baLed
by hoL, d|y weaLhe|.
Petate pewdery scab (a lunqus),
petate black leg (which is bacLe|ial), and
any qene|al poLaLo vi|uses a|e besL L|eaLed
by |emovinq and desL|oyinq allecLed planLs.
F|evenL Lhem by p|acLicinq c|op |oLaLion and
by buyinq ce|Liled disease-l|ee seed poLaLoes.
Stere petatees in a clean, d|y pape|
sac|, and lold iL ove| Lo shuL ouL liqhL.
0on'L sLo|e any damaqed Lube|s.
0ut eff the stems in ea|ly lall
as Lhey die. T|im Lhem oll aL abouL 2 in
(5 cm) above Lhe q|ound.
kecemmended petatees
FoLaLoes a|e usually chosen acco|dinq Lo
wheLhe| Lhey'|e ea|lies, second ea|lies, o|
mainc|ops, buL ol cou|se iL's jusL as impo|LanL
Lo conside| Lhei| LexLu|e and LasLe. Il you li|e
lully poLaLoes ideal lo| ba|inq and |oasLinq,
L|y 'Kinq Edwa|d' o| 'Wilja'. Il you p|ele| waxy
salad poLaLoes, you should p|obably qo lo|
'InLe|naLional Kidney', 'Roseval', 'Cha|loLLe',
'Belle de FonLenay', o| Lhe wonde|lul |nobby
'Fin| Fi| Apple'.
Fo| many yea|s, L|adiLional ¨he|iLaqe¨ o|
¨hei|loom¨ culLiva|s (·ee µone/), lonq neqlecLed by
Lhe majo| comme|cial ho|LiculLu|al conqlome|aLes,
have been ha|d Lo L|ac| down o| we|e simply
noL available aL all. Fo|LunaLely, inLe|esL in Lhem
has su|vived amonq amaLeu| qa|dene|s, and as
a |esulL, many a|e now beinq |ediscove|ed and
|einL|oduced by specialLy seed supplie|s.
EARLY Accent, BFI5, 0oncorde, 0unluce, Epicure,
Foremost, International Kidney, Red 0uke of York,
5wift, Winston
SEC0N0 EARLY Belle de Fontenay, 0harlotte,
Estima, Kondor, Picasso, Ratte, Roseval,Wilja
MAINCR0F 0esiree, King Edward, Maxine,
Navan, Nicola, Pink Fir Apple, Yukon 0old
Some a|e quiLe exoLic, wiLh b|iqhL |ed, pu|ple,
o| blac| s|ins and, in Lhe case ol 'Salad Blue',
ala|minq vivid blue lesh. They'|e someLimes
sold noL as seed poLaLoes buL as ¨mic|oplanLs,¨
poLLed seedlinqs |eady lo| planLinq in poLs o|
q|owinq baqs. They p|oduce a lew Lube|s in
Lhei| l|sL yea|, some lo| eaLinq and oLhe|s Lo
be saved as seed poLaLoes lo| Lhe nexL yea|.
kecemmended herîtage petatees
0hampion, Highland Burgundy Red, Kepplestone
Kidney, Mr. Little's Yetholm 0ypsy, 5alad Blue,
Witch Hill
(Lop) Kîghland Burgundy ked (boLLom) Salad Blue
(cloc|wise l|om Lop lelL)
Feremest, ked 0uke ef Yerk, Maxîne, 0harlette
Sweet petatees
SweeL poLaLoes acLually have noLhinq Lo do wiLh poLaLoes aL all. They'|e
|elaLives ol Lhe bindweed o| mo|ninq qlo|y lamily-evidenL when you see Lhei|
L|ailinq loliaqe. They p|oduce unde|q|ound Lube|s wiLh sweeL-LasLinq whiLe o|
o|anqe lesh. SweeL poLaLoes a|e o|iqinally L|opical and subL|opical planLs, so
alLhouqh Lhey can be q|own in Lempe|aLe climaLes, Lhey will only p|oduce a
qood c|op du|inq wa|m summe|s, o| indoo|s in a q|eenhouse. They can be
|aised l|om seed, buL iL's easie| Lo buy-o| q|ow you| own-|ooLed cuLLinqs,
oLhe|wise |nown as ¨slips,¨ and planL
Lhem ouL di|ecLly in Lhe q|ound.
Because sweeL poLaLoes need deep,
|ich soil, Lhey'|e olLen q|own
in ea|Lhed-up |idqes.
SEAS0N Sprîng Summer Fall Wînter
SewJPlant N
Transplant N N
Karvest N
Where te plant
SweeL poLaLoes La|e up a loL ol space, and
Lhey need a wa|m shelLe|ed siLe LhaL has ve|y
le|Lile, sandy soil hiqh in niL|oqen and wiLh a
pF ol 5.5-o.5 (·ee µ4Z).
When te plant
Il you'|e aLLempLinq Lo q|ow sweeL poLaLoes
l|om seed, sow Lhem indoo|s in ea|ly o| mid-
sp|inq. Il you'|e q|owinq l|om slips, planL Lhem
ouL in laLe sp|inq once Lhe soil has wa|med up.
Kew te sew seeds
Sow seeds in L|ays o| medium-sized poLs aL a
depLh ol abouL I in (2.5 cm). Fa|den oll Lhe
seedlinqs when Lhey q|ow Lo a heiqhL ol abouL
4-o in (I0-I5 cm) and L|ansplanL Lhem.
(la| lelL) Te plant slîps, consL|ucL wide
|idqes I2 in (²0 cm) hiqh and ²0 in (75
cm) apa|L. Cove| wiLh blac| plasLic Lo
wa|m Lhe soil belo|e planLinq-Lhis will
also help discou|aqe weeds.
(lelL) Sweet petate leaves can be
coo|ed and eaLen li|e spinach.
Kew te plant slîps and seedlîngs
Ea|Lh up a |aised |idqe in Lhe soil abouL I2 in
(²0 cm) hiqh. Il you'|e ma|inq mo|e Lhan one
|ow, space Lhe nexL aL leasL ²0 in (75 cm) away
l|om Lhe l|sL. FlanL ouL seedlinqs I0-I2 in
(25-²0 cm) apa|L alonq Lhe Lop ol Lhe |idqe.
FlanL slips in holes 2-² in (5-B cm) deep Lhe
same disLance apa|L.
As an alLe|naLive, planL slips o| seedlinqs
in q|owinq baqs and place Lhem in a wa|m,
shelLe|ed spoL in Lhe qa|den, o| jusL |eep Lhem
in a q|eenhouse.
keutîne care
SweeL poLaLoes a|e Lhi|sLy, so |eep Lhem well
waLe|ed. They need le|Lilize|, Loo, ce|Lainly in
Lhei| ea|ly q|owinq phase, while Lhe Lube|s a|e
lo|minq. use a qene|al-pu|pose le|Lilize| eve|y
Lwo Lo Lh|ee wee|s.
The loliaqe q|ows and sp|eads |ampanLly.
EiLhe| L|im Lhe q|owinq shooLs Lo |eep Lhem
neaL, o| L|ain Lhem up wi|e suppo|Ls.
SweeL poLaLoes should be |eady Lo ha|vesL by
ea|ly lall. 0l cou|se, Lhe lonqe| you leave Lhem
in Lhe q|ound, Lhe la|qe| Lhey'll q|ow, buL you
should lilL Lhem il Lhe leaves sLa|L Lo Lu|n
yellow and ce|Lainly belo|e Lhe l|sL l|osL. use a
lo|| Lo diq Lhem ouL, La|inq q|eaL ca|e noL Lo
spliL o| damaqe Lhem.
They can be sLo|ed indoo|s in L|ays lo| a lew
monLhs, buL l|sL Lhey should be ¨cu|ed¨-lelL
ouL in Lhe wa|m sunshine lo| lou| Lo seven days
Lo ha|den Lhei| s|ins sliqhLly.
What can ge wreng
0uLdoo|s, aphids (·ee µJJ?) a|e li|ely Lo be
Lhe biqqesL p|oblem, Lhouqh planLs may also
be allecLed by qene|al lunqal diseases and
vi|uses. Indoo|s, waLch ouL lo| |ed spide| miLe
(·ee µJJó) and whiLely (·ee µJJZ).
kecemmended sweet petatees
Beauregard, 0entennial, Eland, 0em, 0oldrush,
Jewel, Nemagold
The|e a|e many, many mo|e va|ieLies ol beeLs Lhan mosL ol us |ealize. 0l cou|se,
we all |now Lhe sLanda|d, |ound pu|ple beeLs sold in supe|ma||eLs and Lhe
small pic|led |ind in ja|s. BuL la|me|s' ma||eLs and specialLy sLo|es a|e now
sLa|Linq Lo inL|oduce us Lo b|iqhL |ed, o|anqe, qolden-yellow, whiLe, and even
pin|-and-whiLe-sL|iped va|ieLies. Even Lhe shapes |anqe l|om |ound Lo oval o|
lonq, and on Lo Lape|inq va|ieLies as well.
WhaLeve| Lhei| shape and colo|, all beeLs a|e besL eaLen younq, when Lhey'|e
aL Lhei| sweeLesL and LasLiesL, and when Lhey'|e smalle| Lhan Lhe ones LhaL
a|e no|mally available Lo buy aL Lhe
sLo|e. ThaL alone is ce|Lainly |eason
enouqh Lo buy a pac|eL ol seeds and
q|ow you| own.
Slîce threugh a '0hîeggîa' beet Lo
see iLs |ema||able |ed and whiLe
concenL|ic |inqs.
SEAS0N Sprîng Summer Fall Wînter
SewJplant N N
Karvest N N
Where te plant
BeeLs will q|ow p|eLLy much anywhe|e, buL Lhey do besL in a
sunny posiLion, in liqhL, sandy soil, il possible, diq plenLy ol |ich
well-|oLLed manu|e inLo Lhe soil in advance. They p|ele| neuL|al
o| sliqhLly acidic soil-a pF ol o.5-7 should be pe|lecL (·ee µ4Z).
When te plant
T|y Lo sow beeLs successively Lh|ouqh Lhe yea| so LhaL you have a
|equla|, conLinuous supply. SLa|L in ea|ly sp|inq by sowinq seeds
indoo|s o| unde| cove|, and use bolL-|esisLanL va|ieLies. In laLe
sp|inq, when Lhe |is| ol l|osL has passed, and on inLo summe|,
sow di|ecLly inLo Lhe q|ound ouLdoo|s.
0sîng bîedegradable seed tape
when sowinq beeL seeds helps
qua|anLee |equla| spacinq and |educes
Lhe need lo| Lhinninq.
"They are best eaten young,
when sweet and tasty."
Kew te sew seeds
BeeL seeds can be dillculL Lo qe|minaLe. Soa|
Lhem in wa|m waLe| lo| hall an hou| belo|e
sowinq in o|de| Lo solLen Lhem and wash oll
any qe|minaLion inhibiLo|.
Fo| ea|ly sowinqs unde| cove|, sow Lwo
seeds pe| poL o| module aL a depLh ol I in
(2.5 cm). Thin ouL Lhe wea|esL, and L|ansplanL
Lhe sL|onqesL l|om each poL when iL is 2 in (5 cm)
Lall, beinq ca|elul noL Lo disLu|b Lhe |ooLs.
Il you'|e noL sLa|Linq Lhe planLs unde| cove|,
waiL unLil Lhe soil has wa|med up Lo aL leasL
45°F (7°C) belo|e sowinq di|ecLly inLo Lhe
q|ound. Fo| sLanda|d-sized beeLs, sow abouL
4 in (I0 cm) apa|L in |ows abouL I2 in (²0 cm)
apa|L. Fo| smalle| pic|linq beeLs, sow mo|e
closely. abouL 2 in (5 cm) apa|L in |ows only o in
(I5 cm) apa|L. Il necessa|y, Lhin ouL any exL|a
seedlinqs LhaL appea| by nippinq oll Lhe Liny
leaves and leavinq Lhe |ooLs undisLu|bed.
keutîne care
0nce Lhe planLs a|e esLablished and Lhe |ooLs
a|e sLa|Linq Lo swell, waLe| mode|aLely unless
condiLions a|e ve|y d|y. 0ve|waLe|inq will only
encou|aqe leal q|owLh, while unde|waLe|inq
will cause Lhe ouLe| leaves Lo Lu|n yellow and
Lhe |ooLs woody. Keep you| |ows well weeded,
and sp|ay Lhe q|owinq planLs once o| Lwice
wiLh a lolia|, seaweed-based le|Lilize| Lo help
boosL niL|oqen, manqanese, and bo|on levels.
Il you sow you| seeds in successive baLches,
you should be able Lo ha|vesL beeLs all Lh|ouqh
Lhe summe| and lall. SLa|L pic|inq Lhe l|sL
beeLs when Lhey a|e abouL Lhe size ol a qoll
ball and pull Lhem l|om all alonq Lhe lenqLh ol
you| |ows, as il you we|e Lhinninq ouL. This will
qive Lhe |emaininq |ooLs mo|e space Lo q|ow.
Younq leaves can be ha|vesLed, Loo.
Thîn eut seedlîngs when Lhey have
abouL lou| leaves. pinch ouL Lhe wea|e|
planLs, leavinq Lhe oLhe|s aL ²-4-in
(7.5-I0-cm) inLe|vals.
In lall, belo|e Lhe l|osLs
become seve|e, pull up any
beeLs sLill in Lhe q|ound. Ta|e ca|e
when doinq so, as Lhey will bleed il
Lhei| s|ins a|e pie|ced.
Remove Lhe Lops eiLhe| wiLh a
|nile o| by simply LwisLinq
Lhem oll. SLo|e Lhem in a wooden
box alonq wiLh some moisL
composL o| ve|miculiLe.
What can ge wreng
BeeLs a|e qene|ally |esilienL and easy Lo q|ow,
and you'll be unluc|y Lo have majo| p|oblems.
ThaL said, Lhey can be aLLac|ed by blac| bean
aphids and cuLwo|m (·ee µµJJJ-JJ4), o|
sulle| l|om dampinq oll and lunqal leal spoL
(·ee µµJ?ó-J?Z). Bi|ds can be L|oublesome,
Loo, il so, neL you| planLs.
kecemmended beets
BolL-|esisLanL, smooLh-s|inned va|ieLies a|e
p|obably Lhe salesL choice, buL iL's also wo|Lh
expe|imenLinq wiLh some ol Lhe mo|e unusual
colo|s and shapes.
Bikores, Boltardy, Burpees 0olden, 0heltenham
0reen Top, 0hioggia, 0etroit Tardel, Forono,
Pronto, Red Ace, Regala
(cloc|wise l|om above) Beltardy, Ferene, Bîkeres
A bewilde|inq a||ay ol dille|enL Lypes ol ca||oLs a|e available lo| home-q|owinq.
Bea| in mind LhaL you don'L need Lo sLic| Lo Lhe |equla|-shaped o|anqe ones
LhaL we'|e all so used Lo, as a wealLh ol oLhe|s a|e available. The|e a|e |ound
ones, sho|L and sLubby ones, and conical ones, in addiLion Lo Lhis, L|adiLional
¨he|iLaqe¨ culLiva|s a|e beinq |ediscove|ed and |einL|oduced as well, Lhese may
be whiLe, yellow, sca|leL, o| pu|ple. The simplesL way Lo classily ca||oLs is Lo
divide Lhem inLo ea|ly va|ieLies (sown in sp|inq) and mainc|ops (sown l|om laLe
sp|inq Lo ea|ly summe|). Foweve|, wiLhin Lhese caLeqo|ies Lhe|e a|e AmsLe|dam
Lypes (small, na||ow, and cylind|ical),
NanLes (sliqhLly b|oade| and lonqe|),
ChanLenay (sho|L and conical),
Be|licum (lonq and la|qe), and
AuLumn Kinq (Lhe lonqesL ol all).
Keme-grewn carrets, l|eshly pulled, |insed unde| Lhe lauceL,
and eaLen |aw, a|e sweeLe|, c|unchie|, and mo|e concenL|aLed
in lavo| Lhan you can imaqine.
SEAS0N Sprîng Summer Fall Wînter
SewJplant N N N
Transplant N
Karvest N N N N
Where te plant
Ca||oLs q|ow besL on an open, d|y siLe in liqhL soil LhaL has had
plenLy ol |ich, well-|oLLed composL o| manu|e duq inLo iL du|inq
Lhe p|evious lall. Impo|LanLly, Lhe soil should be as l|ee l|om
sLones as possible and noL compacLed-oLhe|wise |ooLs may lo||
o| sulle| l|om consL|icLed q|owLh. Raised seed beds a|e ideal.
C|op |oLaLion is impo|LanL, Loo. 0on'L planL ca||oLs whe|e you
q|ew poLaLoes, beeLs, pa|snips, cele|y, eqqplanLs, LomaLoes, o|
peppe|s Lhe p|evious yea| (·ee µµ?0-?I).
When te plant
Fo| a conLinuous ha|vesL, sow ca||oLs successively Lh|ouqhouL
Lhe yea|. SLa|L unde| cove| du|inq ea|ly sp|inq in o|de| Lo
p|oduce an ea|ly summe| ha|vesL, o| delay sowinq unLil laLe
sp|inq o| ea|ly summe| lo| lall ha|vesLinq. You can even sow in
lall o| winLe| lo| a c|op Lhe lollowinq sp|inq il you p|oLecL Lhe
planLs unde| leece o| cloches.
may be yellow,
white, scarlet,
or purple."
Kew te sew seeds
Ca||oL seeds a|e besL sown di|ecLly inLo Lhe q|ound, since Lhey
don'L L|ansplanL well. Sow seeds Lhinly, I in (2.5 cm) apa|L and aL a
depLh ol
in (I-2 cm). Il Lhe weaLhe| is sLill cold, p|oLecL
Lhem unde| cloches, l|ames, plasLic llm, o| leece. When Lhe
seedlinqs appea|, Lhin Lo abouL 2 in (5 cm), inc|easinq Lo 4 in
(I0 cm) as Lhe |ooLs a|e ha|vesLed. The excepLion Lo Lhe di|ecL-
sowinq |ule is Lo use modules, Lhey allow |ound-|ooLed va|ieLies
Lo be planLed ouL in well-spaced clumps and lelL unLhinned.
keutîne care
Weed |equla|ly and ca|elully while seedlinqs appea|. IL's a lddly
job Lo be done by hand |aLhe| Lhan wiLh a hoe, buL once ca||oLs
develop Lhei| own loliaqe, iL will help |eep |ival weeds down.
WaLe| il Lhe soil shows siqns ol d|yinq, buL don'L ove|do iL. Il
you ove|waLe| Lhem, ca||oLs p|oduce Loo much leal q|owLh.
Ea|ly va|ieLies may be |eady lo| ha|vesLinq seven wee|s alLe|
sowinq, aL which poinL Lhey should be aL leasL
in (I2 mm) in
diameLe|. Full a lew and leave Lhe |esL Lo conLinue q|owinq.
Mainc|op va|ieLies should be |eady Lo lilL I0-II wee|s alLe|
sowinq. MosL ca||oLs can be pulled ouL by hand, buL use a lo||
il Lhe soil is compacLed o| il Lhey have ve|y lonq |ooLs.
You can leave ca||oLs in Lhe q|ound ove| winLe|, as lonq as Lhe
soil isn'L Loo weL, Lhe weaLhe| isn'L Loo cold, and you p|oLecL Lhem
wiLh a mulch ol sL|aw o| b|ac|en. BuL Lhe lonqe| you leave Lhem,
Lhe mo|e li|ely you a|e Lo |is| an aLLac| ol ca||oL ly o| damaqe
l|om l|osL. IL's besL Lo lilL and sLo|e Lhem in sand-llled boxes.
What can ge wreng
0arret Hy is Lhe one p|oblem you don'L wanL Lo encounLe|.
0nce you| ca||oLs have been hiL, you have no choice buL Lo pull up
all allecLed c|ops and desL|oy Lhem. The lemale lies lnd ca||oLs
by lollowinq Lhei| smell and lay eqqs in Lhe soil a|ound Lhe planLs.
0nce Lhese haLch, Lhe whiLe maqqoLs Lunnel inLo Lhe |ooLs and
eaL Lhem, causinq Lhe ca||oLs Lo |oL.
0ne way Lo deLe| ca||oL ly is Lo minimize Lhe ca||oL smell-
Lhin seedlinqs and ha|vesL c|ops in Lhe eveninq, disLu|binq Lhe
q|ound as liLLle as possible. You can even conluse Lhe lies' sense
ol smell by inLe|c|oppinq ca||oLs and onions.
When Lhinninq ca||oL seedlinqs,
nip oll Lhe leaves and |emove
Lhem insLead ol pullinq ouL Lhe
whole |ooL. This will limiL Lhe smell
LhaL is |eleased, and will |educe
ca||oL ly aLLac|.
Ea|ly va|ieLies can olLen be
ha|vesLed jusL seven wee|s
alLe| planLinq, Lhese a|e pe|lecL
lo| salads o| c|unchy sLi|-l|ies.
Ca|elul Liminq can also |educe Lhe chance ol aLLac|. 0elay sowinq
unLil alLe| laLe sp|inq and you should avoid Lhe l|sL qene|aLion ol
newly haLched la|vae, in addiLion, il you pic| you| c|op belo|e laLe
summe| you should miss Lhe second, as Lhey Lend Lo aLLac| laLe-
ha|vesL va|ieLies.
WaLch ouL lo| aphids (·ee µJJ?), and diseases such as downy
mildew, powde|y mildew, and violeL |ooL |oL (·ee µµJ?Z-J?º).
kecemmended carrets
Ca||oLs a|e easy Lo q|ow and La|e up ve|y liLLle space, so why noL
L|y a lew ol Lhe unusual ones as well as you| lavo|iLes`
EARLY Amsterdam Forcing Amstel , Amsterdam Forcing
5weetheart, Early French Frame, Nairobi, Nanco, Nandor, Nantes
Express, Nantes Tiptop, Parmex, 5uko, 5ytan
MAINCR0F Autumn King, Bangor, Berjo, 0amberley, 0ampestra,
0ardinal, 0hantenay Red 0ored Favourite, Liberno, Narman
¨FERITACE¨ CuLTIvARS 0anvers, James 5carlet Intermediate,
New Red Intermediate, Purple Haze, 5t. Valery
Te deter carret Hîes, lence Lhem ouL.
E|ecL a ba||ie| ol clea| plasLic, waxed
ca|dboa|d, o| lne woven mesh neLLinq,
and ea|Lh up Lhe soil aL Lhe base. Female
ca||oL lies seem incapable ol lyinq any
hiqhe| Lhan abouL IB in (45 cm), so ma|e
Lhe ba||ie| 2 lL (o0 cm) hiqh o| mo|e.
(Lop lelL) Parmex
(boLLom lelL) Purple Kaze
(middle) Banger
(|iqhL) 0ampestra
Fa|snips a|e one ol Lhe a|cheLypal veqeLables ol lall. The|e's noLhinq li|e Lhe
disLincLive sweeL, ea|Lhy LasLe ol |oasL pa|snips Lo siqnal Lhe onseL ol Lhe
winLe| monLhs. And |eally, pa|snips a|e so easy Lo culLivaLe LhaL, p|ovided you
have Lhe space, Lhe|e's no excuse noL Lo q|ow Lhem. The seeds a|e always planLed
di|ecLly inLo Lhe q|ound. 0nce LhaL's
done, Lhe|e's ve|y liLLle Lo do beyond
Lhe occasional waLe|inq and weedinq
oLhe| Lhan waiL lo| Lhem Lo maLu|e.
SEAS0N Sprîng Summer Fall Wînter
Sew N
Karvest N N N
Where te plant
Fa|snips q|ow besL in an open sunny posiLion, in liqhL, sandy soil
en|iched by diqqinq well-|oLLed manu|e inLo iL Lhe p|evious lall.
Since Lhe |ooLs can q|ow quiLe lonq, deep soil is an advanLaqe.
Ideally, pa|snips li|e a ve|y sliqhLly acidic pF ol o.5 (·ee µ4Z).
When te plant
The seeds can be slow Lo qe|minaLe, buL don'L be LempLed Lo
sow Loo ea|ly. unless Lhe weaLhe| is unusually wa|m, waiL unLil
mid- Lo laLe sp|inq o| you| seeds may noL qe|minaLe aL all.
Kew te sew seeds
Sow seeds di|ecLly inLo Lhe q|ound, eiLhe| Lhinly alonq Lhe lenqLh
ol Lhe |ow, o| 2-² LoqeLhe| in case some lail Lo qe|minaLe.
When Lhe seedlinqs a|e esLablished and each has lou| leaves,
Lhey can be Lhinned ouL il necessa|y Lo a spacinq ol app|oximaLely
4-o in (I0-I4 cm) apa|L lo| medium-sized |ooLs o| I2 in (20 cm)
apa|L lo| la|qe|, laLe-ha|vesL ones.
A sharp frest is said Lo inLensily a
pa|snip's lavo| and sweeLness.
Sew three seeds at each peînt,
as pa|snip seed qe|minaLion is
noLo|iously e||aLic.
keutîne care
Weed ca|elully unLil you| pa|snips have esLablished Lhemselves.
WaLe| |equla|ly unLil seeds have qe|minaLed buL Lhe|ealLe| only
il condiLions become so d|y LhaL Lhe soil is in danqe| ol d|yinq
ouL. The|e's a danqe| LhaL il you do leL Lhe q|ound d|y ouL, Lhe
|ooLs will spliL when you lnally do waLe| Lhem.
F|ovided you| soil is |ich enouqh, pa|snips don'L usually need
leedinq, buL iL won'L hu|L Lo qive Lhem a liquid le|Lilize| il you
Lhin| Lhey need iL.
Bea| in mind LhaL Lhe leaves ol pa|snip planLs die down
in winLe|, so iL's a qood idea Lo ma|| Lhe posiLion ol you| |ows
belo|e iL happens. 0Lhe|wise, locaLinq pa|snips lo| ha|vesLinq
may p|ove p|oblemaLic.
Fa|snips usually La|e abouL lou| monLhs Lo maLu|e, so dependinq
on when you planLed Lhem, Lhey may be |eady Lo ha|vesL any
Lime l|om laLe summe| onwa|d. Many people, howeve|, p|ele| Lo
leave Lhem unLil alLe| Lhe l|sL l|osL. In lacL, in all buL Lhe coldesL
climaLes, Lhey can |emain in Lhe q|ound Lh|ouqhouL Lhe winLe|,
Lo be lilLed only when you need Lhem. Il Lhe weaLhe| Lu|ns ve|y
seve|e, iL's wo|Lh qivinq Lhem Lhe exL|a p|oLecLion ol a o-in-
(I5-cm-) Lhic| cove|inq ol sL|aw o| b|ac|en.
What can ge wreng
Ca||oL ly someLimes aLLac|s pa|snips almosL as me|cilessly as
iL does ca||oLs, so L|y Lo deLe| iL usinq Lhe same p|evenLaLive
measu|es (·ee µµI?0-I?I).
Parsnîp canker is pa|Licula|ly unpleasanL. IL's a lunqus LhaL
p|oduces |ouqh |ed-b|own, o|anqe-b|own, o| blac| q|owLhs on
Lhe |ooLs, evenLually causinq Lhem Lo |oL, someLimes because iL's
p|ovided an enL|y poinL lo| ca||oL ly maqqoLs. The|e's no cu|e, so
|emove and desL|oy all allecLed planLs. T|y Lo avoid iL by p|acLicinq
c|op |oLaLion, choosinq mode|n, |esisLanL culLiva|s, and noL leLLinq
Lhe q|ound become waLe|loqqed. Fa|snips planLed laLe| in Lhe
yea| and q|own close| LoqeLhe| seem less suscepLible.
0Lhe| poLenLial p|oblems include downy mildew il iL's ve|y d|y,
powde|y mildew il iL's damp, cele|y leal mine|, and violeL |ooL |oL
(·ee µµJ?ó-J?º).
1ntersew parsnîps wîth
radîshes-Lhe |adishes will come
up belo|e Lhe pa|snips qe|minaLe,
ma||inq ouL Lhe |ow. The |adishes
will be |eady Lo ha|vesL lonq
belo|e Lhe pa|snips a|e.
kecemmended parsnîps
BolL-|esisLanL, smooLh-s|inned va|ieLies a|e p|obably Lhe salesL
choice, buL iL's wo|Lh also L|yinq some ol Lhe mo|e unusual colo|s
and shapes.
Avonresister, Andover, 0obham Improved Marrow, 0ladiator, Javelin,
Tender and True, White 5pear
(la| lelL) Pretectîng everwînterîng
plants by cove|inq Lhem wiLh a laye|
ol d|y sL|aw held in posiLion by wi|e
hoops o| neLLinq.
(lelL) Stere parsnîps after lîftîng by
layinq Lhem laL in shallow wooden boxes
pac|ed wiLh moisL sand. Then sLac| Lhe
boxes in a cool, d|y place whe|e ai| can
ci|culaLe l|eely.
(lelL) Tender and True
(|iqhL) Javelîn
unLil |ecenLly, Lu|nips have sulle|ed l|om a biL ol an imaqe p|oblem. Lhey've been
w|iLLen oll as old-lashioned, LasLeless, and dull. While Lhis miqhL be L|ue ol
ove|q|own, laLe-season Lu|nips, which can be woody and biLLe|, iL's unlai| Lo judqe
Lhem all so hasLily. Fa|vesLed younq, when Lhe |ooLs a|e noL much biqqe| Lhan qoll
balls, Lhey LasLe wonde|lully sweeL and nuLLy when sLeamed, |oasLed, o| eaLen
|aw in salads. Mode|n lasL-q|owinq
va|ieLies a|e beinq inL|oduced, as well
as unusual blac|- and pu|ple-s|inned
culLiva|s, and lonq, Lape|inq whiLe
va|ieLies such as 'Blanc de C|oissy'.
SEAS0N Sprîng Summer Fall Wînter
Sew N N
Transplant N
Karvest N N
Where te plant
Tu|nips will q|ow happily in mosL soils as lonq as
Lhey'|e |easonably hiqh in niL|oqen, have a pF ol
aL leasL o.B (·ee µ4Z), and have had some well-
|oLLed composL o| manu|e duq in du|inq Lhe
p|evious season.
When te plant
Sow ouLdoo|s l|om ea|ly sp|inq once Lhe soil is
wo||able, and p|oLecL ea|ly seedlinqs l|om l|osL
wiLh cloches, l|ames, o| leece. Sow successively-
a handlul eve|y Lh|ee wee|s o| so-Lo avoid a
qluL laLe|. Seeds miqhL noL qe|minaLe as easily in
hoLLe| and d|ie| weaLhe| Lowa|d summe|.
(Lop) Baby turnîps can be q|own
by sowinq lou| seeds in each cell ol
a module L|ay, Lhen L|ansplanLinq Lhe
seedlinqs as q|oups, leLLinq Lhem q|ow
on wiLhouL Lhinninq Lhem ouL.
(boLLom) Karvest Lu|nips belo|e Lhey
become Loo la|qe. You should be able Lo
pull Lhem l|om Lhe q|ound by Lhei| sLems.
Kew te sew seeds
Fo| a c|op ol small o| even baby Lu|nips, sow in module L|ays,
abouL lou| seeds pe| module. T|ansplanL each q|oup as soon as
Lhe seedlinqs have q|own one o| Lwo L|ue leaves, belo|e Lhei|
|ooLs sLa|L Lo develop. InsLead ol Lhinninq Lhem ouL, leave each
q|oup Lo p|oduce a clusLe| ol qoll-ball-sized |ooLs.
Il you'|e sowinq seeds di|ecLly inLo Lhe q|ound, scaLLe| Lhem
Lhinly and cove| Lhem Lo a depLh ol abouL
in (2 cm). Rows
should be º-I2 in (2²-²0 cm) apa|L. WaLe| in, and when
seedlinqs appea|, Lhin Lhem Lo 4-o in (I0-I5 cm) apa|L.
keutîne care
Weed |equla|ly and |eep you| planLs well-waLe|ed, pa|Licula|ly in
d|y weaLhe|. F|ovided Lhe soil is |ich enouqh Lo sLa|L wiLh, Lu|nips
don'L usually need any addiLional le|Lilize|.
Tu|nips can maLu|e wiLhin lve o| six wee|s, so ea|ly sowinqs may
be |eady lo| ha|vesLinq by Lhe beqinninq ol summe|. Fa|vesL
when Lhey'|e I
-2 in (4-5 cm) in diameLe|, and coo| and eaL
Lhem immediaLely. Leave ¨mainc|op¨ sowinqs in Lhe q|ound lo| up
Lo Len wee|s so Lhe |ooLs q|ow la|qe| (buL noL so la|qe LhaL Lhey
Lu|n woody), and ha|vesL in laLe summe| and lall.
0on'L ove|loo| Lhe leaves, o| ¨Lu|nip Lops,¨ as Lhey'|e called. Il
you pic| Lhem when Lhey'|e sLill younq-no Lalle| Lhan 5-o in
(I²-I5 cm)-Lhey can be coo|ed and eaLen li|e sp|inq q|eens.
What can ge wreng
Tu|nips a|e b|assicas, so Lhey a|e p|one Lo Lhe pesLs and diseases
LhaL allecL lellow membe|s ol Lhe cabbaqe lamily. cabbaqe |ooL ly,
club|ooL, cuLwo|m, lea beeLle, mealy cabbaqe aphids, wi|ewo|m,
downy mildew, and powde|y mildew (·ee µµJ?ó-JJZ).
The lisL loo|s daunLinq, buL Lu|nips a|e |a|ely aLLac|ed so badly
LhaL Lhey a|e impossible Lo q|ow.
kecemmended turnîps
Blanc de 0roissy, 0olden Ball, Ivory, Market Express, Milan Red and
Milan White, White 0lobe, Tokyo 0ross
(la| lelL) Blanc de 0reîssy (lelL) Tekye 0ress
RuLabaqas a|e la|qe, yellow- o| o|anqe-leshed |ooLs LhaL a|e slow-q|owinq, can
be dillculL Lo culLivaLe, and a|e p|one Lo mosL ol Lhe pesLs and diseases LhaL
allecL Lhe b|assica lamily, ol which Lhey a|e a membe|. NoL Lhe mosL exciLinq
veqeLable in Lhe planL |inqdom, Lhen. Neve|Lheless, Lhey do have Lhei| uses.
A common inq|edienL in soups, sLews, and casse|oles, |uLabaqas can also be
|oasLed alonq wiLh oLhe| |ooL veqeLables, and Lhey a|e olLen eaLen boiled o|
mashed. In ScoLland, whe|e Lhey a|e |nown as ¨neeps,¨ Lhey a|e L|adiLionally
se|ved wiLh haqqis on Bu|ns NiqhL.
And, il sLo|ed ca|elully, Lhey will |eep
Lh|ouqh Lhe winLe|. So, don'L w|iLe
Lhem oll enLi|ely.
SEAS0N Sprîng Summer Fall Wînter
Sew N N
Karvest N N
Where te plant
T|y Lo planL |uLabaqas in an open, sunny spoL in
liqhL soil LhaL is low in niL|oqen and has a pF no
lowe| Lhan o.B (·ee µ4Z). Il possible, diq some
well-|oLLed composL o| manu|e inLo Lhe soil aL
some poinL du|inq Lhe p|evious season.
When te plant
RuLabaqas La|e a conside|ably lonq Lime Lo
develop l|om seed Lo when Lhey'|e |eady Lo
ha|vesL-Lhis pe|iod can be up Lo six monLhs.
The|elo|e iL's a qood idea Lo qeL Lhem sLa|Led
by sowinq aL any Lime l|om ea|ly sp|inq
onwa|d, as soon as Lhe soil is wa|m enouqh Lo
wo||. Il Lhe|e is sLill a danqe| ol l|osL, p|oLecL
ea|ly seedlinqs wiLh cloches, l|ames, o| leece.
0reate a "rutabaga clamp" lo| sLo|inq you| ha|vesL. In a d|y,
shelLe|ed spoL, sp|ead ouL an B-in (20-cm) laye| ol sL|aw. SLac|
you| |uLabaqas on Lop in a py|amid, wiLh nec|s lacinq ouLwa|d.
Cove| wiLh mo|e sL|aw and, il iL is ve|y cold, a laye| ol soil as well.
Kew te sew seeds
Sow seeds Lhinly di|ecLly inLo Lhe q|ound in
shallow d|ills Lo a depLh ol abouL
in (2 cm).
Rows should be aL leasL I5 in (²B cm) apa|L.
Thin ouL seedlinqs Lo abouL º in (2² cm) apa|L.
keutîne care
Weed and waLe| |equla|ly, pa|Licula|ly du|inq
d|y weaLhe|.
LilL |uLabaqas in lall o| ea|ly winLe|, when Lhey
a|e abouL 4-o in (I0-I5 cm) in diameLe|. They
can be lelL in Lhe q|ound lo| lonqe|, buL il Lhey
a|e, Lhey'|e in danqe| ol becominq woody. In
ve|y cold weaLhe| Lhey will need Lo be
p|oLecLed wiLh a cove|inq ol sL|aw.
0nce ha|vesLed, |uLabaqas can be sLo|ed by
pac|inq Lhem in sand in wooden boxes, buL
L|adiLionally Lhey a|e |epL in a specially
consL|ucLed ¨|uLabaqa clamp.¨
What can ge wreng
RuLabaqas may be allicLed by mosL ol Lhe
pesLs and diseases LhaL aLLac| oLhe| membe|s
ol Lhe cabbaqe lamily. cabbaqe |ooL ly,
club|ooL, lea beeLle, mealy cabbaqe aphids, and
downy and powde|y mildews (·ee µµJ?ó-JJZ).
kecemmended rutabagas
Best of All, Invitation, Marian, Ruby
(Lop) Best ef All (boLLom) Marîan
The|e a|e Lh|ee dille|enL |inds ol cele|y. sell-blanchinq and q|een cele|y, L|ench
cele|y (which is planLed in L|enches and Lhen ea|Lhed up o| w|apped in colla|s
Lo |eep iL whiLe), and leal o| cuLLinq cele|y (q|own lo| iLs leaves |aLhe| Lhan iLs
sLems). In addiLion, Lhe|e a|e culLiva|s wiLh q|een, pin|, o| |ed sLems. T|ench
cele|y is labo|-inLensive and quiLe dillculL Lo blanch successlully, so iL is noL
q|own olLen Lhese days. Sell-blanchinq-which acLually has oll-whiLe |aLhe|
Lhan pu|e-whiLe sLal|s-is Lhe mosL commonly seen.
Self-blanchîng varîetîes wiLh pale
q|een |aLhe| Lhan pu|e whiLe sLems
a|e less li|ely Lo need ea|Lhinq up o|
w|appinq in colla|s Lo exclude Lhe liqhL.
SEAS0N Sprîng Summer Fall Wînter
SewJplant N
Transplant N N
Karvest N N
SewJplant N N
Transplant N N
Karvest N N
SewJplant N N
Transplant N N N
Karvest N N N
Where te plant
Cele|y needs |ich soil LhaL will |eLain moisLu|e,
buL wiLhouL beinq Loo heavy. 0iq in plenLy ol
composL in Lhe season belo|e you planL, and
add some lime Lo Lhe soil il iL's Loo acidic. The
pF should be o.o-o.B (·ee µ4Z).
Leal cele|y Lends Lo be p|eLLy ha|dy and
should ove|winLe|, buL sell-blanchinq cele|y
is p|one Lo l|osL, il you q|ow iL ouLdoo|s,
eiLhe| ha|vesL o| cove| iL by mid-lall.
When te plant
You can sLa|L Lo sow cele|y seeds someLime
in ea|ly Lo mid-sp|inq, buL Lhey a|e noLo|iously
slow Lo qe|minaLe. They need a Lempe|aLu|e ol
aL leasL 5º°F (I5°C), so use a p|opaqaLo| o|
|eep Lhem in a heaLed q|eenhouse il you wanL
Lo sLa|L Lhem ea|ly.
"0elery tastes
better if the stems
are blanched."
Kew te sew seeds
Sow seeds in poLs o| modules on o| only jusL below Lhe su|lace
ol Lhe soil, as Lhey need liqhL as well as wa|mLh and moisLu|e Lo
qe|minaLe. 0nce Lhe seedlinqs appea|, don'L leL Lhe Lempe|aLu|e
d|op below 50°F (I0°C) o| Lhey may bolL.
Kew te plant eut seedlîngs
Seedlinqs should be ha|dened oll belo|e L|ansplanLinq, Lhey a|e
|eady once Lhey have lou| Lo six L|ue leaves. FlanL sell-blanchinq
va|ieLies in a bloc|, |aLhe| Lhan in |ows, aL a spacinq ol abouL
I0 in (25 cm) and deep enouqh lo| Lhe c|own ol Lhe planL Lo be
level wiLh Lhe su|lace ol Lhe soil. WaLe| Lhe seedlinqs well, and
cove| Lhem aL niqhL il Lhe|e is sLill a danqe| ol l|osL.
FlanL L|ench cele|y seedlinqs in a p|epa|ed L|ench LhaL has
al|eady had loLs ol o|qanic maLLe| added Lo iL, abouL I2-IB in
(²0-45 cm) apa|L. FlanL leal cele|y abouL 5 in (I² cm) apa|L.

Kew te blanch celery
All cele|y LasLes beLLe| il Lhe sLems a|e blanched-Lhey'|e simply
mo|e Lende|. Sadly, sell-blanchinq cele|y isn'L always quiLe as sell-
blanchinq as iL sounds, and iL may need some help in Lhe lo|m ol
homemade colla|s.
T|adiLionally, L|ench cele|y is blanched eiLhe| by q|adually
lllinq up Lhe L|ench in which iL is q|owinq o|, il iL was planLed in a
L|ench al|eady llled Lo Lhe level ol Lhe su||oundinq q|ound, by
ea|Lhinq up a|ound Lhe sLems as Lhey q|ow. BuL Lhis is ha|d wo||.
The|e's no shame in usinq colla|s lo| L|ench cele|y, Loo.
keutîne care
The mosL impo|LanL Lhinq is Lo |eep cele|y consisLenLly moisL. IL
needs |equla| waLe|inq il iLs sLems a|e Lo swell, and il you leL iL
d|y ouL iL will quic|ly sLa|L Lo become sL|inqy. Mulchinq will help
|eLain moisLu|e in Lhe soil.
Il you noLice LhaL Lhe leaves a|e Lu|ninq yellow, Lop-d|ess Lhe
planLs wiLh sullaLe ol ammonia o| qive Lhem a liquid le|Lilize|.
(Lop) Plant self-blanchîng celery
closely in bloc|s so LhaL Lhose in Lhe
middle a|e p|oLecLed l|om Lhe liqhL.
FlanLs on Lhe ouLside may need colla|s.
(boLLom) Kememade cellars made
l|om sL|ips ol blac| plasLic lined wiLh
newspape| a|e an alLe|naLive way Lo
blanch cele|y. W|ap Lhem a|ound Lhe
sLems and secu|e wiLh Lwine.
Sell-blanchinq cele|y should be |eady Lo pic| any Lime l|om
midsumme| onwa|d. 0on'L leave iL Loo laLe o| Lhe sLems will
become sL|inqy and Lhe leaves will Lu|n yellow. Cive you| planLs
plenLy ol waLe| belo|e you diq Lhem up and Lhey will sLay l|esh
and c|isp lo| lonqe|. T|im oll any |ooLs and ouLe| shooLs, and
|eep Lhem in Lhe |el|iqe|aLo|. Snap oll, wash, and L|im individual
sLems only jusL belo|e you use Lhem.
T|ench cele|y can sLay in Lhe q|ound lo| lonqe|-unLil laLe lall
o| ea|ly winLe|-buL will need some p|oLecLion l|om l|osL.
What can ge wreng
Sluqs and snails a|e olLen aLL|acLed Lo cele|y, as a|e ca||oL lies
(·ee µµI?0-I?I).
0elery leaf mîner may cause leaves Lo develop d|ied-ouL,
b|own paLches. These paLches a|e caused by small whiLe maqqoLs
eaLinq Lhe insides ol Lhe leaves. Fic| oll Lhe allecLed leaves belo|e
Lhe p|oblem sp|eads o| Lhe cele|y will become biLLe| and inedible.
The|e is no oLhe| L|eaLmenL.
0iseases LhaL can allecL cele|y include lunqal leal spoLs, looL
and |ooL |oLs, and violeL |ooL |oL (·ee µµJ?Z-J?º).
WAkN1N0: All cele|y can cause an unpleasanL s|in |eacLion
called cele|y |ash. To avoid iL, wea| qloves and lonq sleeves.
kecemmended celery
5elf Blanching, Pink 0hampagne, Tango, Victoria
TRENCF CELERY Ideal, 0iant Pink-Mammoth Pink,
0iant Red, Pascal
(Lop) Karvest self-blanchîng celery
belo|e Lhe l|sL l|osL. use a lo|| Lo qenLly
lilL Lhe whole planL, |ooLs and all.
(boLLom) Vîcterîa
Cele|iac is an ala|minqly uqly veqeLable. IL p|oduces la|qe, |nobby, misshapen
qlobes LhaL sp|ouL a mass ol Lanqled |ooLs. In lacL, iL loo|s li|e a hai|y Lu|nip
o| |uLabaqa, Lhouqh, unli|e Lhem, iL is noL a |ooL buL a swollen sLem. Foweve|,
cele|iac is |edeemed by iLs LasLe-a mild combinaLion ol cele|y and lennel. IL's
qood peeled and |oasLed wiLh oLhe| winLe| veqeLables, o| boiled, combined wiLh
poLaLo, and mashed, buL can also be eaLen |aw, q|aLed and mixed wiLh musLa|d
mayonnaise as ce/e// /enoa/oJe.
As il LhaL we|en'L enouqh, cele|iac
ea|ns iLs place in Lhe veqeLable
qa|den Lh|ouqh beinq ve|y ha|dy and
lasLinq well inLo Lhe winLe| monLhs.
(la| lelL) kemeve splît er damaged
leaves as Lhe sLems beqin Lo swell up
Lowa|d Lhe end ol summe|, and leave
Lhe c|owns exposed.
(lelL) Mulch areund the plants wiLh a
laye| ol sL|aw belo|e Lhe l|sL l|osL can
cause any damaqe.
SEAS0N Sprîng Summer Fall Wînter
SewJplant N
Transplant N N
Karvest N N N
Where te plant
Cele|iac is noL lussy abouL sun o| shade, buL iL li|es moisL, |ich
soil LhaL has had plenLy ol composL o| manu|e added Lo iL Lhe
p|evious season.
When te plant
Cele|iac is slow-q|owinq. IL needs aL leasL six monLhs Lo develop
bulbs LhaL a|e wo|Lh ha|vesLinq, so iL's besL Lo qeL ahead ea|ly by
sowinq seeds unde| cove| in ea|ly Lo mid-sp|inq.
Kew te sew seeds
Sow seeds on Lhe su|lace ol poLLinq mix in
poLs, modules, o| seed L|ays and |eep Lhem in a
p|opaqaLo| aL a Lempe|aLu|e ol aL leasL 50°F
(I0°C). As Lhe seedlinqs appea|, Lhin o| p|ic|
Lhem ouL Lo one pe| module o| poL, and don'L
leL Lhe Lempe|aLu|e d|op below 50°F (I0°C).
Kew te plant eut seedlîngs
Fa|den oll seedlinqs in laLe sp|inq o| ea|ly
summe|, and planL Lhem ouL aL leasL I2 in
(²0 cm) apa|L, in |ows IB in (45 cm) apa|L.
0on'L c|owd Lhem, Lhey li|e plenLy ol liqhL and
ai|. And don'L planL Lhem Loo deep-Lhe c|own
should be jusL showinq.
keutîne care
WaLe| |equla|ly du|inq Lhe q|owinq season-
aL leasL Lwice a wee| il Lhe weaLhe| is d|y.
Il possible, use mulch Lo help |eLain moisLu|e
wiLhin Lhe soil.
As Lhe sLems beqin Lo swell up, pull oll any
spliL o| damaqed ouLe| leaves. The Lops ol Lhe
bulbs should beqin Lo sLand above Lhe su|lace
ol Lhe soil.
You should be able Lo sLa|L ha|vesLinq l|om
ea|ly lall onwa|d. use a lo|| Lo lilL Lhe whole
planL and L|im oll Lhe |ooLs and leaves.
Cele|iac can be sLo|ed-il pac|ed in a box
ol moisL sand and placed somewhe|e cool and
da||-buL iL's beLLe| lelL in Lhe q|ound unLil
needed. Foweve|, il Lhe winLe| is ve|y cold,
sp|ead a o-in (I5-cm) laye| ol sL|aw a|ound Lhe
base ol you| planLs. They should Lhen be able
Lo su|vive Lempe|aLu|es as low as I5°F (-I0°C).
What can ge wreng
Cele|iac is ve|y |esilienL. FesLs and diseases
LhaL miqhL cause L|ouble Lend Lo be Lhe same
as Lhose LhaL allecL cele|y (·ee µIJJ).
kecemmended celerîac
Alabaster, Balder, Monarch, Prinz, 5now White
0isLincLly alien- o| p|ehisLo|ic-loo|inq, |ohl|abi p|oduces sL|anqe, bulbous,
Lu|nip-shaped qlobes LhaL sLand ouL above Lhe soil su|lace, sp|ouLinq la|qe
cabbaqeli|e leaves. Kohl|abi is Lechnically a b|assica-a membe| ol Lhe cabbaqe
lamily-and Lhe q|een, whiLe, o| pu|ple qlobe is a swollen sLem, noL a |ooL.
IL LasLes |ema||ably qood-li|e a
mild, sweeL-lavo|ed Lu|nip when
coo|ed. The bonus l|om a qa|deninq
poinL ol view is LhaL iL's easy Lo q|ow
and lasL Lo maLu|e.
SEAS0N Sprîng Summer Fall Wînter
Sew N N
Transplant N
Karvest N N N
Where te plant
Kohl|abi will q|ow in mosL soils. IL's mo|e
successlul il Lhe pF is hiqh, howeve|, so add
exL|a lime il necessa|y (·ee µ4Z).
When te plant
In ea|ly sp|inq, sow seeds unde| cove|. As Lhe
weaLhe| wa|ms up, sow di|ecLly inLo Lhe q|ound,
buL noL Loo ea|ly o| Lhe planLs may bolL.
Karvest kehlrabî by pullinq Lhe
whole planL up o| by cuLLinq oll
Lhe qlobe jusL above Lhe |ooLs.
Leavinq some ol Lhe younq, cenL|al
leaves on Lhe qlobe helps |eep iL l|esh.
C|een and whiLe va|ieLies Lend Lo maLu|e mo|e
quic|ly, so planL Lhem l|sL lo| ea|ly ha|vesLinq
in summe|. FlanL pu|ple va|ieLies laLe|, as Lhey
a|e slowe|-q|owinq and will noL be |eady unLil
laLe| in Lhe lall o| winLe|. Il you sow seeds a
lew aL a Lime, you'll qeL a sLeady succession ol
c|ops all yea| in mild climaLes.
Kew te sew seeds
and plant eut seedlîngs
Sow seeds in poLs o| modules aL a depLh ol
in (2 cm) and |eep Lhem unde| cove|
il Lhe weaLhe| is sLill cold. T|ansplanL seedlinqs
belo|e Lhey q|ow any Lalle| Lhan 2 in (5 cm) Lo
p|evenL Lhem l|om bolLinq. Leave aL leasL º in
(2² cm) beLween planLs and, il you planL in
|ows, seL Lhem I2 in (²0 cm) apa|L.
Sow seeds di|ecLly inLo Lhe q|ound only when
you can |ely on Lempe|aLu|es above 50°F
(I0°C) o| Lhey may bolL. Sow Lh|ee seeds aL
each poinL, and Lhin ouL Lhe Lwo wea|esL
seedlinqs as soon as you can so as noL Lo disLu|b
Lhe |ooLs ol Lhe one you leave in place.
keutîne care
You shouldn'L have Lo do much excepL weed
and waLe| |equla|ly Lh|ouqhouL Lhe q|owinq
season. Il |ohl|abi d|ies ouL, iL Lends Lo qeL woody.
FasL-q|owinq ea|ly va|ieLies may be |eady lve o|
six wee|s alLe| sowinq. Bulbs a|e besL ha|vesLed
when Lhey a|e Lhe size ol a Lennis ball, Lhouqh
mode|n culLiva|s a|e sLill Lende| and LasLy il
allowed Lo q|ow la|qe|. Slice Lhem oll aL Lhe
|ooL, and cuL oll all buL Lhe younqesL leaves.
Slowe|-q|owinq laLe va|ieLies may La|e as lonq
as lou| monLhs Lo maLu|e and in mild weaLhe|
can be lelL in Lhe q|ound in winLe|. Foweve|, lilL
Lhem as soon as Lhe|e is a |is| ol l|osL.
What can ge wreng
Kohl|abi is a b|assica, so iL's allicLed by Lhe same
pesLs and diseases as cabbaqes and B|ussels
sp|ouLs, pa|Licula|ly club|ooL (see µµZZ-Z8).
kecemmended kehlrabî
Azur 5tar, 0elikatess, Kongo, Logo, Purple 0anube,
Purple Vienna, 0uickstar
Purple 0anube
Flerence fennel
Flo|ence o| sweeL lennel, as iL is someLimes called, is boLh delicious Lo eaL and
wonde|lully aLL|acLive. WiLh Lall l|onds ol lne leaLhe|y leaves, iL loo|s as qood in
Lhe qa|den bo|de| as iL does in Lhe veqeLable paLch. SL|icLly spea|inq, iLs la|qe
whiLe bulbs a|e noL bulbs aL all buL swollen, ove|lappinq leal sLems-mo|e li|e
cele|y Lhan onions. IL has a disLincLive
aniseed LasLe and can be eaLen eiLhe|
|aw o| coo|ed. Ta|e noLe, howeve|,
LhaL Flo|ence lennel is noL Lhe same
planL as Lhe he|b lennel (·ee µ?8J).
SEAS0N Sprîng Summer Fall Wînter
SewJplant N N
Transplant N
Karvest N N
Where te plant
Choose a well-d|ained siLe LhaL won'L become
waLe|loqqed. Fennel li|es soil LhaL has been
|ichly manu|ed Lhe p|evious season and is,
il possible, sliqhLly sandy.
When te plant
Fennel seeds will noL qe|minaLe unLil Lhey |each
5º°F (I5°C), so eiLhe| sow indoo|s in modules
in ea|ly Lo mid-sp|inq, Lhen planL ouL seedlinqs,
|eepinq Lhem cove|ed unLil Lhe weaLhe| wa|ms,
o| sow seeds di|ecLly inLo Lhe q|ound only alLe|
Lhe lonqesL day in midsumme|.
Kew te sew seeds
Sow lasL-maLu|inq va|ieLies in modules llled
wiLh l|esh seed-sLa|Linq o| poLLinq mix. 0nce Lhe
seedlinqs develop lou| L|ue leaves, planL ouL Lhe
modules I2 in (²0 cm) apa|L wiLhouL disLu|binq
Lhe delicaLe |ooLs. Cove| wiLh leece, cloches,
o| a cold l|ame unLil Lhey have ha|dened oll.
When sowinq inLo Lhe q|ound, planL Lh|ee o|
lou| seeds close LoqeLhe|, I2 in (²0 cm) apa|L and
I in (2.5 cm) deep. Il Lhey'|e noL deep enouqh, Lhe
q|owinq planLs may be unsLable and could blow
ove| in Lhe wind. As seedlinqs develop, Lhin Lo
leave Lhe sL|onqesL in each q|oup.
Zefa Fîne
keutîne care
WaLe| |equla|ly while Lhe planLs a|e q|owinq. Il possible, use
mulch Lo help |eLain moisLu|e in Lhe soil.
As Lhe planLs q|ow in heiqhL, ea|Lh up a|ound Lhe sLems
sliqhLly Lo p|evenL Lhem l|om |oc|inq in Lhe wind and Lo
blanch Lhe bulbs, |eepinq Lhem whiLe and sweeL-LasLinq.
IL will be aL leasL Lh|ee monLhs alLe| planLinq belo|e lennel
is |eady Lo ha|vesL. The L|ic| is Lo waiL lonq enouqh lo| Lhe
sLems Lo swell inLo qood-sized bulbs buL noL so lonq LhaL Lhey
elonqaLe, sLa|L Lo bolL, and become Loo Louqh Lo eaL. When
Lhey'|e jusL |iqhL, cuL Lhem oll jusL above q|ound level wiLh a
sha|p |nile.
Il you leave a sLump in Lhe soil, iL should sp|ouL new shooLs
LhaL can Lhen be cuL and used in salads, and pe|haps even
addiLional small bulbs.
What can ge wreng
BolLinq is Lhe biqqesL p|oblem. ResisLanL va|ieLies a|e
available, buL even Lhese will bolL il Lhe planLs qeL Loo d|y o|
Loo cold. Avoid planLinq ouL unLil Lhe weaLhe| has wa|med,
and |eep planLs moisL.
I_`qfZkfe`X is a lunqus LhaL may cause lennel Lo become
sLunLed, wiLh yellow, |ed, o| da|| q|een-blac| lesions appea|inq
on Lhe bulbs and sLems ol Lhe leaves. The|e's no cu|e, so diq up
Lhe allecLed planLs and desL|oy Lhem belo|e Lhey |oL. And
don'L q|ow mo|e lennel-o| cele|y, leLLuces, o| |adish-in Lhe
same spoL lo| a lew yea|s. In Lhe luLu|e, sp|ayinq seedlinqs
wiLh a coppe|-based lunqicide may help p|evenL aLLac|s.
kecemmended fennel
Loo| lo| va|ieLies LhaL a|e |esisLanL Lo bolLinq. They can be
sown o| planLed ouLdoo|s ea|lie|-and will Lhe|elo|e have
Lime Lo develop la|qe| bulbs. 'Romanesco' |eliably p|oduces
bulbs weiqhinq up Lo 2 lb (I |q) each.
0antino, Perfection, Romanesco, Rubrum, Rudy 5elma, 5irio,
Zefa Fino, Zefa Tardo
To ha|vesL lennel, use a |nile
Lo cuL Lhe bulb ho|izonLally
I in (2.5 cm) above q|ound level,
and leave Lhe base in Lhe soil.
FeaLhe|y leaves should sp|ouL
l|om Lhe sLump wiLhin Lhe
nexL lew wee|s-Lhese can be
used in salads.
0nions a|e amonq Lhe easiesL ol all veqeLables Lo q|ow. You can |aise Lhem
l|om seed o| l|om small comme|cially p|oduced baby onions called ¨seLs.¨ SeLs
a|e ideal lo| novice qa|dene|s, as Lhey a|e a q|eaL deal easie| Lo q|ow Lhan
seeds, alLhouqh Lhey a|e mo|e expensive Lo pu|chase. 0nions don'L need a huqe
amounL ol aLLenLion and, as lonq as
you |eep Lhem l|ee ol weeds and
don'L ove|waLe| Lhem, especially
when Lhey a|e ve|y younq, you should
be |ewa|ded wiLh a |especLable c|op.
SEAS0N Sprîng Summer Fall Wînter
SewJplant N N N
Transplant N
Karvest N N
Where te plant
Choose an open siLe whe|e Lhe soil is boLh
well-d|ained and noL Loo weL, and il possible
diq in some well-|oLLed manu|e o| composL a
lew monLhs in advance. 0nions don'L li|e acidic
soils, so add some lime il Lhe pF level is lowe|
Lhan abouL o.5 (·ee µ4Z).
0on'L planL onions in Lhe same place yea|
alLe| yea|, o| you'll inc|ease Lhe |is| ol disease.
Chec| you| c|op-|oLaLion plan and move Lo a
new a|ea ol Lhe veqeLable paLch-one whe|e
you miqhL have q|own beans, peas, o| LomaLoes
in Lhe p|ecedinq yea|.
0nions and ca||oLs a|e olLen planLed nexL Lo
one anoLhe|. The smell ol onions is LhouqhL Lo
deLe| Lhe ca||oL ly.

(lelL) 0nîens are ready fer harvestîng when Lhei| leaves
Lopple ove| and Lu|n yellow o| b|own-iL's a siqn LhaL Lhey have
sLopped q|owinq.
(|iqhL) 1nterplantîng enîens and carrets is a double whammy.
Lhe smell ol onions should deLe| ca||oL lies and Lhe odo| ol ca||oLs
Lh|ows any equally unwelcome onion lies oll Lhe scenL.
When te plant
IL's besL Lo sow seeds o| planL seLs du|inq sp|inq.
This should qive you onions Lo ha|vesL in laLe
summe| and ea|ly lall. Foweve|, iL is also
possible Lo planL ha|dy Japanese va|ieLies in
lall. They will ove|winLe| and can be ha|vesLed
in ea|ly Lo midsumme|-alLhouqh you may lose
a lew in Lhe cold weaLhe|, and Lhey can be
mo|e suscepLible Lo disease.
Kew te sew seeds
Il you wanL Lo q|ow la|qe onions, sow seeds in midwinLe| and
|eep Lhem in a heaLed q|eenhouse aL a minimum Lempe|aLu|e ol
50-oI°F (I0-Io°C). This qeLs Lhem oll Lo an ea|ly sLa|L and qives
Lhem Lhe lonqesL possible q|owinq pe|iod. 0Lhe|wise, sow Lhem
in laLe winLe| o| ea|ly sp|inq, unde| cove| buL unheaLed. FlanL
Lhem ouL when Lhe q|ound is wa|m enouqh.
0nion seeds sLa|Led oll unde| cove| should be sown in modules
o| mulLibloc|s llled wiLh l|esh poLLinq mix. Ea|ly sowinqs will
need Lo be L|ansplanLed Lo small poLs belo|e ha|deninq oll and
planLinq ouL in mid-sp|inq. LaLe|-sown planLs can be L|ansplanLed
di|ecLly inLo Lhe q|ound.
In mid- o| laLe sp|inq, when Lhe soil is wa|me| and d|ie|, planL
seeds di|ecLly inLo Lhe q|ound. Sow seeds Lhinly aL a depLh ol
in (2 cm) in |ows I2 in (²0 cm) apa|L, and Lhin Lhem ouL
once Lhey a|e esLablished. The|e is no poinL in sowinq ouLdoo|s
Loo ea|ly, il Lhe soil is cold Lhe seeds won'L qe|minaLe.
Kew te plant sets
Ra|e you| soil Lo loosen iL up, and ma|e a shallow d|ill Lhe lenqLh
ol you| |ow. Lay ouL you| onion seLs abouL 2 in (5 cm) apa|L lo|
small o| medium bulbs o| 4 in (I0 cm) apa|L lo| la|qe| ones. F|ess
each seL qenLly inLo Lhe soil, poinLed end upwa|d, and d|aw Lhe
soil up a|ound iL wiLh you| lnqe|s, leavinq Lhe Lip jusL showinq.
Cive Lhem a liLLle waLe| buL noL so much LhaL you soa| Lhem.
Multî-sewn enîens a|e q|own in
clusLe|s. Sow Lhem in module L|ays,
lve seeds Lo each cell. Then L|ansplanL
Lhe q|oups ol seedlinqs inLacL, leLLinq
Lhem q|ow wiLhouL Lhinninq Lhem ouL.
Ma|| ouL a shallow d|ill abouL
I in (2.5 cm) deep. Fush Lhe
seLs ca|elully inLo Lhe soil wiLh
poinLed ends upwa|d, spacinq
Lhem 2-4 in (5-I0 cm) apa|L.
0|aw Lhe soil bac| a|ound each
seL so LhaL Lhe Lip is only jusL
visible. CenLly l|m down Lhe soil.
WaLe| spa|inqly il Lhe q|ound is d|y.
keutîne care
Weed you| onion paLch Lho|ouqhly and |equla|ly, especially in
Lhe wee|s alLe| sowinq seeds o| planLinq seLs when compeLiLion
l|om oLhe| planLs is aL iLs le|cesL. Ta|e ca|e noL Lo ove|waLe|
Lhem, Lhouqh. Il onions qeL waLe|loqqed, Lhey'll La|e lonqe| Lo
laLLen up and may be mo|e p|one Lo disease.
0nions someLimes bolL-Lhey p|oduce a p|emaLu|e lowe|
on Lop ol a Lall sLal|. Il Lhis happens, cuL Lhe lowe| oll.
When Lhe leaves Lu|n yellow and sLa|L Lo collapse, you| onions
a|e |eady lo| ha|vesLinq. Fo| lall-sown va|ieLies, Lhis will
be in ea|ly Lo midsumme|. Fo| sp|inq-planLed bulbs, iL will be
beLween midsumme| and ea|ly lall.
LilL Lhe bulbs qenLly ouL ol Lhe soil wiLh a lo|| and eiLhe|
lay Lhem ouL Lo d|y on Lhe q|ound lo| a couple ol wee|s il Lhe
weaLhe| is d|y and sunny, o| b|inq Lhem indoo|s il iL is weL.
unless you plan Lo use Lhem in Lhe |iLchen |iqhL away, onions
musL be Lho|ouqhly d|ied o| Lhey will |oL du|inq sLo|aqe. The besL
way Lo |eep Lhem is Lo sLac| Lhem in sinqle laye|s in slaLLed
boxes, b|aid Lhem inLo |opes, o| hanq Lhem in neLs. Be su|e Lo
leL ai| ci|culaLe a|ound Lhem.
(above) 0nîen repes er strîngs can be
hunq up lo| sLo|aqe in winLe|-as lonq
as Lhey a|e |epL d|y and well-venLilaLed.
(|iqhL) 0ryîng enîens indoo|s on
wooden |ac|s may be necessa|y il Lhe
weaLhe| is Loo weL Lo leave Lhem ouLside
Lo d|y on Lhe q|ound.
What can ge wreng
0nîen Hy maqqoLs miqhL eaL |ooLs and bulbs, causinq leaves Lo
yellow and planLs Lo collapse du|inq ea|ly summe|. 0nion seLs a|e
less p|one Lo aLLac| Lhan planLs q|own l|om seed. And cove|inq
onion seedlinqs wiLh leece will p|evenL lies l|om layinq eqqs.
0nîen thrîps cause leaves Lo lose Lhei| colo| and develop
|usLy sL|ipes o| whiLe moLLlinq, especially in hoL, d|y summe|s.
Keep an eye ouL lo| Lhe Liny blac| o| pale-yellow insecLs. They
can be L|eaLed wiLh insecLicidal soap, |oLenone, o| py|eLh|um.
0nîen whîte ret causes leaves Lo Lu|n yellow and wilL, you will
also see lully whiLe lunqus and small blac| q|owLhs a|ound Lhe
bulb bases. 0nion whiLe |oL is ve|y se|ious. The|e's no |nown cu|e
oLhe| Lhan Lo bu|n Lhe allecLed planLs and avoid q|owinq onions
in Lhe same spoL lo| aL leasL seven yea|s, pe|haps even lonqe|.
0ewny mîldew is a lunqus LhaL Lu|ns leal Lips q|ay o| Lhe
Lops yellow, and p|oduces a luzzy q|ay mold beneaLh (·ee µJ?Z).
0nîen neck ret is a lunqus LhaL solLens, discolo|s, and Lhen
|oLs Lhe nec| ol Lhe bulb, olLen alLe| ha|vesLinq when Lhe onions
a|e in sLo|aqe. Avoid iL by |oLaLinq c|ops, buyinq qood-qualiLy
seeds o| seLs, and |ipeninq and d|yinq bulbs Lho|ouqhly.
kecemmended enîens
Fome-q|own onions don'L LasLe |adically dille|enL l|om Lhose
you buy in Lhe supe|ma||eL. And, Lo be honesL, sLo|e-bouqhL
onions a|e inexpensive and available yea|-|ound. The|elo|e,
il you'|e qoinq Lo q|ow onions you|sell, iL ma|es sense Lo choose
va|ieLies LhaL a|e less easy Lo lnd, such as |ed Lo|pedo-shaped
onions o| la|qe supe|-sweeL ILalian ones.
SETS 0enturion, Hyduro, Jet 5et Radar, Red Baron, 5turon,
SEE0 Bedfordshire 0hampion, Buffalo, Rossa Lunga di Firenze
0vERWINTERINC 5enshyu, 5onic
FICKLINC Brown Pickling, 0iant Zittau, Paris 5ilver 5kin, Pompeii
(l|om Lop) Sturen, Parîs Sîlver Skîn, Buffale
Welsh enîens
These a|e |aLhe| li|e qianL q|een onions,
alLhouqh Lhey a|e Lalle|-up Lo IB in (45 cm) in
heiqhL-and q|ow in clumps. They have q|een,
hollow sLems LhaL Lhic|en aL Lhe base buL don'L
lo|m la|qe bulbs. The sLems a|e eaLen, eiLhe|
coo|ed o| |aw in winLe| salads. Welsh onions
planLed in sp|inq can be ha|vesLed in lall, and
Lhose planLed in laLe summe| can be cuL in Lhe
lollowinq sp|inq. An addiLional benelL is LhaL
Lhe planL is a pe|ennial, so iL will conLinue Lo
p|oduce yea| alLe| yea|.
SEAS0N Sprîng Summer Fall Wînter
SewJplant N N
Karvest N N N N
Japanese bunchîng enîens
0eveloped l|om Lhe Welsh onion, Japanese
bunchinq onions can be q|own almosL yea|-
|ound and ha|vesLed eiLhe| younq, when Lhey
a|e abouL Lhe same size as q|een onions, o|
when Lhe planLs have q|own Lo Lhe size ol lee|s.
They a|e happy Lo Lole|aLe poo|e| soil and
colde| weaLhe| Lhan o|dina|y sp|inq onions,
and Lhey a|e usually q|own as annuals.
SEAS0N Sprîng Summer Fall Wînter
SewJplant N N N N
Transplant N
Karvest N N N
Tree er Egyptîan enîens
This sL|anqe onion va|ieLy p|oduces clusLe|s ol
small bulbleLs LhaL appea| in mid-ai|, sp|ouLinq
l|om Lhe Lop ol Lall sLems in place ol lowe|s.
The planLs can q|ow up Lo 4 lL (I.2 m) Lall, and
as Lhe sLems slowly bow down unde| Lhei| own
weiqhL, bulbs LhaL ma|e conLacL wiLh Lhe soil
may La|e |ooL and p|oduce new planLs lo| Lhe
lollowinq yea|. The onions a|e used lo| pic|linq
o| in coo|ed dishes.
SEAS0N Sprîng Summer Fall Wînter
SewJplant N N
Karvest N
Tree enîens
ShalloLs loo| much li|e small onions. They have yellowy-b|own o| |ed s|ins, and
va|y in shape l|om |ound and bulbous Lo lonq and Lo|pedo-li|e. unli|e onions,
Lhey q|ow in clumps |aLhe| Lhan as sinqle bulbs. Each shalloL ¨seL¨ you planL will
divide and p|oduce a handlul ol Len
o| so sepa|aLe new bulbs. They a|e
wo|Lh q|owinq lo| Lhei| disLincLive,
somewhaL sweeL, sliqhLly qa|lic|y LasLe,
and lo| Lhe lacL LhaL Lhey can be
expensive Lo buy in Lhe supe|ma||eL.
SEAS0N Sprîng Summer Fall Wînter
SewJplant N N
Transplant N
Plant sets N N
Karvest N
Where te plant
ShalloLs do besL in an open, sunny siLe wiLh
liqhL, l|ee-d|aininq, nonacidic soil. Il iL's Loo
heavy, add some sand o| composL, and il iL's
Loo acidic, add some lime.
When te plant
ShalloLs can be q|own eiLhe| l|om seed o| l|om
comme|cially p|oduced ¨seLs¨ LhaL a|e mo|e
li|ely Lo be vi|us-l|ee Lhan bulbs you miqhL
have saved l|om Lhe p|evious yea|. SeLs a|e
easie| Lo q|ow and mo|e |eliable Lhan seeds.
FlanL seLs in laLe winLe| o| ea|ly sp|inq. Sow
seeds unde| cove| in laLe winLe|, and L|ansplanL
Lhem in mid-sp|inq, when Lhe soil has bequn Lo
wa|m up. Sow seeds ouLdoo|s, sL|aiqhL inLo Lhe
q|ound, in mid- Lo laLe sp|inq.
(Lop) Sets a|e easie| Lo q|ow, buL Lend Lo p|oduce a smalle| c|op.
(boLLom) Seeds usually p|oduce a la|qe| c|op Lhan seLs, buL La|e
a lonqe| Lime Lo do so.
Kew te sew seeds
Sow seeds aL a depLh ol abouL I in (2.5 cm),
and Lhin Lo abouL
in (2 cm) when shooLs
appea|. When L|ansplanLinq seedlinqs, space
Lhem abouL 2 in (5 cm) apa|L.
Kew te plant sets
Ra|e Lhe soil Lo loosen iL, and ma|e a shallow
d|ill Lhe lenqLh ol you| |ow. CenLly p|ess Lhe
seLs inLo Lhe d|ill abouL 7 in (IB cm) apa|L, and
d|aw Lhe soil up a|ound Lhem so LhaL Lhe
Lips a|e jusL showinq. Then waLe| Lhem in.
keutîne care
Keep you| shalloLs l|ee ol weeds il you wanL
Lhem Lo q|ow as la|qe as possible. 0nce Lhey
a|e esLablished, Lhey should need waLe|inq only
il Lhe weaLhe| is ve|y d|y.
In mid- Lo laLe summe|, once Lhe leaves have
Lu|ned yellow and died down, ca|elully lilL Lhe
bulbs ouL ol Lhe ea|Lh and lay Lhem ouL Lo
d|y-on Lhe q|ound il iL's noL weL, o| on wi|e
|ac|s LhaL allow ai| Lo ci|culaLe.
0nce Lhey a|e compleLely d|y, shalloLs can
be sLo|ed indoo|s lo| seve|al monLhs. SLac|
Lhem in sinqle laye|s in slaLLed boxes, o| b|aid
inLo L|adiLional sL|inqs, li|e onions, and |eep in
a cool, d|y place.
What can ge wreng
FesLs and diseases a|e Lhe same as Lhose LhaL
allecL onions (·ee µI44). 0owny mildew can be
a pa|Licula| p|oblem.
kecemmended shallets
Atlantic, 0reation, 0elicato, Pikant, Matador 5ante
(Lop) Pîkant (boLLom) 0elîcate
0reen enîens
C|een onions-also called scallions, salad onions, o| sp|inq onions-a|e
essenLially junio|, immaLu|e onions. They have b|iqhL q|een sLems and
leaves and small unde|developed bulbs LhaL a|e no|mally whiLe, Lhouqh
occasionally |ed. C|een onions a|e q|own lo| ha|vesLinq while sLill younq
and a|e usually eaLen |aw in salads, q|illed, o| added Lo sLi|-l|ies.
They can be sown in sp|inq lo|
ha|vesLinq Lh|ouqhouL Lhe summe|,
o| in lall lo| ha|vesLinq du|inq Lhe
lollowinq sp|inq.
Thînnîng clesely planted green enîens when Lhey a|e sLill
younq will acLually qive you you| l|sL c|op. Leave Lhe |emainde|
aL a spacinq ol abouL I in (2.5 cm) apa|L and leL Lhem q|ow on
lo| a second ha|vesL a lew wee|s laLe|.
SEAS0N Sprîng Summer Fall Wînter
Sew N N N
Karvest N N N
Where te plant
Li|e all onions, q|een onions do besL in a sunny
posiLion in liqhL soil LhaL's noL Loo acidic.
When te plant
Sow seeds di|ecLly inLo Lhe q|ound aL any Lime
l|om ea|ly sp|inq onwa|d. Foweve|, don'L sow
Lhem all aL once. Il you sow a handlul eve|y
couple ol wee|s, you should have a conLinuous
c|op LhaL will lasL Lh|ouqhouL Lhe summe|.
Il you sow seeds laLe in Lhe summe| o| in
ea|ly lall, seedlinqs will come up belo|e
Lhe onseL ol winLe|, lasL Lh|ouqh Lhe cold
weaLhe|, and p|oduce a c|op |eady Lo pic| in
Lhe lollowinq sp|inq.
Kew te sew seeds
Ma|e a shallow d|ill in Lhe soil and sow seeds
di|ecLly inLo iL abouL
in (I cm) apa|L. 0|aw
Lhe ea|Lh ove| Lhem so Lhe seeds a|e abouL
in (I-2 cm) below Lhe su|lace, Lhen waLe|.
Space |ows aL leasL I2 in (²0 cm) apa|L Lo
help discou|aqe Lhe sp|ead ol downy mildew.
(|iqhL, cloc|wise l|om Lop lelL)
Whîte Lîsben, Nerth Kelland Bleed ked, Laser
keutîne care
Keep you| |ows l|ee ol weeds, and waLe|
|equla|ly il Lhe weaLhe| is d|y. FlanLs LhaL don'L
qeL enouqh waLe| Lend Lo develop bulbs LhaL
become Loo la|qe.
Younq planLs q|own l|om seeds sown in lall
may need cove|inq wiLh cloches o| leece in
cold winLe|s.
C|een onions a|e usually pic|ed when Lhey a|e
abouL o in (I5 cm) Lall-a|ound Lwo monLhs
alLe| planLinq. They can be lelL lonqe|, buL
Lhey will conLinue Lo q|ow and become
sL|onqe| in LasLe.
What can ge wreng
FesLs and diseases a|e Lhe same as Lhose LhaL
allecL all oLhe| onions (·ee µI44). 0nion ly can
be a pa|Licula| p|oblem.
kecemmended green enîens
SFRINC-S0WN Laser, North Holland Blood Red,
White Lisbon
FALL-S0WN 0uardsman, Ramrod,
White Lisbon Winter Hardy
Ca|lic is leqenda|y lo| iLs healLh-qivinq, medicinal p|ope|Lies, lo| Lhe unique
lavo| iL qives Lo lood, and (pe|haps due Lo Lhe a|oma iL impa|Ls Lo Lhe human
b|eaLh) lo| iLs powe| Lo wa|d oll vampi|es. Could anyLhinq be mo|e uselul`
Mo|eove|, q|owinq qa|lic is abouL as easy as iL qeLs. B|ea| a ¨head¨ o| bulb inLo
cloves, planL Lhem ouL individually,
and in abouL nine monLhs, each one
should have q|own inLo a new head
ol iLs own.
SEAS0N Sprîng Summer Fall Wînter
Plant N N N
Karvest N N N
Where te plant
Ca|lic li|es an open, sunny posiLion and liqhL, well-d|ained soil. Il
Lhe soil is heavy, bulbs will Lend Lo be small, and il iL's Loo weL
Lhey may |oL. LiqhLen heavy soils by diqqinq in a liLLle sha|p sand
o| some well-|oLLed composL o| manu|e.
When te plant
Ca|lic needs a cold spell aL Lhe sLa|L ol iLs q|owinq pe|iod, and
some weL weaLhe| when iL sLa|Ls Lo develop leaves, so iL's besL
sown in lall lo| ha|vesLinq Lhe lollowinq summe|. Ca|lic sown in
Lhe sp|inq will q|ow, buL p|obably noL so la|qe.
Kew te plant
IL's beLLe| Lo buy special vi|us-l|ee qa|lic l|om a nu|se|y o| qa|den
cenLe| Lhan Lo |is| usinq bulbs bouqhL l|om a supe|ma||eL.
Sepa|aLe Lhe cloves and planL individually, poinLed end upwa|d, aL
|ouqhly Lwice Lhei| own depLh and abouL 7 in (IB cm) apa|L.
keutîne care
F|eLLy much all you need Lo do is |eep Lhe weeds down and Lhe
soil moisL. Neve| ove|waLe| Lhe planLs.
Some qa|lic va|ieLies Lend Lo bolL-LhaL is, Lhey L|y Lo p|oduce
lowe|s in o|de| Lo seed Lhemselves. Il Lhis happens, Lhe bulbs
will be smalle| Lhan you wanL. F|evenL bolLinq by cuLLinq down
Lhe lowe|inq sLem Lo abouL hall iLs heiqhL a couple ol wee|s
p|io| Lo ha|vesLinq.
Sepa|aLe a bulb inLo individual
cloves, and |emove Lhe loose
pape|y s|in. 0isca|d any damaqed
o| diseased cloves.
Fush one clove inLo each cell
ol a module L|ay and cove|
wiLh poLLinq mix so Lhe Lip is jusL
hidden. T|ansplanL when Lhe
cloves sp|ouL.
As soon as Lhe leaves Lu|n yellow and lade, Lhe
bulbs will be |eady Lo ha|vesL. Fo| qa|lic LhaL
was planLed in Lhe lall, Lhis will be in laLe sp|inq
o| ea|ly summe|. Fo| sp|inq-planLed qa|lic,
ha|vesL beLween midsumme| and ea|ly lall.
Ca|elully lilL Lhe bulbs and leL Lhem d|y ouL
Lho|ouqhly, ouLdoo|s in Lhe sun il Lhe weaLhe|
is d|y o| indoo|s il iL is weL. Fanq Lhem in
L|adiLional b|aids.
F|esh o| ¨q|een¨ qa|lic can be ha|vesLed
ea|lie|, belo|e Lhe leaves chanqe colo|. IL has
a sliqhLly milde| LasLe| buL musL be used quic|ly.
Because iL has noL d|ied ouL, iL will noL |eep.
(lelL) 0ryîng garlîc bulbs is essenLial il you wanL Lo sLo|e Lhem
wiLhouL Lhei| |oLLinq. Sp|ead Lhem ouL somewhe|e d|y and well-
venLilaLed, o| b|aid Lhem in sL|inqs and hanq Lhem up.
(|iqhL) Elephant
What can ge wreng
FesLs and diseases a|e Lhe same as Lhose
LhaL allecL onions (·ee µI44¹. vi|uses can be
L|oublesome and pe|sisLenL, so |oLaLe you|
c|ops and buy qood-qualiLy, disease-|esisLanL
bulbs lo| planLinq. Leaves someLimes become
discolo|ed wiLh |usL, buL iL shouldn'L allecL
Lhe qa|lic heads Lhemselves.
kecemmended garlîc
0ille|enL va|ieLies a|e available lo| planLinq
eiLhe| in lall and winLe| o| in sp|inq.
0ve|winLe|inq va|ieLies Lend Lo have a ¨sho|L
do|mancy¨-Lhey can be |epL lo| only lou|
monLhs o| so alLe| ha|vesLinq. Sp|inq-planLed
qa|lic can be sLo|ed lo| up Lo Len monLhs.
0ermidour, 5olent Wight, White Pearl
IL's LempLinq Lo believe LhaL lee|s we|e specilcally desiqned Lo La|e ove| and lll
Lhe qap lelL when Lhe lasL |emaininq onions had been ha|vesLed. Fo| Lhis |eason,
Lhey a|e invaluable in Lhe |iLchen qa|den. Choose Lhe |iqhL va|ieLies and, in mild
climaLes, Lhe|e's no |eason why you shouldn'L have home-q|own lee|s |eadily
available l|om ea|ly lall |iqhL Lh|ouqh winLe| and inLo Lhe lollowinq sp|inq-
convenienLly, jusL belo|e you| nexL c|op ol onions is |eady. Lee|s a|e membe|s
ol Lhe same lamily as onions buL Lhey
dille| in LhaL Lhey have lonqe|,
Lhic|e| sLems o| ¨shan|s¨ and almosL
no bulb. IL's Lhe blanched whiLe
sLems LhaL a|e coo|ed and eaLen.
Karvest leeks sho|Lly belo|e you'|e |eady Lo use
Lhem. LilL Lhem wiLh a lo|| and L|im oll Lhe |ooLs,
La|inq ca|e noL Lo qeL soil in beLween Lhe leaves.
SEAS0N Sprîng Summer Fall Wînter
Sew N N
Transplant N N
Karvest N N N
Where te plant
Lee|s a|e noL pa|Licula|ly lussy, Lhouqh Lhey q|ow
besL in deep soil LhaL has had loLs ol well-|oLLed
composL o| manu|e duq inLo iL in advance. They
also p|ele| neuL|al o| sliqhLly acidic soil. 0on'L
q|ow lee|s whe|e you q|ew onions, shalloLs, o|
qa|lic Lhe yea| belo|e.
When te plant
Aim Lo sow successively Lh|ouqh Lhe yea| so LhaL
you have a conLinuous supply available. In ea|ly
Lo mid-sp|inq, once Lempe|aLu|es have |eached
a minimum ol 45°F (7°C), sow ¨ea|ly¨ va|ieLies
lo| ha|vesLinq du|inq laLe summe| and lall, ¨mid-
season¨ va|ieLies lo| ha|vesLinq in winLe|,
and ¨laLe¨ va|ieLies lo| Lhe lollowinq sp|inq.
AlLe|naLively, you can qeL sLa|Led soone| by
sowinq seeds in modules o| mulLibloc|s du|inq Lhe
winLe| and |eepinq Lhem unde| cove|. T|ansplanL
Lhe seedlinqs in mid-sp|inq.
Plantîng în deep, narrew heles p|oLecLs seedlinqs l|om Lhe
liqhL and p|oduces lonq, whiLe blanched sLems.
Kew te sew seeds
Seeds can be sown eiLhe| ouLdoo|s in an a|ea
ol you| qa|den |ese|ved as a seedbed o|
indoo|s unde| cove|. 0uLdoo|s, sow seeds Lhinly
aL a depLh ol abouL I in (2.5 cm). Seedlinqs
should be |eady Lo L|ansplanL Lo Lhei| lnal
posiLions alLe| abouL eiqhL wee|s.
Indoo|s, sow seeds inLo modules llled wiLh
l|esh soilless o| poLLinq mix and don'L leL Lhe
Lempe|aLu|e lall below 50°F (I0°C). Fa|den
oll you| seedlinqs belo|e planLinq Lhem ouL.
Towa|d Lhe end ol winLe|, seeds sown in
mulLibloc|s and |epL unde| cove| should
qe|minaLe and q|ow wiLhouL exL|a heaLinq.
keutîne care
WaLe| spa|inqly once planLs a|e esLablished,
unless condiLions a|e ve|y d|y. To encou|aqe
qood q|owLh, scaLLe| some hiqh-niL|oqen
le|Lilize| a|ound Lhe base ol Lhe planLs in mid-
and laLe summe|, o| in laLe winLe|. Ea|Lh up
a|ound Lhe sLems Lo help blanchinq.
Lee|s can usually be ha|vesLed abouL lou| o|
lve monLhs alLe| sowinq, buL you can leave
Lhem in Lhe q|ound lo| much lonqe| il you wish.
They don'L sLo|e well once Lhey've been lilLed,
so il you need Lhe space Lhey'|e occupyinq, you
can La|e Lhem ouL and Lempo|a|ily |eplanL Lhem
elsewhe|e (a Lechnique |nown as ¨heelinq in¨).
Younq lee| seedlinqs q|owinq in
a seedbed can be L|ansplanLed
when Lhey a|e abouL as Lhic| as a
pencil. Il Lhe soil is d|y and
compacLed, waLe| iL, Lhen loosen
Lhe soil beneaLh Lhe |ooLs wiLh a
lo||. CenLly pull ouL Lhe seedlinqs.
Bundle LoqeLhe| a handlul ol
seedlinqs, and wiLh a sha|p
|nile, L|im Lhe |ooLs Lo abouL I in
(2.5 cm), and Lhe leaves Lo
o-B in (I5-20 cm).
Ma|| ouL a shallow d|ill, and
use a dibbe| Lo ma|e a |ow ol
planLinq holes o in (I5 cm) deep
and o in (I5 cm) apa|L. FuL one
seedlinq inLo each hole, ensu|inq
LhaL Lhe |ooLs siL on Lhe boLLom and
Lhe q|owinq hea|L Lip is level wiLh
Lhe soil. WaLe| Lhe seedlinqs so Lhe
soil lalls bac| loosely inLo Lhe holes,
qivinq Lhe lee|s |oom Lo q|ow.
What can ge wreng
Lee|s can sulle| l|om mosL ol Lhe pesLs and
diseases LhaL allicL onions, shalloLs, and
qa|lic (·ee µI44).
Leek rust is also a common p|oblem. IL's
a lunqus LhaL p|oduces Liny o|anqe blisLe|s on
Lhe ouLe| leaves. When Lhese bu|sL, Lhey p|oduce
b|iqhL o|anqe powde|y spo|es, li|e |usL. The
disease isn'L necessa|ily laLal and you| lee|s
may sLill be edible il you cuL oll and bu|n all
Lhe allecLed leaves p|ompLly. 0on'L q|ow lee|s
in Lhe same spoL nexL yea|.
kecemmended leeks
Ea|ly lee|s Lend Lo be Lalle| wiLh lonqe| and
whiLe| sLems, laLe-season lee|s may be sliqhLly
sho|Le|, da||e|, and Louqhe|. Loo| lo| va|ieLies
LhaL a|e |esisLanL Lo |usL.
5t. Victor, Jolant, Longbow, Hannibal, Autumn
Mammoth 2, Toledo, Upton
(|iqhL) Telede
(below) Leeks that preduce Hewers a|e said Lo have bolLed,
Lhey do so in o|de| Lo p|oduce seed and p|opaqaLe Lhemselves.
BolLinq is mo|e li|ely il a hoL, d|y lall lollows a cool summe|.
5. Peas & Beans
Feas, F|ench beans, |unne| beans, b|oad beans, and a wide va|ieLy ol oLhe| beans
a|e all membe|s ol a lamily ol veqeLables called ¨lequmes.¨ They a|e all q|own lo|
Lhei| seeds and seedpods, which may be eaLen |aw when younq buL a|e usually
coo|ed. Li|e many veqeLables, peas and beans a|e aL Lhei| LasLiesL and sweeLesL
when eaLen l|esh-as soon as possible alLe| beinq pic|ed, belo|e Lhei| naLu|al
suqa|s Lu|n Lo sLa|ch. Fods lo| eaLinq a|e besL ha|vesLed when sLill small, belo|e
Lhey Lu|n Louqh and sL|inqy. Foweve|, ce|Lain va|ieLies-ha|icoL and |idney
beans, lo| example-can also be d|ied and sLo|ed. FisLo|ically, Lhis has always
made Lhem valuable as a sou|ce ol lood du|inq Lhe lean winLe| monLhs. All peas
and beans l|eeze well, Loo.

kunner beans need |equla| pic|inq-
Lwo o| Lh|ee Limes a wee| when Lhe
ha|vesL is aL iLs pea|.
Peas lose Lhei| lavo| ve|y quic|ly
alLe| beinq pic|ed. The swilLe| Lhe
L|ip l|om you| veqeLable qa|den Lo
you| plaLe, Lhe beLLe|.
French beans have a bewilde|inq
a||ay ol dille|enL names. snap,
sL|inq, Kenya, |idney, ha|icoL,
bo|loLLi, laqeoleL, and many mo|e.
kunner beans a|e noLo|ious lo|
p|oducinq a qluL, so don'L planL
Loo many. Fic| Lhem when younq,
belo|e Lhey Lu|n Louqh and sL|inqy.
Bread beans can be sown in Lhe
lall lo| a c|op Lhe lollowinq sp|inq,
o| in sp|inq lo| ha|vesLinq in
Lhe summe|.
Seybeans a|e q|own li|e
F|ench beans, buL Lhey need a wa|m
climaLe. They p|oduce sho|L q|een
pods cove|ed wiLh downy hai|s.
Feas a|e Lhe pe|lecL veqeLable lo| home-q|owinq. Lhey simply don'L LasLe Lhe
same il bouqhL l|om a sLo|e. Thei| lavo| sLa|Ls Lo deLe|io|aLe Lhe momenL
Lhey a|e pic|ed, as Lhei| naLu|al suqa|s immediaLely beqin Lo Lu|n Lo sLa|ch,
so iL's c|ucial Lo delay ha|vesLinq unLil jusL belo|e you a|e |eady Lo coo| and
eaL Lhem. The sho|Le| and swilLe| Lhe L|ip l|om veqeLable qa|den Lo |iLchen
counLe|, Lhe beLLe|.
MosL peas a|e shelled l|om Lhei| pods belo|e beinq coo|ed, buL in Lhe case
ol boLh snow peas and suqa| (o| snap) peas, Lhe enLi|e pods a|e eaLen. The
younq q|owinq shooLs o| Lips a|e edible, Loo. In lacL, peas can be q|own solely
lo| Lhei| shooLs (·ee µIó4).
The|e a|e nume|ous mode|n culLiva|s, each wiLh dille|enL cha|acLe|isLics.
ea|ly- and laLe-ha|vesL va|ieLies, a |anqe ol dille|enL colo|ed lowe|s, q|een
o| pu|ple pods, and so on. Feas va|y in
size, as well-l|om dwa|l ¨peLiL pois¨
culLiva|s jusL a lew inches hiqh
Lo Lall climbinq va|ieLies LhaL can
q|ow up Lo 5 lL (I.5 m) o| mo|e.
SEAS0N Sprîng Summer Fall Wînter
Plant N N N N
Transplant N
Karvest N N N
Peas are attractîve as well as p|oducLive,
b|iqhLeninq up Lhe veqeLable qa|den wiLh Lhei|
colo|lul lowe|s.
Where te plant
Feas la|e besL in an open, sunny siLe, buL don'L li|e ve|y hiqh Lempe|aLu|es.
The soil should be neuL|al Lo sliqhLly al|aline, ideally wiLh a pF ol o.5-7
(·ee µ4Z), and shouldn'L be p|one Lo eiLhe| d|yinq ouL o| waLe|loqqinq.
Feas a|e hunq|y and need a |ich soil, so diq in plenLy ol well-|oLLed
composL o| manu|e a while belo|e you planL. Foweve|, because Lhey
have Lhei| own sysLem ol niL|oqen-lxinq |ooL nodules-allowinq Lhem
Lo conve|L and use niL|oqen l|om Lhe ai|-Lhe|e is no need Lo L|eaL
Lhem wiLh niL|oqenous le|Lilize|s.
C|op |oLaLion is impo|LanL Loo. don'L planL peas whe|e you have
q|own Lhem (o| beans) in Lhe p|evious couple ol yea|s.
Kew te sew seeds
Ea|ly sowinqs a|e besL made in poLs, modules,
o| lenqLhs ol |ain quLLe| (·ee µone/) so LhaL
Lhey can be |epL unde| cove|. They can Lhen be
L|ansplanLed ouLdoo|s once Lhey've qe|minaLed,
when Lhe weaLhe| is wa|m enouqh.
When sowinq di|ecLly inLo Lhe q|ound, planL
Lhe seeds eiLhe| in a sinqle |ow in a na||ow d|ill
o| in double |ows in a wide d|ill. Seeds should be
-2 in (4-5 cm) deep and aL leasL 2 in (5 cm)
apa|L, Lhe space beLween each |ow should be
Lhe same as Lhe evenLual heiqhL ol Lhe planLs.
keutîne care
MosL peas need some |ind ol suppo|L Lo
p|evenL Lhem l|om sp|awlinq ove| Lhe q|ound
and beinq devou|ed by sluqs and snails. They
also need p|oLecLion Lo |eep oll hunq|y bi|ds.
Apa|L l|om some dwa|l va|ieLies, peas a|e
naLu|al climbe|s. They shooL ouL Lend|ils LhaL
Fo|qeL special seed L|ays, poLs, and
planLinq modules. A lew sLanda|d
lenqLhs ol |ain quLLe| olle| Lhe
pe|lecL way Lo qeL peas oll Lo an
ea|ly sLa|L, and ma|e iL easie| Lo
L|ansplanL Lhem sL|aiqhL ouL inLo
p|epa|ed d|ills as soon as Lhe
weaLhe| is wa|m enouqh.
Fall-lll Lhe quLLe| wiLh poLLinq
mix and sow seeds 2 in (5 cm)
apa|L in Lwo sLaqqe|ed |ows.
Cove| wiLh abouL I in (2.5 cm) ol
soil, Lhen waLe|, and |eep Lhe
quLLe| unde| cove|.
When you| seedlinqs a|e abouL
² in (B cm) Lall, diq a shallow
d|ill in Lhe soil ouLside, and ca|elully
slide Lhe whole conLenLs ol Lhe
quLLe|-seedlinqs plus poLLinq
mix-inLo Lhe d|ill. Fi|m Lhem
down and waLe| Lhem in.
When te plant
Seeds a|e usually sown successively l|om
ea|ly sp|inq Lh|ouqh Lo ea|ly summe|, eiLhe|
ouLdoo|s di|ecLly inLo Lhe q|ound o| in poLs,
modules, and conLaine|s unde| cove|. Sow
ouLdoo|s only when Lhe Lempe|aLu|e |eaches
abouL 50°F (I0°C), il Lhe soil is Loo weL and
cold, seeds may |oL o| lail Lo qe|minaLe.
In a|eas wiLh mild winLe|s, iL is also possible
Lo sow in laLe lall o| ea|ly winLe|. F|oLecL planLs
l|om Lhe cold wiLh cloches o| cold l|ames lo|
an ea|ly c|op Lhe lollowinq yea|.
Te suppert grewîng peas, e|ecL a |ow ol canes Lo acL as
¨lence posLs¨ suppo|Linq a lenqLh ol plasLic o| wi|e neLLinq.
FlanL peas in double |ows aL eiLhe| side, and Lie Lhem in wiLh
sL|inq Lo p|ovide exL|a suppo|L il necessa|y.
Pea stîcks a|e an alLe|naLive suppo|L-once seedlinqs sLa|L Lo
develop Lend|ils, push Lhem inLo Lhe q|ound aL |equla| inLe|vals
alonq Lhe |ows. These noL only acL as a naLu|al ¨hedqe¨ lo| planLs
Lo climb, buL Lhey loo| qood, Loo.
Karvest peas abouL Lh|ee monLhs alLe| sowinq, when you can
leel Lhe peas Lh|ouqh Lhe pods. To encou|aqe a la|qe| c|op, pinch
ouL Lhe Lop shooL ol each planL Lo sLimulaLe Lhe p|oducLion ol
mo|e pods, and ha|vesL |equla|ly.
w|ap a|ound whaLeve| suppo|L Lhey can lnd.
T|adiLionally, qa|dene|s have used ¨pea sLic|s,¨
usually cuL l|om hazel o| bi|ch, lo| Lhem Lo
climb up, buL a l|amewo|| ol canes, sL|inq,
and wi|e o| plasLic neLLinq will do Lhe job jusL
as well, il noL quiLe as aLL|acLively. Keep an eye
ouL lo| culLiva|s LhaL have been b|ed Lo be
semi-lealess. Lhe leaves a|e |eplaced by Lend|ils
LhaL mesh LoqeLhe| and suppo|L Lhe planL,
|emovinq Lhe need lo| sLa|inq.
Bi|ds, especially piqeons, love peas. The
planLs a|e aL Lhei| mosL vulne|able when Lhe
seedlinqs sLa|L Lo show Lh|ouqh Lhe soil and
while Lhe planLs a|e younq. Cove|inq you| c|op
wiLh neLLinq is Lhe only loolp|ool soluLion.
0on'L ove|waLe| peas in Lhe ea|ly sLaqes ol
q|owLh, as Lhis will encou|aqe Lhem Lo p|oduce
Loo many leaves. The Lime when Lhey |eally
need waLe| is while Lhey a|e lowe|inq, and Lo
some exLenL when Lhe pods a|e laLLeninq up.
0ependinq on Lhe weaLhe|, peas a|e usually
|eady app|oximaLely Lh|ee monLhs alLe| sowinq,
alLhouqh iL is always besL Lo ha|vesL Lhem
when Lhey'|e sLill younq. use Lhem immediaLely
alLe| you pic| Lhem, il aL all possible, since Lhe
l|eshe| Lhey a|e, Lhe sweeLe| Lhey LasLe. Il you
do need Lo |eep Lhem in sLo|aqe lo| a while, L|y
Lo ca||y ouL all ha|vesLinq ea|ly in Lhe mo|ninq
when iL is sLill cool, and puL Lhe peas sL|aiqhL
inLo Lhe |el|iqe|aLo|.
Finchinq ouL Lhe Lop shooL ol each planL
as soon as Lhe l|sL pods a|e |eady, and Lhen
ha|vesLinq |equla|ly, will encou|aqe new pods
Lo develop conLinuously and qive you a la|qe|
c|op ove|all.
0nce ha|vesLinq has come Lo an end, cuL Lhe
planLs down Lo Lhe q|ound buL leave Lhe |ooLs
in place so LhaL Lhe niL|oqen Lhey conLain is
abso|bed inLo Lhe soil.
What can ge wreng
Bi|ds may eaL Lhe younq seedlinqs, and mice Lhe seeds. NeLLinq,
wi|e cove|s, o| a Lanqle ol Lwiqs lo| Lhe lo|me| and seLLinq
mouseL|aps lo| Lhe laLLe| a|e Lhe besL p|evenLaLive measu|es.
Pea meths may lay Lhei| eqqs on Lhe lowe|s. Tiny caLe|pilla|s
wiLh blac| heads and c|eamy whiLe bodies Lhen haLch inside Lhe
pods and leed on Lhe peas. A se|ious inlesLaLion can |uin a whole
c|op. They'|e mosL p|evalenL |iqhL in Lhe middle ol Lhe season, so
il you can Lime you| peas eiLhe| ea|lie| o| laLe|, you may avoid
Lhem. AlLe|naLively, sp|ay wiLh bilenLh|in jusL alLe| lowe|s lo|m.
Pea thrîps a|e Liny blac|-b|own insecLs LhaL cause Lhe pods
Lo Lu|n silve|y b|own, sLunLinq Lhei| q|owLh o| laLLeninq Lhem, so
LhaL each may conLain only one o| Lwo peas. Sp|ay wiLh
py|eLh|um, |oLenone, o| bilenLh|in.
Pea aphîds inhibiL q|owLh and ca||y vi|uses. Sp|ay wiLh
py|eLh|um, |oLenone, o| bilenLh|in.
Fowde|y mildew (·ee µJ?8) and downy mildew (·ee µJ?Z) a|e
quiLe common p|oblems. They Lend Lo qeL wo|se as Lhe summe|
p|oq|esses, so sow ea|ly c|ops il you wanL Lo avoid Lhem.
Pea leaf and ped spet a|e boLh Lypes ol lunqi. They cause
b|own o| yellow ma||inqs on leaves and pods, and may |ill planLs.
Fo|LunaLely, Lhey a|e noL common. InlecLed planLs musL be |emoved
Lhen bu|ned o| binned Lo p|evenL Lhe disease sp|eadinq.
kecemmended peas
Sow peas successively o| planL dille|enL va|ieLies Lo ensu|e LhaL
you have a c|op Lh|ouqhouL Lhe season.
FEAS 0avalier, 0ouce Provence, Feltham First, Hurst 0reen 5haft,
Kelvedon Wonder, Markana
SN0W FEAS 0regon 5ugar Pod
SuCAR/SNAF FEAS 5ugar 5nap
(cloc|wise l|om Lop lelL)
0regen Sugar Ped, Sugar Snap,
Kurst 0reen Shaft, Kelveden Wender
IL's possible Lo q|ow peas noL jusL
lo| Lhei| pods buL also lo| Lhei|
Lende| q|owinq shooLs o| Lips.
The Lhin, delicaLe leaves and
Lend|ils a|e c|isp and l|esh, and
LasLe li|e snow peas. They can be
used in salads o| coo|ed quic|ly
and liqhLly in sLi|-l|ies.
Il you have Lhe |iqhL condiLions
lo| |aisinq Lhem unde| cove|, pea
shooLs can be q|own yea|-|ound.
They'|e besL sown in la|qe L|ays,
shallow poLs o| conLaine|s, o|
even wooden l|uiL o| wine boxes,
llled wiLh poLLinq mix Lo a depLh
ol aL leasL o in (I5 cm). WaLe| Lhe
soil, and sow seeds qene|ously,
pushinq Lhem down I in (2.5 cm)
beneaLh Lhe su|lace.
Cove| Lhe conLaine|s, puL Lhem
somewhe|e wa|m, and ma|e su|e
Lhe soil |emains moisL. 0nce Lhe
peas have qe|minaLed, uncove|
Lhem and move Lo a coole| and
liqhLe| posiLion. Sp|ay Lhem wiLh
waLe| |equla|ly and sLa|L pic|inq
when Lhe seedlinqs a|e abouL 2 in
(5 cm) Lall. Il you leave aL leasL a
couple ol leaves on Lhe sLem ol
each planL, Lhey should |esp|ouL
and qive you anoLhe| c|op.
French beans
F|ench beans have a bewilde|inq a||ay ol dille|enL names. snap, sL|inq, Kenya,
|idney, ha|icoL, bo|loLLi, laqeoleL, and many mo|e. They a|e acLually noL F|ench
aL all. Lhey o|iqinally came l|om Lhe Ame|icas. Some a|e climbe|s, some q|ow
as dwa|l bush planLs, and oLhe|s a|e somewhe|e in beLween. The pods may be
lonq and Lhin (as in ¨lleL¨ o| ¨lne¨ va|ieLies) o| lull and laL. They also come in a
va|ieLy ol colo|s. q|een, yellow, qold, pu|ple, and |ed-o|, in Lhe case ol ¨bo|loLLis,¨
a mulLicolo|ed mix ol pu|ple, |ed, and q|een. The acLual beans inside Lhe pods
can be a |anqe ol colo|s, Loo. Fall-|ipe beans a|e called ¨laqeoleLs¨ o| ¨cannellini¨
and a|e shelled and eaLen li|e peas. ¨Fa|icoL¨ and ¨|idney¨ beans a|e lelL
Lo |ipen lully and when d|ied can be
sLo|ed lo| many monLhs. F|ench beans
a|e wind-pollinaLed, so Lhey seL seeds
mo|e |eliably Lhan |unne| beans, which
need insecLs Lo pollinaLe Lhem.
SEAS0N Sprîng Summer Fall Wînter
Plant N N
Transplant N
Karvest N N
Tender berlettî beans should only
be sown ouLdoo|s in laLe sp|inq o| ea|ly
summe| when all |is| ol l|osL has passed.
Where te plant
F|ench beans p|ele| a wa|m and sunny posiLion-and one LhaL is
shelLe|ed l|om Lhe wind, especially in Lhe case ol climbinq va|ieLies.
They disli|e exL|emes ol boLh heaL and cold-and l|osL will |ill
Lhem oll immediaLely, aL eiLhe| Lhe sLa|L o| Lhe end ol Lhe season.
They need le|Lile, moisLu|e-|eLenLive soil wiLh a neuL|al Lo mild
acidiLy-a pF ol 5.5-7 (·ee µ4Z). Il you've duq in plenLy ol well-
|oLLed composL o| manu|e belo|e planLinq, Lhey should be happy.
Il noL, conside| diqqinq a ¨bean L|ench¨ (·ee µIZ?). F|ench beans
sLo|e o| ¨lx¨ niL|oqen in special nodules on Lhei| |ooLs, so Lhey do
noL no|mally |equi|e addiLional niL|oqenous le|Lilize|.
Follow a c|op-|oLaLion plan, and don'L planL F|ench beans
whe|e you have q|own Lhem (o| any oLhe| beans o| peas) du|inq
Lhe p|evious couple ol yea|s.
Suppert dwarf er bush beans by
heapinq soil a|ound Lhe sLems, |nown
as ¨ea|Lhinq up.¨
When te plant
Seeds can be sown successively aL any Lime l|om ea|ly sp|inq
Lh|ouqh Lo midsumme|. Foweve|, Lhey won'L qe|minaLe unless
Lhe Lempe|aLu|e is aL leasL 54°F (I2°C). Ea|ly in Lhe yea|, sow
indoo|s o| unde| cove|, laLe|, sow di|ecLly inLo Lhe q|ound only
alLe| Lhe lasL l|osL. Il necessa|y, wa|m up Lhe soil in advance
wiLh cloches o| plasLic sheeLinq.
Kew te sew seeds
To sLa|L oll planLs unde| cove|, sow seeds in deep poLs o| in
lonq, biodeq|adable-pape| ¨Lubes.¨ Fill Lhem wiLh soilless poLLinq
mix, sow seeds aL a depLh ol abouL 2 in (5 cm), and |eep wa|m
and moisL. In ea|ly summe|, when seedlinqs a|e abouL ² in (B cm)
Lall, ha|den Lhem oll and planL Lhem ouL.
When Lhe q|ound is wa|m enouqh, sow seeds di|ecLly inLo
Lhe soil aL a depLh ol abouL 2 in (5 cm). Space dwa|l planLs abouL
o-º in (I5-22 cm) apa|L in sLaqqe|ed double |ows. FuL up suppo|Ls
lo| climbe|s, spaced so Lhe planLs will be abouL I2 in (²0 cm)
apa|L, and sow one o| Lwo seeds aL Lhe looL ol each cane o| pole.
keutîne care
Sp|eadinq a mulch ol o|qanic maLLe| a|ound seedlinqs will help
|eLain moisLu|e and encou|aqe q|owLh. Climbe|s should lnd Lhei|
own way up canes. Suppo|L dwa|l o| bush planLs wiLh Lwiqs, pea
sLic|s, o| sho|L canes pushed inLo Lhe soil, o| by ea|Lhinq up
sliqhLly a|ound Lhe sLems.
As soon as Lhe lowe|s appea|, qive Lhe planLs mo|e waLe|, and
be ca|elul neve| Lo leL Lhe soil d|y ouL.
(Lop) Erect a sîmple wîgwam suppo|L
lo| climbinq beans usinq canes o| sLu|dy
sLic|s and sL|inq.
(above) Beans are best left te dry
on Lhe planL, buL in weL weaLhe| when
Lhe|e is a |is| ol |oLLinq, sp|ead Lhem
ouL on wi|e |ac|s somewhe|e d|y.
(|iqhL) Stere drîed berlettî beans in
ai|LiqhL conLaine|s alLe| shellinq-Lhey
will |eep lo| seve|al monLhs.
F|ench beans should be |eady lo| ha|vesLinq
wiLhin Lwo o| Lh|ee monLhs ol sowinq. As soon
as Lhe pods beqin Lo appea|, sLa|L pic|inq. The
younqe| and smalle| Lhey a|e Lhe beLLe| Lhey
LasLe. Keep pic|inq |equla|ly - Lwo o| Lh|ee
Limes a wee|. As lonq as Lhe|e a|e sLill lowe|s
on Lhe planL, Lhe mo|e you pic|, Lhe mo|e new
pods will seL.
The pods ol laqeoleL beans, which a|e
eaLen shelled, can be lelL Lo q|ow la|qe| belo|e
pic|inq. And beans lo| d|yinq should be lelL on
Lhe planL unLil Lhe end ol Lhe season.
What can ge wreng
Sluqs and snails can be a |eal p|oblem and
younq seedlinqs should be p|oLecLed aqainsL
Lhem (·ee µµJJ0-JJI). Blac|ly o| blac| bean
aphids aLLac| q|owinq Lips and younq pods,
and may need Lo be sp|ayed (·ee µµJJ?-JJJ).
0iseases specilcally allecLinq F|ench beans
include halo bliqhL (·ee µJ?8) and looL and
|ooL |oL (·ee µJ?Z).
kecemmended French beans
CLIMBERS Blue Lake, Borlotti, Kingston 0old,
Kwintus, Purple Podded 0limbing
0WARF Borlotto Lingua di Fuoco Nano,
0hevrier Vert, 0ropper Teepee, Masai, Marengo,
Masterpiece 5tringless, Purple Teepee,
Rocquencourt, The Prince
YELL0W 0herokee, 0ragon Tongue, Roc d'0r
(Lop) Blue Lake
(boLLom) 0repper Teepee
kunner beans
Runne| beans a|e so easy Lo q|ow
LhaL iL's no su|p|ise many qa|dene|s
q|ow la| Loo many. This p|oduces a
qluL. mo|e |unne| beans Lhan anyone
can sensibly eaL, leL alone qive away.
They compound Lhe p|oblem by lailinq
Lo pic| Lhe pods |equla|ly. The |esulL
is a c|op ol unappeLizinq, la|qe,
Louqh, sL|inqy beans LhaL end up on
Lhe composL pile. The only answe| is
simply Lo |esisL planLinq Loo many-
a sho|L |ow o| a couple ol wiqwams
should be plenLy lo| Lhe ave|aqe
lamily-and Lo ha|vesL all Lhe beans
when Lhey'|e small and younq.
The|e a|e many va|ieLies available.
MosL a|e climbe|s, alLhouqh Lhe|e a|e
dwa|l bush planLs, Loo. CulLiva|s wiLh
|ed lowe|s (Lhe a|cheLypal ¨sca|leL
|unne|¨) Lend Lo p|oduce |ed o| pu|ple
spec|led beans, and Lhose wiLh whiLe
lowe|s p|oduce whiLe beans. 0Lhe|s
may even have mulLicolo|ed lowe|s
and blac| beans.
SEAS0N Sprîng Summer Fall Wînter
Plant N N
Transplant N
Karvest N N
kunner beans are temptîngly easy te grew and a|e
seducLively d|amaLic when in lull lowe| and laden wiLh pods.
Where te plant
Runne| beans li|e a wa|m, sunny posiLion. They also need shelLe|
l|om wind, especially va|ieLies LhaL climb ve|y Lall and a|e p|one
Lo becominq Lop-heavy. The mosL impo|LanL lacLo|, howeve|, is
Lhe soil. Runne| beans have deep |ooLs and need ve|y le|Lile,
moisLu|e-|eLenLive soil. T|adiLionally, Lhey a|e planLed in specially
p|epa|ed ¨bean L|enches¨ (·ee µIZ?), buL any soil LhaL has been
well-mainLained and led |equla|ly wiLh well-|oLLed o|qanic
maLLe| should sullce.
Be su|e Lo lollow a c|op-|oLaLion plan. 0on'L planL |unne| beans
whe|e you have q|own Lhem (o| any oLhe| beans o| peas) in Lhe
p|evious couple ol yea|s.
When te plant
IL's possible Lo ma|e Lwo sowinqs pe| yea|-one in mid-sp|inq
lo| a midsumme| ha|vesL, and one in ea|ly o| midsumme| lo| a
lall ha|vesL. Seeds need a soil Lempe|aLu|e ol aL leasL 54°F (I2°C)
belo|e Lhey will qe|minaLe, so don'L sow ouLdoo|s Loo ea|ly,
unless you have wa|med up Lhe soil wiLh cloches o| a cove|inq ol
plasLic. Il you wanL Lo qeL ahead, sow indoo|s in poLs and
L|ansplanL only when Lhe|e is no lonqe| a danqe| ol l|osL.
(above) Pînch eut the grewîng tîps
when planLs |each Lhe Lop ol suppo|Ls
Lo encou|aqe sideshooLs lowe| down.
(below lelL) Tîe în seedlîngs by coilinq
Lhem qenLly a|ound Lhe canes and Lhen
secu|inq Lhem wiLh sL|inq.
(below |iqhL) 0enstruct wîgwams
l|om sL|onq canes Lo sLop lully laden beans
l|om collapsinq unde| Lhei| own weiqhL.
A L|adiLional bean L|ench is a q|eaL
way ol c|eaLinq a supe|-|ich bed
lo| you| |unne| beans-o| any
|ind ol bean. IL should p|ovide
all Lhe nuL|ienLs Lhey need.
0iq a L|ench Lhe lenqLh ol
you| |ow. Ma|e iL 2-² lL
(o0-º0 cm) wide and up Lo 2 lL
(o0 cm) deep. Loosen Lhe soil aL
Lhe boLLom wiLh you| lo|| so LhaL
iL is noL compacLed.
FuL any well-|oLLed manu|e
and qa|den o| household
composL inLo Lhe L|ench, cove|
wiLh soil, and scaLLe| ove| some
pelleLed poulL|y manu|e. Leave
Lhis Lo seLLle lo| aL leasL Lwo
wee|s belo|e you beqin planLinq.
Kew te sew seeds
Runne| beans have deep |ooLs, so il you a|e planLinq in poLs, Lhey
musL be deep ones. Lonq, biodeq|adable-pape| ¨Lube poLs¨ a|e
ideal. Fill wiLh soilless mix o| poLLinq mix, sow seeds aL a depLh ol
abouL 2 in (5 cm), and |eep well-waLe|ed and unde| cove|.
Fa|den oll seedlinqs and L|ansplanL Lhem in ea|ly summe|.
Belo|e sowinq o| L|ansplanLinq di|ecLly inLo Lhe q|ound, consL|ucL
a suppo|L sL|ucLu|e lo| you| beans Lo climb. use sL|onq canes Lo
ma|e ci|cula| wiqwams o| double |ows c|ossed ove| aL Lhe Lop.
FlanL one seed 2 in (5 cm) deep aL Lhe looL ol each cane.
keutîne care
Mulchinq a|ound seedlinqs helps Lo |eLain soil moisLu|e and may
deLe| sluqs. Encou|aqe seedlinqs Lo climb by LwisLinq Lhem qenLly
a|ound Lhe canes. When Lhey |each Lhe Lop, pinch ouL Lhei|
q|owinq Lips. As soon as Lhe lowe|s appea|, iL's up Lo insecLs Lo
pollinaLe Lhem. 0nce Lhe lowe|s have been pollinaLed you can
encou|aqe Lhem Lo ¨seL¨ o| p|oduce pods by waLe|inq qene|ously,
Lwo o| Lh|ee Limes a wee| il Lhe weaLhe| is d|y. LeLLinq Lhe |ooLs
d|y ouL aL Lhis c|ucial phase is Lhe usual |eason lo| a poo| c|op.
WhiLe-lowe|ed va|ieLies a|e a qood choice lo| laLe| sowinqs, as
Lhey Lend Lo seL aL hiqhe| Lempe|aLu|es.
As a |ule ol Lhumb, you can counL on |unne| beans La|inq aL leasL
I00 days belo|e Lhey'|e |eady Lo ha|vesL. In p|acLice, Lhe mosL
impo|LanL Las| is Lo pic| Lhem when Lhey'|e sLill younq, belo|e
Lhey qeL sL|inqy and Louqh. And pic| Lhem olLen-Lwice o| Lh|ee
Limes a wee| when Lhe ha|vesL is aL iLs heiqhL. The mo|e you pic|,
Lhe mo|e you qeL, so don'L leave any Lo qeL Loo la|qe.
What can ge wreng
Runne| beans a|e usually L|ouble-l|ee, alLhouqh sluqs (·ee µJJ0)
a|e capable ol sL|ippinq Lhe younq leaves l|om a whole |ow ol
seedlinqs ove|niqhL, and an inlesLaLion ol blac| bean aphids o|
blac|ly (·ee µµJJ?-JJJ) can dislqu|e a whole planL. 0iseases
such as halo bliqhL (·ee µJ?8) a|e me|cilully |a|e. FooL and |ooL
|oL (·ee µJ?Z) can be discou|aqed Lh|ouqh ca|elul c|op |oLaLion.
kecemmended runner beans
Kelvedon Marvel, Lady 0i, Pickwick, Polestar, Red Rum, White Emergo
(above) Whîte Emerge (|iqhL) Lady 0î
Bread beans
T|adiLionally, Lhe|e we|e Lwo dille|enL |inds ol b|oad bean. ¨Lonqpods,¨ which
had eiqhL beans pe| pod, and ¨Windso|s,¨ which had only lou|. IL's sLill possible
Lo lnd Lhese va|ieLies, buL Lhe majo|iLy ol Loday's mode|n culLiva|s a|e b|ed Lo be
somewhe|e beLween Lhe Lwo, p|oducinq sho|Le| planLs wiLh mo|e Lende| beans.
0wa|l va|ieLies a|e also available, Lhese a|e ideal lo| q|owinq in conLaine|s.
Li|e all peas and beans, Lhe soone| you qeL Lhe pods l|om you| qa|den Lo
you| |iLchen, Lhe beLLe| Lhey LasLe. They a|e sweeLe| and mo|e succulenL Lhe
l|eshe| and younqe| Lhey a|e. Indeed, il you pic| Lhem when Lhey a|e sLill ve|y
younq, Lhen you can eiLhe| shell Lhe beans and eaL Lhem |aw in salads, o| coo|
Lhe pods and eaL Lhem whole, li|e suqa|
snap peas. Remembe| LhaL ha|vesLinq
always encou|aqes new q|owLh, so Lhe
mo|e l|equenLly you pic|, Lhe mo|e
beans you'll qeL.
SEAS0N Sprîng Summer Fall Wînter
Plant N N N
Transplant N
Karvest N N
(lelL) Fer an fall sewîng LhaL
esLablishes quic|ly and p|oduces an ea|ly
c|op, L|y q|owinq 'Aquadulce Claudia'.
(|iqhL) Prevent plants frem saggîng
unde| Lhe weiqhL ol Lhe pods by enclosinq
Lhem wiLhin a |inq ol sL|onq Lwine sL|unq
beLween canes.
Where te plant
B|oad beans a|e noL Loo pic|y. They li|e lai|ly
le|Lile, well-d|ained soil, and pe|haps some
shelLe| l|om sL|onq winds. IL's a qood idea Lo
diq in some well-|oLLed composL o| manu|e
belo|e planLinq, buL because Lhe special nodules
on Lhei| |ooLs sLo|e o| ¨lx¨ niL|oqen, Lhey'|e
unli|ely Lo need any exL|a niL|oqenous le|Lilize|.
Employ a c|op-|oLaLion plan. 0on'L planL
b|oad beans whe|e you have |ecenLly q|own
Lhem (o| any oLhe| beans o| peas).
When te plant
unless you| winLe|s a|e ve|y cold, q|ow ¨ea|ly¨ b|oad beans by
sowinq seeds di|ecLly inLo Lhe q|ound in laLe lall. You may lose a
lew planLs Lo Lhe cold (o| Lo mice) buL mosL should be ha|dy
enouqh Lo ove|winLe| and will qive you a c|op in laLe sp|inq Lhe
lollowinq yea|. Fall sowinqs a|e li|ely Lo sL|uqqle in heavy, weL
soil, so ma|e su|e you| soil is suiLable.
AlLe|naLively, sow ¨laLe¨ va|ieLies in sp|inq-once Lhe Lempe|aLu|e
|eaches aL leasL 4I°F (5°C) and Lhe soil becomes wo||able-lo|
ha|vesLinq in summe|.
Kew te sew seeds
FlanL seeds abouL 2 in (5 cm) deep and abouL º in (2² cm) apa|L.
Sow Lhem eiLhe| in bloc|s, o| in sinqle |ows spaced IB in (45 cm)
apa|L o| in sLaqqe|ed double |ows 24 in (o0 cm) apa|L. A lew
exL|a seeds planLed aL Lhe end ol each |ow will p|ovide you wiLh
some ¨spa|es¨ LhaL can be used Lo lll any qaps whe|e seeds we|e
eaLen o| lailed Lo qe|minaLe.
keutîne care
Keep Lhe a|ea well weeded and waLe| |equla|ly when lowe|s
appea|. Sp|eadinq mulch a|ound seedlinqs will help |eLain
moisLu|e and encou|aqe q|owLh. As soon as Lhe l|sL lowe|s
sLa|L Lo develop pods, pinch ouL Lhe Lop q|owinq shooL.
Tall va|ieLies will need some suppo|L l|om sLa|es o| canes and
lenqLhs ol sL|inq. You can p|evenL dwa|l va|ieLies l|om L|ailinq on
Lhe q|ound by usinq bamboo canes.
Fic| Lhe pods while Lhey a|e sLill younq, belo|e Lhe beans inside
become Loo la|qe. Fa|vesL Lhe lowe| beans l|sL, Lhose closesL Lo
Lhe cenL|al sLem, Lhis will sLimulaLe Lhe |emaininq pods Lo conLinue
q|owinq. The beans a|e aL Lhei| besL when Lhe memb|ane by
which Lhey a|e aLLached Lo Lhe inside ol Lhe pod is sLill q|een
o| whiLe, noL b|own o| blac|.
B|oad beans can be pic|ed as baby veqeLables, when Lhey a|e
no la|qe| Lhan you| liLLle lnqe|, aL Lhis size, Lhey can be coo|ed
and eaLen whole.
(Lop) Pînchîng eut the grewîng tîps
discou|aqes aphids and encou|aqes Lhe
planL Lo p|oduce mo|e bean pods.
(boLLom) 0nce harvestîng îs ever,
cuL down planLs Lo jusL above q|ound
level. BuL leave Lhe |ooLs in Lhe soil-
Lhey a|e |ich in niL|oqen.
What can ge wreng
Pea and bean weevîls a|e Liny q|ay-b|own
insecLs LhaL leed on Lhe planLs, leavinq
disLincLive semici|cula| noLches in Lhe leaves.
They'|e unsiqhLly buL |a|ely laLal. You can sp|ay
Lhem wiLh bilenLh|in, buL noL when Lhe planL is
in lowe| o| you may ha|m visiLinq bees.
0Lhe|wise, blac|ly o| blac| bean aphid (·ee
µµJJ?-JJJ) a|e Lhe mosL commonly encounLe|ed
pesLs. They dislqu|e Lhe planLs and can sLunL
Lhei| q|owLh. Finchinq ouL Lhe q|owinq Lips
|emoves Lhe Lende| younq leaves LhaL aLL|acL
Lhem mosL sL|onqly. Bi|ds and mice a|e ve|y
pa|Lial Lo b|oad bean seeds, and you may have
Lo neL you| planLs il you sulle| |epeaLed |aids.
0hecelate spet is a lunqus LhaL causes b|own
spoLs on Lhe leaves and b|own sL|ea|s on sLems
and pods. IL's mosL common on ove|winLe|inq
planLs and in damp, humid weaLhe|. IL can be
discou|aqed by weedinq |equla|ly and by
placinq planLs la| enouqh apa|L Lo allow ai|
Lo ci|culaLe l|eely.
FooL and |ooL |oL (·ee µJ?Z) may someLimes
be a p|oblem.
kecemmended bread beans
Aquadulce 0laudia, Imperial 0reen Longpod,
Jubilee Hysor, Red Epicure, 5tereo, 5uperaquadulce,
The 5utton, Topic, Witkiem Manita
(Lop) The Sutten
(boLLom) ked Epîcure
(Lop) Lîma beans
(boLLom) Black-eyed peas
Lîma beans
Also |nown as buLLe| beans, Lhese a|e laL
pods conLaininq la|qe q|een o| whiLe beans.
The planLs a|e eiLhe| dwa|l bushes o| climbe|s,
and should be q|own in Lhe same way as F|ench
o| |unne| beans. Bea| in mind, Lhouqh, LhaL
lima beans a|e L|opical planLs. The seeds will
noL qe|minaLe unless Lhe Lempe|aLu|e |eaches
o4°F (IB°C), and Lhey won'L |eally q|ow well
ouLdoo|s unless Lhe summe| is hoL and Lhey a|e
in lull sun.
SEAS0N Sprîng Summer Fall Wînter
Plant N
Transplant N
Karvest N N
Black-eyed peas
Blac|-eyed peas have nume|ous aliases. blac|-
eyed beans, souLhe|n peas, c|owde| peas,
cowpeas, leld peas, and mo|e. They o|iqinaLed
in Al|ica buL a|e now q|own widely Lh|ouqhouL
Lhe wo|ld-pa|Licula|ly in oLhe| wa|m climaLes
such as Lhe souLhe|n uniLed SLaLes and Asia.
Seeds won'L qe|minaLe unLil Lhe Lempe|aLu|e
|eaches 70°F (2I°C), and condiLions musL
|emain aL leasL LhaL wa|m Lh|ouqhouL Lhei|
Lwo- Lo Lh|ee-monLh q|owinq season. Blac|-
eyed peas can be ha|vesLed younq and Lhe
beans shelled, coo|ed, and eaLen l|esh. 0| Lhe
pods can be lelL on Lhe planL Lo d|y ouL, and Lhe
peas Lhen sLo|ed.
SEAS0N Sprîng Summer Fall Wînter
Plant N
Transplant N
Karvest N N
(Lop) Yardleng beans
(boLLom) Seybeans
Yardleng beans
As Lhei| name suqqesLs, ya|dlonq beans can
q|ow Lo a ya|d (Lhe equivalenL Lo abouL a
meLe|) in lenqLh-Lhouqh iL's beLLe| Lo pic|
Lhem when Lhey'|e abouL hall LhaL lonq, belo|e
Lhey become Louqh and sL|inqy. They can Lhen
be eaLen l|esh o| coo|ed, li|e F|ench beans.
Also |nown as aspa|aqus beans o| Chinese
lonq beans, Lhey'|e L|opical planLs and may be
ha|d Lo q|ow ouLdoo|s in Lempe|aLe climaLes.
Foweve|, in mild a|eas Lhey can be q|own
unde| leece, unde| qlass, o| in a polyLunnel-
Lhouqh Lhey a|e climbe|s and do q|ow ve|y Lall.
SEAS0N Sprîng Summer Fall Wînter
Plant N
Transplant N
Karvest N N
Soybeans o|iqinaLed in SouLheasL Asia buL
a|e now q|own as an impo|LanL sou|ce ol
p|oLein and oil all ove| Lhe wo|ld. They usually
need a wa|m climaLe, wiLh hoL summe|s and
Lempe|aLu|es consisLenLly beLween oB and Bo°F
(20 and ²0°C), buL some mode|n culLiva|s will
Lole|aLe cool climaLes, unde| cove| il necessa|y.
They a|e q|own li|e F|ench beans, and p|oduce
sho|L q|een pods cove|ed wiLh downy hai|s.
0nce d|y, Lhe beans can be used in Lhe same
way as any oLhe| d|ied beans, buL l|esh pods
can also be boiled o| sLeamed whole, Lhen Lhe
coo|ed beans shelled and eaLen wiLh salL as a
snac|-called ¨edamame¨ in Japan.
SEAS0N Sprîng Summer Wînter
Plant N
Transplant N
Karvest N N
6. Salads
In L|uLh, you can Lh|ow p|eLLy much anyLhinq inLo a salad-as lonq as iL's noL Loo
Louqh o| Loo sL|onq-LasLinq. BuL Lhe|e a|e ce|Lain sLaples LhaL iL's ha|d Lo imaqine
doinq wiLhouL. LeLLuces-in all Lhei| counLless va|ieLies-a|e one. A|uqula is
anoLhe|. And, p|ovided you li|e Lhei| disLincLive biLLe| LasLe, endive and chico|y as
well. Then Lhe|e a|e Lhe less well-|nown leaves such as co|n salad, pu|slane, and
land c|ess, all ol which can be ha|vesLed almosL yea|-|ound in mild climaLes, and
Lhe nume|ous Asian salads such as mizuna, mibuna, |omaLsuna, and musLa|d
q|eens, many ol which have become |eadily available only in |ecenL yea|s.
Finally, lo| Lhose cold, da|| winLe| days when you'd |aLhe| sLay indoo|s,
Lhe|e a|e sp|ouLinq seeds such as musLa|d and c|ess, munq beans, and allalla,
which can be q|own on a |iLchen windowsill.
Baby leaf salad mîxes p|ovide a
cuL-and-come-aqain c|op LhaL will |eep
|eplenishinq iLsell lo| seve|al wee|s.
Lettuces a|e easy Lo q|ow, as lonq
as you can qeL seeds Lo qe|minaLe
and p|evenL planLs l|om bolLinq.
Arugula is a peppe|y, musLa|d-
LasLinq salad leal someLimes |nown
as |oc|eL, |ucola, o| |oqueLLe.
0ern salad is ha|die| Lhan
mosL leLLuces and will lasL well
inLo Lhe winLe|.
Purslane can be eaLen eiLhe|
|aw as a salad o| liqhLly coo|ed,
li|e spinach.
Mîbuna is jusL one ol a |anqe ol
Asian leaves LhaL can be ha|vesLed
when younq lo| use in salads.
Land cress loo|s and LasLes li|e
waLe|c|ess buL can be q|own on d|y
land |aLhe| Lhan in o| unde| waLe|.
0hîcery, wheLhe| blanched o| noL,
LasLes biLLe|. Even iLs mosL devoLed
lans accepL iL is an acqui|ed LasLe.
Endîve comes in Lwo lo|ms. a cu|ly
Lype (¨l|isée¨) and a b|oad-leaved
one (¨esca|ole¨ o| ¨BaLavian¨).
kadîshes lo| salads a|e easy Lo
q|ow and maLu|e quic|ly. WinLe|
|adishes lo| coo|inq La|e lonqe|
buL can be sLo|ed alLe| ha|vesLinq.
Spreutîng seeds li|e Lhese
allalla shooLs can be q|own
indoo|s and need no mo|e Lhan
waLe|, wa|mLh, ai|, and liqhL.
The|e a|e lou| main Lypes ol leLLuce, Lh|ee ol which lo|m hea|Ls (o| heads)
aL Lhei| cenLe|. 8atte//eoJ· a|e solL and |ound wiLh eiLhe| laL o| l|illy leaves.
0o· and semi-cos leLLuces a|e up|iqhL and mo|e oval in shape, wiLh lonqe|,
c|ispe| leaves, Lhey a|e someLimes called |omaine leLLuces. 0//·µ/eoJ· have
|ound, dense heads and ve|y c|unchy leaves, aL Lhei| mosL exL|eme, when Lhei|
ouLe| q|een leaves a|e |emoved, Lhey a|e |nown as icebe|qs. And Lhe lou|Lh
Lype, Lhe /oo·e-/eoj leLLuces, don'L lo|m a hea|L aL all. Loose-leal va|ieLies can
be q|own as cuL-and-come-aqain c|ops.
LeLLuces a|e noL ha|d Lo q|ow. The L|ic|iesL aspecLs a|e qeLLinq Lhe seeds Lo
qe|minaLe in Lhe l|sL place (Lhey musL noL be Loo cold o| Loo hoL), p|evenLinq
Lhem l|om bolLinq (qive Lhem loLs ol
waLe| in hoL weaLhe|), and avoidinq a
siLuaLion in which Lhey'|e all |eady Lo
pic| aL once (sow seeds q|adually,
jusL a lew aL a Lime).
SEAS0N Sprîng Summer Fall Wînter
Sew N N N N
Transplant N
Karvest N N N N
Where te plant
LeLLuces a|e noL Loo pic|y abouL soil, p|ovided
iL |eLains moisLu|e Lo p|evenL Lhem l|om d|yinq
ouL. They don'L li|e hoL weaLhe|, so in summe|
Lhey a|e happy Lo be in pa|Lial shade.
C|op |oLaLion is an impo|LanL conside|aLion,
Loo. don'L planL leLLuces whe|e you've q|own
Lhem in Lhe lasL Lwo yea|s. IL's also wo|Lh
|emembe|inq LhaL leLLuce isn'L pa|L ol any ol
Lhe majo| c|op |oLaLion q|oups, so iL comes in
handy when lllinq in qaps.
(lelL) 0lese plantîng p|oduces a dense
leal canopy LhaL helps Lo supp|ess weeds
by denyinq Lhem any liqhL.
(|iqhL) 0ut-and-ceme-agaîn lettuces
can be ha|vesLed a handlul ol baby
leaves aL a Lime. Leave Lhe sLems in
place and new leaves will |eq|ow.
When te plant
LeLLuces a|e easiesL Lo q|ow il you sow seeds di|ecLly inLo Lhe
q|ound as soon as Lhe soil has wa|med up in Lhe sp|inq. Foweve|,
don'L sow Lhem all aL once. Il you sow a handlul eve|y couple ol
wee|s, you should have a conLinuous c|op LhaL will lasL you
Lh|ouqhouL Lhe whole summe|.
To achieve an ea|ly summe| c|op, sow unde| cove| l|om winLe|
Lo ea|ly sp|inq, and Lhen L|ansplanL. And lo| even ea|lie| leLLuces,
choose ha|dy va|ieLies LhaL you can planL Lhe p|ecedinq lall,
p|oLecLinq Lhem wiLh cloches o| cold l|ames du|inq Lhe winLe|.
Kew te sew seeds
0uLdoo|s, ma|e a shallow d|ill in Lhe soil, sow seeds aL a depLh
ol abouL
in (I cm), Lhen waLe| Lhem in. Avoid sowinq when Lhe
weaLhe| is ve|y hoL, qe|minaLion is mo|e li|ely Lo be successlul il
you waiL unLil laLe alLe|noon when Lhe Lempe|aLu|e has d|opped.
Il you a|e sowinq ea|ly o| laLe in Lhe yea|, use leece, cloches, o|
cold l|ames Lo p|oLecL aqainsL Lhe cold. As seedlinqs appea|,
q|adually Lhin Lhem ouL, leavinq Lhe sL|onqesL and healLhiesL
Lo develop lully.
EiLhe| indoo|s o| unde| cove|, sow seeds in modules o|
biodeq|adable poLs and Lhen L|ansplanL Lhem Lo Lhei| lnal
posiLion once Lhey'|e esLablished.
Kew te plant eut seedlîngs
Seedlinqs a|e |eady Lo L|ansplanL when Lhey have lou| o| lve
leaves. To p|evenL Lhem l|om wilLinq, |eep Lhem moisL, shade
Lhem l|om hoL sun, and disLu|b Lhe |ooLs as liLLle as possible.
LeLLuces q|ow quic|ly-much lasLe| Lhan, say, B|ussels sp|ouLs,
cabbaqes, o| sweeL co|n-and you can sow and ha|vesL Lhem
lonq belo|e Lhe slowe|-q|owinq veqeLables |each maLu|iLy. This is
called ¨inLe|c|oppinq,¨ and Lhe veqeLable LhaL is ha|vesLed l|sL
(in Lhis case Lhe leLLuce) is |nown as Lhe ¨caLch c|op.¨
keutîne care
Keep leLLuces well weeded and well waLe|ed, especially in
Lhe pe|iod abouL a wee| o| Lwo belo|e ha|vesLinq. ve|y hoL
weaLhe| and lac| ol waLe| puL planLs unde| sL|ess. They |eacL by
panic|inq-Lhey despe|aLely L|y Lo lowe| and p|oduce seeds in
o|de| Lo p|opaqaLe Lhemselves belo|e dyinq, an acL |nown as
¨bolLinq.¨ LeLLuces LhaL have bolLed a|e Loo biLLe| Lo eaL.
(Lop) When transplantîng lettuce
seedlîngs, planL Lhem so Lhe base ol
Lhe leaves is jusL above Lhe soil level.
They may |oL il planLed Loo deeply.
(boLLom) A Heatîng mulch is a
loose cove|inq ol leece. IL p|oLecLs
aqainsL l|osL and |eeps ouL boLh
insecLs and bi|ds.
BuLLe|heads, cos, and c|isphead leLLuces all La|e lonqe| l|om
sowinq Lo ha|vesLinq Lhan loose-leal leLLuces-simply because
Lhey need addiLional Lime Lo develop hea|Ls. 0nce Lhe hea|Ls a|e
maLu|e, pic| Lhem belo|e Lhey have a chance Lo bolL (il Lhe
weaLhe| is hoL and d|y) o| Lo |oL (il iL is weL).
Loose-leal leLLuces can be ha|vesLed whole, o| as a cuL-and-
come-aqain c|op Lo qive a sLeady supply ol eiLhe| lully q|own o|
baby leaves Lh|ouqhouL Lhe q|owinq season.
CuL oll Lhe whole younq
leLLuce abouL I in (2.5 cm)
above Lhe su|lace ol Lhe soil.
WiLhin a lew wee|s, new
leaves will have |esp|ouLed
l|om Lhe sLump lelL behind in Lhe
q|ound, you may be able Lo qeL a
second o| even a Lhi|d ha|vesL.
These lettuces are îdeal "catch creps" as Lhey can be q|own and ha|vesLed
lonq belo|e Lhe sweeL co|n |eaches lull size.
(cloc|wise l|om Lop lelL)
Lelle kessa, 1ceberg,
All The Year keund, Lîttle 0em
What can ge wreng
Sluqs and snails (·ee µµJJ0-JJI) may eaL younq leaves and
bu||ow inLo leLLuce hea|Ls. Leaves should be washed ca|elully
belo|e eaLinq. Aphids (eiLhe| blac|ly o| q|eenly) can be a p|oblem
(·ee µJJ?). RooLs a|e someLimes aLLac|ed by cuLwo|ms (·ee
µJJ4), wi|ewo|ms (·ee µJJZ), and leaLhe|jac|eLs (·ee µJJ5).
Lettuce reet aphîds a|e mo|e se|ious. They leed on |ooLs
and cause any allecLed leLLuces Lo wilL. A waxy whiLe powde| in
Lhe soil is one ol Lhe LellLale siqns. WaLe| wiLh an insecLicide
conLaininq bilenLh|in, and q|ow |esisLanL va|ieLies in luLu|e yea|s.
In weL weaLhe|, downy mildew (·ee µJ?Z) miqhL be a p|oblem.
9fkipk`j (q|ay mold) is a lunqal |oL LhaL can damaqe leaves o|
even desL|oy whole planLs, inlecLions a|e aL Lhei| wo|sL in weL
summe|s. Flully q|ay, oll-whiLe, o| q|ay-b|own mold appea|s on
leaves. Spo|es a|e sp|ead in Lhe ai| o| by |ain o| waLe| splash,
and usually enLe| Lhe planL Lh|ouqh damaqed a|eas. Remove and
desL|oy allecLed pa|Ls ol Lhe planL, sp|ay wiLh mancozeb, and
ensu|e Lhe |emaininq planLs have space lo| ai| Lo ci|culaLe l|eely.
kecemmended lettuces
Loose-leal leLLuces lo| q|owinq as cuL-and-come-aqain c|ops a|e
olLen sold in pac|eLs ol mixed seeds. Mesclun is a Lype ol salad
mixLu|e LhaL may consisL ol leLLuce, spinach, a|uqula, cha|d,
musLa|d q|eens, o| oLhe| lealy veqeLables o| he|bs. Mixes include
Mild Mesclun Mix, Spicy Mesclun Mix, and Mesclun Salad Mix.
BuTTERFEA0 All The Year Round, Avondefance, 0larion, Fortune,
Merveille des 0uatre 5aisons, Tom Thumb (mini), Valdor
C0S 0orsair, Freckles, Kendo (mini), Lobjoit's 0reen 0os, Little 0em
(mini), Little Leprechaun (mini), Pinokkio (mini)
CRISFFEA0 Beatrice, Black-5eeded 5impson, Iceberg, Lakeland,
Mini 0reen (mini), Reine des 0laces, 5aladin, Triumph, Windermere
L00SE-LEAF 0atalogna, 0ocarde, 0reen 5alad Bowl, Lollo Rossa,
Red 5alad Bowl
(Lop) Beltîng can eccur when planLs
a|e puL unde| sL|ess, olLen due Lo ve|y
hoL weaLhe| and lac| ol waLe|.
(boLLom) Wînter lettuces can be q|own
in cold l|ames lo| ha|vesLinq in sp|inq.
A|uqula is a peppe|y, musLa|d-LasLinq salad leal also |nown as |ucola, |oc|eL,
and (p|eLenLiously, unless you a|e F|ench) |oqueLLe. The|e a|e Lwo Lypes. salad
a|uqula and wild a|uqula. BoLh can be q|own as cuL-and-come-aqain c|ops, and
a|e besL eaLen while Lhe leaves a|e sLill younq, Lhe olde| Lhey qeL, Lhe mo|e
biLLe| Lhey become.
Wild a|uqula has na||ow leaves and a sL|onq LasLe. IL is slow-q|owinq (and
Lhe|elo|e slow Lo bolL in summe|) and, because iL's a pe|ennial, iL p|oduces
leaves Lh|ouqhouL winLe|, p|ovided iL is p|oLecLed l|om ve|y low Lempe|aLu|es.
Salad a|uqula has b|oade| leaves and a sliqhLly milde| LasLe. IL qoes Lo lowe|
ve|y easily in summe|, especially il iL
isn'L well waLe|ed. The lowe|s can be
eaLen in salads, buL Lhey Lend Lo be
quiLe peppe|y.
Salad arugula
SEAS0N Sprîng Summer Fall Wînter
Sew N N N
Karvest N N N N
Where te plant
A|uqula is noL lussy. IL should q|ow in any
le|Lile soil LhaL |eLains moisLu|e. Foweve|,
iL doesn'L li|e hoL sun and will be happy in
pa|Lial shade.
When te plant
Sow seeds di|ecLly inLo Lhe q|ound as soon as
Lhe soil has wa|med up in Lhe sp|inq. Sow only
a lew seeds aL a Lime. RepeaLed sowinqs eve|y
Lwo o| Lh|ee wee|s should p|ovide you wiLh a
conLinuous c|op.
(Lop) Wîld arugula
(boLLom) When arugula belts, iL p|oduces
a mass ol small, c|eamy whiLe lowe|s.
They a|e edible, buL Lhey LasLe ve|y hoL.
Kew te sew seeds
Sow Lhinly in |ows o| bloc|s aL a depLh ol
in (I cm). Il you a|e sowinq ea|ly o|
laLe in Lhe yea|, use leece, cloches, o| cold
l|ames Lo p|oLecL aqainsL Lhe cold. A|uqula
is a qood candidaLe lo| q|owinq in poLs and
conLaine|s, Loo.
keutîne care
Keep a|uqula well waLe|ed-especially in hoL,
d|y weaLhe|-Lo |eep iL l|om bolLinq lo| as
lonq as possible.
SLa|L pic|inq younq leaves as soon as Lhey a|e
as lonq as you| Lhumb. The mo|e you pic|, Lhe
mo|e will q|ow, so eiLhe| cuL a lew leaves aL a
Lime o| slice oll Lhe whole planL abouL I
(² cm) above Lhe su|lace ol Lhe soil and waiL
lo| anoLhe| c|op Lo sp|ouL l|om Lhe sLump.
What can ge wreng
A|uqula is lai|ly indesL|ucLible. The biqqesL
p|oblems a|e li|ely Lo be caused by sluqs and
snails (·ee µµJJ0-JJI) when Lhe seedlinqs a|e
sLill younq, and lea beeLles (·ee µJJ4) as Lhe
planLs q|ow la|qe|. Flea beeLles eaL Liny |ound
holes, li|e pe|lo|aLions, in Lhe leaves. In Lhe
ea|ly sLaqes, allecLed leaves a|e sLill edible,
buL Lhey don'L loo| ve|y appeLizinq.
0ern salad
Also |nown as lamb's leLLuce o| mache, co|n salad is available in Lwo lo|ms.
a la|qe-leaved liqhL-q|een va|ieLy LhaL q|ows in Lhe shape ol a loppy |oseLLe,
and a mo|e up|iqhL va|ieLy wiLh smalle|, da||e|-q|een leaves. BoLh Lypes a|e
mild-LasLinq and can be added Lo mixed salads Lh|ouqhouL Lhe summe|.
Foweve|, Lhei| |eal advanLaqe is LhaL
Lhey will lasL well inLo Lhe winLe| and
p|ovide you wiLh l|esh salads when all
you| oLhe| leLLuces a|e lnished.
SEAS0N Sprîng Summer Fall Wînter
Sew N N N
Karvest N N N N
Where, when, and hew te plant
Co|n salad will q|ow p|eLLy much anywhe|e.
Sow seeds Lhinly, a lew aL a Lime, in |ows o|
bloc|s aL a depLh ol abouL
in (I cm). Sow in
laLe sp|inq lo| ha|vesLinq in summe|, o| in laLe
summe| lo| ha|vesLinq du|inq winLe|.
keutîne care
Weed and waLe| |equla|ly, and Lhin ouL
seedlinqs Lo 4-o in (I0-I5 cm) il Lhey a|e
In summe|, pic| Lhe younq leaves once Lhey a|e
la|qe enouqh Lo handle-and conLinue pic|inq
Lhem |equla|ly Lo deLe| Lhe planLs l|om bolLinq.
In winLe|, p|oLecL planLs wiLh cloches o| cold
l|ames, and allow Lhem Lo q|ow a liLLle la|qe|.
What can ge wreng
Co|n salad is |esisLanL Lo mosL pesLs and diseases.
Any p|oblems a|e li|ely Lo be caused by sluqs
and snails (·ee µµJJ0-JJI), aphids (·ee µJJ?),
and |oL o| mildew in weL weaLhe|.
kecemmended cern salad
0avallo, Louviers, Verte de 0ambrai, Vit
(Lop) Summer purslane (boLLom) Wînter purslane
The|e a|e Lwo sepa|aLe |inds ol pu|slane. Sanne/ µa/·/one, conside|ed
a weed in some a|eas, has Lhic|, leshy sLal|s and c|unchy, lobeli|e leaves LhaL
a|e q|een o| b|iqhL yellow-qold. W/nte/ µa/·/one-|nown as mine|'s leLLuce o|
clayLonia-has leshy, hea|L-shaped leaves. BoLh ma|e excellenL cuL-and-come-
aqain salad-leal veqeLables, Lhouqh
Lhey can also be liqhLly coo|ed and
eaLen li|e spinach. And boLh Lypes
a|e |el|eshinqly easy Lo q|ow.
SEAS0N Sprîng Summer Fall Wînter
Sew N N
Karvest N N N
Where, when, and hew te plant
Fu|slanes li|e a well-d|ained siLe, Lhey need
waLe| buL may |oL il Lhey qeL waLe|loqqed.
They li|e sun buL will Lole|aLe pa|Lial shade.
Sow summe| pu|slane ouLdoo|s beLween laLe
sp|inq and midsumme|. Sow winLe| pu|slane in
laLe summe| lo| ha|vesLinq in lall and ea|ly
winLe|. ScaLLe| seeds Lhinly and cove| wiLh soil
Lo a depLh ol abouL
in (I cm).
keutîne care
Weed and waLe| |equla|ly, and Lhin ouL Lhe
seedlinqs. Fic| any lowe|s as soon as Lhey
appea| Lo p|evenL Lhe planLs l|om bolLinq.
BoLh summe| and winLe| pu|slanes can be
ha|vesLed as cuL-and-come-aqain c|ops. The
mo|e leaves you pic|, Lhe mo|e will q|ow, as
lonq as you leave a couple aL Lhe base ol Lhe
planL. WinLe| pu|slane may sell-seed Lo qive
you anoLhe| c|op Lhe lollowinq yea|.
What can ge wreng
Fu|slanes a|e usually p|oblem-l|ee. The mosL
li|ely causes ol L|ouble a|e sluqs and snails
(·ee µµJJ0-JJI), aphids (·ee µJJ?), and |oL
o| mildew in weL weaLhe|.
Asîan salad leaves
These a|e all Asian b|assicas and a|e pa|L ol Lhe lamily LhaL includes Chinese
cabbaqe (·ee µ80) and bo| choy (·ee µ8I). They can all be allowed Lo q|ow
unLil Lhe leaves a|e quiLe la|qe, Lhen ha|vesLed, coo|ed, and eaLen sLeamed,
boiled, o| sLi|-l|ied li|e spinach. Foweve|, when Lhe leaves a|e sLill younq-
belo|e Lhey become Louqh and Loo peppe|y-Lhey all ma|e wonde|lul cuL-and-
come-aqain salad c|ops.
Asian salad leaves a|e easy Lo q|ow, a|e less p|one Lo bolLinq Lhan leLLuces,
and many a|e sullcienLly ha|dy Lo wiLhsLand low lall and winLe| Lempe|aLu|es.
They a|e Lhe|elo|e a valuable sou|ce ol l|esh, home-q|own leaves lo| end-ol-
yea| salads and sLi|-l|ies.
Mizuna loo|s li|e a c|oss beLween a|uqula and
a cu|ly endive. ILs leaLhe|y leaves a|e deeply
se||aLed and q|ow in a loose, loppy |oseLLe
LhaL |eaches abouL IB in (45 cm) ac|oss. They
LasLe sliqhLly musLa|dy o| peppe|y and a|e aL
Lhei| besL when l|esh and younq.
IL's ha|d Lo lail wiLh mizuna. IL will su|vive
boLh hoL summe|s and cold winLe|s, and is
almosL indesL|ucLible. Sow seeds ouLdoo|s a lew
aL a Lime l|om laLe sp|inq Lo ea|ly lall, o| sow
ea|lie| in Lhe sp|inq unde| cove| in modules and
planL ouL laLe|. Thin seedlinqs Lo 4 in (I0 cm)
lo| cuL-and-come-aqain salad c|ops and Lo IB in
(45 cm) apa|L lo| la|qe| planLs inLended lo|
coo|inq. Il necessa|y, p|oLecL aqainsL sluqs (·ee
µµJJ0-JJI) and lea beeLles (·ee µJJ4).
SEAS0N Sprîng Summer Fall Wînter
Sew N N N
Transplant N
Karvest N N N
Mibuna is closely |elaLed Lo mizuna buL has wide|,
mo|e |ounded leaves wiLhouL se||aLions LhaL
q|ow Lo abouL o in (I5 cm) in lenqLh. Mibuna
has a mild peppe|y LasLe noL unli|e a|uqula-
buL noL as sL|onq when maLu|e. IL is as easy Lo
q|ow as mizuna and is ve|y nea|ly as ha|dy. IL's
noL p|one Lo bolLinq in summe| (as lonq as you
|eep iL waLe|ed) and will wiLhsLand cold in all
buL Lhe mosL seve|e winLe|s. C|ow and ha|vesL
in Lhe same way as mizuna.
SEAS0N Sprîng Summer Fall Wînter
Sew N N N
Transplant N
Karvest N N N
Also |nown as musLa|d spinach o| spinach
musLa|d, |omaLsuna is a qene|ic Le|m lo| a
numbe| ol lealy veqeLables LhaL all sha|e Lhe
same cha|acLe|isLics. Lhey p|oduce clumps ol
up|iqhL da|| q|een o| |ed leaves LhaL LasLe
midway beLween spinach and cabbaqe, wiLh a
mild musLa|dy Lanq.
KomaLsuna is noL ha|d Lo q|ow. Sow ouLdoo|s
l|om ea|ly summe|, aL a depLh ol
in (I cm).
Thin seedlinqs Lo 4 in (I0 cm) lo| cuL-and-come-
aqain salad c|ops o| IB in (45 cm) lo| la|qe|
planLs. Some va|ieLies su|vive Lempe|aLu|es as
low as I0°F (-I2°C) and can be ha|vesLed
Lh|ouqhouL winLe|, oLhe|s need p|oLecLion wiLh
cloches o| l|ames. Se|ious p|oblems a|e |a|e buL,
beinq a b|assica, iL may lall p|ey Lo Lhe pesLs
and diseases LhaL allicL cabbaqes (·ee µµZZ-Z8).
SEAS0N Sprîng Summer Fall Wînter
Sew N
Transplant N
Karvest N N
Mustard greens
Also |nown as Asian o| leal musLa|ds, Lhese
veqeLables have la|qe q|een, |ed, o| pu|ple
leaves LhaL may be smooLh, c|in|led, o| cu|ly.
The younq leaves qive salads a welcome
musLa|dy |ic|, buL as Lhey aqe, Lhe LasLe
becomes sL|onqe| and Lhey'|e beLLe| when
coo|ed. 'Red CianL', wiLh iLs liqhL-q|een |ibs
and |eddish-pu|ple, c|in|led leaves, is one ol
Lhe besL-|nown va|ieLies.
Sow seeds unde| cove| in modules in laLe
sp|inq o| ouLdoo|s di|ecLly inLo Lhe q|ound
l|om ea|ly summe| onwa|d. Keep planLs
wa|m and well waLe|ed Lo discou|aqe Lhem
l|om bolLinq. SLa|L ha|vesLinq younq leaves
wiLhin a couple ol monLhs, mo|e will q|ow Lo
|eplace Lhem. Some va|ieLies will su|vive well
inLo Lhe lall and winLe|.
SEAS0N Sprîng Summer Fall Wînter
Sew N N
Transplant N
Karvest N N N
Land cress
Also |nown as Ame|ican o| upland c|ess, land c|ess loo|s and LasLes li|e waLe|c|ess.
ILs biq advanLaqe, howeve|, is LhaL unli|e waLe|c|ess, iL can be q|own on d|y
land |aLhe| Lhan in waLe|. IL is easy Lo q|ow, p|ovided you waLe| iL qene|ously
and don'L leL iL ba|e in hoL sun, and
once esLablished iL should sell-seed Lo
p|ovide you wiLh new planLs yea| on
yea|. IL can be eaLen |aw o| coo|ed.
SEAS0N Sprîng Summer Fall Wînter
Sew N N N
Karvest N N N N
Where, when, and hew te plant
Land c|ess needs a soil LhaL sLays moisL and does noL d|y ouL, so
diq in plenLy ol well-|oLLed o|qanic maLe|ial well in advance. IL
p|ele|s Lo be ouL ol lull sun, in a shelLe|ed, shady spoL. Sow seeds
ouLdoo|s in sp|inq lo| pic|inq in ea|ly summe|, and aqain in laLe
summe| lo| ha|vesLinq in lall and winLe|. ScaLLe| seeds Lhinly and
cove| wiLh soil Lo a depLh ol abouL
in (I cm).
keutîne care
Thin ouL seedlinqs, and waLe| |equla|ly and qene|ously Lo p|evenL
leaves l|om becominq Louqh and Loo peppe|y Lo eaL. In lall and
winLe|, p|oLecL planLs wiLh cloches o| cold l|ames.
Fa|vesL land c|ess as a cuL-and-come-aqain c|op. The l|sL leaves
should be |eady Lo pic| wiLhin Lwo monLhs ol sowinq.
What can ge wreng
Sluqs and snails (·ee µµJJ0-JJI) may aLLac| new seedlinqs,
and lea beeLles (·ee µJJ4) can peppe| Lhe leaves wiLh Lhei|
L|adema|| Liny |ound holes.
Land cress is one ol Lhe lew veqeLables
LhaL posiLively p|ele|s Lo be q|own in shade.
The|e a|e Lh|ee Lypes ol chico|y. 8e/q/on o| W/t/ooj La|es Lhe lo|m ol elonqaLed,
laL ¨chicons¨ ol c|isp whiLe leal shooLs LhaL have been lo|ced and blanched in
o|de| Lo ma|e Lhem less biLLe|. PeJ c//co/, o| /oJ/cc//o usually lo|ms LiqhL,
dense hea|Ls, |aLhe| li|e small c|isphead leLLuces. And ·aqo//ooj chico|y has
q|een leaves and lo|ms la|qe|, loose| heads, mo|e li|e cos leLLuces. NeiLhe|
ol Lhe laLLe| needs lo|cinq, since Lhei| inne| leaves a|e naLu|ally blanched.
All chico|y, blanched o| noL, is biLLe| and even iLs mosL devoLed lans would
accepL LhaL iL is an acqui|ed LasLe. IL Lends Lo be someLhinq LhaL eiLhe| you li|e
o| you don'L. IL's wo|Lh poinLinq ouL, howeve|, LhaL chico|y you q|ow and lo|ce
you|sell is usually less biLLe| Lhan Lhe pac|aqed chico|y you buy aL Lhe sLo|e. By
Lhe Lime you qeL Lhem home, Lhey have al|eady been exposed Lo so much liqhL
LhaL Lhe benelLs ol blanchinq will have bequn Lo wea| oll.
Sugarleaf chîcery has a loose head,
so iLs ouLe| leaves will be mo|e biLLe|
Lhan Lhe LiqhLly compacLed inne| ones.
SEAS0N Sprîng Summer Fall Wînter
Sew N N
Karvest N N N
" Blanching
helps to reduce chicory's
bitter taste."
Where te plant
Chico|y is exL|emely accommodaLinq. IL q|ows
happily in almosL any |ind ol soil, even in poo|,
|elaLively inle|Lile q|ound. And alLhouqh iL li|es
sun, iL will Lole|aLe pa|Lial shade.
When te plant
Chico|y is besL q|own by sowinq seeds di|ecLly
inLo Lhe q|ound beLween laLe sp|inq and
midsumme|. 0on'L sow any ea|lie| o| you|
planLs may bolL.
Belqian chico|y is usually lilLed in Lhe lall, so
LhaL iL can be lo|ced and blanched. Red and
suqa|loal chico|y, which do noL need lo|cinq,
a|e lelL in Lhe q|ound lo| ha|vesLinq l|om laLe
summe| |iqhL Lh|ouqh Lo ea|ly winLe|.
Kew te sew seeds
Sow seeds Lhinly aL a depLh ol abouL
(I cm) in bloc|s o| |ows aL leasL I2 in (²0 cm)
apa|L. Thin ouL Lhe seedlinqs, Lo abouL º in
(2² cm) lo| Belqian chico|y, and abouL I2 in
(²0 cm) lo| |ed and suqa|loal va|ieLies.
keutîne care
Weed and waLe| |equla|ly, ensu|inq LhaL Lhe
soil doesn'L d|y ouL.
Belo|e iL is lo|ced, Belqian chico|y loo|s
ala|minqly li|e a qianL dandelion. Red and
suqa|loal chico|y loo| much mo|e p|omisinq-
mo|e li|e cos o| c|isphead leLLuces.
Belqian chico|y needs Lo be
lo|ced Lo |educe iLs biLLe| LasLe
and p|oduce iLs cha|acLe|isLic
whiLe, blanched shooLs o|
chicons. This can be done while
Lhe planLs a|e sLill in Lhe q|ound,
by cuLLinq oll Lhe leaves and
ea|Lhinq up a|ound Lhe sLumps,
buL iL's mo|e successlully done
by lilLinq Lhem, |eplanLinq in
conLaine|s, b|inqinq Lhem indoo|s,
and cove|inq Lhem up.
0iq up Lhe maLu|e planLs alLe|
Lhe l|sL l|osL, in laLe lall o|
ea|ly winLe|.
CuL oll all Lhe leaves abouL I in
(2.5 cm) above Lhe c|own.
Chop oll Lhe boLLom ol Lhe |ooL Lo
leave a B-º-in (20-22-cm) lenqLh.
FlanL Lh|ee L|immed |ooLs
up|iqhL in a I0-in (25-cm) poL
lull ol moisL poLLinq mix so LhaL
Lhe c|owns a|e showinq jusL above
Lhe su|lace. Flace a second poL
ove| Lhe Lop, and cove| any
d|ainaqe holes wiLh pape| o|
bu|lap so liqhL cannoL enLe|.
Keep Lhe poL in a wa|m,
da|| place unLil Lhe blanched
chicons a|e |eady Lo ha|vesL in
Lh|ee o| lou| wee|s.
(Lop) Wîtleef will q|ow a LiqhL, ciqa|-shaped head
ol blanched whiLe leaves il Lhe |ooL is lilLed, L|immed,
|eplanLed, and |epL unde| cove| in Lhe da||.
(boLLom) Palla kessa
CuL chicons ol lo|ced Belqian chico|y when
Lhey a|e abouL o in (I5 cm) hiqh. Il you leave
Lhe sLumps in place and cove| Lhe poL aqain,
you may qeL a second ha|vesL.
Red and suqa|loal chico|y a|e quiLe ha|dy,
and alLhouqh Lhey may be |eady Lo ha|vesL in
laLe summe|, Lhey can be lelL in Lhe q|ound lo|
lonqe|-Lhey may even su|vive a liqhL l|osL.
They |eep well, Loo, and can be sLo|ed lo|
seve|al wee|s alLe| cuLLinq il |epL somewhe|e
cool and d|y.
What can ge wreng
Sluqs and snails (·ee µµJJ0-JJI) may eaL younq
leaves and lnd Lhei| way inLo Lhe hea|Ls ol |ed
and suqa|loal chico|y. Leaves should be washed
ca|elully belo|e eaLinq. Aphids (eiLhe| blac|ly
o| q|eenly) can be a p|oblem, Loo (·ee µJJ?).
ALLac|s by leLLuce |ooL aphids (·ee µI88) a|e
less common buL can be mo|e se|ious.
kecemmended chîcery
RE0 CFIC0RY/RA0ICCFI0 Jupiter, Palla Rossa,
Rossa di Treviso 2, Variegata di 0astelfranco
SuCARL0AF CFIC0RY Bianca di Milano,
Pain de 5ucre
To put it bluntly, endive tastes like an extremely bitter lettuce. Yet not everyone
finds it unpleasant. To some, the bitterness is an attractive component in a
mixed salad—and if it is too overpowering, it can be reduced by artificially
blanching or whitening the leaves.
Technically, endive is a form of leaf chicory—one that grows in a flat,
spreading rosette shape. It comes in two forms. The curly type has thin, frilly
leaves and is often called “frisée”
(or, confusingly, “chicory.”). The
broad-leaved type has larger, flatter
leaves and may be called “escarole”
or “Batavian.”
SEASON Spring Summer Fall Winter
Sow ■ ■
Transplant ■
Harvest ■ ■ ■
Where to plant
Endives are not too picky about the soil in
which they grow, as long as it retains moisture
and doesn’t dry out. They like sun but will
tolerate partial shade, too.
When to plant
Either sow seeds outdoors directly into the
ground in early summer, or sow under cover
in spring and plant out seedlings in early or
midsummer. Don’t plant too early or the cold
weather may encourage your plants to bolt.
How to sow seeds
Sow seeds thinly at a depth of about
in (1 cm)
either in blocks or in rows 10–15 in (25–38 cm)
apart. Thin out seedlings—to about 9 in (23 cm)
for compact varieties and about 15 in (38 cm)
for larger, spreading varieties.
Covering endive plants in order
to exclude light blanches or
whitens the leaves and makes
them less bitter.
Shortly before the plant is
ready to harvest, cover it with
a plate. It must be completely dry
or it may rot. Protect against slugs
at the same time.
After about ten days, the
center should have turned
white or pale yellow.
(lelL) Jetî (|iqhL) Pancalîerî
keutîne care
Weed and waLe| |equla|ly, ensu|inq LhaL Lhe soil
doesn'L d|y ouL. Blanch cu|ly endives by cove|inq
Lhem, and b|oad-leaved ones by bunchinq up
Lhe leaves and Lyinq Lhem wiLh sL|inq.
EiLhe| pic| a lew leaves aL a Lime o| cuL oll
Lhe whole head jusL above Lhe su|lace ol Lhe
soil. Il you leave Lhe sLumps in place, Lhey may
|esp|ouL. As Lhe Lempe|aLu|e d|ops aL Lhe end
ol Lhe yea|, cove| wiLh l|ames o| cloches Lo
exLend Lhe ha|vesL inLo lall and winLe|.
What can ge wreng
Sluqs (·ee µµJJ0-JJI) a|e li|ely Lo be Lhe biqqesL
enemy. They seem i||esisLibly d|awn Lo endives.
Aphids (·ee µJJ?), caLe|pilla|s (·ee µJJJ),
and leLLuce |ooL aphids (·ee µI88) may be a
p|oblem, Loo.
kecemmended endîves
CuRLY EN0IvE Moss 0urled, Pancalieri,
BR0A0-LEAvE0 EN0IvE 0robo, Jeti
IL's easy Lo La|e |adishes lo| q|anLed. We'|e all mo|e Lhan lamilia| wiLh Lhe small,
c|unchy pin|- o| sca|leL-colo|ed |ooLs LhaL a|e a sLanda|d inq|edienL ol so many
summe| salads. YeL Lhey a|e only a Liny pa|L ol Lhe sLo|y. In lacL, Lhe|e a|e
hund|eds ol dille|enL va|ieLies. whiLe, yellow, pu|ple, and blac| ve|sions ol
|equla| salad |adishes, whiLe Asian mooli (o| dai|on) |adishes LhaL can q|ow as
lonq as 24 in (o0 cm) and weiqh up Lo 4
lb (2 |q), and la|qe Lu|nip-sized winLe|
|adishes, which a|e olLen coo|ed o| pic|led. Summe| |adishes a|e easy
Lo q|ow, maLu|e quic|ly, and a|e besL
eaLen |aw when c|isp and younq.
WinLe| |adishes La|e lonqe|, and
can be sLo|ed alLe| ha|vesLinq.
SEAS0N Sprîng Summer Fall Wînter
Sew N N N
Karvest N N N N
Where te plant
Radishes will q|ow in any moisL and |easonably
le|Lile soil, alLhouqh noL on siLes LhaL have been
l|eshly manu|ed. In summe|, Lhey a|e happy in
pa|Lial shade and have no objecLion Lo beinq
planLed beLween o| a|ound oLhe| c|ops.
When te plant
Sow seeds ol summe| |adish di|ecLly inLo Lhe
q|ound l|om ea|ly sp|inq onwa|d, as soon as
Lhe soil has wa|med up.
Sow winLe| |adish seeds in mid- Lo laLe
summe|-noL Loo ea|ly o| Lhey will bolL.
Kew te sew seeds
Sow a lew seeds aL a Lime, eve|y couple ol
wee|s. Sow Lhinly in |ows o| bloc|s aL a depLh
ol abouL
in (I cm). Thin seedlinqs belo|e Lhey
qeL Loo lan|y, summe| |adishes should be
Lhinned Lo abouL I in (2.5 cm) apa|L, and winLe|
|adishes Lo aL leasL o in (I5 cm) apa|L.
Fast-grewîng radîshes can be
inLe|sown wiLh anoLhe|, slowe|-q|owinq
c|op. Fa|vesL Lhem ca|elully, wiLhouL
disLu|binq Lhe seedlinqs LhaL |emain.
(Lop) Mantangheng (boLLom) French Breakfast
keutîne care
WaLe| |equla|ly-especially in hoL, d|y
weaLhe|-buL don'L ove|do iL o| you will jusL
encou|aqe Loo much leal q|owLh.
Summe| |adishes should be |eady Lo pic|
wiLhin a monLh o| so ol sowinq. 0on'L leL
Lhem qeL Loo biq o| Lhey will become woody
and LasLe Loo sL|onq. WinLe| |adishes q|ow
much la|qe| and La|e lonqe| Lo maLu|e, Lhey
can be lelL in Lhe q|ound well inLo Lhe lall and
even Lh|ouqhouL winLe| il Lhe soil isn'L Loo
heavy, alLhouqh Lhey will need p|oLecLion
l|om ha|d l|osLs.
What can ge wreng
Flea beeLles (·ee µJJ4) can |iddle Lhe leaves
wiLh Liny |ound holes, Lhouqh Lhey ve|y |a|ely
damaqe Lhe |adishes Lhemselves. Sluqs and
snails (·ee µµJJ0-JJI) may nibble aL Lhe |ooLs,
which may sLill be edible even il Lhey don'L loo|
ve|y appeLizinq.
WinLe| |adishes can be allecLed by cabbaqe
|ooL ly (·ee µZZ) and by club|ooL (·ee µZ8).
To |educe Lhe |is|, c|op |oLaLe Lhem in Lhe
same cycle as cabbaqes and oLhe| b|assicas.
kecemmended radîshes
SuMMER RA0ISFES 0herry Belle, Fluo,
French Breakfast, 5carlet 0lobe, 5parkler
WINTER RA0ISFES April 0ross, Black 5panish
Round, 0herokee, 0hina Rose, Mantanghong, Mino
Early, Minowase 5ummer 0ross, Munchen Bier
Spreutîng seeds
Fe|e's a way Lo q|ow veqeLables LhaL's as easy as iL qeLs. no qa|den, no soil, no |ain,
no sun, and no diqqinq o| weedinq' The seeds ol beans, lequmes, and leal veqeLables
a|e li|e miniaLu|e supe|lood capsules, pac|ed wiLh nuL|ienLs such as viLamins,
enzymes, and p|oLeins. Sp|ouLinq Lhese |eleases all Lhis healLhy qoodness and
p|oduces some ol Lhe l|eshesL, LasLiesL salad inq|edienLs you'll eve| eaL.
MosL seeds need noLhinq mo|e Lhan waLe|, wa|mLh, ai|, and
some liqhL Lo b|ea| Lhei| do|mancy and encou|aqe Lhem Lo
sp|ouL. The|e a|e Lh|ee ways ol doinq Lhis. sp|eadinq Lhem ouL
in L|ays lined wiLh damp pape|, sLo|inq Lhem in ja|s wiLh
pe|lo|aLed lids, o| suspendinq Lhem in waLe|-pe|meable baqs.
In addiLion, iL is possible Lo buy specially desiqned sp|ouLe|s,
some wiLh builL-in auLomaLic waLe| sp|ays.
Beans and peas usually La|e Lwo Lo Lh|ee days, while seeds li|e
allalla and lenuq|ee| La|e Lh|ee Lo lve days. MosL seeds qe|minaLe
mo|e quic|ly il Lhey a|e l|sL soa|ed in waLe| ove|niqhL. The|ealLe|,
Lhey need Lo be |epL wa|m and moisL, and wiLh enouqh ai| a|ound
Lhem Lo p|evenL Lhem l|om |oLLinq.
Spreutîng în trays
FuL a lew laye|s ol newspape| o| pape| Lowels in Lhe boLLom
ol a laL L|ay. Soa| wiLh waLe| and pou| oll any excess. ScaLLe|
seed Lhinly ove| Lhe su|lace. FuL Lhe L|ay somewhe|e wa|m, and
|eep iL moisL.
Spreutîng în jars
FuL a small handlul ol seeds in a clean ja|-noL Loo many, as Lhey
will expand. Fill wiLh waLe| Lo wash Lhem, add a pe|lo|aLed lid,
Lhen pou| ouL Lhe waLe|. SLo|e Lhe ja| somewhe|e wa|m, seL aL
an anqle so Lhe seeds don'L qeL waLe|loqqed. Relll and d|ain iL
Lwice a day.
Spreut bags
Flace a handlul ol seeds in a po|ous baq made ol hemp, lax,
o| linen. 0ip Lhe baq in waLe|, leL iL d|ain, and Lhen hanq iL up
somewhe|e wa|m. 0ip and d|ain aqain Lwice a day.
Wash the seeds in cold
waLe|, leL Lhem soa| ove|niqhL,
Lhen |inse and d|ain Lhem aqain.
kînse and draîn Lwice a day
unLil Lhe sp|ouLs a|e |eady Lo
eaL. 0nce d|y, Lhey can be sLo|ed in
Lhe |el|iqe|aLo| lo| up Lo lve days.
Mustard and cress C|ess is available in
plain- o| cu|led-leal lo|ms. BoLh have a peppe|y
LasLe. In comme|cially sold pac|eLs ol mixed
seed, musLa|d may be |eplaced by salad |ape.
C|ow musLa|d and c|ess in L|ays. iL's Loo sLic|y
and qooey lo| ja|s o| baqs.
Mung beans C|een munq beans p|oduce Lhe
lamilia| Chinese bean sp|ouLs lo| use in salads
and sLi|-l|ies. They will q|ow Lo abouL 2 in
(5 cm) lonq.
Adzukî beans Also |nown as adu|i, Lhese
|ed-b|own beans a|e |elaLed Lo munq beans
buL p|oduce sliqhLly nuLLie|, sho|Le| sp|ouLs.
Alfalfa ve|y lne, wispy, whiLe sp|ouLs wiLh
a mild, sliqhLly nuLLy LasLe and a ve|y hiqh
p|oLein conLenL.
Breccelî Thin whiLe sp|ouLs wiLh q|een
leaves LhaL a|e simila| in boLh LasLe and
appea|ance Lo allalla. RepuLed Lo have
powe|lul healLh-qivinq p|ope|Lies.
0arbanzes {chîck peas) SweeL, nuLLy
sp|ouLs besL eaLen when small and c|unchy.
Fenugreek Lonq whiLe shooLs wiLh q|een
leaves and a disLincLive cu||y lavo| LhaL is
mosL spicy when Lhe seeds l|sL sp|ouL.
(lelL) Mung beans (|iqhL) 0arbanzes
7. Fruiting
These veqeLables a|e all q|own lo| Lhei| l|uiLs |aLhe| Lhan lo| Lhei| leaves, sLems,
o| |ooLs. Many o|iqinaLe in L|opical o| subL|opical climaLes and need wa|m, humid
q|owinq condiLions. They La|e a |elaLively lonq Lime Lo maLu|e, Loo, wiLhouL a
lonq, hoL summe|, iL may be a baLLle Lo ensu|e LhaL Lhey |ipen lully. Fo| Lhis
|eason, in Lempe|aLe zones whe|e summe|s a|e li|ely Lo be cool and sho|L, Lhey
a|e olLen q|own in q|eenhouses o| polyLunnels. Even Lhose q|own ouLdoo|s a|e
usually sLa|Led oll unde| cove| so LhaL seeds qe|minaLe and seedlinqs beqin Lo
develop as ea|ly in Lhe yea| as possible. AlLe|naLively, |eady-q|own planLs can be
bouqhL l|om mosL qa|den cenLe|s and planLed ouL in laLe sp|inq o| ea|ly summe|,
once all danqe| ol l|osL has passed.
Keme-grewn tematees |ipened on
Lhe vine and wa|med by Lhe sun have
a lavo| LhaL is ve|y ha|d Lo beaL.
Eggplants a|e besL pic|ed when
Lhey a|e aL Lhei| shiniesL. They can
Lu|n biLLe| once Lhey lose Lhei| shine.
0hîlî peppers q|adually chanqe
colo| and becominq inc|easinqly
hoL as Lhey |ipen.
Sweet cern is available in mode|n
¨supe|sweeL¨ va|ieLies LhaL LasLe
sweeLe| Lhan L|adiLional culLiva|s.
Tematees LasLe besL il you a|e
able Lo leave Lhem on Lhe vine unLil
Lhey a|e lully |ipe and |eady Lo eaL.
Tematîlles a|e |elaLives ol Lhe
Cape qoosebe||y and a|e q|own
in Lhe same way as LomaLoes.
0kra lo|ms slende| pod-shaped
l|uiLs-olLen |ele||ed Lo as ladies'
lnqe|s-lull ol |ound, whiLe seeds.
The eqqplanL wiLh which we a|e mosL lamilia| is smooLh, shiny, and a deep
pu|ple, almosL blac|, colo|. IL may be lonq and slende|, pea|-shaped, o| almosL
ci|cula|. BuL oLhe| va|ieLies a|e c|eamy whiLe (which p|obably explains whe|e
Lhe name ¨eqqplanL¨ comes l|om), pale lilac, sL|ea|y violeL, even yellow o| |ed.
All ol Lhem o|iqinally come l|om Lhe wa|m, humid condiLions ol Lhe L|opics o|
subL|opics, so Lhey a|e ha|d Lo q|ow ouLdoo|s in cool Lempe|aLe climaLes.
Foweve|, choose Lhe |iqhL va|ieLy and you miqhL be lo|LunaLe-il you'|e blessed
wiLh a lonq, hoL summe|. 0Lhe|wise,
q|ow Lhem in conLaine|s o| q|owinq
baqs on a shelLe|ed paLio, p|ele|ably
aqainsL a wa|m, souLh-lacinq wall, o|
in a q|eenhouse o| polyLunnel.
Slîm Jîm
SEAS0N Sprîng Summer Fall Wînter
Sew N
Transplant N N
Karvest N N
Where te plant
The mosL impo|LanL |equi|emenL is a sunny,
shelLe|ed siLe. EqqplanLs need wa|mLh, and
wiLhouL iL Lhey won'L p|oduce qood-sized l|uiLs.
They also need deep, le|Lile, well-d|ained soil.
When te plant
EqqplanLs have a lonq q|owinq season-aL
leasL lve monLhs beLween sowinq and ha|vesL-
so qeL ahead as ea|ly in Lhe yea| as you can.
Seeds may noL qe|minaLe il Lhe Lempe|aLu|e
is below 70°F (2I°C), so in ea|ly o| mid-sp|inq,
sLa|L Lhem oll indoo|s o| unde| cove|. They can
be planLed ouL in laLe sp|inq o| ea|ly summe|,
dependinq on Lhe climaLe.
Kew te sew seeds
Belo|e sowinq, soa| seeds in wa|m waLe| lo|
a day Lo encou|aqe qe|minaLion. Sow Lhinly in
seed L|ays and |eep in a p|opaqaLo| aL 70-Bo°F
(2I-²0°C) unLil Lhey qe|minaLe. The|ealLe|,
|eep Lhe L|ays somewhe|e humid and don'L leL
(lelL) Eggplant Hewers, il successlully
le|Lilized, should each p|oduce a Liny l|uiL
LhaL will q|ow inLo a lull-size eqqplanL.
(|iqhL) Karvest eggplants so LhaL
aL leasL I in (2.5 cm) ol Lhe sLem is lelL
on Lhe l|uiL.
Lhem qeL any colde| Lhan o4°F (IB°C) in Lhe day
and o0°F (Io°C) aL niqhL. When Lhe seedlinqs
a|e 2 in (5 cm) Lall, p|ic| ouL inLo individual
poLs, modules, o| biodeq|adable Lube poLs.
Kew te plant eut seedlîngs
0nce Lhe l|sL lowe|s appea|, by which Lime
Lhe seedlinqs should be ²-4 in (B-I0 cm) Lall,
ha|den Lhem oll by movinq Lhem ouLside du|inq
Lhe day. 0nce Lhe |is| ol l|osL has passed, planL
Lhem ouL abouL 24-²0 in (o0-75 cm) apa|L.
keutîne care
Keep Lhe planLs well-weeded and well-waLe|ed.
EqqplanLs need hiqh humidiLy, so don'L leL Lhem
d|y ouL. Mulch will help |eep soil moisLu|e l|om
evapo|aLinq. Finch ouL Lhe q|owinq Lip Lo
encou|aqe bushy q|owLh. 0nce Lhe l|uiLs beqin
Lo seL, waLe| wiLh a qene|al le|Lilize| o| liquid
LomaLo le|Lilize| eve|y Lwo wee|s. SLa|e Lhe
planLs lo| suppo|L il necessa|y.
Fic| eqqplanLs when Lhey'|e aL Lhei| mosL shiny.
As Lhey lose Lhei| shine and sLa|L Lo show siqns
ol w|in|linq, Lhe l|uiLs Lend Lo Lu|n biLLe|.
What can ge wreng
EqqplanLs q|own ouLdoo|s a|e qene|ally
healLhy, p|ovided condiLions a|e wa|m and
humid enouqh. Aphids (·ee µJJ?) a|e p|obably
Lhe mosL L|oublesome pesL. unde| cove|, planLs
miqhL sulle| l|om inlesLaLions ol |ed spide|
miLes, whiLelies, mealybuqs, and caLe|pilla|s
(·ee µµJJJ-JJZ).
kecemmended eggplants
In Lempe|aLe climaLes, loo| lo| va|ieLies LhaL
a|e suiLed Lo coole| condiLions.
Black Beauty, Moneymaker, 0va, Rima, 5hort
Tom, 5lim Jim, Vernal
All peppe|s a|e membe|s ol Lhe capsicum lamily. SweeL o| bell peppe|s a|e
Lhe la|qe va|ieLy. They can q|ow up Lo º in (2² cm) in lenqLh and a|e q|een when
younq, |ipeninq Lo yellow, o|anqe, and |ed o| even da|| pu|ple when lully |ipe.
The |ipe| Lhey a|e, Lhe sweeLe| Lhey LasLe. Chili peppe|s a|e much smalle|, buL
whaL Lhey lac| in size Lhey ma|e up lo| in heaL. Lhey can be eye-waLe|inqly hoL.
Feppe|s a|e L|opical and subL|opical planLs. They need heaL and humidiLy in o|de|
Lo q|ow well, il you'|e |aisinq Lhem l|om seed, you'll ce|Lainly need Lo sLa|L Lhem
oll indoo|s o| unde| cove|. In a bad summe| you may lnd LhaL only a lew l|uiLs
|ipen lully belo|e Lhe onseL ol lall.
They can be q|own in Lhe q|ound, buL
Lhey ma|e pe|lecL conLaine| planLs,
especially il you can place Lhem in a
wa|m, sunny, shelLe|ed spoL.
SEAS0N Sprîng Summer Fall Wînter
Sew N
Transplant N N
Karvest N N
Where te plant
Feppe|s need heaL and humidiLy, so choose a shelLe|ed and sunny
a|ea, wheLhe| you'|e q|owinq Lhem in Lhe q|ound o| in conLaine|s,
and be p|epa|ed Lo cove| Lhem il Lhe weaLhe| Lu|ns cold. They
li|e liqhL, le|Lile soil LhaL |eLains moisLu|e.
When te plant
The ea|lie| in Lhe season you can sLa|L, Lhe beLLe| you| chances
LhaL Lhe l|uiLs will |ipen lully laLe| on in Lhe yea|. Feppe|s need
wa|mLh Lo qe|minaLe |eliably, so sow indoo|s o| in a heaLed
q|eenhouse in ea|ly sp|inq, and ouLdoo|s unde| cove| a lew
wee|s laLe|, in mid-sp|inq. FlanL Lhem ouL inLo la|qe poLs o| inLo
Lhe q|ound eiLhe| in laLe sp|inq o| in ea|ly summe|-ma|e su|e
LhaL Lhe|e is no |is| ol l|osL when you do so.
0hîlî peppers |anqe l|om mild Lo
sco|chinq hoL. 0l cou|se, alcionados
will Lell you LhaL iL's noL jusL abouL heaL.
IL's abouL LasLe, Loo.
"The ideal specimen is firm
and waxy to the touch."
Kew te sew seeds
Sow seeds Lhinly in seed L|ays o| modules and
mainLain Lhem aL a Lempe|aLu|e ol o4-70°F
(IB-2I°C) unLil Lhey qe|minaLe. The|ealLe|,
ensu|e LhaL Lhe soil does noL d|y ouL and don'L
leL Lhem qeL any colde| Lhan o4°F (IB°C)
du|inq Lhe day and oI°F (Io°C) aL niqhL.
When you| seedlinqs develop leaves LhaL
a|e la|qe enouqh Lo handle, ca|elully p|ic| Lhem
ouL-l|sL inLo individual ²-²
-in (o-º-cm)
poLs, and Lhen a lew wee|s laLe|, when Lhe
planLs a|e abouL ²
-4 in (B-I0 cm) Lall, inLo
la|qe| B-º-in (2I-2²-cm) poLs.
(lelL) 0hîlîes ferm and rîpen aL dille|enL |aLes on Lhe same planL,
so aL any one Lime, each should ca||y boLh q|een and |ed l|uiLs.
(|iqhL) Sweet peppers change celer as Lhey |ipen-usually
l|om q|een Lo |ed. Fully |ipe |ed peppe|s LasLe sweeLe| Lhan
immaLu|e q|een ones.
Kew te plant eut seedlîngs
0nce any danqe| ol l|osL has passed, and you
have ha|dened oll Lhe seedlinqs by movinq Lhem
ouLside du|inq Lhe day, L|ansplanL Lhem inLo
q|owinq baqs, la|qe conLaine|s, o| di|ecLly inLo
Lhe q|ound. Space sweeL peppe|s aL leasL 20 in
(50 cm) apa|L, chili peppe| planLs, which don'L
q|ow so la|qe, can be a liLLle close|.
keutîne care
Weed and waLe| on a |equla| basis. Il you
allow you| planLs Lo d|y ouL, Lhe lowe| buds
and leaves may d|op oll. A laye| ol mulch
will help p|evenL moisLu|e in Lhe soil l|om
evapo|aLinq. As soon as Lhe l|uiLs beqin Lo seL,
waLe| wiLh a qene|al le|Lilize| o| liquid LomaLo
le|Lilize| eve|y Lwo wee|s.
SLa|e up Lhe planLs Lo qive Lhem a deq|ee ol
suppo|L il Lhey need iL and Lo |eep Lhe peppe|s
l|om L|ailinq on Lhe q|ound. Flace Lh|ee o| lou|
canes a|ound each planL in a so|L ol upside-
down wiqwam shape, and loosely Lie in Lhe
sLems wiLh sL|inq.
(lelL) 0hîlîes beceme hetter Lhe |ipe| Lhey qeL. Indeed, some
va|ieLies may become so hoL LhaL you need qloves Lo handle Lhem.
C|een and yellow ones such as Lhese a|e p|obably sale.
(|iqhL) 0ut sweet peppers so LhaL I in (2.5 cm) ol Lhe sLal| |emains
on Lhe l|uiL. EaL Lhem p|ompLly, as wiLh peas and sweeL co|n, Lhe
suqa| Lhey conLain beqins Lo Lu|n Lo sLa|ch alLe| ha|vesLinq.
0ecidinq when Lo ha|vesL is a biL ol a balancinq
acL. Il you pic| Lhe peppe|s when Lhey'|e q|een,
Lhe planL will qo on p|oducinq loLs mo|e l|uiL so
you'll qeL a biqqe| ha|vesL. Il you |esisL pic|inq
Lhem unLil Lhey've |ipened Lo |ed, Lhe l|uiLs will
be sweeLe| and beLLe|-LasLinq-buL you'll have
lewe| ol Lhem.
All chilies a|e hoL, buL Lhey |anqe l|om Lhe
mildly wa|m Lo Lhe l|an|ly volcanic. The
heaL comes l|om Lhe chemical capsaicin,
mosL concenL|aLed in Lhe seeds and Lhe
whiLe piLh. IL sLimulaLes ne|ve endinqs in Lhe
mucus memb|anes in you| mouLh and Lh|oaL,
and in you| s|in, Loo. IL's Lhis LhaL p|oduces
Lhe bu|ninq sensaLion and causes eyes Lo
waLe|, noses Lo |un, and saliva Lo low.
Wilbu| Scoville, an Ame|ican chemisL,
invenLed a meLhod ol measu|inq chili heaL,
now |nown as Lhe Scoville |aLinq. A sweeL
peppe| has a sco|e ol ze|o, as iL has no heaL
aL all. A |elaLively mild chili such as a jalapeño
|an|s aL 2,500-B,000 Scoville uniLs. The
chili claimed Lo be Lhe wo|ld's hoLLesL-Lhe
0o|seL Naqa peppe|-was |ecenLly measu|ed
aL a mind-numbinq º2²,000 Scoville uniLs, iL
can only be handled wea|inq qloves.
(cloc|wise l|om Lop lelL)
sweeL peppe|s. 0ypsy, Jîngle Bells
chilies. Jalapeñe, Kabanere
Apache N
Kabanere N
Jalapeñe N
Thaî Ket 0ragen N
Fîlîus Blue N
Anaheîm N
0erset Naga N
kîng ef Fîre N
Serrane N
Kungarîan Yellew Wax Ket N
What can ge wreng
Aphids (·ee µJJ?) a|e a common p|oblem, and
you may need Lo sp|ay wiLh py|eLh|um,
|oLenone, o| insecLicidal soap il you qeL a bad
aLLac|. unde| cove|, peppe|s can sulle| l|om
inlesLaLions ol |ed spide| miLes and whiLely
(·ee µµJJó-JJZ).
kecemmended sweet peppers
In Lempe|aLe climaLes, loo| lo| va|ieLies LhaL
a|e suiLed Lo coole| condiLions.
Ariane, Atris, Bell Boy, 0anape, 0ypsy, Jingle Bells
or Mini Bell, Luteus, Marconi Rosso,Mavras,
New Ace
See µone/ lo| |ecommended chili peppe|s.
Sweet cern
SweeL co|n is acLually a q|ass, and is pollinaLed by wind-which is why iL is
besL Lo q|ow iL close LoqeLhe| in a bloc| |aLhe| Lhan sinqly o| spaced ouL in
lonq |ows. Many sweeL co|n va|ieLies q|ow Lall, as hiqh as o lL (2 m), and a|e
d|amaLic planLs ideal lo| an o|namenLal |iLchen qa|den. MiniaLu|e culLiva|s
a|e also available, as a|e va|ieLies ideal lo| poppinq and some LhaL a|e
pu|ely deco|aLive.
All sweeL co|n should be eaLen as soon as possible alLe| ha|vesLinq. 0nce
iL has been pic|ed, iLs suqa| sLa|Ls conve|Linq Lo sLa|ch and iL beqins Lo lose
iLs sweeLness. Mode|n va|ieLies Lend Lo be sweeLe| and LasLie| Lhan old ones.
usually |ele||ed Lo as ¨supe|sweeL,¨
Lhey a|e b|ed Lo have a hiqhe|
concenL|aLion ol suqa| and Lo Lu|n
mo|e slowly l|om suqa| Lo sLa|ch
alLe| pic|inq.
Yeu can eat rîpe cern raw, sL|aiqhL l|om Lhe planL.
SEAS0N Sprîng Summer Fall Wînter
Sew N
Transplant N
Karvest N N
Where te plant
SweeL co|n needs wa|mLh and sunshine il Lhe
cobs a|e Lo |ipen lully. Because iL q|ows Lall,
iL also needs shelLe| l|om Lhe wind. IL will q|ow
in mosL soils, Lhouqh iL Lends Lo p|ele| a liqhL,
well-d|ained, le|Lile siLe.
When te plant
Timinq can be L|ic|y. 0n one hand, sweeL co|n has
a lonq q|owinq season, so iL should be planLed as
ea|ly as possible, on Lhe oLhe| hand, seeds
won'L qe|minaLe il planLed Loo ea|ly when Lhe
soil is cold and weL. To qeL ahead, sow seeds in
a q|eenhouse o| unde| cove| in ea|ly o| mid-
sp|inq, and L|ansplanL Lhem laLe|. AlLe|naLively,
il you a|e sowinq seeds ouLdoo|s o| buyinq
|eady-Lo-planL seedlinqs, waiL unLil Lhe
Lempe|aLu|e ol Lhe soil |eaches 50°F (I0°C).
SweeL co|n planLs a|e
pollinaLed by Lhe wind insLead
ol by insecLs o| bi|ds, so sow o|
planL ouL in squa|e o| |ecLanqula|
bloc|s |aLhe| Lhan in lonq |ows.
The pollen is blown l|om Lhe
male Lo Lhe lemale lowe|s by
Lhe wind. Male lowe|s q|ow aL
Lhe Lop ol Lhe planL and lo|m lonq
¨Lassels¨ l|om which Lhe pollen is
p|oduced. Female lowe|s a|e
called ¨sil|s.¨ They q|ow l|om Lhe
Lop ol each cob and lo|m sil|y
sL|ands Lo which pollen aLLaches.
Kew te sew seeds
Indoo|s, sow seeds in modules o| biodeq|adable poLs aL a depLh
ol I-I
in (2.5-4 cm) and do noL leL Lhe Lempe|aLu|e lall below
oB-B0°F (20-27°C).
0uLdoo|s, iL may be necessa|y Lo p|ewa|m Lhe q|ound usinq
cloches and l|ames o| by cove|inq iL wiLh plasLic sheeLinq-you
can planL Lh|ouqh Lhis il you wish. Sow seeds di|ecLly inLo Lhe
q|ound I-I
in (2.5-4 cm) deep and I4-IB in (²5-45 cm) apa|L.
IL's a qood idea Lo sow Lwo o| Lh|ee seeds in each posiLion and,
il Lhey all qe|minaLe, Lhin ouL Lhe wea|e| ones.
Sow sweeL co|n in bloc|s |aLhe| Lhan lonq |ows. Lhe planLs
a|e pollinaLed by wind, so Lhis will inc|ease you| chances ol
successlul pollinaLion.
Kew te plant eut seedlîngs
When Lhey a|e abouL ² in (B cm) Lall, seedlinqs a|e |eady Lo planL
ouL-p|ovided LhaL Lhe soil is wa|m enouqh. Move Lhem ouLside
o| uncove| Lhem du|inq Lhe day in o|de| Lo ha|den Lhem oll, and
once Lhe|e is no lonqe| a |is| ol l|osL, planL Lhem ouL abouL
I4-IB in (²5-45 cm) apa|L.
keutîne care
Weed ca|elully a|ound Lhe q|owinq planLs, |ooLs nea| Lhe su|lace
can easily be damaqed. unless Lhe|e's a d|ouqhL, you should have
Lo waLe| only when Lhe planLs sLa|L lowe|inq and aqain when
Lhe cobs a|e sLa|Linq Lo laLLen up. Ea|Lh up a|ound Lhe sLems
o| sLa|e Lhe planLs Lo qive Lhem a biL ol suppo|L.
SweeL co|n should be |eady Lo pic| when Lhe sil|s Lu|n b|own
o| blac|, buL Lo qeL Lhe opLimum momenL, when Lhey'|e aL Lhei|
LasLiesL, you need Lo LesL Lhem by p|ic|inq one ol Lhe |e|nels wiLh
a lnqe|nail. A |ipe cob should p|oduce a mil|y juice. Il Lhe juice is
clea| and waLe|y, leave iL Lo |ipen a liLLle lonqe|. Il iL's sLa|chy,
you'|e Loo laLe. iL's ove||ipe. Coo| and eaL sweeL co|n as soon
as possible alLe| pic|inq.
To LesL lo| |ipeness, peel bac|
a lew leaves a|ound Lhe Lip ol
Lhe cob and p|ic| one ol Lhe |e|nels
wiLh you| lnqe|nail. Il Lhe juice is
mil|y, Lhe cob is |ipe.
Fa|vesL Lhe cobs by b|ea|inq
Lhem oll-pull Lhem downwa|d
wiLh one hand while sLeadyinq Lhe
main sLem wiLh Lhe oLhe|.
What can ge wreng
Wildlile is li|ely Lo be you| biqqesL p|oblem. Mice ado|e sweeL
co|n, and Lhey may eaL all you| seeds belo|e Lhey qeL a chance
Lo qe|minaLe. They love Lhe cobs, Loo, and-alonq wiLh bi|ds,
squi||els, and |accoons-may sysLemaLically nibble o| pec| Lhem
all oll you| planLs. Encasinq each cob in a la|qe plasLic solL-d|in|
boLLle l|om which you've sliced oll Lhe end may p|oLecL Lhem.
0Lhe|wise, you may have Lo neL you| enLi|e c|op. F|uiL
lies and aphids (·ee µJJ?) can be L|oublesome, Loo.
kecemmended sweet cern
Mode|n ¨supe|sweeL¨ va|ieLies p|oduce a heavie| c|op and LasLe
sweeLe| Lhan L|adiLional culLiva|s.
0ickson, 0ynasty, Honey Bantam, Inca Rainbow, 0vation, 5trawberry
0orn or Red 5trawberry, 5undance, 5weet Nugget, 5wift
(lelL) Swîft (|iqhL) Sundance
The|e a|e Lwo majo| Lypes ol LomaLoes, classiled acco|dinq Lo Lhe way in which
Lhey q|ow. vine and bush. vine (o| co|don) LomaLoes have a Lall cenL|al sLem
LhaL, in a pe|lecL neve|-endinq summe|, would qo on q|owinq up and up
indelniLely, much li|e Jac|'s beansLal|. The LomaLoes lo|m on L|usses LhaL q|ow
l|om Lhe main sLem (as do unwanLed sideshooLs, which a|e |emoved). vine
LomaLoes p|oduce la|qe| l|uiLs and Lend Lo be mo|e successlully q|own in
q|eenhouses o| polyLunnels.
Bush LomaLoes a|e mo|e compacL, wiLh loLs ol sp|eadinq o| L|ailinq side
b|anches. They a|e quic|e| Lo |ipen Lhan vine LomaLoes and qene|ally q|ow well
ouLdoo|s. In addiLion, Lhe|e is a Lhi|d caLeqo|y ol inLe|mediaLe va|ieLies LhaL lie
somewhe|e beLween vine and bush. They can q|ow Lall enouqh Lo need suppo|Linq
buL Lhei| sideshooLs a|e noL |emoved.
C|owinq L|adiLional vine LomaLoes may aL l|sL appea| daunLinq-Lhe|e's a
ce|Lain mysLique abouL Lhem. They do
need Lende| lovinq ca|e-waLe|inq,
le|Lilizinq, sLa|inq up, Lyinq in,
pinchinq ouL, and so on-buL iL all
loo|s mo|e complicaLed Lhan iL |eally
is, and Lhey do |epay Lhe ello|L.
SEAS0N Sprîng Summer Fall Wînter
Sew N
Transplant N N
Karvest N N
(lelL) Vîne tematees Lend Lo LasLe
beLLe| Lhan bush ones, and |ipen q|adually
so you don'L qeL a sudden qluL.
(|iqhL) Bush tematees can be q|own in
hanqinq bas|eLs il you a|e LiqhL lo| space.
Where te plant
WheLhe| q|own in a q|eenhouse o| ouLdoo|s,
LomaLoes a|e noL pa|Licula|ly lussy abouL Lhe
soil, as lonq as iL is |ich and le|Lile. EiLhe| diq
in well-|oLLed composL o| manu|e Lo a depLh
ol aL leasL I2 in (²0 cm) belo|e planLinq o|
apply qene|al hiqh-phospho|ous le|Lilize| o|
pelleLs ol poulL|y manu|e. Lime acidic soils only
il Lhe pF is below 5.5 (·ee µ4Z).
TomaLoes need loLs ol liqhL, so choose a siLe
LhaL is in lull sun. Il you'|e usinq q|owinq baqs,
a souLh-lacinq wall is ideal.
C|op |oLaLion is impo|LanL Lo help p|evenL
Lhe build-up ol diseases in Lhe soil, so don'L
planL LomaLoes whe|e you've q|own Lhem in
Lhe p|evious Lwo yea|s.
When te plant
TomaLoes need wa|mLh Lo qe|minaLe so,
alLhouqh Lhey can be sown l|om ea|ly sp|inq
onwa|d, Lhey musL be |epL indoo|s o| in a
heaLed q|eenhouse. 0uLdoo| va|ieLies should
be |eady Lo planL ouL alLe| abouL eiqhL wee|s,
in laLe sp|inq and ea|ly summe|, dependinq on
Lhe weaLhe|.
Kew te sew seeds
Sow seeds Lhinly in seed L|ays o| in modules
lull ol mulLipu|pose poLLinq mix. Cove| Lhem
wiLh a Lhin laye| ol mo|e poLLinq mix, and
waLe| ca|elully, l|om unde|neaLh il possible.
They a|e unli|ely Lo qe|minaLe aL Lempe|aLu|es
lowe| Lhan 5º°F (I5°C), so you may wanL Lo
puL Lhem in a heaLed p|opaqaLo|. When
seedlinqs appea|, move Lhe L|ays o| modules
somewhe|e wiLh b|iqhL liqhL and a consLanL
Lempe|aLu|e ol 70-BI°F (2I-27°C).
When you| seedlinqs develop Lwo o| Lh|ee
L|ue leaves and a|e la|qe enouqh Lo handle,
ca|elully p|ic| Lhem ouL inLo individual 2-²-in
(5-B-cm) poLs o| biodeq|adable Lubes. Keep
Lhem in a wa|m, b|iqhL, well-venLilaLed place.
vine LomaLoes can q|ow ve|y Lall.
As Lhe lowe| L|usses L|anslo|m
inLo q|owinq LomaLoes, Lhey qeL
heavy and need suppo|L. They also
need Lo have Lhei| q|owinq Lips
and sideshooLs pinched ouL Lo
concenL|aLe Lhei| ene|qy on
p|oducinq LomaLoes |aLhe| Lhan
loliaqe. IL's wo|Lh |emovinq any
leaves below Lhe lowesL l|uiLinq
L|uss, Lo aid venLilaLion and
p|evenL disease.
Fush a sLa|e o| sL|onq cane
inLo Lhe q|ound alonqside each
ol Lhe seedlinqs, and Lie in Lhe main
sLem wiLh qa|den Lwine o| sL|inq
as iL q|ows.
Requla|ly pinch ouL sideshooLs
LhaL appea| in Lhe ¨v¨ beLween
Lhe leal sLems and Lhe main sLem.
Il you leL Lhem q|ow, Lhey simply
wasLe Lhe planL's ene|qy.
In laLe summe|, nip oll Lhe Lip
ol Lhe main sLem Lwo leaves
above Lhe Lop ol Lhe hiqhesL
lowe| L|uss. 0uLdoo|s, you will
p|obably have lou| o| lve L|usses
LhaL have seL l|uiL. The planL's Las|
now is Lo concenL|aLe solely on
|ipeninq Lhose.
Kew te plant eut seedlîngs
Il you a|e q|owinq ouLdoo| LomaLoes, Lhey
should be |eady Lo planL ouL when you see Lhe
l|sL lowe|s lo|minq. Fa|den Lhem oll l|sL, buL
sLill be p|epa|ed Lo cove| Lhem wiLh leece o|
cloches il Lhe|e is any |is| ol a laLe l|osL.
FlanL vine LomaLoes quiLe deeply, I5-IB in
(²B-45 cm) apa|L in sinqle o| sLaqqe|ed double
|ows aL leasL ²o in (º0 cm) apa|L. Bush LomaLoes
may need mo|e |oom. planL Lhem up Lo ²o in
(º0 cm) apa|L-Lhouqh pe|haps as close as
I2 in (²0 cm) il Lhey a|e dwa|l va|ieLies.
Il you a|e planLinq in q|owinq baqs o| la|qe
conLaine|s, place Lhem in a wa|m spoL, ideally
p|oLecLed by a sunny, souLh-lacinq wall.
keutîne care
Requla| le|Lilizinq and waLe|inq is essenLial.
BuL don'L lood Lhe planLs, iL's beLLe| Lo waLe|
liLLle and olLen, ensu|inq LhaL Lhe soil and Lhe
|ooLs neve| d|y ouL-especially in Lhe case ol
conLaine|s and q|owinq baqs. An o|qanic o|
plasLic mulch a|ound Lhe planLs will sLop waLe|
l|om evapo|aLinq and help |eLain moisLu|e.
Beqin leedinq wiLh a hiqh-poLash le|Lilize|
(liquid LomaLo le|Lilize|, lo| example) once Lhe
lowe|s have lo|med l|uiLs. IL will sLimulaLe
boLh lowe|inq and l|uiLinq, and should help Lo
|einviqo|aLe any planLs whose leaves beqin Lo
lose Lhei| colo| and d|op.
Bush LomaLoes shouldn'L need much
aLLenLion, Lhouqh a mulch ol sL|aw o| plasLic
will |eep l|uiLs l|om L|ailinq on Lhe soil and
beinq eaLen by sluqs. vine LomaLoes, wheLhe|
q|own unde| qlass o| ouLdoo|s, need
suppo|Linq and p|uninq.
TomaLoes LasLe besL il you a|e able Lo leave
Lhem on Lhe vine unLil Lhey a|e lully |ipe and
|eady Lo eaL. Foweve|, as summe| Lu|ns Lo lall,
and Lhe weaLhe| beqins Lo cool, you'll p|obably
have some LhaL |emain sLubbo|nly q|een. EiLhe|
pic| Lhem and b|inq Lhem indoo|s Lo |ipen, o|
pull up Lhe whole planL and hanq iL upside down
somewhe|e wa|m. AlLe|naLively, leave Lhe
planLs in place and |ipen Lhem oll unde| cove|.
(|iqhL) 0rewîng bags can be siLed
almosL anywhe|e-paLios, |ool Le||aces,
o| balconies-and Lhe soil is qua|anLeed
disease-l|ee. Foweve|, Lhe planLs may be
dillculL Lo suppo|L. Keep Lhe soil well-
waLe|ed, and le|Lilize Lhe planLs |equla|ly.
(la| |iqhL) 0ever bush tematees wiLh
leece o| a cloche in lall Lo encou|aqe
|ipeninq. To do Lhe same wiLh vine
LomaLoes, unLie Lhem l|om Lhei| canes,
ca|elully bend Lhem ove|, and lay Lhem
laL on a laye| ol sL|aw.
(cloc|wise l|om Lop lelL)
Black kussîan, 0elden Sunrîse,
Sungeld, Tumbler, kema, Tîgerella
What can ge wreng
FlanLs ouLdoo|s can be aLLac|ed by lealhoppe|s (see µJJ4) and
poLaLo cysL eelwo|m (·ee µI0º). FlanLs q|own unde| cove|, in
q|eenhouses o| polyLunnels, a|e mosL li|ely Lo sulle| l|om whiLely
(·ee µJJZ), and someLimes l|om aphids (·ee µJJ?) and |ed
spide| miLes (·ee µJJó).
Temate blîght is Lhe same as poLaLo bliqhL (·ee µI0º). IL is
a vi|us LhaL causes leaves Lo cu|l and blac|en, and Lhe LomaLoes
Lhemselves Lo Lu|n b|own, Lhen sh|in|, and |oL. F|evenL iL by
sp|ayinq wiLh a coppe|-based lunqicide such as Bo|deaux mixLu|e
o| wiLh mancozeb, especially il Lhe weaLhe| is wa|m and weL.
Ce|Lain va|ieLies, such as 'Fe|line', have some |esisLance
Temate ghest spet is a 8ot/,t/· lunqus. un|ipe q|een LomaLoes
develop pale |inqs on Lhei| s|in LhaL may Lu|n yellow o| o|anqe.
IL's noL laLal, and unallecLed pa|Ls ol Lhe l|uiL a|e lne Lo eaL.
Blessem end ret causes Lhe s|in aL Lhe LomaLo base Lo Lu|n
leaLhe|y and qo b|own o| blac|. IL is caused by Lhe |ooLs ol Lhe
planL d|yinq ouL and beinq unable Lo abso|b enouqh calcium.
Remove any allecLed LomaLoes, and waLe| planLs |equla|ly.
0amp q|owinq condiLions and poo| ai| ci|culaLion can cause
a va|ieLy ol oLhe| lunqal q|owLhs, leal molds, and looL and |ooL
|oLs (·ee µµJ?ó-J?º). The besL p|evenLaLive is qood hyqiene.
Remove and desL|oy inlecLed leaves o| sLems when you spoL Lhem.
kecemmended tematees
Chec| ca|elully LhaL you a|e buyinq Lhe Lype ol LomaLo you wanL.
vine, bush, o| inLe|mediaLe, q|eenhouse o| ouLdoo|, che||y, plum,
|ound, o| beelsLea|. Thouqh iL's LempLinq Lo L|y some ol Lhe mo|e
unusual, odd-shaped and odd-colo|ed va|ieLies, |emembe| LhaL
noL all ol Lhem will |ipen lully il q|own ouLdoo|s in cool climaLes.
BuSF T0MAT0ES Alfresco, Tornado, Tumbler, Tumbling Tom Red
CFERRY T0MAT0ES 0ardener's 0elight, 5un Baby, 5weet Million
FLuM T0MAT0ES 0livade, Principe Borghese, Roma
vINE T0MAT0ES Alicante, Black Russian, Brandywine, 0ostoluto
Fiorentino, Ferline, 0olden 5unrise, 0utdoor 0irl, 5ungold, Tigerella,
Yellow Perfection
Also |nown as Lhe Mexican hus| LomaLo o| jambe||y, Lhe LomaLillo o|iqinaLed in
Mexico and CenL|al Ame|ica, alLhouqh is now q|own wo|ldwide. IL loo|s li|e a
small q|een LomaLo, buL q|ows inside a pape|y shell o| hus| li|e a hanqinq Chinese
lanLe|n. The hus| sLa|Ls oll q|een and pu|ple, Lhen d|ies Lo b|own as Lhe l|uiL
swells unLil iL spliLs iL open. Ripe l|uiL
may be q|een, yellow, o| even pu|ple.
IL LasLes La|L, wiLh a disLincLive
sweeL-and-sou| lavo|, and is used
in Mexican salsas and sauces.
SEAS0N Sprîng Summer Fall Wînter
Sew N
Transplant N N
Karvest N N
When fully rîpe, LomaLillos can be eaLen |aw, sL|aiqhL l|om Lhe
bush-waiL unLil Lhey eme|qe l|om Lhei| d|ied b|own o| yellow hus|s.
Where, when, and hew te plant
Sow seeds indoo|s in L|ays o| modules and use
a p|opaqaLo| Lo mainLain a Lempe|aLu|e ol aL
leasL o0°F (Io°C)-wa|me| once qe|minaLion
has La|en place. F|ic| ouL seedlinqs inLo 2-²-in
(5-B-cm) poLs once Lhey a|e la|qe enouqh Lo
handle, Lhen ha|den oll and planL ouL in a wa|m,
sunny, shelLe|ed siLe wiLh le|Lile soil in laLe
sp|inq o| ea|ly summe| alLe| Lhe lasL l|osL.
keutîne care
TomaLillos can q|ow Lo ² lL (I m) Lall o| mo|e, so
Lhey may need suppo|L. Tie in each planL Lo
Lh|ee o| lou| canes in an upside-down wiqwam.
WaLe| only il condiLions a|e exL|emely d|y.
F|uiLs a|e |ipe when Lhey a|e lully colo|ed
and have pushed Lhei| way ouL ol Lhei| hus|s.
The |ipe| Lhey a|e, Lhe sweeLe| Lhey LasLe.
What can ge wreng
ALLac|s l|om pesLs and diseases a|e |a|e, and a|e
li|ely Lo be Lhose LhaL allecL LomaLoes (·ee µ??ó).
In Lempe|aLe climaLes, Lhe mosL li|ely p|oblem
is a cool summe| in which lew l|uiLs |ipen.
SomeLimes |ele||ed Lo as ladies' lnqe|s, o||a lo|ms slende|
pod-shaped l|uiLs lull ol |ound, whiLe seeds. Fods a|e usually
q|een, buL may be whiLe o| |ed. When pic|ed younq, belo|e
Lhey become sL|inqy, Lhe pods a|e coo|ed and eaLen as a
veqeLable. They a|e pa|Licula|ly popula| in Lhe souLhe|n uniLed
SLaLes, in Al|ica and Lhe Middle EasL, in India, and in Japan.
SEAS0N Sprîng Summer Fall Wînter
Sew N
Transplant N N
Karvest N N
Where, when, and hew te plant
Soa| seeds in waLe| ove|niqhL Lo solLen Lhem,
Lhen sow Lhem Lhinly in L|ays o| modules. Keep
Lhem indoo|s o| in a heaLed p|opaqaLo| aL a
minimum Lempe|aLu|e ol o0°F (Io°C). When
Lhey qe|minaLe, move Lhem somewhe|e b|iqhL
and wa|m. F|ic| ouL seedlinqs as soon as Lhey
a|e la|qe enouqh Lo handle. In laLe sp|inq o|
ea|ly summe|, when Lhey a|e abouL ²-4 in
(B-I0 cm) hiqh, ha|den Lhem oll and planL
Lhem ouL in a sunny, shelLe|ed siLe. F|oLecL
Lhem l|om laLe l|osLs.
keutîne care
Weed and waLe| |equla|ly. use canes Lo
suppo|L Lall planLs, and when Lhey a|e abouL
24 in (o0 cm) Lall, pinch ouL q|owinq Lips Lo
encou|aqe bushiness.
SLa|L pic|inq Lhe pods when Lhey a|e 2-4 in
(5-I0 cm) lonq. Any lonqe| and Lhey become
Louqh and woody. Thei| sLems a|e Lhic|, and
need Lo be cuL wiLh a sha|p |nile o| p|une|s.
Fer a geed crep, o||a needs
Lhe wa|mLh and humidiLy ol a hoL
summe|-iL is dillculL Lo q|ow
ouLdoo|s in cool climaLes, and may
|equi|e a q|eenhouse.
What can ge wreng
0||a is qene|ally p|oblem-l|ee, alLhouqh planLs
can be allecLed by aphids (·ee µJJ?), by mildew
and |oL in cool, weL weaLhe|, and by whiLelies
(·ee µJJZ) and |ed spide| miLes (·ee µJJó) il
q|own unde| cove|.
kecemmended ekra
0lemson's 5pineless, Pure Luck
When ceeked, o||a develops a slimy,
qelaLinous LexLu|e LhaL ma|es iL qood
lo| Lhic|eninq soups and sLews.
8. Cucumbers
& Squashes
Fe|e is a q|oup ol veqeLables LhaL |anqes l|om some ol Lhe LiniesL Lo some ol Lhe
ve|y la|qesL. Che||ins-which a|e, in L|uLh, no mo|e Lhan miniaLu|e cucumbe|s-
may measu|e jusL I in (2.5 cm) in lenqLh when pic|ed, while qiqanLic, |eco|d-
b|ea|inq pump|ins can q|ow Lo as much as I² lL (4.5 m) in ci|cumle|ence and
weiqh ove| I,000 lb (450 |q). They all have one Lhinq in common. Lhey a|e
exL|emely hunq|y and Lhi|sLy, and Lo q|ow Lhem successlully you musL planL Lhem
in |ich, le|Lile soil and qive Lhem plenLy ol waLe|. CianL pump|ins may need as
much as 2
/2 qallons (I0 liLe|s) pe| wee|.
Cucumbe|s, zucchini, and summe| squash a|e besL eaLen as soon as possible
alLe| pic|inq, buL veqeLable ma||ows, pump|ins, and winLe| squash can be sLo|ed
and used du|inq winLe| when oLhe| l|esh loods may be sca|ce.
Many squashes are natural clîmbers
and will |eadily clambe| ove| whaLeve|
suppo|Ls you can p|ovide Lhem wiLh.
0ucumbers you q|ow you|sell
can be ha|vesLed younq and eaLen
while sLill l|esh and LasLy.
0herkîns q|ow ve|y, ve|y lasL.
AL Lhe heiqhL ol Lhei| q|owinq
season, pic| a lew eve|y day.
Vegetable marrews a|e an
insLance whe|e size maLLe|s. Lhe
biqqe| Lhe beLLe|, iL seems.
Zucchînî a|e delicious il you pic|
Lhem when Lhey'|e no la|qe| Lhan
you| liLLle lnqe|.
Summer squash can be allowed
Lo q|ow quiLe la|qe buL LasLe besL
when sLill younq.
Pumpkîns a|e Lhe locus ol le|cely
compeLiLive conLesLs. CianLs may
weiqh ove| I,000 lb (450 |q).
Wînter squash will |eep lo| six
monLhs o| mo|e il ¨cu|ed¨ and
sLo|ed ca|elully.
T|adiLionally, Lhe|e a|e Lwo main Lypes ol cucumbe|s. q|eenhouse cucumbe|s
and ouLdoo| ones. C|eenhouse cucumbe|s, which a|e noL commonly q|own by
home qa|dene|s, need Lo be |aised unde| cove|, as Lhe name suqqesLs. They a|e
smooLh-s|inned, q|ow Lo ove| I2 in (²0 cm) lonq, and don'L need pollinaLinq.
0uLdoo| (o| ¨|idqe¨) cucumbe|s a|e ha|die|. They Lend Lo be |ouqh-s|inned,
pe|haps even spiny, somewhaL sho|Le|, and |equi|e pollinaLinq. Mode|n Japanese
ouLdoo| va|ieLies olle| Lhe besL ol boLh wo|lds. Lhey a|e as lonq and LasLy as
q|eenhouse cucumbe|s, buL will q|ow
ouLdoo|s. In addiLion Lo Lhese, Lhe|e
a|e unusual |ound, yellow va|ieLies
such as 'C|ysLal Apple'. MosL
cucumbe|s a|e climbinq planLs.
Medern cultîvars such as 'Zeina' a|e b|ed Lo
p|oduce hiqh yields ol small, smooLh-s|inned l|uiLs.
SEAS0N Sprîng Summer Fall Wînter
Sew N N
Transplant N N
Karvest N N
Where te plant
Cucumbe|s need a wa|m, shelLe|ed, sunny siLe.
T|adiLionally, Lhey we|e q|own in specially
p|epa|ed supe|-|ich mounds, |idqes, o| |aised
beds, buL any |ich soil LhaL has had plenLy ol
well-|oLLed manu|e o| composL duq inLo iL
should p|oduce a qood c|op, p|ovided iL is
well d|ained.
Cucumbe|s can do well in q|owinq baqs o|
la|qe conLaine|s in a sunny pa|L ol Lhe qa|den.
When te plant
You can sLa|L sowinq in ea|ly sp|inq p|ovided you
do so in a p|opaqaLo| o| a heaLed q|eenhouse.
In mid-sp|inq, seeds can be sown ouLdoo|s in
poLs il |epL unde| cove|. And by ea|ly summe|,
iL should be possible Lo sow seeds di|ecLly inLo
Lhe q|ound o| Lo planL ouL seedlinqs.
Cucumbe|s need heaL and
humidiLy Lo qe|minaLe, so Lhey
musL be sown in poLs o| modules
and |epL indoo|s o| unde| cove|
unLil Lhe q|ound wa|ms up.
To |educe Lhe |is| ol |oLLinq,
place seeds on Lhei| edqe.
Sow Lwo o| Lh|ee seeds pe| poL.
0iq a qene|ously sized hole
I2 in (²0 cm) wide and I2 in
(²0 cm) deep. Fill iL wiLh well-
|oLLed composL and d|aw Lhe soil
bac| ove| iL in o|de| Lo ma|e a
mound. FlanL you| seedlinq in Lhe
Lop ol Lhe mound.
Kew te sew seeds
Indoo|s o| unde| cove|, sow seeds in modules o| 2-²-in (5-B-cm)
poLs lull ol soilless poLLinq mix aL a depLh ol
in (2 cm). SeL Lhe
seeds on edqe Lo minimize Lhe |is| LhaL Lhey will |oL, and sow Lwo
o| Lh|ee pe| poL so you can laLe| Lhin Lhem ouL Lo leave Lhe
sL|onqesL seedlinq. The Lempe|aLu|e needs Lo be oB°F (20°C) o|
hiqhe| Lo ensu|e LhaL Lhey qe|minaLe, so in ea|ly sp|inq use a
p|opaqaLo| and in mid- o| even laLe sp|inq |eep Lhem cove|ed
wiLh cloches o| in a cold l|ame.
Il you a|e sowinq seeds ouLdoo|s di|ecLly inLo Lhe q|ound,
iL may help Lo p|ewa|m Lhe soil usinq cloches o| a cove|inq ol
plasLic sheeLinq. Sow Lwo o| Lh|ee seeds LoqeLhe| in ¨sLaLions,¨
each aL leasL IB in (45 cm) apa|L. Il all Lhe seeds in a sLaLion
qe|minaLe, Lhin ouL Lhe wea|e| ones.
Kew te plant eut seedlîngs
Seedlinqs should be |eady Lo planL ouL abouL lou| wee|s alLe|
sowinq-p|ovided LhaL Lhe soil is wa|m enouqh. Fa|den Lhem oll,
and once Lhe|e is no lonqe| a |is| ol l|osL, planL Lhem ouL abouL
IB in (45 cm) apa|L, o| mo|e il you'|e qoinq Lo leL Lhem L|ail
insLead ol climb. Fandle seedlinqs ca|elully, as Lhei| |ooLs a|e
easily damaqed. AlLe| planLinq, p|oLecL Lhem wiLh cloches o|
leece il niqhLs a|e sLill cold.
keutîne care
ConsL|ucL a cane wiqwam, L|ellis, o| l|amewo|| ol sL|inqs and
wi|es as a suppo|L lo| climbinq planLs, and L|ain Lhe planLs up iL
as Lhey q|ow. Finch ouL Lhe q|owinq Lips when Lhe planLs |each
Lhe Lop ol Lhei| suppo|Ls.
WaLe| |equla|ly, iL's ve|y impo|LanL neve| Lo leL cucumbe|s d|y
ouL. An o|qanic su|lace mulch will help |eLain moisLu|e in Lhe soil.
0nce Lhe l|uiLs sLa|L Lo lo|m, leed eve|y Lwo wee|s wiLh a
qene|al liquid le|Lilize|-especially il you a|e usinq q|owinq baqs.
Fa|vesL cucumbe|s while Lhey a|e sLill quiLe younq, belo|e Lhey
|each Lhe size ol Lhose you'd buy in Lhe supe|ma||eL. Il Lhey sLa|L
Lo Lu|n yellow, iL's Loo laLe, and il you sLill lail Lo |emove Lhem,
Lhey will wea|en Lhe |esL ol Lhe c|op. Requla| ha|vesLinq
encou|aqes Lhe planLs Lo qo on p|oducinq new l|uiLs.
(Lop) Erect a cane wîgwam Lo acL
as a suppo|L lo| cucumbe| planLs. Tie
Lhem in secu|ely Lo |eep Lhem l|om
collapsinq unde| Lhe weiqhL ol Lhe l|uiLs.
(boLLom) 0reenheuse cucumbers can
be suppo|Led on a neLwo|| ol sL|inqs o|
wi|es sL|unq beLween Lhe |ool and q|ound.
What can ge wreng
Sluqs and snails a|e aLL|acLed Lo younq seedlinqs.
Cucumbe|s q|own unde| cove|, in q|eenhouses
o| polyLunnels, may be aLLac|ed by whiLely
(·ee µJJZ) and |ed spide| miLes (·ee µJJó).
Fowde|y mildew (·ee µJ?8) is olLen a p|oblem
as summe| qoes on, alLhouqh |equla| waLe|inq,
le|Lilizinq, and qood ai| ci|culaLion should
p|evenL iL. FooL and |ooL |oLs (·ee µJ?Z) miqhL
occu| il Lhe summe| is ve|y |ainy o| il you
ove|waLe| Lhe planLs.
0ucumber mesaîc vîrus is deadly. Leaves
a|e moLLled wiLh a yellow mosaic paLLe|ninq,
l|uiLs a|e small, ha|d and inedible, and planLs
become sLunLed and may die. The|e is no cu|e
oLhe| Lhan Lo desL|oy all allecLed planLs, and
L|y |esisLanL culLiva|s in luLu|e.
kecemmended cucumbers
0uT000R CuCuMBERS Burpless Tasty 0reen,
Bush 0hampion, 0rispy 5alad, 0rystal Apple, 0ina,
Kyoto, Marketmore, Tokyo 5licer, Zeina
(Lop) Petîta (boLLom) 0rystal Apple
Che||ins (o| ¨co|nichons¨) a|e essenLially immaLu|e cucumbe|s, ha|vesLed when
abouL I-² in (2.5-7.5 cm) lonq. They a|e p|ese|ved by beinq pic|led in vineqa| o|
b|ine, olLen lavo|ed wiLh he|bs such as dill and spices such as peppe|co|ns o|
musLa|d seeds. A numbe| ol special cucumbe| culLiva|s have been developed
specilcally lo| q|owinq as qhe||ins.
The|e is also an oval-shaped, wa|Ly,
spiny va|ieLy-Lhe WesL Indian o|
Bu|| Che||in-LhaL is in lacL a
dille|enL (Lhouqh |elaLed) species.
SEAS0N Sprîng Summer Fall Wînter
Sew N N
Transplant N N
Karvest N N
Where, when, and hew te plant
Che||ins should be q|own in Lhe same way as ouLdoo| cucumbe|s
(see µµ?J4-?JZ). In cool climaLes, sow Lhem unde| cove| and
L|ansplanL seedlinqs in laLe sp|inq o| ea|ly summe|, when Lhe soil
has wa|med up and Lhe|e is no lonqe| any chance ol l|osL.
keutîne care
Weed and waLe| |equla|ly, ensu|inq LhaL Lhe soil neve| d|ies ouL.
use canes Lo suppo|L Lall planLs. Apply liquid le|Lilize| eve|y couple
ol wee|s, especially il q|owLh is slow o| leaves lose Lhei| colo|.
EiLhe| pic| qhe||ins when Lhey |each abouL I in (2.5 cm) in
lenqLh, o| leave Lhem Lo q|ow la|qe|-il you a|e usinq Lhem
lo| sliced dill pic|les, pe|haps. The impo|LanL Lhinq is Lo pic|
Lhem |equla|ly. They q|ow ve|y quic|ly, and il Lhey qeL Loo la|qe
Lhey will Lu|n yellow, become biLLe|, and inhibiL Lhe q|owLh ol
new l|uiLs.
What can ge wreng
Che||ins sulle| l|om Lhe same pesLs and diseases as ouLdoo|
cucumbe|s (·ee µ?JZ).
kecemmended gherkîns
Bestal, 0onda, Hokus, Vert Petit de Paris
Vegetable marrews
In a sense, a ma||ow is simply an ove|q|own zucchini. Foweve|, L|ue ma||ows
a|e usually q|own l|om specialisL va|ieLies, and while Lhey a|e uncommon in No|Lh
Ame|ica, Lhe|e is le|ce compeLiLion aL uK ho|LiculLu|al shows lo| Lhe heaviesL
ma||ow. Lhe winne| is li|ely Lo have been |aised on a bed ol a supe|-|ich
composL and manu|e, cosseLed Lo
qiqanLic pe|lecLion. IL's ha|d noL Lo
leel LhaL ma||ows a|e q|own mo|e
lo| Lhei| epic p|opo|Lions Lhan lo|
Lhei| |aLhe| bland, waLe|y LasLe.
SEAS0N Sprîng Summer Fall Wînter
Sew N N
Transplant N N
Karvest N N
Where, when, and hew te plant
C|ow ma||ows in Lhe same way as zucchini (·ee µ?40). In cool
climaLes, sow unde| cove| and L|ansplanL seedlinqs in laLe sp|inq
o| ea|ly summe|. AlLe|naLively, sow seeds di|ecLly inLo Lhe q|ound
when Lhe soil has wa|med up and Lhe|e is no chance ol l|osL.
keutîne care
Weed and waLe| |equla|ly, especially du|inq lowe|inq-don'L leL Lhe
soil d|y ouL. Apply liquid le|Lilize| eve|y Lwo wee|s il q|owLh is slow.
Ma||ows can be pic|ed as small as o in (I5 cm) in lenqLh, buL a|e
usually lelL Lo q|ow la|qe|. As Lhey |ipen, lilL Lhem up oll Lhe soil
onLo a b|ic|, and Lu|n l|om Lime Lo Lime so Lhei| s|ins ha|den in
Lhe sun. SLo|e in a d|y, cool place lo| use du|inq winLe|.
What can ge wreng
Ma||ows sulle| l|om Lhe same pesLs and diseases as zucchini
(·ee µ?4?).
kecemmended vegetable marrews
Badger 0ross, 0larita, Emerald 0ross, Long 0reen Trailing, Minipak,
Tiger 0ross
(Lop) Leng 0reen Traîlîng
(boLLom) Place a brîck unde| a |ipeninq
ma||ow Lo sLop iL l|om |oLLinq on Lhe soil.
Zucchînî and summer squash
Zucchini may be eiLhe| q|een o| yellow, and as well as beinq ciqa|-shaped, Lhey
can also be elonqaLed, cu|ved, o| even |ound. They a|e besL ha|vesLed when sLill
younq. il Lhey a|e allowed Lo |eep q|owinq, Lhey have a Lendency Lo lose Lhei|
LasLe and LexLu|e, sLa|L Lo develop seeds, and evenLually Lu|n inLo veqeLable
ma||ows. IL is possible Lo leave summe| squash Lo |ipen lo| lonqe| and use
Lhem lo| |avioli, |isoLLo, o| soup, buL Lhey also LasLe aL Lhei| besL when younq.
Zucchini and squash La|e up a loL ol space and p|oduce a la|qe ha|vesL, so
don'L be LempLed Lo q|ow Loo many. Two o| Lh|ee q|een zucchini planLs, Lwo o|
Lh|ee yellow ones, and a couple ol unusual va|ieLies ol summe| squash should
leed an ave|aqe lamily. AL Lhe heiqhL ol summe|, Lhey q|ow ala|minqly lasL.
You would almosL swea| you can
acLually see Lhem q|ow belo|e you|
eyes. Fic| a lew eve|y day, belo|e Lhey
swell so much LhaL Lhe composL pile
is Lhe besL place lo| Lhem.
Where te plant
Zucchini li|e a wa|m, sunny, shelLe|ed siLe.
They a|e hunq|y and Lhi|sLy planLs, so Lhey
q|ow besL in |ich soil LhaL has had plenLy ol
well-|oLLed manu|e o| composL duq inLo iL.
A laye| ol mulch on Lhe su|lace will help
|eLain moisLu|e in Lhe soil.
SEAS0N Sprîng Summer Fall Wînter
Sew N N
Transplant N N
Karvest N N
Karvest the Hewers alonq wiLh
Lhe zucchini, Lhey can also be eaLen,
deep-l|ied o| sLulled.
Seedlinqs LhaL have been q|own in
biodeq|adable poLs can be planLed
ouL whole-poL and all-Lo avoid
disLu|binq l|aqile |ooL sysLems.
They should be |eady Lo planL ouL
Lwo Lo lou| wee|s alLe| sowinq,
p|ovided Lhe soil is wa|m enouqh.
Fa|den Lhem oll, and once Lhe|e is
no lonqe| a |is| ol l|osL, planL Lhem
ouL ² lL (º0 cm) apa|L-mo|e il
you a|e q|owinq L|ailinq va|ieLies.
Top oll poLs |iqhL Lo Lhe b|im
wiLh addiLional poLLinq mix. IL
will ea|Lh up Lhe q|owinq sLems
and sL|enqLhen |ooLs.
0nce Lhe seedlinq has
developed Lh|ee o| lou| L|ue
leaves, loo| lo| |ooLs sLa|Linq Lo
push Lh|ouqh Lhe sides and boLLom
ol Lhe poLs.
Ma|e a shallow ci|cula| hollow
abouL I2 in (²0 cm) wide and
diq a planLinq hole in Lhe cenLe|.
FlanL Lhe seedlinq in iLs poL so LhaL
iLs leaves a|e jusL above Lhe su|lace,
Lhen mound up a liLLle soil a|ound
Lhe sLem. When you waLe|, Lhe
hollow will lll up buL Lhe sLem won'L
be waLe|loqqed. Finally, sp|ead a
liLLle mulch Lo |eLain moisLu|e.
When te plant
You can beqin Lo sow seeds in mid-sp|inq il
you sLa|L Lhem in a p|opaqaLo| o| in a heaLed
q|eenhouse. In laLe sp|inq Lhey can be sown
ouLdoo|s in poLs il you p|oLecL Lhem l|om Lhe
cold wiLh cloches o| cold l|ames. By ea|ly
summe|, when Lhe q|ound has wa|med up, iL
should be possible Lo sow seeds di|ecLly inLo
Lhe soil o| Lo planL ouL seedlinqs.
Kew te sew seeds
Indoo|s o| unde| cove|, sow seeds in modules
o| 2-²-in (5-B-cm) poLs lull ol soilless mix
aL a depLh ol
in (2 cm). To ensu|e LhaL Lhey
qe|minaLe, mainLain a Lempe|aLu|e ol oB°F
(20°C) o| hiqhe| eiLhe| by usinq a p|opaqaLo|
o| by |eepinq Lhem cove|ed wiLh cloches o| in
a cold l|ame.
When Lhe weaLhe| is wa|m enouqh, sow
seeds ouLdoo|s di|ecLly inLo Lhe q|ound. IL may
help Lo p|ewa|m Lhe soil usinq cloches o| a
cove|inq ol plasLic sheeLinq. Sow aL a depLh ol
abouL I in (2.5 cm), planLinq Lwo o| Lh|ee seeds
LoqeLhe| in ¨sLaLions¨ aL leasL IB in (45 cm)
apa|L. Il all Lhe seeds in a sLaLion qe|minaLe,
Lhin ouL Lhe wea|e| seedlinqs.
keutîne care
WaLe| |equla|ly, especially when Lhe planLs
a|e sLa|Linq Lo lowe| and when Lhe l|uiLs a|e
swellinq and |ipeninq. IL's ve|y impo|LanL noL
Lo leL Lhem d|y ouL.
Il you| soil is |ich and le|Lile, planLs shouldn'L
need addiLional le|Lilize, buL il q|owLh is slow
you can waLe| wiLh a qene|al liquid le|Lilize|.
FlanLs q|own unde| cove| may noL be
pollinaLed il insecLs a|e denied access Lo Lhem.
Il LhaL is Lhe case, you may have Lo pollinaLe
Lhem you|sell (·ee µ?4?).
(cloc|wise l|om Lop lelL)
summe| squash-0ustard Whîte, Sunburst
zucchini-Trembencîne, 0efender
Fa|vesL zucchini younq and olLen. Fic| Lhem
when Lhey'|e sLill Liny-no la|qe| Lhan you| liLLle
lnqe|-o| leave unLil Lhey a|e abouL 4 in (I0 cm)
in lenqLh. Any la|qe|, and Lhey become waLe|y
and LasLeless. Requla| ha|vesLinq encou|aqes
Lhe planLs Lo qo on p|oducinq new l|uiLs.
Summe| squash can be allowed Lo q|ow a
liLLle la|qe|, buL Lhey, Loo, LasLe aL Lhei| besL
when sLill younq.
What can ge wreng
Sluqs and snails can sL|ip Lhe younq seedlinq
leaves ove|niqhL, so waLch ouL lo| Lhem,
pa|Licula|ly in damp weaLhe| (·ee µµJJ0-JJI).
Zucchini q|own unde| cove|, in q|eenhouses o|
cold l|ames, may be aLLac|ed by whiLely (·ee
µJJZ) and |ed spide| miLes (·ee µJJó).
Fowde|y mildew (·ee µJ?8) is Lhe mosL common
p|oblem, pa|Licula|ly laLe| in Lhe summe|. Requla|
waLe|inq, le|Lilizinq, and qood ai| ci|culaLion can
help p|evenL iL. FooL and |ooL |oLs (·ee µJ?Z)
can occu| il Lhe summe| is ve|y damp o| il you
ove|waLe|. And, il you a|e |eally unluc|y, you may
susLain an aLLac| ol Lhe deadly cucumbe| mosaic
vi|us (·ee µ?JZ).
kecemmended zucchînî and
summer squash
ZuCCFINI Ambassador, Bambino, 0efender,
Early 0em, 0old Rush, Jemmer, Nano Verde di
Milano, Rondo de Nice, Taxi, Tromboncino
SuMMER S0uASF 0ustard White, Patty Pan,
5paghetti 5quash, 5unburst
Zucchini and squash develop male
and lemale lowe|s on Lhe same
planL. InsecLs ca||y pollen l|om
Lhe male lowe| Lo Lhe lemale one,
which Lhen ¨seLs¨ l|uiL-a younq
zucchini sLa|Ls Lo develop. FlanLs
q|own unde| qlass o| cove|ed wiLh
leece don'L olLen qeL visiLed by
insecLs, so pollinaLion may noL La|e
place. The|elo|e, you may have Lo
lend a helpinq hand.
You can idenLily male lowe|s
by Lhe lacL LhaL Lhey do noL
have a swellinq aL Lhe Lop ol Lhe
sLem whe|e Lhe l|uiL will develop.
CenLly pull oll Lhe peLals Lo expose
Lhe sLamens.
A Lhic|e| o| swollen sLem
indicaLes Lhe emb|yonic l|uiL
and idenLiles lemale lowe|s.
Inse|L Lhe male lowe| ca|elully
inLo Lhe lemale lowe| so LhaL
some ol Lhe yellow pollen is
L|ansle||ed l|om Lhe male
sLamen Lo Lhe lemale sLiqma.
To ensu|e LhaL insecLs do noL
inL|oduce any lo|eiqn pollen,
o| Lo |eLain any seeds you wish Lo
save, Lie up Lhe peLals wiLh some
Lwine, Lhen leave unLil Lhe peLals
lall oll naLu|ally.
Pumpkîns and wînter squash
Fump|ins and winLe| squash a|e available in an exL|ao|dina|y va|ieLy ol sizes,
shapes, LexLu|es, and colo|s. Some lo|m bushy planLs, buL mosL a|e L|ailinq and
will sp|ead widely ove| Lhe q|ound unless |epL in chec|. F|uiLs LhaL do noL q|ow
Loo la|qe and heavy can be L|ained Lo climb up L|ellises, a|ches, and wiqwams.
The majo|iLy ol winLe| squash can be ha|vesLed and eaLen when Lhey a|e
younq, buL whaL qene|ally dille|enLiaLes Lhem l|om summe| squash is LhaL
Lhey a|e allowed Lo q|ow a biL biqqe| and Lo |ipen mo|e lully so LhaL Lhei| s|ins
ha|den. AlLe| Lhis Lhey can, il necessa|y, be sLo|ed lo| Lhe winLe|. 0l cou|se, in
Lhe wo|ld ol compeLiLive pump|in q|owinq, size is whaL maLLe|s mo|e Lhan
anyLhinq else. MammoLh pump|ins
weiqhinq in aL mo|e Lhan I,000 lb
(450 |q) a|e noL unhea|d ol. You
wouldn'L wanL Lo eaL Lhem-buL
LhaL's noL Lhe poinL.
SEAS0N Sprîng Summer Fall Wînter
Sew N N
Transplant N N
Karvest N
Where te plant
Fump|ins li|e a wa|m, sunny, shelLe|ed siLe
wiLh plenLy ol space Lo sp|ead ouL. They a|e
boLh hunq|y and Lhi|sLy, and benelL l|om a
le|Lile, well-d|ained soil LhaL has had plenLy
ol well-|oLLed manu|e o| composL duq inLo
iL. Sp|eadinq a laye| ol mulch will help |eLain
moisLu|e in Lhe soil.
Squash are ready te harvest when
Lhey sound hollow il you Lap Lhem and
when, li|e Lhese 'uchi|i Ku|i', Lhey a|e
lully colo|ed.
"The tougher their skin,
the longer they will last."
When te plant
Fump|ins have a lonq q|owinq season so iL's
qood Lo sLa|L Lhem oll as ea|ly as you can. Sow
seeds in mid-sp|inq in a p|opaqaLo| o| a heaLed
q|eenhouse, o| in laLe sp|inq ouLdoo|s in poLs
LhaL a|e p|oLecLed l|om Lhe cold wiLh cloches
o| cold l|ames. By ea|ly summe|, iL should be
possible Lo sow seeds di|ecLly inLo Lhe soil o|
Lo planL ouL seedlinqs, especially il you have
wa|med up Lhe soil in advance.
Kew te sew seeds
Indoo|s o| unde| cove|, sow seeds in ²-in (B-cm) poLs lull ol
soilless poLLinq mix aL a depLh ol I in (2.5 cm). Sow seeds
ve|Lically, noL laL, so LhaL Lhey a|e less li|ely Lo |oL, and sow Lwo
pe| poL so you can laLe| Lhin ouL Lhe wea|e| ol Lhe Lwo seedlinqs.
Cove| Lhem and |eep Lhem aL a Lempe|aLu|e ol 5º-o4°F (I5-
IB°C). They should qe|minaLe wiLhin a wee|.
AlLe|naLively, sow seeds ouLdoo|s di|ecLly inLo Lhe q|ound,
once all danqe| ol l|osL is pasL. IL may help Lo p|ewa|m Lhe soil
usinq cloches o| a cove|inq ol plasLic sheeLinq. Sow aL a depLh
ol abouL I in (2.5 cm), Lwo o| Lh|ee seeds LoqeLhe| beLween ² lL
(I m) and 5 lL (I.5 m) apa|L, dependinq on Lhe exLenL Lo which Lhe
planLs will sp|ead. Il all Lhe seeds qe|minaLe, simply Lhin ouL Lhe
wea|e| seedlinqs.
(lelL) A fan trellîs made l|om sLu|dy
canes and sL|onq Lwine suppo|Ls a lew
small climbinq squash.
(middle) A wîgwam consL|ucLed l|om
sLu|dy poles should be sL|onq enouqh Lo
suppo|L medium-sized pump|ins.
(|iqhL) A cane trîped will |eep pump|ins
oll damp q|ound and help Lo ensu|e LhaL
Lhe sun |eaches Lhem.
Seedlîngs can be planted eut when
Lhey have Lh|ee o| lou| L|ue leaves. 0iq
some o|qanic maLLe| inLo Lhe soil, Lhen
c|eaLe holes lo| Lhe planLs usinq a bulb
planLe| o| L|owel. 0nce Lhey a|e in place,
l|m and waLe| in.
keutîne care
Weeds won'L sLand much ol a chance once Lhe pump|ins' huqe
leaves beqin Lo q|ow, buL you musL waLe| |equla|ly. CianL pump|ins
may need as much as 2-² qallons (I0 liLe|s) pe| wee|. Addinq a
qene|al liquid le|Lilize| will help sLimulaLe q|owLh, Loo.
SideshooLs ol some L|ailinq va|ieLies can q|ow su|p|isinqly
lonq. They'|e olLen L|ained a|ound sho|L canes inLo ci|cles Lo |eep
Lhem neaL. Il you'|e aLLempLinq Lo q|ow ve|y la|qe specimens,
|emove all excepL one o| Lwo l|uiLs pe| planL while Lhey'|e sLill
younq. CuL away leaves Lo allow Lhe sun Lo qeL Lo Lhe pump|ins.
Smalle| va|ieLies can be L|ained up ove| lences, L|ellises, and
oLhe| suppo|L l|amewo||s, buL ma|e su|e you Lie Lhem in secu|ely
as Lhe heavy l|uiLs develop.
FlanLs q|own unde| cove| while in lowe| may noL be pollinaLed
unless insecLs a|e allowed Lo qeL Lo Lhem. You may have Lo pollinaLe
Lhem by hand (·ee µ?4?).
Fump|ins and squash LhaL you plan Lo sLo|e |aLhe| Lhan eaL |iqhL
away a|e besL lelL Lo q|ow lo| as lonq as possible. When Lhe
sLems beqin Lo c|ac| and Lhe s|ins ha|den, cuL Lhem oll wiLh a
sha|p |nile, leavinq a qood lenqLh ol sLal| on each l|uiL. Leave
Lhem ouLdoo|s in Lhe sun Lo ¨cu|e,¨ o| ha|den lu|Lhe|, lo| anoLhe|
Len days o| so. The Louqhe| Lhe s|in, Lhe mo|e waLe| Lhey will
|eLain and Lhe lonqe| Lhey will lasL.
What can ge wreng
In Lhe ea|ly days, seedlinqs a|e vulne|able Lo sluqs and snails, so
waLch ouL lo| Lhese. You miqhL also lnd LhaL no lemale lowe|s
lo|m in cold climaLes.
The only oLhe| p|oblems you miqhL encounLe| a|e powde|y
mildew (·ee µJ?8) and cucumbe| mosaic vi|us (·ee µ?JZ).
kecemmended pumpkîns and wînter squash
FuMFKINS Atlantic 0iant, Baby Bear, 0host Rider, Jack o' Lantern,
Rouge Vif d'Etampes,Triple Treat
WINTER S0uASF Blue Ballet, Buttercup, 0rown Prince, Early
Butternut, 0range Kabocha, Little 0em, 0ueensland Blue, 5weet
0umpling, Turk's Turban, Uchiki Kuri (also known as Red Kuri or
0nion 5quash)
(cloc|wise l|om Lop lelL)
pump|ins-Atlantîc 0îant,
keuge Vîf d'Etampes
winLe| squash-Sweet 0umplîng,
queensland Blue
(Lop) Pewdery mîldew p|oduces a
whiLe coaLinq on leaves in laLe summe|
and lall. WaLe| |equla|ly and ensu|e LhaL
ai| can ci|culaLe l|eely a|ound planLs Lo
help p|evenL iL.
(boLLom) Stere pumpkîns and squash
on sL|aw-cove|ed |ac|s o| shelves
somewhe|e humid buL well-venLilaLed.
Il ¨cu|ed¨ Lo ha|den Lhei| s|ins, Lhey
may |eep lo| six monLhs, o| even lonqe|.
9. Perennial
MosL veqeLables a|e q|own as annuals and a|e Lhe|elo|e sown o| planLed al|esh
each yea|. Foweve|, membe|s ol Lhis q|oup-Lhe pe|ennials-a|e in iL lo| Lhe
lonq haul. 0nce esLablished, Lhey simply sLay in Lhe q|ound, dyinq down aL Lhe end
ol each yea| and Lhen Lh|owinq up shooLs and p|oducinq new q|owLh Lhe nexL.
Aspa|aqus planLs may qo on in Lhis lashion lo| up Lo LwenLy yea|s. 0Lhe|s a|e noL
so lonq-lasLinq. AlLe| Lh|ee o| lou| yea|s, qlobe a|Licho|es and |huba|b, lo|
example, a|e besL lilLed and divided inLo whaL a|e called ¨seLs¨ o| ¨ollseLs.¨ These
can Lhen be |eplanLed as |eene|qized new planLs.
Rhuba|b, ca|doons, and sea |ale all benelL l|om lo|cinq, Lhe p|ocess by
which sLems a|e blanched unde| cove| ol da||ness in o|de| Lo ma|e Lhem LasLe
mo|e Lende| and less biLLe|.
A mature glebe artîcheke plant
should p|oduce a dozen o| mo|e la|qe
q|een o| pu|ple lowe|heads each yea|.
Asparagus can be q|own l|om seed,
buL iL's easie| Lo q|ow and success
is mo|e li|ely il you buy |eady-Lo-
planL |ooLsLoc|s o| ¨c|owns.¨
0lebe artîchekes a|e eno|mous,
LhisLleli|e planLs, someLimes
q|own as much lo| deco|aLion
as Lhey a|e lo| lood.
0ardeens loo| much li|e qlobe
a|Licho|es, buL iL is Lhe blanched
sLems o| leal sLal|s LhaL a|e eaLen,
noL Lhe lowe|heads.
Jerusalem artîchekes a|e q|own
lo| Lhei| |nobby, nuLLy-LasLinq
Lube|s, which develop unde|q|ound
amonq Lhe |ooLs, jusL li|e poLaLoes.
0hînese artîchekes LasLe simila|
Lo Je|usalem a|Licho|es-Lhouqh
c|ispe| and juicie|-and a|e eaLen in
Lhe same way, eiLhe| coo|ed o| |aw.
Sea kale loo|s a biL li|e an open-
leaved, blue-q|ay cabbaqe. The younq
leaves, Lende| sLems, and c|eam-
colo|ed lowe|heads can be eaLen.
khubarb may be one ol Lhe ea|liesL
c|ops ol Lhe yea|-pe|haps Lhe
l|sL il you ¨lo|ce¨ iL Lo p|oduce
Lende|, blanched sLems.
C|owinq aspa|aqus is a lonq-Le|m p|ojecL, and one lo| which you'll need paLience.
0on'L expecL much ol a c|op in Lhe l|sL Lwo yea|s alLe| planLinq. Foweve|, alLe|
LhaL, Lhinqs will imp|ove. Aspa|aqus is a pe|ennial LhaL comes up yea| alLe|
yea|, so once you| bed is esLablished, iL could lasL lo| as lonq as LwenLy yea|s.
0u|inq LhaL Lime, cuLLinq you| planLs down Lo Lhe q|ound aL Lhe end ol each
season, and |equla| le|Lilizinq and mulchinq, is p|obably all you'll have Lo do.
F|esh aspa|aqus coo|ed |iqhL alLe| pic|inq is sensaLional, iL LasLes quiLe dille|enL
l|om whaL you buy aL Lhe sLo|e. Aspa|aqus can be q|own l|om seed, buL is
mo|e li|ely Lo be successlul il you buy |eady-Lo-planL |ooLsLoc|s o| ¨c|owns.¨
Il possible, loo| lo| one-yea|-old
c|owns LhaL come l|om all-male
FI culLiva|s. Female planLs (which
p|oduce be||ies in amonq Lhei|
loliaqe) do noL c|op so well.
At the heîght ef the seasen,
aspa|aqus should be ha|vesLed eve|y
lew days. 0on'L leL Lhe spea|s q|ow any
laLLe| Lhan you| index lnqe|.
SEAS0N Sprîng Summer Fall Wînter
SewJPlant N
Transplant N
Karvest N
Where te plant
Il you'|e planLinq an aspa|aqus bed lo| Lhe l|sL
Lime, bea| in mind LhaL Lhe planLs can lasL lo|
up Lo LwenLy yea|s, so Lhey a|e qoinq Lo |emain
whe|e you puL Lhem lo| a lonq while'
Choose somewhe|e shelLe|ed l|om Lhe wind
and wiLh qood d|ainaqe. The soil should have a
pF ol o.²-7.5 (·ee µ4Z). Il iL is liqhL and sandy,
you can q|ow aspa|aqus on Lhe laL, buL il you|
soil is heavy, Lhen c|eaLinq |aised beds o| |idqes
will help p|evenL waLe|loqqinq. The ploL should
be compleLely l|ee ol all pe|ennial weeds belo|e
you sLa|L planLinq.
Aspa|aqus can be p|opaqaLed
by division. 0iq up Lhe c|own
in laLe winLe| o| ea|ly sp|inq, Lhen
spliL iL in Lwo by ca|elully p|yinq
o| cuLLinq iL apa|L.
The Lwo halves can Lhen be
|eplanLed wiLhin a L|ench.
This Lechnique wo||s besL wiLh
healLhy c|owns LhaL a|e aL leasL
Lh|ee Lo lou| yea|s old.
When te plant
Il you a|e buyinq younq planLs o| c|owns, planL Lhem in ea|ly
sp|inq. Il you have decided Lo |aise you| own planLs l|om seed,
eiLhe| sow Lhem unde| cove| in ea|ly sp|inq and planL ouL in
ea|ly summe|, o| sow Lhem sL|aiqhL inLo Lhe q|ound when boLh
Lhe soil and weaLhe| a|e wa|m enouqh.
Kew te sew seeds
Sow seeds indoo|s in modules llled wiLh l|esh seed mix o|
poLLinq mix aL a depLh ol abouL I in (2.5 cm). Keep Lhem aL a
Lempe|aLu|e ol 55-oI°F (I²-Io°C) while Lhey qe|minaLe and
beqin Lo develop. Fa|den oll Lhe seedlinqs and planL Lhem ouL
in ea|ly summe|.
In mid- o| laLe sp|inq, when Lhe soil becomes wa|me| and
d|ie|, planL seeds di|ecLly inLo Lhe q|ound. The|e is no poinL in
sowinq ouLdoo|s Loo ea|ly, il Lhe soil is cold, Lhe seeds simply
won'L qe|minaLe.
Kew te plant crewns
Aspa|aqus c|owns need Lo be planLed in p|epa|ed L|enches, in
eiLhe| sinqle o| double |ows. 0iq each L|ench I2 in (²0 cm) wide
and B in (20 cm) deep, in |ows IB in (45 cm) apa|L, wiLh paLhs ol
² lL (I m) beLween beds. Sp|ead a Lhin laye| ol well-|oLLed
manu|e o| composL ove| Lhe boLLom ol Lhe L|ench, Lhen d|aw up
a 4-in- (I0-cm-) hiqh |idqe ol soil all Lhe way alonq Lhe middle.
Flace Lhe c|owns I2-IB in (²0-45 cm) apa|L, wiLh Lhei| |ooLs
sL|addlinq Lhe |idqe, Lhen cove| wiLh soil, and waLe| Lhem in.
keutîne care
Keep new planLs waLe|ed and weed-l|ee. Sp|ead a 2-in (5-cm) mulch
ol well-|oLLed manu|e o| composL a|ound Lhem Lo help |eLain
moisLu|e. ScaLLe| a Lop-d|essinq ol qene|al le|Lilize| on esLablished
beds once in ea|ly sp|inq and aqain alLe| you've ha|vesLed Lhe
lasL ol LhaL yea|'s spea|s. EsLablished beds should also be mulched
eve|y lall wiLh well-|oLLed composL o| manu|e.
Aspa|aqus p|oduces a mass ol le|nli|e loliaqe LhaL can easily
q|ow o lL (2 m) Lall. SLa|e iL up wiLh canes and sL|inq il Lhe|e is
any danqe| LhaL Lhe wind will blow iL ove|, and in lall, cuL down
Lhe sLems Lo jusL above Lhe q|ound.
(Lop) When harvestîng, use a sha|p
|nile Lo cuL each spea| diaqonally abouL
I in (2.5 cm) below Lhe soil su|lace.
(boLLom) 0ut stems dewn Lo I in
(2.5 cm) above Lhe q|ound as soon as
Lhe loliaqe Lu|ns yellow in lall.
(lelL) Backlîm
(|iqhL) 0ennever's 0elessal
An aLLac| ol violeL |ooL |oL (·ee µJ?º) is Lhe
mosL se|ious Lh|eaL, and aL iLs wo|sL may
mean pulinq up Lhe planLs, bu|ninq Lhem, and
planLinq a new bed elsewhe|e. In addiLion, looL
and |ooL |oLs (·ee µJ?Z) may cause p|oblems
in damp condiLions.
kecemmended asparagus
Bea| in mind LhaL an aspa|aqus bed ouqhL Lo
conLain aL leasL ²0 sepa|aLe planLs in o|de| Lo
qene|aLe sullcienL spea|s lo| a |equla| c|op.
Backlim, 0onnover's 0olossal, 0ariana, Franklim,
0iant Mammoth, 0ijnlim, Limbras, Lucullus
0on'L ha|vesL new planLs in Lhei| l|sL yea|,
and do iL spa|inqly in Lhei| second yea|. This
will qive Lhem a chance Lo esLablish Lhemselves.
The|ealLe|, ha|vesL lo| six Lo eiqhL wee|s l|om
mid-sp|inq onwa|d. CuL Lhe spea|s eve|y lew
days, when Lhey a|e 5-7 in (I²-IB cm) lonq and
no Lhic|e| Lhan you| Lhumb o| index lnqe|.
What can ge wreng
Sluqs and snails can aLLac| younq spea|s. You'll
need Lo p|oLecL aqainsL Lhem, pa|Licula|ly in
damp weaLhe| (·ee µµJJ0-JJI).
Adult asparagus beetles, blac| and
|ed wiLh yellow spoLs, and Lhei| la|vae, q|ay in
colo|, may cause p|oblems. BoLh ol Lhem sL|ip
Lhe loliaqe l|om planLs and eaL Lhe aspa|aqus
spea|s. unless you spoL Lhem ea|ly and a|e
able Lo pic| Lhem oll by hand, sp|ay wiLh
py|eLh|um-p|ele|ably aL dus| so as noL Lo
ha|m any bees.
0lebe artîchekes
Clobe a|Licho|es a|e eno|mous, LhisLleli|e planLs, someLimes q|own as much lo|
deco|aLion as lo| lood. 0u|inq Lhe cou|se ol Lhe summe|, a maLu|e planL should
p|oduce a dozen o| mo|e la|qe q|een o| pu|ple lowe|heads. IL's Lhese LhaL a|e
pic|ed and eaLen-eiLhe| Lhe solL, leshy ouLe| leaves o| Lhe dense hea|L LhaL
lies |iqhL in Lhe cenLe|. The qlobes can even be coo|ed and eaLen whole il
ha|vesLed younq, when Lhey a|e noL much la|qe| Lhan qoll balls.
IL is quiLe possible Lo q|ow qlobe a|Licho|es l|om seed, buL Lhe p|ocess
can be hiL-o|-miss. IL's beLLe| il you can sLa|L l|om ¨ollseLs,¨ which a|e new
sideshooLs o| suc|e|s cuL l|om a planL LhaL is al|eady esLablished. IniLially, Lhese
can be pu|chased o| pe|haps beqqed
l|om a lellow qa|dene|. The|ealLe|,
iL's easy Lo p|opaqaLe new planLs
you|sell by cuLLinq and planLinq
you| own ollseLs.
The "kîng" bud is Lhe qlobe aL Lhe ve|y Lop ol
Lhe planL, iL's always Lhe one Lo pic| l|sL.
SEAS0N Sprîng Summer Fall Wînter
SewJPlant N N
Transplant N
Karvest N N
Where te plant
Clobe a|Licho|es li|e sunshine buL noL hiqh Lempe|aLu|es, l|osL,
o| sL|onq winds. A mild climaLe and a shelLe|ed posiLion a|e ideal.
The soil should be ve|y le|Lile, wiLh loLs ol well-|oLLed composL o|
manu|e duq in Lo iL, and should have a pF ol abouL o.5 (·ee µ4Z).
When te plant
Il you a|e |aisinq younq planLs l|om sideshooLs o| ollseLs, planL
Lhem ouL in sp|inq. Il you a|e L|yinq Lo q|ow l|om seed, sow Lhem
unde| cove| in laLe winLe| o| ea|ly sp|inq and planL Lhem ouL in
ea|ly summe|.
Kew te sew seeds
Sow seeds indoo|s in modules o| seed L|ays llled wiLh l|esh seed
o| poLLinq mix. Keep aL a Lempe|aLu|e ol aL leasL 5º°F (I5°C) while
Lhey qe|minaLe. F|ic| ouL seedlinqs inLo la|qe| 4-in (I0-cm) poLs
Lo ha|den Lhem oll and L|ansplanL Lhem in ea|ly summe|.
Prepagate by cuttîng effsets
(o| sideshooLs), each wiLh a sho|L
lenqLh ol |ooL, l|om Lhe base ol
esLablished planLs in sp|inq.
Kew te plant effsets
FlanL |ooLed ollseLs abouL ² lL (º0 cm) apa|L and aL a depLh ol
abouL 2 in (5 cm). WaLe| Lhem in and L|im Lhe ends ol Lhe leaves
Lo abouL 5 in (I² cm) in lenqLh. Il Lhe niqhLs a|e sLill cold o| il
Lhe|e is a danqe| ol l|osL, cove| Lhe planLs wiLh leece.
keutîne care
Keep new planLs waLe|ed and weed-l|ee-do noL leL Lhem d|y
ouL. B|uLal as iL may sound, in Lhe l|sL yea| you should cuL oll
Lhe main lowe|head as soon as iL appea|s. IL will sLimulaLe
q|owLh and you'll qeL a beLLe| c|op Lhe lollowinq yea|.
To help you| planLs su|vive Lhe winLe|, ea|Lh Lhem up and
cove| wiLh sL|aw o| d|ied b|ac|en. In sp|inq, uncove| Lhem and
eiLhe| sp|ead a |ich o|qanic mulch a|ound Lhem o| waLe| wiLh
a hiqh-poLash liquid le|Lilize|.
By Lhe Lhi|d o| lou|Lh yea|, Lhe planL will be sLa|Linq Lo c|op
less qene|ously, and you should be cuLLinq ollseLs l|om iL wiLh
a view Lo phasinq iL ouL.
SLa|L by cuLLinq Lhe la|qesL, LopmosL qlobe (Lhe ¨|inq¨ bud) aL
Lhe momenL iL Lu|ns plump and solL, jusL belo|e Lhe q|een scales
beqin Lo open ouL. Leave a sho|L secLion ol sLal| aLLached. Fic|
Lhe |esL ol Lhe heads when Lhey |ipen in Lhe same way. You should
qeL I0 o| I2 l|om each maLu|e planL-and pe|haps even a second
c|op ol smalle| qlobes in ea|ly lall.
CuL oll any dead sLems and
|emove loliaqe LhaL is Lu|ninq
yellow o| b|own.
Fo|| ove| Lhe soil Lo |eep iL
l|om becominq compacLed,
and sp|ead a mulch ol well-|oLLed
composL o| manu|e a|ound Lhe
base ol Lhe planLs. In ve|y cold
winLe|s, cove| wiLh sL|aw as well.
Just befere the scales epen,
sLa|L ha|vesLinq Lhe qlobes l|om
Lhe Lop ol Lhe planL.
(lelL) Vîelette dî 0hîeggîa
(|iqhL) 0reen 0lebe
What can ge wreng
The main p|oblems a|e li|ely Lo |evolve a|ound waLe|. Too liLLle
in Lhe summe| will |esulL in disappoinLinqly small a|Licho|es,
whe|eas Loo much in Lhe winLe| may cause waLe|loqqinq and can
|oL Lhe planLs. 0Lhe|wise, apa|L l|om aLLac|s by sluqs and snails
(·ee µµJJ0-JJI), ea|wiqs, and aphids o| blac|ly (·ee µJJ?),
qlobe a|Licho|es a|e qene|ally pesL- and disease-l|ee.
kecemmended glebe artîchekes
0reen 0lobe, 0ros Vert de Laon, Purple 0lobe, Romanesco,
Violetto di 0hioggia
Ca|doons loo| much li|e qlobe a|Licho|es, Lo which Lhey a|e closely |elaLed.
They a|e equally Lall and sL|i|inq, have simila| jaqqed silve|-blue loliaqe, and
p|oduce huqe spi|y lowe|heads and pu|ple LhisLleli|e lowe|s. unli|e qlobe
a|Licho|es, Lhouqh, iL is Lhe sLems o| leal sLal|s LhaL a|e eaLen, noL Lhe lowe|heads.
And Lhey musL be blanched in o|de| Lo p|evenL Lhem l|om becominq Loo biLLe|.
This can be ca||ied ouL by w|appinq Lhem up Lo exclude liqhL in Lhe wee|s
belo|e ha|vesLinq. Ca|doons, Lhen, a|e ce|Lainly ouL ol Lhe o|dina|y-and pe|haps
should be Lac|led only by Lhe mo|e
advenLu|ous veqeLable q|owe|. YeL
Lhey'|e ce|Lainly wo|Lh a L|y, even il
you don'L end up eaLinq Lhem, Lhey
loo| lanLasLic.
SEAS0N Sprîng Summer Fall Wînter
SewJPlant N
Transplant N N
Karvest N
Where te plant
Ca|doons li|e a shelLe|ed, sunny siLe and |ich,
le|Lile soil LhaL has had loLs ol well-|oLLed
composL o| manu|e duq in Lo iL. FlanLs lo|
eaLinq a|e q|own as annuals and a|e up|ooLed
when ha|vesLed. BuL il lelL, Lhey will lowe| and
q|ow as la|qe as qlobe a|Licho|es-so Lhey
miqhL noL be Lhe besL choice lo| small qa|dens.
When te plant
Sow seeds unde| cove| in ea|ly o| mid-sp|inq
and planL ouL in laLe sp|inq o| ea|ly summe|.
AlLhouqh iL is possible Lo p|opaqaLe l|om
sideshooLs o| ¨ollseLs¨ in Lhe same way as wiLh
qlobe a|Licho|es (·ee µ?5º), Lhe new planLs
Lend Lo lowe| in Lhei| l|sL yea| and Lhe sLems
a|e inedible.
Blanchîng stems by p|oLecLinq Lhem
l|om Lhe liqhL |educes Lhei| biLLe|ness.
(Lop) 0ardeen leaves, Lhouqh beauLilul,
a|e noL lo| eaLinq. They should be cuL oll
and disca|ded when Lhe blanched sLems
a|e ha|vesLed.
(boLLom) 0ardeen Hewers, which
appea| in Lhe second yea| alLe| sowinq,
a|e noL edible-and a|e also a siqn LhaL
Lhe leal sLems will be Loo Louqh Lo eaL.
Kew te sew seeds
and plant eut seedlîngs
Sow seeds unde| cove| in modules o| seed
L|ays aL a Lempe|aLu|e ol aL leasL 50-5º°F
(I0-I5°C). F|ic| ouL seedlinqs inLo la|qe| 4-in
(I0-cm) poLs, and when Lhey a|e I0 in (25 cm)
Lall, ha|den Lhem oll and planL Lhem ouL IB in
(45 cm) apa|L in L|enches.
keutîne care
WaLe| |equla|ly Lo p|evenL planLs l|om d|yinq
ouL. SLa|e up each planL wiLh a sL|onq cane,
and in ea|ly lall blanch Lhe sLems by qaLhe|inq
Lhem LoqeLhe| in a bundle, Lyinq Lhem wiLh
sL|inq, and w|appinq Lhem in pape| o| blac|
plasLic. IL's wise Lo ea|Lh up Lhe bases, Loo, so
LhaL no liqhL can qeL in.
Blanchinq La|es app|oximaLely six Lo eiqhL
wee|s. When Lime is up, up|ooL Lhe whole
planL, unw|ap iL, and cuL oll boLh Lhe leaves
aL Lhe Lop and Lhe |ooLs aL Lhe boLLom. Remove
any Louqh ouLe| sLems. You should end up wiLh
whaL loo|s somewhaL li|e a bunch ol cele|y.
What can ge wreng
FesLs and diseases a|e Lhe same as Lhose LhaL
allecL qlobe a|Licho|es (·ee µ?óI).
kecemmended cardeens
0igante di Romagna, Plein Blanc Inerme
Jerusalem artîchekes
0espiLe iLs name, Lhe Je|usalem a|Licho|e has noLhinq Lo do wiLh Lhe qlobe
a|Licho|e. IL is acLually a |elaLive ol Lhe sunlowe|, a lacL LhaL becomes obvious
when you see how Lall iL q|ows and La|e a loo| aL iLs disLincLive yellow lowe|s.
IL is q|own lo| iLs |nobby Lube|s, which develop unde|q|ound, amonq Lhe |ooLs,
in much Lhe same way as poLaLoes. Je|usalem a|Licho|es can be eaLen eiLhe|
coo|ed o| |aw-p|ovided LhaL you (and Lhose close Lo you) a|e p|epa|ed lo| Lhe
seismic laLulence lo| which Lhey a|e noLo|ious.
New planLs a|e q|own noL l|om seed buL l|om Lube|s, eiLhe| bouqhL l|om
a specialLy supplie| o| saved l|om you| own p|evious yea|'s c|op. Je|usalem
a|Licho|es a|e pe|ennials, so any
Lube| accidenLally lelL in Lhe q|ound
aL Lhe end ol one season will |esulL in
a new planL Lhe lollowinq yea|.
SEAS0N Sprîng Summer Fall Wînter
Plant N
Karvest N N
Where te plant
Je|usalem a|Licho|es a|e amonq Lhe leasL lussy
ol all veqeLables-Lhey will q|ow almosL
anywhe|e. Foweve|, Lhey won'L Lh|ive in acidic
soil, o| anywhe|e LhaL is heavily waLe|loqqed.
Because Lhe planLs q|ow so Lall-up Lo
I0 lL (² m) - Lhey a|e olLen planLed as naLu|al
windb|ea|s o| sc|eens, p|ovidinq p|oLecLion lo|
mo|e vulne|able c|ops.
When te plant
FlanL Lube|s in sp|inq, as soon as Lhe soil has
wa|med up enouqh Lo be wo||able.
Kew te plant tubers
Ma|e a d|ill 4-o in (I0-I5 cm) deep Lhe enLi|e
lenqLh ol you| |ow. Space Lhe Lube|s I2-IB in
(²0-45 cm) apa|L wiLh Lhe main bud
uppe|mosL, and cove| Lhem wiLh soil.
keutîne care
When Lhe planLs have q|own Lo a heiqhL ol
abouL I2 in (²0 cm), ea|Lh up Lhe sLems by o in
(I5 cm) Lo qive Lhem some iniLial suppo|L. As
Lhey conLinue Lo q|ow, you may have Lo sLa|e
Lhem, Loo. In mid- o| laLe summe|, cuL Lhem
down Lo 5 lL (I.5 m) and |emove any lowe|s so
as noL Lo dive|L Lhe planL's ene|qy away l|om
Lhe Lube|s. In lall, when Lhe leaves Lu|n yellow,
cuL Lhe sLems down Lo jusL above q|ound level.
ExcepL in ve|y cold weaLhe|, Lhe Lube|s can
sLay whe|e Lhey a|e unLil you need Lhem. LilL
Lhem as you would poLaLoes, La|inq ca|e noL Lo
leave any in Lhe q|ound unless you wanL planLs
in Lhe same place aqain Lhe lollowinq yea|.
(lelL) 0îvîde the tubers prîer te plantîng so LhaL Lhey a|e noL
Loo la|qe. each one should be no la|qe| Lhan a chic|en's eqq.
(above) Lîft the tubers sho|Lly belo|e you inLend Lo use Lhem,
aL any Lime l|om mid-lall onwa|d.
What can ge wreng
The mosL L|oublesome pesLs a|e li|ely Lo be
sluqs and snails (·ee µµJJ0-JJI), which will
eaL boLh Lhe Lube|s and Lhe loliaqe.
Scleretînîa is a lunqus LhaL p|oduces whiLe
lully q|owLh and miqhL |oL sLems and loliaqe.
IL's aL iLs wo|sL in cool, damp condiLions. The|e
is no cu|e-allecLed planLs musL be |emoved
and desL|oyed.
kecemmended Jerusalem
Some Lube|s a|e mo|e |nobby Lhan oLhe|s.
SmooLh va|ieLies such as 'Fuseau' a|e easie|
Lo p|epa|e lo| coo|inq.
0warf 5unray, Fuseau
0hînese artîchekes
Chinese (o| Japanese) a|Licho|es a|e small, whiLe, |idqed Lube|s LhaL q|ow
unde|q|ound, li|e Je|usalem a|Licho|es. In lacL, Lhey LasLe simila|-Lhouqh
pe|haps a liLLle c|ispe| and juicie|-and a|e eaLen in Lhe same way, eiLhe|
coo|ed o| |aw. The planLs a|e a
membe| ol Lhe minL lamily and a|e
ve|y easy Lo q|ow. SLa|L Lhem oll
l|om Lube|s, noL seed.
SEAS0N Sprîng Summer Fall Wînter
Plant N
Karvest N N
Where, when, and hew te plant
Choose an open siLe wiLh le|Lile, liqhL soil. In mid-sp|inq, once
Lhe q|ound has wa|med up, planL Lube|s end-up in a shallow d|ill
-² in (4-B cm) deep and I2 in (²0 cm) apa|L. Then cove| Lhem
ca|elully wiLh soil.
keutîne care
Weed and waLe| you| planLs |equla|ly. Snip oll any lowe|s
wheneve| Lhey appea| in o|de| Lo concenL|aLe Lhe planL's ene|qy
on developinq Lube|s, and ea|Lh up Lhe soil a|ound Lhe sLems Lo
ensu|e LhaL Lhey |emain cove|ed.
AL any Lime l|om lall onwa|d, pull bac| Lhe soil Lo chec| Lhem jusL
as you would do lo| poLaLoes, and ha|vesL Lhem il Lhey'|e |eady.
Foweve|, il you lilL Lhem Loo ea|ly, Lhey Lend Lo d|y ouL, so leave
Lhem in Lhe soil unLil you a|e |eady Lo use Lhem.
What can ge wreng
WiLh luc|, you| only p|oblems a|e li|ely Lo come l|om sluqs and
snails (·ee µµJJ0-JJI) and possibly |ooL aphids (·ee µJJó).
(Lop) 0rewîng în centaîners |esL|icLs
Lhe Lendency Lo sp|ead invasively LhaL
Chinese a|Licho|es sha|e wiLh all minLs.
(boLLom) Washîng seîl ouL ol Lube|
|idqes is lddly-one |eason, pe|haps, why
Chinese a|Licho|es a|e noL as commonly
q|own as Je|usalem a|Licho|es.
Sea kale
Sea |ale loo|s a liLLle li|e an open-leaved blue-q|ay
cabbaqe, and iL is a membe| ol Lhe b|assica lamily.
The younq leaves, sLems, and Lhe c|eam-colo|ed
lowe|heads can all be eaLen |aw. AlLe|naLively, Lhe
sLems can be lo|ced ove| Lhe cou|se ol winLe| in
Lhe same way as |huba|b, and can Lhen can be
ha|vesLed and coo|ed in ea|ly sp|inq.
SEAS0N Sprîng Summer Fall Wînter
SewJPlant N
Karvest N N
Where, when, and hew te plant
C|owinq sea |ale l|om seed is dillculL, so iL's besL Lo sLa|L wiLh
|ooL cuLLinqs o| ¨Lhonqs.¨ Choose a sunny siLe wiLh |ich, liqhL,
sandy soil, and in ea|ly sp|inq planL Lhonqs aL leasL 2 lL (o0 cm)
apa|L. 0u|inq Lhe summe|, |eep planLs well waLe|ed and cuL oll
lowe| sLems.
Belo|e winLe| seLs in, |emove any dead leaves and cove| Lhe
c|own wiLh a laye| ol sL|aw o| b|ac|en. 0ve| Lhe Lop ol Lhis, place
a L|adiLional lo|cinq poL o| an ove|Lu|ned box, pail, o| lowe|poL
aL leasL I5 in (²B cm) deep, and ma|e su|e no liqhL can qeL in.
Su||ound Lhe cove| wiLh a laye| ol leaves, composL, o| manu|e
Lo |eep eve|yLhinq wa|m, and leave iL lo| Lwo Lo Lh|ee monLhs.
CuL Lhe blanched sLems when Lhey a|e o-B in (I5-20 cm) Lall.
In laLe sp|inq, |emove Lhe poLs, sp|ead mulch ove| Lhe planLs,
le|Lilize Lhem, and leL Lhem |eqene|aLe lo| Lhe nexL season.
What can ge wreng
As wiLh all b|assicas, club|ooL can cause p|oblems (·ee µZ8).
Flea beeLles may also aLLac| Lhe younq leaves (·ee µJJ4).
(Lop) Take reet cuttîngs in lall, sLo|e
in sand ove| winLe|, and planL in sp|inq
as buds sLa|L Lo lo|m.
(middle) Ferce sea kale by cove|inq
Lhe c|owns wiLh a liqhLp|ool poL in
ea|ly winLe|.
(boLLom) Karvest Lende| blanched
shooLs in sp|inq.
0nce a |huba|b planL is esLablished, iL shouldn'L |equi|e a loL ol aLLenLion. Keep
iL well waLe|ed in Lhe summe|, le|Lilize iL in Lhe sp|inq and lall, and allow Lhe
cold Lo qeL Lo iL in winLe|, and iL should |ewa|d you wiLh one ol you| ea|liesL
c|ops ol Lhe new yea|-pe|haps Lhe l|sL il you cove| iL and ¨lo|ce¨ iL Lo
p|oduce Lende|, blanched sLems in ea|ly sp|inq.
AdmiLLedly, |huba|b is q|eedy when iL comes Lo space. In midsumme|, when
iL is in lull leal, each planL can sp|ead Lo o lL (2 m) ac|oss. Foweve|, Lhe ave|aqe
lamily should only need Lwo o| Lh|ee planLs. And, il you |eep dividinq Lhe
|ooLsLoc|s inLo new ¨seLs¨ and |eplanLinq Lhem, you should be able Lo |eep
Lhose planLs |eqene|aLinq Lhemselves lo| yea|s and yea|s.
SEAS0N Sprîng Summer Fall Wînter
SewJPlant N N N
Transplant N
Karvest N N
Where te plant
Rhuba|b q|ows besL on an open siLe in soil LhaL
will |eLain moisLu|e in Lhe summe| buL will noL
become Loo weL in winLe|. Il you'|e planLinq iL
lo| Lhe l|sL Lime, diq in plenLy ol well-|oLLed
composL o| manu|e belo|ehand.
When te plant
Rhuba|b planLs a|e do|manL du|inq Lhe cold
monLhs beLween mid-lall and ea|ly sp|inq. IL's
Lhe|elo|e Lhe besL pe|iod du|inq which Lo divide
esLablished c|owns and planL new seLs.
Tradîtîenal terra-cetta rhubarb
fercers have lids LhaL can be |emoved
in o|de| Lo chec| when Lhe blanched
sLems |each Lhe Lop.
Rhuba|b can be ¨lo|ced¨ Lo
p|oduce shooLs a lew wee|s
ea|lie| Lhan no|mal by cove|inq
Lhe c|own-as new sLems develop,
Lhey a|e |epL in da||ness and do
noL |eceive any liqhL.
0u|inq Lhe winLe|, when Lhe
planL is do|manL, iL should be
exposed Lo a couple ol sha|p l|osLs.
Belo|e Lhe l|sL shooLs appea|,
cove| Lhe c|own wiLh sL|aw
and place a ja| o| ove|Lu|ned poL
on Lop Lo exclude any liqhL.
The blanched, Lende|, pin|
sLems should be |eady Lo
ha|vesL alLe| abouL lou| wee|s.
Kew te sew seeds
IL's noL easy Lo q|ow |huba|b l|om seed. Il you wanL Lo L|y iL,
sow in poLs o| modules indoo|s in ea|ly sp|inq, Lhen planL ouL in
laLe sp|inq, alLe|naLively, sow ouLdoo|s di|ecLly inLo Lhe q|ound
in a special seedbed, also in laLe sp|inq. Thin ouL seedlinqs, and
L|ansplanL Lhem Lo Lhei| lnal posiLion in lall.
Kew te dîvîde crewns
Rhuba|b can be p|opaqaLed by dividinq Lhe main |ooLsLoc| o|
¨c|own¨ ol an esLablished planL inLo sepa|aLe pieces o| ¨seLs.¨
IL's besL done du|inq Lhe winLe|, when Lhe leaves have all died
down and Lhe planL is do|manL.
Kew te plant sets
FlanL |huba|b seLs in holes abouL ²o in (º0 cm) apa|L wiLh Lhe
main bud jusL showinq above Lhe su|lace ol Lhe soil. Il you bu|y
Lhem compleLely, Lhe|e's a danqe| LhaL Lhey will become
waLe|loqqed and |oL.
keutîne care
Weed and waLe| |equla|ly Lh|ouqhouL Lhe summe|. An o|qanic
mulch applied in sp|inq will help Lo |educe evapo|aLion and |eep
Lhe c|owns as moisL as possible. CuL oll any sLems LhaL qo Lo
lowe| and any leaves LhaL Lu|n yellow and die. In lall, sp|ead
mo|e mulch a|ound Lhe planLs, leavinq Lhe c|owns exposed so
LhaL l|osL can qeL aL Lhem-|huba|b needs a numbe| ol cold
snaps Lo L|iqqe| new q|owLh lo| Lhe lollowinq yea|.
You should be able Lo sLa|L pic|inq l|esh younq sLems in sp|inq
and ea|ly summe|. The|ealLe|, as Lhey qeL olde|, Lhey become
Louqhe| and sL|inqie|.
Newly planLed seLs should be ha|vesLed only liqhLly, il aL all,
in Lhei| l|sL yea|. Cive Lhem unLil Lhei| second yea| Lo esLablish
Lhemselves and build up sL|enqLh.
(Lop) Mulch areund plants in lall,
avoidinq Lhe c|owns-exposu|e Lo cold
will sLimulaLe new q|owLh nexL season.
(boLLom) khubarb îs ready te harvest
once Lhe ouLe| sLems a|e abouL I2 in
(²0 cm) in heiqhL, q|ip Lhem l|mly by
Lhe base and LwisL Lhem oll by hand.
What can ge wreng
Sluqs and snails (·ee µµJJ0-JJI) may aLLac| younq buds, and
aphids (·ee µJJ?) a|e someLimes aLL|acLed Lo new leaves.
0rewn ret and heney fungus a|e Lwo ol Lhe diseases LhaL
may allecL |huba|b. They a|e bacLe|ial and lunqal diso|de|s LhaL
can cause Lhe |ooLsLoc|s Lo |oL and die. You may save Lhem il
you'|e quic| and ca|elully cuL ouL and desL|oy all inlecLed pa|Ls.
WAkN1N0: Rhuba|b leaves a|e poisonous. 0o noL eaL Lhem.
kecemmended rhubarb
Barkers All 5eason, 0awood 0elight, Early 0hampagne, Timperley
Early, Victoria
Tîmperley Early
10. Herbs
No veqeLable paLch o| |iLchen qa|den should be wiLhouL he|bs. They smell
wonde|lul, Lhey'|e easy Lo q|ow, Lhey'|e essenLial Lo jusL abouL eve|y |ind ol
coo|inq, and Lhey have a hund|ed and one oLhe| medicinal, cosmeLic, and household
uses-some p|acLical and eve|yday, oLhe|s mysLe|ious and sLeeped in lol|lo|e.
In addiLion, Lhey aLL|acL benelcial wildlile and may even |epel pesLs. Need any
mo|e convincinq`
WheLhe| you| ambiLions |un Lo desiqninq a lull-scale lo|mal he|b qa|den
(·ee µ?4), q|owinq a lew he|bs in amonq you| qa|den lowe|s, o| me|ely planLinq
up a couple ol poLs on a Le||ace o| balcony, you'll lnd mosL he|bs ve|y lo|qivinq.
0nce Lhey'|e esLablished, Lhey need liLLle mainLenance. L|im Lhem bac| l|om Lime
Lo Lime in o|de| Lo |eep Lhem bushy and Lo encou|aqe new q|owLh. 0Lhe| Lhan
LhaL, simply waLe| Lhem, pic| Lhem, and eaL Lhem-Lhey LasLe so much beLLe|
when ha|vesLed sL|aiqhL l|om Lhe qa|den.

0reup dîfferent herbs tegether
and planL Lhem aL Lhe l|onL ol a lowe|
bo|de| Lo c|eaLe an aLL|acLive inlo|mal
he|b qa|den.
Basîl is an a|omaLic, spicy he|b,
used in salads, sauces, pesLo, and
lavo|ed oils and vineqa|s.
Bay is an eve|q|een sh|ub LhaL
can be clipped inLo Lopia|y bushes,
iL may noL su|vive ha|sh winLe|s.
0hervîl has Liny, leaLhe|y, le|nli|e
leaves and a LasLe somewhe|e
beLween aniseed and pa|sley.
0hîves a|e membe|s ol Lhe onion
lamily, and have a delicaLe, mild
onion lavo|.
0îlantre is q|own noL only lo| iLs
leaves buL also lo| iLs seeds, which
a|e used as a spice (co|iande|).
0îll has delicaLe, leaLhe|y leaves
wiLh a mild aniseed lavo|, and
seeds LhaL LasLe sliqhLly sL|onqe|.
Fennel is edible l|om iLs lowe|s Lo
iLs |ooLs, in p|acLice, iL is Lhe leaves
and seeds LhaL a|e mosL olLen used.
Kerseradîsh |ooLs have a punqenL,
sinus-clea|inq LasLe, Lhe essenLial
inq|edienL in ho|se|adish sauce.
Lemen balm leaves have a delicaLe
lemon LasLe, simila| Lo Lhouqh noL
as sL|onq as lemon ve|bena.
Lemengrass sLal|s a|e an
essenLial inq|edienL in many
EasL Asian dishes.
Levage leaves |esemble
Lhose ol laL-leaved pa|sley,
and LasLe ol cele|y and yeasL.
Marjeram (o| o|eqano)
is a lamilia| inq|edienL in
MediLe||anean coo|inq.
Mînt sp|eads so |eadily LhaL
iL is besL q|own in conLaine|s
in o|de| Lo |esL|ain iL.
Parsley comes in Lwo
dille|enL lo|ms-cu|ly-leaved
and laL-leaved.
kesemary is an eve|q|een
pe|ennial wiLh a disLincLive
|esinous a|oma.
Sage is li|ely Lo loo| as qood
in Lhe lowe| bo|de| as in Lhe
he|b qa|den.
Savery loo|s |aLhe| li|e Lhyme
and has a simila| Lhouqh
sliqhLly mo|e peppe|y LasLe.
Serrel has a sliqhLly sha|p
lemon lavo| and is used in
soups, sauces, and mixed salads.
Tarragen has lonq, na||ow,
q|een leaves wiLh a mildly
peppe|y, aniseed lavo|.
Thyme is an eve|q|een
pe|ennial sh|ub wiLh Liny,
wonde|lully a|omaLic leaves.
(opposiLe paqe, cloc|wise l|om Lop lelL)
Purple basîl, sweet basîl, cînnamen basîl,
basîl 'Afrîcan Blue'
(|iqhL) Lettuce-leaved basîl
A powe|lully a|omaLic, spicy he|b, basil is widely used in salads, sauces, pesLo,
and lavo|ed oils and vineqa|s. IL's a naLu|al companion Lo LomaLoes-a ma||iaqe
made in Lhe wa|m climaLe ol Lhe MediLe||anean. Basil needs sunshine, so il
q|own ouLdoo|s in cool Lempe|aLe zones, iL's li|ely Lo have only a sho|L summe|
season. Foweve|, iL's pe|lecL lo| a b|iqhLly liL |iLchen windowsill.
SweeL basil has medium-sized, b|iqhL-q|een leaves and is Lhe mosL common
va|ieLy. 0Lhe| lo|ms may have ve|y la|qe leaves (leLLuce-leaved basil), ve|y small
leaves (C|ee| basil), colo|ed leaves (pu|ple basil), o| mulLilavo|ed leaves (lemon
basil and cinnamon basil).
Kew te grew
Sow seeds indoo|s l|om mid-sp|inq onwa|d
and |eep wa|m. T|ansplanL o| sow ouLdoo|s
only when Lhe|e is no lonqe| any |is| ol l|osL.
WaLe| |equla|ly buL spa|inqly in Lhe mo|ninqs,
planLs lelL weL ove|niqhL may |oL o| ¨damp oll.¨
Karvestîng and sterîng
Fic| younq leaves and pinch ouL q|owinq Lips Lo
encou|aqe Lhe planLs Lo become bushy. Remove
any lowe|s. SLo|e basil leaves in a cool place,
buL noL in Lhe |el|iqe|aLo|. 0on'L aLLempL Lo
l|eeze o| d|y Lhem. InsLead, use Lhem l|esh o|
p|ese|ve Lhem in olive oil.
Bay is an eve|q|een sh|ub and will
q|ow inLo bushes (olLen clipped inLo
Lopia|y shapes) o| even a lull-sized
L|ee. Foweve|, because iL comes l|om
Lhe MediLe||anean, in cool climaLes
younq planLs may noL su|vive ha|sh
winLe|s. IL's sale| Lo q|ow Lhem in
poLs o| conLaine|s and b|inq Lhem
indoo|s Lo p|oLecL Lhem l|om l|osL
and cold winds.
Bay leaves a|e Loo Louqh and ha|d
Lo eaL |aw buL a|e widely used as a
lavo|inq in coo|ed dishes. Alonq wiLh
pa|sley and Lhyme, bay is one ol Lhe
|ey inq|edienLs in /oa(aet qo/n/
Kew te grew
Bay is ha|d Lo q|ow l|om seed, and alLhouqh iL
can be p|opaqaLed l|om cuLLinqs (·ee µ?º4) o|
by laye|inq, iL's easie| Lo buy |eady-q|own planLs.
FlanL Lhem in le|Lile soil in a sunny, shelLe|ed
posiLion, o| in qood-sized conLaine|s llled wiLh
mulLipu|pose poLLinq mix.
WaLe| |equla|ly and le|Lilize Lwo o| Lh|ee
Limes a yea|. Shape Lhe planL by clippinq Lhe
leaves du|inq Lhe summe|.
Karvestîng and sterîng
Fic| leaves aL any Lime ol Lhe yea|. use Lhem
l|esh, o| p|ese|ve Lhem by d|yinq.
Since all he|bs a|e besL used when
l|esh-as soon alLe| pic|inq as
possible-iL's besL Lo siLe an he|b
qa|den as close Lo you| |iLchen
doo| as you can. IL ma|es no sense
aL all Lo be |unninq bac|wa|d and
lo|wa|d Lo Lhe la| end ol Lhe
qa|den eve|y Lime you wanL
some chives o| a handlul ol minL.
F|epa|e Lhe soil by addinq
plenLy ol well-|oLLed composL
o| manu|e. SeL b|ic|s inLo Lhe soil
Lo c|eaLe dille|enL sell-conLained
a|eas, and Lo qive you someLhinq
Lo sLand on so LhaL you don'L
compacL Lhe soil.
T|ansplanL any poL-q|own he|bs
and seedlinqs. Fi|m Lhem down
and waLe| Lhem in.
Some he|bs can be lelL in
Lhei| poLs, especially il Lhey
a|e aLL|acLive Le||a-coLLa ones.
This miniaLu|e bay, which will
evenLually q|ow Lalle| Lhan Lhe
planLs LhaL su||ound iL, will ma|e
a sL|onq cenLe|piece.
You| planLinq may loo| a liLLle
empLy aL l|sL, buL don'L be
LempLed Lo ove|lll Lhe beds, Lhey
will quic|ly lll ouL as Lhe he|bs
esLablish Lhemselves.
Che|vil's Liny, leaLhe|y, le|nli|e leaves have a delicaLe LasLe LhaL lies somewhe|e
beLween aniseed and pa|sley. IL is olLen added Lo salads and used in va|ious
coo|ed dishes-pa|Licula|ly omeleLs and oLhe| eqq |ecipes. Che|vil is in lacL
a |elaLive ol cow pa|sley, and Lhouqh noL nea|ly so la|qe can q|ow almosL as
|ampanLly. In hoL, d|y summe|s iL lowe|s and |uns Lo seed |eadily, alLhouqh
|eepinq iL well waLe|ed and q|owinq iL in pa|Lial shade will slow iL down.
Kew te grew
Sow seeds di|ecLly inLo Lhe q|ound, sLa|Linq in
ea|ly o| mid-sp|inq, and Lhen eve|y monLh o|
so unLil ea|ly lall. ScaLLe| seeds spa|inqly and
cove| wiLh a Lhin laye| ol soil. Seedlinqs should
sLa|L Lo appea| alLe| abouL Lh|ee wee|s.
Thin Lhe seedlinqs ouL Lo abouL o-º in (I5-
2² cm) il Lhey a|e ove|c|owded, and |emove
lowe|heads when Lhey appea|, unless you
wanL Lhe planLs Lo sell-seed. Towa|d Lhe end ol
Lhe yea|, use cloches o| l|ames Lo exLend you|
ha|vesL inLo laLe lall and winLe|.
Karvestîng and sterîng
Che|vil LasLes besL il you pic| Lhe small, younq
leaves belo|e Lhe planLs lowe|. They can be
l|ozen o| d|ied-buL Lhey'|e much beLLe| l|esh.
Chives a|e membe|s ol Lhe onion
lamily, and have a delicaLe, mild
onion LasLe. They a|e much smalle|,
ol cou|se-mo|e li|e q|een onions in
heiqhL. Thei| Lhin, hollow leaves q|ow
in dense clumps, |aLhe| li|e LulLs ol
q|ass. Chives a|e used as a lavo|inq
and as a qa|nish, mosL olLen in salads.
Requla| chives p|oduce pu|ple o|
pin| lowe|s in summe|-Lhese can
also be eaLen. Ca|lic o| Chinese
chives, which LasLe mildly ol qa|lic,
a|e a dille|enL va|ieLy, and have
whiLe lowe|s.
Kew te grew
Chives can be q|own l|om seed o| by dividinq
an exisLinq clump. Il you a|e sLa|Linq wiLh seeds,
sow Lhem in sp|inq eiLhe| in poLs o| modules
o|, il Lhe soil is wa|m enouqh, di|ecLly inLo Lhe
q|ound. Choose a wa|m, sunny siLe wiLh moisL,
le|Lile soil. 0iq up esLablished clumps and divide
Lhem in Lhe lall. FoL o| |eplanL Lhe ollseLs.
Chives a|e pe|ennials and should su|vive all buL
Lhe ha|shesL ol winLe|s.
Karvestîng and sterîng
Snip a handlul ol leaves as and when you need
Lhem, since Lhey don'L |eep lo| lonq. Requla|
ha|vesLinq p|omoLes Lhe q|owLh ol l|esh younq
leaves-even il you cuL down Lhe planLs almosL
Lo Lhe q|ound.
0ivision is a Lechnique LhaL can be
used Lo p|opaqaLe ce|Lain pe|ennial
he|bs, such as minL, Lhyme, lennel,
and chives, which conLinue Lo
q|ow l|om one yea| Lo Lhe nexL.
Choose a day in lall when Lhe
q|ound is noL Loo weL, Lhen
ca|elully diq up Lhe |ooLball ol an
esLablished planL.
Tease apa|L Lhe |ooLs in o|de|
Lo sepa|aLe Lhe planL inLo
clumps, and |eplanL Lhe divided
secLions. T|im Lhe leaves Lo a
heiqhL ol abouL 2 in (5 cm).
(Lop) 0hîves în Hewer (boLLom) 0arlîc chîves
(lelL) 0îlantre
(|iqhL) 1f allewed te Hewer, cilanL|o may |each ² lL (I m) in heiqhL.
CilanL|o is a |elaLive ol pa|sley, indeed, iLs lowe| leaves a|e much li|e Lhose ol
laL-leaved pa|sley. They have a sL|onq, disLincLive LasLe and a|e widely used in
MediLe||anean, Middle EasLe|n, Asian, and CenL|al and SouLh Ame|ican cuisines.
The lne|, wispie| uppe| leaves do noL LasLe Lhe same and Lend noL Lo be eaLen.
The small, |ound seeds, called co|iande| seeds, a|e used as a spice. 'CilanL|o' and
'Leisu|e' a|e usually q|own lo| Lhei| leaves, while 'Mo|occan' is q|own lo| seeds.
Kew te grew
Sow seeds di|ecLly inLo Lhe q|ound, sLa|Linq in
ea|ly sp|inq and Lhen eve|y monLh o| so unLil
laLe summe|. Space |ows I2 in (²0 cm) apa|L
and Lhin ouL seedlinqs Lo o in (I5 cm). WaLe|
|equla|ly Lo discou|aqe planLs l|om bolLinq.
Towa|d Lhe end ol Lhe yea|, use cloches o|
l|ames Lo exLend you| ha|vesL o| Lo ove|winLe|
seeds sown in Lhe lall.
Karvestîng and sterîng
Fic| lowe| leaves as a cuL-and-come-aqain c|op.
CollecL Lhe seeds when Lhey Lu|n b|own, belo|e
Lhey d|op Lo Lhe q|ound, Lhen d|y Lhem and use
Lhem as a spice. The |ooLs can also be eaLen,
and a|e olLen used in cu||y pasLes.
0ill is an annual wiLh delicaLe, leaLhe|y leaves and laL clusLe|s ol Liny yellow-q|een
lowe|s. IL can q|ow as hiqh as 4 lL (I.2 m). The leaves have a mild aniseed
lavo|-as do Lhe seeds, Lhouqh Lhey a|e sL|onqe|. BoLh a|e widely used Lo lavo|
soups, sauces, salads, pic|les, and lsh dishes, pa|Licula|ly in Scandinavian and
oLhe| no|Lhe|n Eu|opean cuisines. The planL is simila| Lo lennel in boLh LasLe and
appea|ance, buL Lhe Lwo a|e dille|enL. 0on'L planL Lhem nea| each oLhe| o| Lhey
may c|oss-pollinaLe and sell-seed Lo p|oduce odd hyb|ids Lhe lollowinq yea|.
Kew te grew
0ill does noL li|e beinq L|ansplanLed, so don'L
be LempLed Lo sLa|L iL oll by sowinq in poLs o|
L|ays. InsLead, choose a moisL, le|Lile siLe in an
open, sunny posiLion, and sow seeds di|ecLly
inLo Lhe q|ound, sLa|Linq in mid-sp|inq and Lhen
eve|y couple ol wee|s o| so unLil midsumme|.
Thin seedlinqs Lo abouL o in (I5 cm) apa|L. 0ill
is ve|y p|one Lo bolLinq, pa|Licula|ly in hoL
weaLhe|, so waLe| iL |equla|ly, and neve| allow
iL Lo d|y ouL.
Karvestîng and sterîng
Fic| Lhe younq leaves |equla|ly Lo delay Lhe planL
l|om lowe|inq lo| as lonq as possible. use
Lhem as soon alLe| ha|vesLinq as you can, since
Lhey wilL alLe| jusL a day o| Lwo, even il |epL in
a |el|iqe|aLo|. They can, howeve|, be l|ozen.
Il you wanL Lo collecL Lhe seeds lo| use in
pic|linq o| coo|inq, cuL Lhe lowe|heads as
soon as Lhey Lu|n b|own and hanq Lhem upside
down ove| a sheeL ol pape| o| cloLh o| enclose
Lhem in pape| baqs. When Lhe seeds have
d|opped, sepa|aLe Lhem l|om any pieces ol
d|ied sLem o| hus|.
Il you leave Lhe lowe|heads in place, Lhe
planL may sell-seed lo| Lhe lollowinq yea|.
unli|e dill, Lo which iL is |elaLed, lennel is a pe|ennial.
IL's also la|qe|, q|owinq Lo a heiqhL ol o lL (2 m) o|
mo|e, and has q|een o| b|onze-colo|ed leaves and
yellow lowe|s. The whole planL is edible, l|om Lhe
lowe|s Lo Lhe |ooLs, buL iL is Lhe aniseed-LasLinq
leaves and seeds LhaL a|e mosL olLen used as
lavo|inqs-in eve|yLhinq l|om lsh and meaL dishes
Lh|ouqh b|eads and cheeses Lo Indian spice
mixLu|es. The he|b lennel is noL Lhe same planL as
Lhe veqeLable Flo|ence lennel (·ee µµIJ8-IJº).
Kew te grew
Fennel li|es Lo be on a well-d|ained siLe and in plenLy ol sun. Sow
seeds di|ecLly inLo Lhe q|ound any Lime alLe| mid-sp|inq, and Lhin
seedlinqs Lo IB-24 in (45-o0 cm) apa|L. 0nce esLablished, Lhe
planLs q|ow quic|ly. IL's a qood idea Lo |emove Lhe lowe|heads
and L|im bac| Lhe planLs Lo a heiqhL ol abouL I2 in (²0 cm) in
ea|ly summe|. Lhis will sLimulaLe l|esh q|owLh and a second wave
ol new leaves lo| ha|vesLinq.
In lall, cuL Lhe planLs down Lo Lhe q|ound and, unless you wanL
Lhem Lo sell-seed, ca|elully |emove all Lhe lowe|heads and seeds.
AL Lhe same Lime, you can il you wish p|opaqaLe l|om esLablished
planLs by diqqinq up Lhe whole |ooLball, ca|elully dividinq iL, and
|eplanLinq Lhe sepa|aLe secLions so LhaL Lhey q|ow on as new
planLs (·ee µ?80).
Karvestîng and sterîng
Fic| Lhe leaves |equla|ly and use Lhem l|esh o| inluse Lhem in oils
and vineqa|s. Seeds can be d|ied and sLo|ed.
(Lop) When the seedheads turn brewn,
cuL Lhem down ca|elully. Lay Lhe heads
on a sheeL ol pape| Lo collecL Lhe seeds,
and |emove pieces ol d|ied sLem o| hus|.
(middle) Fennel în Hewer
(boLLom) Brenze fennel 'Purpureum'
unli|e mosL he|bs, ho|se|adish is q|own p|ima|ily lo| iLs |ooLs, noL iLs leaves.
Feeled and q|aLed, Lhe |ooLs have a hoL, punqenL, sinus-clea|inq LasLe LhaL is Lhe
essenLial inq|edienL in ho|se|adish sauce, a L|adiLional pa|Lne| Lo |oasL beel o|
smo|ed lsh. Fomemade ho|se|adish sauce, made wiLh a l|eshly duq |ooL, ma|es
Lhe sLo|e-bouqhL ve|sion pale in compa|ison. Fo|se|adish is a pe|ennial-once
esLablished, iL will sp|ead and may be ha|d Lo qeL |id ol. ILs leaves a|e noL
pa|Licula|ly aLL|acLive, eiLhe|, so Lhin| ca|elully abouL whe|e you planL iL.
Kew te grew
IL is possible Lo q|ow ho|se|adish l|om seed,
buL iL's mo|e olLen p|opaqaLed by dividinq an
esLablished planL o| by La|inq (o| buyinq) |ooL
cuLLinqs called ¨Lhonqs.¨ Each Lhonq should be
abouL o in (I5 cm) lonq, and is planLed sLandinq
on end, so LhaL iLs Lop is abouL 2 in (5 cm) below
Lhe su|lace ol Lhe soil. FlanL Lhonqs in sp|inq.
Karvestîng and sterîng
Younq leaves can be pic|ed l|om sp|inq onwa|d
lo| use in salads, buL ho|se|adish is essenLially
all abouL Lhe |ooLs. You can jusL diq Lhem up
wheneve| you need Lhem-alLhouqh iL's said
LhaL Lhe lavo| is aL iLs besL in lall.
(lelL) A herseradîsh plant
can q|ow Lo 2 lL (o0 cm) in
heiqhL and has leaves LhaL
loo| a liLLle li|e doc|. IL is
|elaLed Lo Lhe cabbaqe lamily.
(|iqhL) The leng tapreets
a|e yellow on Lhe ouLside and
whiLe inside. They a|e lnely
q|aLed lo| use as a lavo|inq.
Lemen balm
The leaves ol lemon balm loo| li|e
a c|oss beLween Lhose ol minL and a
sLinqinq neLLle, buL Lhey have a delicaLe
lemon LasLe, simila| Lo lemon ve|bena
il noL as sL|onq. The leaves a|e used
in boLh sweeL and savo|y dishes.
Some may even be added Lo salads,
buL Lhey a|e mosL commonly used
Lo ma|e he|bal Leas o| Lisanes.
Lemon balm is a ha|dy pe|ennial
and can q|ow Lo a heiqhL ol 5 lL
(I.5 m). The sLanda|d lo|m has plain
q|een leaves, buL qold va|ieqaLed
va|ieLies can also be lound.
Kew te grew
Lemon balm will q|ow p|eLLy much anywhe|e,
as lonq as Lhe soil is |easonably le|Lile and does
noL d|y ouL. The only Lhinq LhaL miqhL L|ouble iL
is sL|onq sunshine in Lhe middle ol Lhe day.
Sow seeds di|ecLly inLo Lhe q|ound in Lhe
sp|inq, and Lhin seedlinqs Lo 2 lL (o0 cm) apa|L.
AlLe|naLively, p|opaqaLe by dividinq exisLinq
planLs o| by La|inq |ooL cuLLinqs in eiLhe|
sp|inq o| lall.
Karvestîng and sterîng
Fic| leaves as and when you need Lhem. They
can be d|ied buL Lhey a|e much beLLe| l|esh.
You miqhL wanL Lo cuL bac| Lhe whole planL
quiLe ha|d belo|e iL lowe|s in ea|ly summe|
in o|de| Lo sLimulaLe new leal q|owLh.
(Lop) 0emmen lemen balm (boLLom) Varîegated lemen balm
Kew te grew
In mild a|eas, sow seeds ouLdoo|s in ea|ly sp|inq and p|oLecL
Lhem l|om l|osL. In coole| climaLes, sow in poLs unde| cove| o|
indoo|s. Ce|minaLion can be slow, and Lhe planLs will need boLh
a minimum Lempe|aLu|e ol 55°F (I²°C) and a humid aLmosphe|e
Lo q|ow successlully.
Karvestîng and sterîng
CuL Lhe sLal|s jusL above Lhe level ol Lhe soil, and L|im oll Lhe
leaves. Lemonq|ass will l|eeze well.
(above) Lemengrass stalks
L|immed ol Lhei| leaves and |ooLs.
(|iqhL) The blue-green leaves
ol lull-q|own planLs can |each up
Lo 5 lL (I.5 m) in heiqhL.
Lemonq|ass is a Lall L|opical o| subL|opical q|ass, o|iqinally l|om EasL Asia.
The |ooLs and sLems conLain an a|omaLic oil LhaL p|oduces iLs disLincLive ciL|us
lavo|. The sLal|s a|e Loo Louqh Lo eaL whole, so a|e c|ushed o| Lhinly sliced and
used in Thai, vieLnamese, and oLhe| EasL Asian cuisines, and olLen in Ca|ibbean
coo|inq Loo. In a qood summe|, lemonq|ass can be q|own ouLdoo|s in no|Lhe|n
Lempe|aLe zones, buL iL is a Lende| pe|ennial and needs Lo be inside Lo su|vive
Lhe winLe|. AlLe|naLively, culLivaLe iL as an annual and q|ow l|om seed each yea|.
Lovaqe is a Lall pe|ennial wiLh leaves LhaL |esemble Lhose ol laL-leaved pa|sley.
WiLhin jusL a yea| o| Lwo ol planLinq, iL can q|ow Lo be eno|mous-up Lo a
heiqhL ol o lL (2 m). You miqhL Lhe|elo|e wanL Lo conside| ca|elully Lhe besL
locaLion Lo q|ow iL-p|obably noL aL Lhe l|onL ol a bo|de|.
The leaves LasLe ol cele|y and yeasL, and can be used in soups, sLews, o|
salads, and Lo lavo| cold d|in|s o| ma|e he|bal Leas. 0Lhe| pa|Ls ol Lhe planL
can be eaLen Loo. seeds, sLal|s, and even Lhe |ooLs.
Kew te grew
Sow seed ouLdoo|s di|ecLly inLo le|Lile, moisL
soil in mid-sp|inq, o|-il you a|e collecLinq |ipe
seeds l|om an esLablished planL-du|inq laLe
summe|, alLhouqh you may have Lo p|oLecL new
seedlinqs l|om Lhe cold by |eepinq Lhem unde|
cloches o| in l|ames du|inq Lhe winLe|.
AlLe|naLively, because lovaqe is a pe|ennial,
you can p|opaqaLe iL by division. In sp|inq, diq
up Lhe whole |ooLball, ca|elully divide iL, and
|eplanL Lhe sepa|aLe secLions so LhaL Lhey q|ow
on as new planLs (·ee µ?80).
Karvestîng and sterîng
Fic| younq leaves |equla|ly, as and when you
need Lhem. Il you cuL bac| Lhe whole planL
quiLe ha|d belo|e iL lowe|s in ea|ly summe|,
you can disca|d any Louqh olde| leaves and
sLimulaLe a second wave ol new q|owLh.
The sLems ol lovaqe a|e hollow and when
cuL and L|immed can be used as d|in|inq
sL|aws, Lhey qive a wonde|lul |ic| ol cele|y
Lo an ice-cold Bloody Ma|y'
Marjeram and eregane
The|e a|e a numbe| ol dille|enL va|ieLies wiLhin Lhe ma|jo|am lamily. FoL o|
F|ench ma|jo|am is a bushy pe|ennial LhaL q|ows up Lo 2 lL (o0 cm) in heiqhL and
has whiLe, pin|, o| pu|ple lowe|s. ILs leaves a|e olLen d|ied. SweeL ma|jo|am is
sliqhLly smalle|, less aLL|acLive, buL sL|onqe| LasLinq. ILs leaves a|e mo|e li|ely Lo
be used l|esh. Wild ma|jo|am (also |nown as o|eqano) is sL|onqe| sLill. The|e
a|e also qolden, va|ieqaLed, and c|in|le-leaved va|ieLies. Ma|jo|am is an immediaLely
|ecoqnizable inq|edienL in MediLe||anean coo|inq-pa|Licula|ly pizzas.
(lelL) Wîld marjeram (|iqhL) 0elden marjeram
Kew te grew
Ma|jo|am needs wa|mLh and sunshine. Sow
seeds in sp|inq, eiLhe| in poLs o| di|ecLly inLo
Lhe q|ound, buL be p|epa|ed Lo be paLienL, as
qe|minaLion can be hiL-o|-miss. Thin seedlinqs
o| planL Lhem ouL aL leasL B in (20 cm) apa|L.
AlLe|naLively, diq up and divide esLablish
planLs in sp|inq o| lall, o| p|opaqaLe Lhem by
La|inq cuLLinqs in summe|. You may need Lo
p|oLecL planLs unde| cove| in seve|e winLe|s.
Karvestîng and sterîng
Fic| Lhe leaves belo|e Lhe lowe|s sLa|L Lo open,
pa|Licula|ly il you plan Lo d|y o| l|eeze Lhem.
When lall a||ives, cuL bac| Lhe whole bush by
MinL is aqq|essively |ampanL. IL's mo|e ol a challenqe Lo |esL|ain iL Lhan iL is Lo
lnd ways ol encou|aqinq iL Lo q|ow. We|e iL noL lo| minL's wonde|lul LasLe and
a|oma, iL would su|ely be |eqa|ded as a weed, as iL is, minL is almosL indispensable.
The leaves a|e used l|esh in salads, as a lavo|inq accompanimenL lo| veqeLables,
and in sauces, soups, d|in|s, candies, and desse|Ls.
The|e a|e nume|ous dille|enL va|ieLies. Apple minL is conside|ed by many Lo
ma|e Lhe besL minL sauce, and peppe|minL Lhe besL Lea. Cinqe| minL is va|ieqaLed
q|een and qold, Eau de Coloqne minL has da|| pu|ple and q|een leaves, and
Bowles' minL has la|qe, |ounded leaves and q|ows up Lo ² lL (I m) in heiqhL.
Kew te grew
MinL can be q|own l|om seed-sown in poLs
o| di|ecLly inLo Lhe q|ound in sp|inq-buL you'll
p|obably qeL a wide| choice ol va|ieLies il you
buy |eady-q|own planLs. IL is Lhen ve|y easy Lo
p|opaqaLe iL you|sell by division o| by La|inq
cuLLinqs. MinL is noL pic|y abouL sun o| shade,
buL iL does li|e Lhe soil Lo be |epL moisL. To
|eep iL l|om sp|eadinq unconL|ollably, planL iL
in a sun|en conLaine| o| |aised bed, o| q|ow iL
in a poL. Chanqe Lhe soil eve|y couple ol yea|s.
Karvestîng and sterîng
Fic| leaves Lh|ouqhouL Lhe summe| and ea|ly
lall, and cuL you| planLs bac| belo|e Lhey
lowe|. MinL leaves a|e besL used l|esh, Lhey
can be l|ozen buL don'L d|y well.
(opposiLe paqe, cloc|wise l|om Lop lelL)
Spearmînt, gînger mînt, curly mînt, apple mînt
(|iqhL) Thîs pîneapple mînt plant has been conlned
Lo a poL Lo sLop iL l|om sp|eadinq Lh|ouqhouL Lhe qa|den.
(lelL) Flat-leaved parsley (|iqhL) 0urly-leaved parsley
Kew te grew
Fa|sley seeds a|e noLo|iously slow Lo qe|minaLe,
alLhouqh you can qive Lhem a helpinq hand by
soa|inq Lhem in wa|m waLe| ove|niqhL. Sow in
L|ays o| modules, |eep Lhem unde| cove|, Lhen
L|ansplanL laLe|, alLe|naLively, sow ouLdoo|s
di|ecLly inLo Lhe q|ound in mid-sp|inq o| when
Lhe soil is wa|m enouqh. Thin seedlinqs Lo
app|oximaLely º in (2² cm) apa|L.
Fa|sley, pe|haps Lhe mosL widely used ol all he|bs, comes in Lwo dille|enL lo|ms.
cu|ly-leaved and laL-leaved. The laLLe|, someLimes called F|ench o| ILalian
pa|sley, has a sliqhLly sL|onqe| LasLe. Fa|sley is a ha|dy biennial. iL p|oduces
leaves Lhe l|sL yea| buL only lowe|s Lhe second. Because Lhe lowe|s a|e ol no
inLe|esL, iL ma|es sense Lo q|ow iL as an annual and sow seeds al|esh each yea|.
Fa|vesL Lhe leaves lo| as lonq as you can in lall, p|oLecLinq planLs wiLh cloches
Lo p|olonq Lhe season, buL diq up old planLs Lhe lollowinq sp|inq.
Karvestîng and sterîng
Fic| Lhe leaves wheneve| you need Lhem. The
mo|e you pic| Lhem, Lhe mo|e Lhey will q|ow.
Il you made a second sowinq ol seeds in laLe
summe|, you should qeL a c|op LhaL will lasL
well inLo Lhe lall. Fa|sley will |eep lo| a while
in Lhe |el|iqe|aLo|, buL Lhe leaves can also
be l|ozen o| d|ied.
(Lop) kesemary leaves
(middle) kesemary plant în Hewer
(boLLom) 0lîpped regularly, a va|ieLy
such as 'Miss Jessopp's up|iqhL'
is ideal lo| low hedqes.
Kew te grew
Rosema|y can be |aised l|om seed, buL qe|minaLion may be hiL-
o|-miss. IL's easie| Lo buy |eady-q|own planLs, o| Lo p|opaqaLe
l|om an esLablished sh|ub by La|inq cuLLinqs in laLe summe| o|
by laye|inq in lall. Rosema|y li|es plenLy ol wa|mLh and sunshine,
and shouldn'L be ove|waLe|ed. F|une iL in sp|inq and p|oLecL iL
l|om exL|emes ol cold du|inq ha|sh winLe|s.
Karvestîng and sterîng
You can pic| Lhe leaves Lh|ouqhouL Lhe yea| il you live in an a|ea
wiLh mild winLe|s, alLhouqh new q|owLh will, ol cou|se, sLop o|
slow down ove| Lhe winLe|. In cold |eqions, q|ow |osema|y in
a poL and b|inq iL indoo|s lo| Lhe winLe|. Because iL's always
available, Lhe|e's liLLle poinL in La|inq Lhe Lime Lo l|eeze o| d|y iL.
Rosema|y is an eve|q|een pe|ennial wiLh q|ay-q|een,
needleli|e leaves, and pale o| da|| blue, pu|ple,
pin|, o| whiLe lowe|s. IL has a disLincLive |esinous
a|oma and is L|adiLionally used Lo lavo| |oasLed
o| q|illed meaLs and veqeLables. MosL lo|ms a|e
naLu|ally bushy, and |osema|y is used lo| lo|mal
hedqinq and even Lopia|y in mild climaLes.
Il q|own in la|qe poLs, iL can be clipped inLo
sphe|es, mopheads, o| conical shapes. C|eepinq
va|ieLies such as 'F|osL|aLus', howeve|, loo| beLLe|
Lumblinq ouL ol a conLaine| o| hanqinq bas|eL o|
c|awlinq ove| a wall.
(cloc|wise l|om Lop lelL)
0emmen sage, 'Purpurea',
'1cterîna', 'Trîceler'
Kew te grew
Saqe can be |aised l|om seed sown in Lhe sp|inq, alLhouqh some
ol Lhe unusual va|ieLies a|e besL bouqhL as |eady-q|own planLs.
IL's also easy Lo p|opaqaLe. Ta|e solLwood cuLLinqs in summe|
o| ¨heel¨ cuLLinqs (which include a small secLion ol woody q|owLh
l|om Lhe p|evious yea|) in Lhe lall. FoL Lhem up, |eep Lhem unde|
cove| unLil Lhey |ooL, Lhen planL Lhem ouL.
Saqe li|es a wa|m, sunny siLe wiLh well-d|ained soil, and q|ows
well in conLaine|s. To |eep esLablished planLs compacL, p|une
Lhem lai|ly ha|d in sp|inq and pinch ouL q|owinq Lips du|inq Lhe
summe|. Sadly, saqe won'L lasL lo|eve|. When iL qeLs Loo woody
o| ¨leqqy,¨ diq iL up and planL al|esh.
Karvestîng and sterîng
Because saqe is an eve|q|een, you should be able Lo ha|vesL
leaves Lh|ouqhouL Lhe yea| in |elaLively mild climaLes-p|ovided
iL is noL |illed oll by a cold, damp winLe|.
Saqe can be sLo|ed lo| a lew days in Lhe |el|iqe|aLo| by sealinq
Lhe leaves in plasLic baqs. Il you need Lo sLo|e iL lo| lonqe|, d|y Lhe
leaves by sp|eadinq Lhem ouL individually on a sheeL ol cloLh o|
pape|, Lhen |eep Lhem in an ai|LiqhL conLaine| somewhe|e ouL
ol Lhe liqhL.
Saqe is an aLL|acLive eve|q|een sh|ub LhaL loo|s as qood in Lhe lowe| bo|de| as
iL does in Lhe he|b qa|den. Common saqe has q|ay-q|een, sliqhLly downy leaves,
buL Lhe|e a|e also nume|ous oLhe| va|ieLies. 'Fu|pu|ea' has pu|ple leaves,
'T|icolo|' has q|een leaves splashed wiLh pin| and whiLe ma|qins, 'IcLe|ina' has
qold va|ieqaLed leaves, and pineapple saqe LasLes li|e. well, pineapple.
Saqe leaves a|e sL|onqly a|omaLic, and a|e widely used in meaL dishes, sLullnqs,
sauces, and lavo|ed vineqa|s. They can even be deep-l|ied in Lempu|a baLLe|.
(Lop) Leaf cuttîngs ca|elully L|immed
and pushed inLo poLLinq mix should
quic|ly develop Lhei| own |ooLs.
(boLLom) Pînchîng eut grewîng tîps
will encou|aqe dense, bushy q|owLh.
Kew te grew
C|ow winLe| savo|y l|om seeds sown in sp|inq,
o| by p|opaqaLinq l|om esLablished planLs. LilL
and divide Lhem in sp|inq, o| La|e cuLLinqs in
summe| o| ea|ly lall. C|ow summe| savo|y
l|om seeds sown beLween mid-sp|inq and laLe
summe|. BoLh Lypes ol savo|y li|e well-d|ained
soil and plenLy ol sun.
Karvestîng and sterîng
Fic| Lhe leaves belo|e Lhe planLs lowe| and
use Lhem while Lhey a|e l|esh. 0nce lowe|inq
has La|en place, Lhe LasLe deLe|io|aLes and Lhe
planL is besL p|uned ha|d Lo p|omoLe new
q|owLh, o| cuL and hunq upside down so LhaL
Lhe |emaininq leaves d|y.
(Lop) Wînter savery
(boLLom) Summer savery
Savo|y is a small, eve|q|een sh|ub
LhaL has Liny, slende| q|een leaves.
IL loo|s somewhaL li|e Lhyme and
has a simila| Lhouqh sliqhLly mo|e
peppe|y LasLe. The|e a|e Lwo Lypes ol
savo|y. summe| and winLe|. Summe|
savo|y is an annual and has a delicaLe
lavo|. WinLe| savo|y has a much
lonqe| q|owinq season, dense|
loliaqe, and a noLiceably sL|onqe|
LasLe. IL should su|vive mosL winLe|s,
excepL in ve|y seve|e condiLions.
Kew te grew
Sow seeds ouLdoo|s l|om laLe sp|inq onwa|d,
o| p|opaqaLe by dividinq esLablished planLs.
So||el is happy in pa|Lial shade and li|es
|equla| waLe|inq. Il iL d|ies ouL, iL is p|one Lo
bolLinq. 0on'L leL iL lowe| o| seL seed. Il iL does,
cuL iL down almosL Lo soil level, and waiL lo| iL
Lo shooL aqain.
Karvestîng and sterîng
T|eaL so||el as a cuL-and-come-aqain c|op,
pic|inq Lhe leaves as and when you need Lhem.
use Lhem l|esh, as Lhey don'L sLo|e well.
(Lop) Bread-leaved serrel
(boLLom) Buckler-leaved serrel
The|e a|e Lwo main Lypes ol so||el
LhaL a|e q|own as he|bs. Common
o| b|oad-leaved so||el is Lhe Lalle|
ol Lhe Lwo, and has la|qe elonqaLed
leaves li|e doc|. Buc|le|-leaved o|
F|ench so||el is sho|Le| and has
much smalle|, shield-shaped leaves.
BoLh Lypes have a sliqhLly sha|p,
acidic, lemon LasLe. The younq leaves
can be used in soups, sauces, and
Lossed salads.
Fo| use as an he|b, F|ench La||aqon is Lhe va|ieLy Lo q|ow. IL is dille|enL l|om
Russian La||aqon, which-Lhouqh iL q|ows Lalle| and is ha|die|-doesn'L LasLe
as qood. BoLh lo|ms have lonq, na||ow, q|een leaves and, in Lhe case ol F|ench
La||aqon, a mildly peppe|y, aniseed lavo|. Ta||aqon is L|adiLionally used in
chic|en, lsh, and eqq dishes, and lo| lavo|inq wine vineqa|s, mayonnaise,
and sauces such as béa|naise and hollandaise. Alonq wiLh pa|sley and che|vil,
La||aqon is a |ey inq|edienL in Lhe classic F|ench jne· /e//e· mix.
Kew te grew
F|ench La||aqon isn'L available as seeds, so
you have Lo eiLhe| buy |eady-q|own planLs o|
p|opaqaLe iL you|sell by lilLinq and dividinq an
exisLinq planL in sp|inq o| by La|inq cuLLinqs in
midsumme|. IL needs a shelLe|ed, sunny posiLion,
wiLh |ich, well-d|ained soil. 0nce esLablished,
La||aqon Lends Lo sp|ead naLu|ally. AlLhouqh
iL's a pe|ennial, iL may need cove|inq o| mulchinq
wiLh sL|aw o| mush|oom composL il iL is Lo
su|vive a cold winLe|.
Karvestîng and sterîng
CuL whole sLems and sL|ip Lhe leaves l|om
Lhem-aL any Lime beLween laLe sp|inq and
ea|ly lall. Leaves can be l|ozen o| d|ied,
buL Lhey a|e much beLLe| used l|esh.
(lelL) A large strawberry pet ma|es an ideal
ve|Lical he|b qa|den. Alonq wiLh Lhe sL|awbe||y
planL he|e a|e La||aqon and |osema|y aL Lhe Lop,
and qolden ma|jo|am and Lhyme spillinq ouL ol
Lhe side poc|eLs.
(|iqhL) French tarragen
MosL Lhymes a|e eve|q|een pe|ennials LhaL have Liny a|omaLic leaves, buL Lhe
lamily conLains sco|es ol dille|enL species and va|ieLies. Common Lhyme q|ows
lai|ly up|iqhL and is Lhe one mosL olLen used in coo|inq. 0Lhe|s have va|ieqaLed
leaves, lowe|s LhaL may be pin|, pu|ple, o| whiLe, o| even a sp|awlinq o| c|eepinq
habiL. The wonde|lul lemon-scenLed Lhyme does exacLly whaL iLs name suqqesLs.
Alonq wiLh pa|sley and bay, Lhyme is one ol Lhe |ey inq|edienLs in /oa(aet qo/n/.
Kew te grew
Thyme can be q|own l|om seed, buL |eady-q|own planLs a|e
available, and in a wide va|ieLy ol unusual species, Loo. IL's easy Lo
p|opaqaLe planLs you|sell by division, l|om cuLLinqs, o| by laye|inq.
Thyme needs a wa|m, sunny, well-d|ained siLe-in oLhe| wo|ds,
Lhe so|L ol condiLions LhaL a|e lound in MediLe||anean counL|ies,
whe|e iL Lh|ives. IL's a qood idea Lo cuL Lhyme bac| quiLe ha|d
alLe| iL has lowe|ed Lo p|evenL iL l|om becominq Loo sL|aqqly.
Karvestîng and sterîng
Fic| sp|iqs ol leaves-and lowe|s-Lh|ouqhouL Lhe summe|
monLhs. CuL as much as you wanL as olLen as you wanL, since
|equla| ha|vesLinq will p|ompL viqo|ous new q|owLh and
encou|aqe planLs Lo become bushy.
Thyme leaves a|e besL used l|esh, and will |eep lo| a lew
days il sealed in a plasLic baq in Lhe |el|iqe|aLo|. Foweve|, li|e
ma|jo|am o| o|eqano, Lhey can be d|ied ve|y successlully, Loo.
EnLi|e sp|iqs ol leaves can also be p|ese|ved in boLLles o| ja|s
ol lavo|ed oils and vineqa|s.
(cloc|wise l|om Lop lelL)
Varîegated lemen thyme
0emmen thyme
Seme specîes spread naturally,
puLLinq down |ooLs as Lhey sp|awl.
Sow seeds in Lhe c|ac|s beLween Lhe
sLones ol a paLio-Lhey'll soon colonize iL.
Fic| a lew bunches ol leaves
midmo|ninq, alLe| any dew has
d|ied. Tie inLo bunches and hanq
upside down somewhe|e wa|m,
da||, and well-venLilaLed.
SL|ip Lhe d|ied leaves, and
sLo|e in ai|LiqhL ja|s.
11. Vegetable
Year Planner
Knowinq whaL Lo do and when is pa|L ol Lhe sec|eL ol q|owinq veqeLables
successlully. Sow o| planL Loo ea|ly and seeds can lail Lo qe|minaLe o| Lende|
seedlinqs will be |illed oll by l|osL. Leave iL Loo laLe and you| q|owinq season may
be Loo sho|L lo| c|ops Lo |ipen lully. CeLLinq Lhe Liminq |iqhL is one ol Lhe Lhinqs
beqinne|s lnd mosL dillculL. YeL iL's noL as much ol a mysLe|y as iL seems. Il you
have a communiLy qa|den, waLch whaL you| neiqhbo|s a|e doinq, and lea|n l|om
Lhem. Bea| in mind, Loo, LhaL none ol Lhis is a p|ecise science. A q|eaL deal depends
on whe|e you live, on any mic|oclimaLe lacLo|s, and on dille|ences in Lhe weaLhe|
l|om one yea| Lo Lhe nexL. These a|e only |ecommendaLions.
A summer harvest ol eqqplanLs,
peppe|s, zucchini, and lennel.
(Lop) Ferce rhubarb by placinq poLs
on Lop ol Lhe c|owns.
(boLLom) 0hît petatees |eady lo|
planLinq in ea|ly o| mid-sp|inq.
unless Lhe q|ound is l|ozen, conLinue you|
winLe| diqqinq.
Sp|ead well-|oLLed manu|e o| composL ove|
veqeLable beds.
Cove| selecLed a|eas wiLh polyLhene sheeLs
Lo sLa|L wa|minq up Lhe soil.
Sewîng seeds
Indoo|s o| in a heaLed q|eenhouse, sow
onion seeds.
Plantîng eut
FlanL you| l|sL shallot and onion seLs il Lhe
q|ound is noL l|ozen.
keutîne care
Fo|ce rhubarb il new shooLs a|e beqinninq
Lo sp|ouL.
Fic| winLe| cabbages and caulifowers,
Brussels sprouts, kale, and leeks.
LilL |emaininq |ooL veqeLables such as
parsnips, celeriac, and winter radishes.
CuL any su|vivinq winLe| salads such as
corn salad, land cress, komatsuna, mibuna,
and mizuna.
0ther tasks
Buy seed potatoes and sLa|L ¨chiLLinq¨ Lhem.
Buy onion and shallot seLs.
0|de| seeds.
Late wînter
CompleLe you| winLe| diqqinq.
Sp|ead well-|oLLed manu|e o| composL ove|
veqeLable beds.
Ra|e ove| ea|ly seedbeds and cove| Lhem wiLh
qlass o| polyLhene cloches Lo wa|m up Lhe soil.
Sewîng seeds
Indoo|s o| in a heaLed q|eenhouse, sow
onions, lettuces, tomatoes, leeks, peas, and
globe artichokes.
0uLdoo|s unde| cove|, sow broad beans,
ea|ly summe| cabbages, spinach, peas,
and radishes.
Plantîng eut
FlanL shallot and onion seLs, and garlic
il you haven'L al|eady done so.
FlanL Jerusalem artichokes and p|oLecL
wiLh l|ames o| cloches.
FlanL new rhubarb seLs il Lhe q|ound is
noL waLe|loqqed.
keutîne care
Top-d|ess ove|winLe|inq pe|ennial herbs
(bay, |osema|y, Lhyme, saqe, eLc.) q|owinq in
poLs and conLaine|s.
Fic| winLe| cabbages and caulifowers,
kale, sprouting broccoli, leeks, and any
|emaininq Brussels sprouts.
LilL Lhe lasL ol Lhe |ooL veqeLables such
as parsnips and celeriac.
0ther tasks
¨ChiL¨ any |emaininq seed potatoes.
Buy shallot and onion seLs.
0|de| seeds.
(lelL) 0ever seedbeds wîth pelythene
Lo wa|m Lhe soil in p|epa|aLion lo| sowinq
seeds as ea|ly as possible.
(|iqhL) Sew seeds lo| ea|ly c|ops
indoo|s o| unde| cove|.
Fo|| o| |a|e ove| you| veqeLable paLch and
b|ea| up any la|qe clods ol soil. Avoid sLeppinq
on Lhe soil, which will compacL iL il iL is sLill
ve|y weL.
In mild weaLhe|, beqin ha|deninq oll seedlinqs
LhaL have been |aised indoo|s by movinq Lhem
ouLside unde| cove| du|inq Lhe day.
Sewîng seeds
To qive planLs Lhe ea|liesL possible sLa|L and
Lhus Lhe lonqesL possible q|owinq season, you
can sLa|L sowinq seeds now. BuL Lempe|aLu|es
a|e sLill li|ely Lo be low, and Lhe soil sLill cold.
Sow ouLdoo|s, eiLhe| in poLs o| di|ecLly inLo Lhe
q|ound, only il you can p|oLecL planLs wiLh
cloches, l|ames, o| leeces.
Indoo|s o| wiLhin a heaLed q|eenhouse,
sow lettuces, tomatoes, eggplants, sweet
peppers, chili peppers, cucumbers, celery,
celeriac, Florence fennel, peas, sweet corn,
and sweet potato seeds.
0uLdoo|s unde| cove|, sow broad beans,
|ed cabbages, summe| caulifowers, spinach,
kale, Brussels sprouts, onions, leeks, carrots,
turnips, peas, radishes, ea|ly lettuces, and
asparagus seeds.
Plantîng eut
FlanL you| l|sL ea|ly seed potatoes, and
any |emaininq shallot and onion seLs.
FlanL asparagus c|owns and globe
artichoke ollseLs.
T|ansplanL ea|ly summe| caulifower
seedlinqs and p|oLecL wiLh l|ames o| cloches.
keutîne care
Foe any new-season weeds LhaL a|e sLa|Linq
Lo appea|.
F|une old q|owLh l|om pe|ennial herbs such
as |osema|y, Lhyme, and saqe. 0ivide chives.
Sadly, Lhis is pe|haps Lhe leanesL monLh ol Lhe
yea| lo| l|esh p|oduce.
Fic| leeks, sprouting broccoli, and lasL ol kale.
Fa|vesL you| l|sL sp|inq caulifowers,
spinach, 5wiss chard, and spinach beet.
CuL Lhe l|sL ol any ea|ly sp|inq lettuces
q|own unde| cove|.
0ther tasks
F|oLecL broad beans and oLhe| younq
seedlinqs l|om sluqs and snails.
Plant yeur Hrst petatees, seLLinq Lhem up|iqhL in Lhe q|ound
so LhaL Lhe end wiLh Lhe mosL chiLs is uppe|mosL.
Early sprîng
While Lhe q|ound is sLill solL, puL up canes, wiqwams, and
oLhe| suppo|Ls lo| climbe|s such as beans and peas.
Sewîng seeds
By now, Lhe weaLhe| and Lhe soil should be wa|minq up, buL Lhe|e
may be l|osL aL niqhL. Snow is possible in some a|eas. Sowinq
ouLdoo|s may be a qamble, so p|oLecL newly sown seeds and younq
seedlinqs wiLh cloches, l|ames, o| leeces-especially aL niqhL.
Indoo|s o| in a heaLed q|eenhouse, you could ma|e lu|Lhe|
sowinqs ol Lhe same seeds you sowed lasL monLh-buL now add
French beans, runner beans, zucchini, and pumpkins.
0uLdoo|s (unde| cove| il necessa|y), sow 5wiss chard,
spinach beet, summe| and lall cabbages, celeriac, rutabagas,
cucumbers, and land cress, plus ma|e any addiLional sowinqs ol
veqeLables you planLed lasL monLh.
Plantîng eut
FlanL you| second ea|lies and mainc|op seed potatoes.
T|ansplanL seedlinqs ol eggplants, leeks, onions, and
ea|ly summe| cabbages and p|oLecL wiLh l|ames o| cloches.
This monLh is you| lasL chance lo| planLinq onion seLs,
Jerusalem artichokes, and globe artichokes.
keutîne care
Ea|Lh up l|sL ea|ly potatoes.
SLa|L waLe|inq younq seedlinqs and Lhin Lhem ouL il necessa|y.
Foe |equla|ly Lo p|evenL weeds l|om esLablishinq Lhemselves.
The end ol Lhe monLh miqhL jusL b|inq Lhe l|sL asparagus.
Fa|vesL you| l|sL sp|inq cabbages.
ConLinue pic|inq leeks, sp|inq caulifowers, spinach, 5wiss
chard, and spinach beet.
0ther tasks
Top-d|ess veqeLables in poLs, o| L|ansplanL Lo new conLaine|s.
(Lop) Erect wîgwams fer clîmbers
(middle) Pretect seedlîngs wîth a
tunnel cleche
(boLLom) Kee sprîng weeds
F|epa|e |emaininq beds lo| ea|ly summe|
sowinqs and L|ansplanLinq.
Sewîng seeds
0espiLe hiqhe| Lempe|aLu|es and lonqe|,
sunnie| days, ove|niqhL l|osL may sLill be a
Lh|eaL in some a|eas. Il so, p|oLecL Lende|
seedlinqs and younq planLs wiLh cloches,
l|ames, o| leece.
0uLdoo|s (unde| cove| aL niqhL il necessa|y),
sow French beans, runner beans, carrots,
winLe| caulifowers and cabbages, beets, sweet
corn, mizuna, mibuna, and annual herbs, plus
ma|e any addiLional sowinqs ol veqeLables you
planLed lasL monLh.
Plantîng eut
Fa|den oll and beqin Lo planL ouL seedlinqs
you have |aised indoo|s o| ouLside unde|
cove|-lo| example, tomatoes, peppers, chilis,
celery, celeriac, Brussels sprouts, |ed cabbages,
and so on.
FlanL any |emaininq seed potatoes.
FlanL sweet potato slips o| seedlinqs in
specially ea|Lhed-up |idqes o| q|owinq baqs.
FlanL conLaine|s wiLh |eady-q|own herbs.
keutîne care
Weed and waLe| |equla|ly-pa|Licula|ly
planLs in conLaine|s o| q|owinq baqs.
Tie in peas Lo sLic|s o| canes.
Finch ouL Lips ol broad beans in o|de| Lo
discou|aqe aphids.
Ea|Lh up potatoes.
(Lop) Plastîc bettle cleche
(boLLom) Plantîng tematees
Late sprîng
ConLinue pic|inq asparagus-buL p|obably
only unLil Lhe end ol Lhe monLh.
Fa|vesL Lhe l|sL garlic and globe artichokes,
and any ea|ly salad c|ops q|own indoo|s o|
unde| cove|-lo| example, lettuces, arugula,
radishes, and pea shoots.
Fic| rhubarb. SLems LhaL have been lo|ced
will be |eady ea|lie|.
ConLinue pic|inq sp|inq cabbages and
caulifowers, spinach, 5wiss chard, and
spinach beet.
0ther tasks
Fe|Lilize any veqeLables in conLaine|s o|
q|owinq baqs.
Ensu|e LhaL b|assicas (such as cabbages,
caulifowers, and Brussels sprouts) have
colla|s in place Lo p|oLecL Lhem aqainsL
cabbaqe |ooL ly.
E|ecL p|oLecLive ba||ie|s a|ound carrots Lo
deLe| ca||oL ly.
(Lop) Sew runner beans di|ecLly inLo Lhe
q|ound il Lhe|e is no lonqe| any |is| ol l|osL.
(boLLom) Earth up petatees Lo p|oLecL
developinq Lube|s l|om exposu|e Lo Lhe liqhL.
Early summer
Sewîng seeds
unless you live in a ve|y cold climaLe zone-o| you a|e unluc|y-
l|osLs should be ove|. Sow |emaininq seeds o| planL ouL seedlinqs
ol eve|yLhinq you hope Lo ha|vesL du|inq summe| and lall.
0uLdoo|s, sow zucchini, pumpkins, summe| and winLe|
squash, Florence fennel, and chicory, plus anyLhinq else LhaL you
have noL yeL had a chance Lo sow Lhis yea|.
Sow asparagus seeds il you wanL Lo p|opaqaLe new planLs.
Plantîng eut
FlanL ouL cucumber and sweet corn seedlinqs, plus anyLhinq
else |aised indoo|s o| ouLside unde| cove| LhaL has noL yeL been
L|ansplanLed inLo iLs lnal posiLion.
FlanL up herbs you have q|own you|sell l|om seed.
keutîne care
Weed and waLe| |equla|ly-pa|Licula|ly planLs in conLaine|s
o| q|owinq baqs. You miqhL wanL Lo le|Lilize Lhem, Loo.
Thin ouL new seedlinqs il Lhey become ove|c|owded.
Add an o|qanic mulch a|ound planLs Lo help |eLain moisLu|e.
Tie climbinq French and runner beans in Lo Lhei| cane suppo|Ls.
0ependinq on Lhe weaLhe|, sLa|L ha|vesLinq peas, broad beans,
green onions, and ea|ly summe| cabbages and caulifowers.
You should be able Lo lilL you| l|sL new potatoes, onions,
carrots, turnips, and beets.
ConLinue ha|vesLinq rhubarb, garlic, and globe artichokes,
as well as salad c|ops q|own unde| cove|.
0ther tasks
NeL cabbages and oLhe| b|assicas Lo p|oLecL Lhem l|om bi|ds
and caLe|pilla|-layinq buLLe|lies.
Feed asparagus planLs wiLh a qene|al-pu|pose le|Lilize| now
you'|e no lonqe| pic|inq spea|s, buL don'L cuL Lhem down unLil lall.
0se twîgs Lo p|oLecL cabbaqes l|om bi|ds.
(Lop) Plant eut seedîngs
(middle) Water regularly Lo p|evenL
seedlinqs l|om d|yinq ouL.
(boLLom) Karvest Hrst turnîps
Sewîng seeds
0uLdoo|s, ma|e addiLional sowinqs ol
¨successional¨ c|ops-Lhose lo| which you
wanL a conLinuous ha|vesL |aLhe| Lhan a qluL-
in pa|Licula|, lettuces and oLhe| salad leaves,
radishes, French and runner beans, and spinach.
Plantîng eut
FlanL ouL any |emaininq seedlinqs |aised
du|inq Lhe sp|inq and ea|ly summe|.
keutîne care
Weed and waLe| |equla|ly-pa|Licula|ly
planLs in conLaine|s o| q|owinq baqs.
Finch ouL sideshooLs and q|owinq Lips ol
ouLdoo| tomatoes, and leed Lhem wiLh a liquid
LomaLo le|Lilize|.
Remove Lhe Lip ol Lhe leadinq shooL il climbinq
beans have |eached Lhe Lop ol suppo|Ls.
Ea|Lh up Brussels sprouts and oLhe|
b|assicas il Lhei| sLems a|e unsLeady.
Blanch cu|ly endives belo|e ha|vesLinq.
You should be able Lo pic| you| l|sL c|ops ol
French and runner beans, celery, |ed cabbages,
and zucchini, as well as ouLdoo| tomatoes,
lettuces, eggplants, peppers, and chilis.
ConLinue pic|inq peas, broad beans, spinach,
and summe| cabbages.
LilL second ea|ly potatoes and Lhe l|sL ol
you| mainc|ops.
LilL lu|Lhe| c|ops ol onions, shallots, garlic,
carrots, turnips, and beets.
0ther tasks
CuL down any pea o| broad bean planLs LhaL
a|e lnished c|oppinq, buL leave Lhe |ooLs in Lhe
soil Lo dispe|se Lhe niL|oqen Lhey conLain.
To p|evenL bliqhL, sp|ay potatoes and
tomatoes wiLh a coppe|-based lunqicide such
as Bo|deaux mixLu|e o| wiLh mancozeb.
Ta|e cuLLinqs il you wanL Lo p|opaqaLe
pe|ennial herbs.
Pînch eut sîdesheets LhaL appea| in Lhe ¨v¨ beLween leal
sLems and Lhe main sLem ol vine LomaLoes.
Take resemary cuttîngs and planL Lhem in poLs so LhaL Lhey
develop new |ooL sysLems.
Late summer
Sow q|een manu|e c|ops on a|eas ol you| qa|den whe|e you
no lonqe| have anyLhinq q|owinq.
Sewîng seeds
0uLdoo|s, sow seeds lo| sp|inq cabbages, and ma|e lu|Lhe|
successional sowinqs ol spinach, corn salad, land cress, and
Asian salad leaves.
keutîne care
Weed and waLe| |equla|ly-pa|Licula|ly planLs in conLaine|s
o| q|owinq baqs.
Top oll o|qanic mulch a|ound planLs Lo help |eLain moisLu|e.
Full up any lettuces o| oLhe| salad c|ops LhaL have bolLed.
You| l|sL sweet corn should be |eady lo| ha|vesLinq, alonq
wiLh ouLdoo|-q|own cucumbers.
ConLinue pic|inq French and runner beans, celery, |ed cabbages,
zucchini, peas, broad beans, spinach, summe| cabbages and
caulifowers, and ouLdoo| tomatoes, lettuces, eggplants,
peppers, and chili peppers.
LilL lu|Lhe| mainc|op potatoes, onions, shallots, garlic,
carrots, turnips, and beets.
0ther tasks
0eadhead lowe|inq herbs.
(Lop) Karvest maîncrep carrets,
lilLinq Lhem wiLh a lo|| il Lhe |ooLs a|e
ve|y lonq.
(boLLom) Pîck ceurgettes eve|y day aL
Lhe heiqhL ol Lhe season.
Early fall
EmpLy exisLinq composL piles so LhaL you
have |oom Lo accommodaLe Lhis season's mass
ol spenL planL maLe|ial.
Sewîng seeds
0uLdoo|s, Lhis is p|obably Lhe lasL monLh
lo| sowinq spinach and Asian salad seeds.
Plantîng eut
FlanL ouL sp|inq cabbage seedlinqs |eady
lo| Lhem Lo ove|winLe|.
keutîne care
Remove any dead loliaqe and clea| away
planLs LhaL a|e lnished c|oppinq.
This is p|obably Lhe end ol Lhe season lo|
summe| caulifowers, onions, and rhubarb.
ConLinue pic|inq French and runner beans,
zucchini, peas, spinach, summe| cabbages
and caulifowers, leeks, sweet corn, and
ouLdoo| tomatoes, lettuces, chicory, and
oLhe| salad leaves, eggplants, peppers, chili
peppers, and cucumbers.
LilL you| l|sL Florence fennel, parsnips,
rutabagas, and celeriac, and lu|Lhe| mainc|op
potatoes, carrots, turnips, and beets.
0ther tasks
CuL down asparagus loliaqe as soon as iL
sLa|Ls Lo Lu|n yellow.
Cu|e ha|vesLed pumpkins and squash by
leavinq Lhem in Lhe sun.
CuL down Lhe loliaqe on potatoes p|io| Lo
lilLinq Lhem.
0ure pumpkîns and wînter squash
by leavinq Lhem in Lhe sun so LhaL Lhei|
s|ins ha|den. Il Lhe weaLhe| Lu|ns weL,
b|inq Lhem indoo|s and sLo|e on
sL|aw-cove|ed shelves.
Sow q|een manu|e c|ops lo| ove|winLe|inq.
0iq in q|een manu|e sown in laLe summe|.
Sewîng seeds
0uLdoo|s, sow seeds lo| nexL yea|'s ea|ly summe| caulifowers.
Plantîng eut
FlanL garlic lo| nexL yea|.
0ivide rhubarb c|owns and planL new seLs.
keutîne care
Clea| away Lhe |emains ol any planLs LhaL a|e lnished c|oppinq.
Ta|e down canes and suppo|Ls.
Remove any yellow o| diseased leaves l|om cabbages and
Brussels sprouts.
Il you a|e luc|y wiLh Lhe weaLhe| and have noL yeL had a l|osL,
you may sLill be able Lo ha|vesL peas, tomatoes, cucumbers,
sweet corn, French beans, runner beans, eggplants, peppers,
chili peppers, and sweet potatoes.
Belo|e Lhe l|sL l|osL, aim Lo pic| all you| zucchini, pumpkins,
and squashes.
ConLinue pic|inq spinach, 5wiss chard, lall cabbages, leeks,
Florence fennel, lettuces, chicory, and oLhe| salad leaves.
LilL lu|Lhe| c|ops ol |ooL veqeLables such as potatoes, carrots,
turnips, parsnips, rutabagas, celeriac, and beets.
0ther tasks
CuL Jerusalem artichokes down Lo Lhe q|ound.
LilL Belqian chicory lo| lo|cinq and blanchinq.
(Lop) 0îg în green manure Lo |eLu|n
nuL|ienLs Lo Lhe soil.
(boLLom) Lîft Belgîan chîcery in
p|epa|aLion lo| lo|cinq iL Lo p|oduce
blanched whiLe ¨chicons.¨
Late fall
SLa|L diqqinq well-|oLLed composL o| manu|e
inLo any clea|ed veqeLable beds.
Sewîng seeds
0uLdoo|s, sow broad bean seeds lo| nexL
yea|'s c|op. They should ove|winLe| happily.
In a|eas wiLh mild winLe|s, sow peas and |eep
Lhem unde| l|ames o| cloches.
Plantîng eut
Il you haven'L al|eady done so, divide
rhubarb and planL garlic.
Meve perennîal herbs q|owinq in conLaine|s inLo a spoL LhaL is
shelLe|ed l|om excessive winLe| wind and |ain.
keutîne care
ConLinue clea|inq away Lhe |emains ol any
planLs LhaL have lnished c|oppinq.
SLa|L ha|vesLinq winLe| cabbages, kale,
Brussels sprouts, and winter radishes.
ConLinue pic|inq spinach, 5wiss chard,
leeks, and Florence fennel.
LilL lu|Lhe| c|ops ol |ooL veqeLables such
as carrots, turnips, parsnips, rutabagas,
and celeriac.
You may sLill be able Lo pic| a lew lettuces
and oLhe| salad leaves, Lhouqh Lhey may need
p|oLecLion wiLh leece, l|ames, o| cloches.
0ther tasks
Move any Lende| pe|ennial herbs q|owinq in
conLaine|s unde| cove| o| inLo a shelLe|ed spoL
lo| Lhe winLe|.
0îvîde rhubarb by slicinq oll ¨seLs¨ l|om Lhe c|own ol an
esLablished planL and |eplanLinq Lhem.
Early wînter
ConLinue diqqinq ove| clea|ed veqeLable
beds and addinq well-|oLLed composL o|
manu|e Lo imp|ove Lhe soil.
Plantîng eut
Il you haven'L al|eady done so, divide
rhubarb and planL garlic.
keutîne care
Finish clea|inq away Lhe |emains ol any
planLs LhaL have lnished c|oppinq.
0o some pF LesLs on you| soil and add lime
il necessa|y.
SLa|L ha|vesLinq winLe| caulifowers.
ConLinue Lo pic| lall and winLe|
cabbages, Brussels sprouts, leeks, kale,
and winter radishes.
LilL Jerusalem artichokes and lu|Lhe| c|ops
ol |ooL veqeLables such as carrots, turnips,
parsnips, rutabagas, and celeriac.
The only salad leaves li|ely Lo be lelL by now
a|e corn salad, land cress, komatsuna, mibuna,
and mizuna.
0ther tasks
Chec| lall-ha|vesLed veqeLables LhaL you
have in sLo|aqe and Lh|ow away any LhaL
a|e |oLLinq.
(Lop) Enrîch the seîl by diqqinq iL ove| and wo||inq in plenLy ol
o|qanic maLe|ial such as composL o| manu|e.
(boLLom) 0lear away any old planL maLe|ial and add iL Lo Lhe
composL pile. IL will |oL down ove| Lhe winLe|.
12. Vegetable
AL Limes, q|owinq veqeLables can leel li|e an uphill sL|uqqle. A ba||aqe ol pesLs,
pa|asiLes, diseases, and diso|de|s seem inLenL on |illinq oll Lhe planLs on which
you have lavished such Lende| lovinq ca|e. Any docLo| will Lell you LhaL qood
nuL|iLion and a healLhy lilesLyle help wa|d oll illness. The same is L|ue ol planLs-
sL|onq, healLhy ones a|e less li|ely Lo qeL sic|, and a|e beLLe| able Lo wiLhsLand
aLLac|s l|om pesLs. IL may be a cliché, buL p|evenLion |eally is Lhe besL cu|e.
0l cou|se, a diseased planL o| one inlesLed wiLh pa|asiLes will need
L|eaLmenL. In Lhis chapLe| you will lnd deLails ol Lhe mosL ellecLive and app|op|iaLe
cu|es and medicines. Some a|e o|qanic, and some a|e noL, only you can decide
jusL how ecoloqically sound you wanL Lo be.
All plants need water - buL noL Loo
much o| you'll quiLe liLe|ally d|own Lhem.
CeLLinq Lhe balance |iqhL is c|ucial.
0nhealthy dîets
JusL as humans sLa|ved ol essenLial viLamins develop diseases such as scu|vy
and |ic|eLs, so planLs denied Lhei| necessa|y nuL|ienLs may lail Lo q|ow p|ope|ly
and will exhibiL sympLoms ol malnuL|iLion. Such diso|de|s can loo| ve|y li|e
diseases. AcLually, mosL soils conLain all Lhe essenLial mine|als and elemenLs
LhaL planLs need Lo lou|ish, buL someLimes chemical imbalances occu| and
planLs cannoL abso|b Lhem p|ope|ly-pe|haps because Lhe soil is Loo acidic o|
al|aline (·ee µ4Z), o| because iL conLains Loo much le|Lilize|. An excess ol poLash,
lo| example, ma|es iL ha|d lo| planLs Lo La|e up maqnesium l|om Lhe soil.
Majer nutrîents
The mosL impo|LanL Lh|ee elemenLs lo| planL
q|owLh a|e niL|oqen (N), phospho|ous (F), and
poLassium (K). FlanLs need a plenLilul supply ol
all ol Lhese Lo q|ow healLhily. They also need
calcium and maqnesium in smalle| quanLiLies.
These a|e all nuL|ienLs you should conside|
addinq Lo you| soil.
0alcîum defîcîency
AllecLs veqeLables lisLed below.
Cabbaqes and oLhe| b|assicas. inne| leaves
Lu|n b|own.
Ca||oLs. discolo|ed spoLs, c|ac|s, and c|aLe|s
in Lhe |ooLs.
Cele|y. cenL|al leaves Lu|n blac|.
LeLLuces. leal Lips qo b|own and loo| sco|ched.
FoLaLoes. leaves |oll up and shooLs qeL spindly.
TomaLoes/peppe|s. ·ee Blossom end |oL (µJ?ó)
Prevention and control
In acidic soil, calcium levels may be low, o| il
Lhe soil is d|y, planLs may be unable Lo abso|b
iL. WaLe| |equla|ly and apply a su|lace mulch
Lo encou|aqe moisLu|e |eLenLion. Lime Lhe soil
Lo inc|ease Lhe pF level (·ee µ4Z).
Magnesîum defîcîency
AllecLs poLaLoes, LomaLoes, leLLuces, and
cabbaqes and oLhe| b|assicas.
Leaves a|e yellow beLween Lhe veins and
a|ound Lhe edqes due Lo insullcienL
maqnesium Lo p|oduce q|een chlo|ophyll.
Yellow a|eas may Lu|n |ed, pu|ple, o| b|own.
Prevention and control
Maqnesium is easily washed ouL ol liqhL soil by
heavy |ain. Levels may also be low in acidic soil
o| when poLash le|Lilize|s have been used Lo
inc|ease Lhe amounLs ol poLassium. Apply
Epsom salLs (maqnesium sullaLe) as
a lolia| sp|ay o| sp|ead ove| Lhe soil.
Nîtregen defîcîency
AllecLs all veqeLables, excepL peas and beans,
which abso|b Lhei| own niL|oqen l|om Lhe ai|.
Leaves a|e pale q|een o| yellow due Lo
insullcienL chlo|ophyll. Some may even Lu|n
pin|, |ed, o| pu|ple. 0lde| leaves nea| Lhe base
ol Lhe planL Lend Lo be Lhe wo|sL allecLed.
FlanLs a|e smalle| Lhan no|mal, and pe|haps
spindly o| sLunLed.
Prevention and control
Feavily c|opped, liqhL soil LhaL lac|s o|qanic maLLe| miqhL sulle|,
as miqhL conLaine| planLs. Feavy |ain will ma|e Lhe p|oblem wo|se.
Add loLs ol well-|oLLed composL, manu|e, o| oLhe| o|qanic maLe|ial,
and/o| some hiqh-niL|oqen le|Lilize|. FlanL some q|een manu|es
(·ee µ50) LhaL La|e niL|oqen l|om Lhe ai| and ¨lx¨ iL in Lhe soil.
C|ow peas and beans, which don'L need niL|oqen-|ich soils.
Phesphereus defîcîency
AllecLs all veqeLables.
Fhospho|ous sLimulaLes quic|-q|owinq shooLs and |ooLs, wiLhouL
iL, planLs q|ow poo|ly and may be slow Lo lowe| and l|uiL. Leaves
may Lu|n yellow, blue-q|een, o| pu|ple and may d|op p|emaLu|ely.
Prevention and control
Fhospho|ous delciency is |a|e. IL's mosL li|ely in acidic soil, heavy
clay, o| deep peaL alLe| pe|iods ol p|olonqed heavy |ain. Add a
supe|phosphaLe le|Lilize| o| o|qanic bonemeal.
Petassîum defîcîency
AllecLs many planLs-pa|Licula|ly poLaLoes and LomaLoes.
FoLassium helps planLs abso|b waLe| and phoLosynLhesize.
WiLhouL enouqh ol iL, leaves cu|l, Lu|n yellow, sco|ch aL Lhe edqes,
and may have pu|ple-b|own spoLs unde|neaLh. Flowe|inq is poo|,
l|uiLs a|e small, and planLs may be mo|e vulne|able Lo disease.
TomaLoes may noL |ipen evenly.
Prevention and control
FoLassium delciency is mosL li|ely in liqhL, sandy soil LhaL
does noL conLain much clay. Add sullaLe ol poLash le|Lilize|.
ComposLed b|ac|en o| coml|ey will help |esLo|e levels, Loo.
(l|om Lop) Magnesîum deHcîency, phesphereus deHcîency,
petassîum deHcîency, nîtregen deHcîency
(l|om Lop) 0epper deHcîency, beren deHcîency,
manganese deHcîency, melybdenum deHcîency
Mîner nutrîents
SomeLimes called mic|onuL|ienLs o| L|ace elemenLs, Lhese a|e
jusL as impo|LanL as Lhe majo| ones, buL a|en'L needed in such
la|qe quanLiLies. 0elciencies can be se|ious, buL someLimes can
be dillculL Lo diaqnose.
Beren defîcîency
AllecLs |ooL veqeLables, cabbaqes, caulilowe|s, cele|y, leLLuces,
and sweeL co|n.
BeeLs. |ouqh, dead paLches on Lhe s|in, and Lhe hea|L may |oL.
Cabbaqes. leaves a|e disLo|Led, sLems become hollow.
Ca||oLs. |ooLs spliL and co|e Lu|ns q|ay, leaves Lu|n yellow o| pin|.
Caulilowe|. b|own paLches appea| on heads, and sLems and
sLal|s become |ouqh.
Cele|y. sLems sLa|L Lo c|ac| and Lu|n |ed o| b|own inside.
LeLLuces. hea|Ls lail Lo lo|m.
Radishes. s|in spliLs and Lhe veqeLable becomes woody.
RuLabaqas and Lu|nips. |ooLs develop ¨b|own hea|L¨-Lhey Lu|n
b|own o| q|ay inside, someLimes in concenL|ic |inqs.
SweeL co|n. |e|nels may noL develop p|ope|ly.
Prevention and control
Bo|on can be washed ouL ol liqhL soil by heavy |ain. Levels may be
low in ve|y d|y o| |ecenLly limed soil. Mix bo|ax wiLh ho|LiculLu|al
sand and |a|e iL inLo Lhe soil belo|e you sow o| planL new c|ops.
0epper defîcîency
AllecLs all veqeLables.
Coppe| delciency is ha|d Lo diaqnose. Leaves may Lu|n yellow o|
blue-q|een, and Lhe planL may die bac|.
Prevention and control
Coppe| delciency is |a|e. IL's mosL li|ely in peaLy and oLhe| acidic
soils. T|y addinq a mulLipu|pose le|Lilize|.
1ren defîcîency
AllecLs all veqeLables.
Leaves Lu|n yellow o| b|own, sLa|Linq aL Lhe edqes, Lhen
sp|eadinq in beLween Lhe veins. New leaves a|e wo|sL allecLed.
Prevention and control
IL's |a|e Lo lnd soil LhaL is L|uly sho|L ol i|on. hiqh levels ol calcium
in |ecenLly limed o| ve|y al|aline soils p|evenL planLs l|om abso|binq
Lhe i|on Lhe|e is. Inc|ease Lhe soil's acidiLy by usinq sullu| o|
aluminum sullaLe and le||ous sullaLe belo|e you sow o| planL, o|
sp|ead an acidic mulch ol pine needles o| chopped conile| ba||.
0| buy special chelaLed o| sequesLe|ed i|on mixLu|es LhaL p|ovide
planLs wiLh i|on in a |eadily available lo|m.
Manganese defîcîency
AllecLs a wide |anqe ol planLs-pa|Licula|ly peas and beans,
beeLs, pa|snips, onions, poLaLoes, and spinach.
Leaves Lu|n yellow in beLween Lhe veins, and b|own spoLs o|
paLches may appea|. New leaves a|e wo|sL allecLed.
Prevention and control
MosL common in acidic, peaLy soil o| poo|ly d|ained, sandy soil.
Avoid addinq lime Lo soil whe|e Lhe p|oblem has been idenLiled.
Sp|ay allecLed planLs wiLh manqanese sullaLe soluLion.
Melybdenum defîcîency
AllecLs caulilowe|s, sp|ouLinq b|occoli, and oLhe| b|assicas.
Leaves Lu|n yellow and a|e Lhin, na||ow, and sL|inqy-qivinq |ise
Lo Lhe Le|ms b|assica ¨whipLail¨ and ¨wi|e sLem.¨ Feads may be
ve|y small o| may compleLely lail Lo develop.
Prevention and control
Acidic soils may p|evenL abso|pLion, which allecLs how niL|oqen
is p|ocessed, Lhis will allecL q|owLh. Add lime Lo acidic soil Lo
inc|ease Lhe pF, o| avoid q|owinq b|assicas Lhe|e. Sp|ay allecLed
planLs o| soil wiLh ammonium o| sodium molybdaLe soluLion.
Tee lîttle water, which Lhis
spinach is sulle|inq l|om, causes
planLs Lo sLa|ve, because Lhey can'L
abso|b soil nuL|ienLs. Thei| q|owLh
slows, leaves d|oop and Lu|n a
sic|ly yellow colo|, and |esisLance
Lo pesLs and diseases d|ops.
uN0ER- AN0
Tee much water causes planLs
Lo (quiLe liLe|ally) d|own. The |ooLs
cannoL La|e in ai|, so Lhey sLop
wo||inq and may |oL. Leaves wilL,
Lissue dies, and Lhe planL becomes
suscepLible Lo disease. A sudden
inc|ease in waLe| alLe| a p|olonqed
d|y pe|iod can p|oduce such |apid
q|owLh LhaL s|ins spliL. 0amp
condiLions will also aLL|acL sluqs
and snails.
0îseases and dîserders
MosL planL diseases a|e caused by lunqi, vi|uses, o| bacLe|ia. 0l Lhe Lh|ee, lunqal
diseases a|e p|obably Lhe mosL common and bacLe|ial diseases Lhe leasL common.
In all Lh|ee cases, mic|oo|qanisms (o| paLhoqens) invade Lhe planL and L|iqqe| a
va|ieLy ol sympLoms. SomeLimes Lhese a|e supe|lcial (sliqhLly discolo|ed
loliaqe, o| spoLs on a lew leaves, lo| example) and can be L|eaLed il idenLiled in
Lime. In seve|e cases, whe|e planLs a|e badly inlecLed o| Lhe disease has sp|ead
widely, q|owLh will be inhibiLed o| dis|upLed so se|iously LhaL Lhey wilL and die.
Kew dîseases spread
unde|sLandinq how diseases sp|ead is an
impo|LanL pa|L ol lea|ninq how Lo salequa|d
aqainsL Lhem. Funqal inlecLions a|e usually
L|ansmiLLed l|om one planL Lo anoLhe| by
spo|es (li|e Lhose LhaL an o|dina|y mush|oom
deposiLs). The spo|es may be blown in Lhe ai|
o| sp|ead by Lhe splashinq ol |ain o| waLe|
l|om a qa|den hose o| waLe|inq can.
The same qoes lo| bacLe|ia, alLhouqh Lhey
may also be L|anspo|Led by animal o| insecL
¨ca||ie|s.¨ vi|uses sp|ead via inlecLed sap,
which is olLen ca||ied by animals and insecLs.
Mo|eove|, il Lhe sap qeLs on Lo Lools such as
p|une|s, iL can Lu|n Lhe p|ocess ol p|uninq o|
La|inq cuLLinqs inLo an epidemic. vi|uses may
also be passed on l|om one planL qene|aLion Lo
Lhe nexL in inlecLed seeds.
(la| lelL) 0rep retatîen is wo|Lhwhile even in a small bed.
(lelL) 0se new er sterîlîzed pets and l|esh poLLinq mix
Lo help p|evenL dampinq oll.
Treatîng the sîck
Ce|Lain lunqal diseases may be L|eaLable-
o| aL leasL p|evenLable-by usinq lunqicides.
Comme|cially p|oduced lunqicides a|e eiLhe|
¨conLacL¨ o| ¨sysLemic.¨
ConLacL lunqicides a|e sp|ayed o| dusLed
all ove| Lhe planLs and |ill lunqal spo|es wiLh
which Lhey come in conLacL as Lhe spo|es
qe|minaLe. unlo|LunaLely, LhaL means Lhey may
noL be ol much use in L|eaLinq lunqal q|owLhs
LhaL have al|eady esLablished Lhemselves
SysLemic lunqicides a|e La|en inside a
planL and ci|culaLe wiLhin iLs sysLem via Lhe
sap. They |ill lunqi LhaL acLually live inside
Lhe inLe|nal planL Lissues.
Commonly used lunqicides include Bo|deaux
mixLu|e and oLhe| coppe|-based compounds,
ca|bendazim, mancozeb, and sullu|. use Lhem
all wiLh ca|e.
NoL much can be done lo| a planL wiLh a
vi|al disease. IL should simply be |emoved and
desL|oyed, and ca|e should be La|en noL Lo leL
Lhe condiLions in which iL Loo| hold pe|sisL.
WiLh bacLe|ial diseases, p|ompL acLion is
c|ucial. Il you caLch Lhe disease ea|ly, and
|emove any inlecLed planL maLe|ial, you may
be luc|y. 0Lhe|wise, p|evenLion is Lhe besL cu|e.

Two Lhinqs mo|e Lhan any oLhe| conL|ibuLe Lo
Lhe sp|ead ol disease. The l|sL is open wounds
o| damaqed Lissue in Lhe leaves o| sLems ol a
planL. 0lLen Lhis is how diseases enLe| iL in
Lhe l|sL place. The second is a damp, humid
aLmosphe|e. MosL diseases and diso|de|s Lh|ive
in wa|m, weL, sLaqnanL condiLions, whe|e Lhey
will |eplicaLe only Loo |eadily.
Fe|e a|e some simple do's and don'Ls LhaL
should help you |eep diseases aL bay.
0on'L ove|c|owd planLs. Cive Lhem space
so LhaL ai| can ci|culaLe a|ound Lhem l|eely.
Weed, waLe|, and il necessa|y le|Lilize
|equla|ly. FealLhy planLs a|e mo|e li|ely Lo
be able Lo wa|d oll disease.
0isinlecL Lools belo|e and alLe| use il you
a|e wo||inq wiLh inlecLed planLs-especially
Lhose wiLh a vi|al disease.
use clean seed L|ays and poLs lo| sowinq
seeds and L|ansplanLinq.
use l|esh soil o| poLLinq mix.
AlLhouqh savinq and |ecyclinq waLe| is
ecoloqically sound, |ain ba||els can ha|bo|
disease-causinq mic|oo|qanisms. When
dealinq wiLh vulne|able seedlinqs and younq
planLs, Lap waLe| is sale|.
Clea| away all planL deb|is aL Lhe end ol Lhe
season, and bu|n anyLhinq LhaL you suspecL
miqhL be inlecLed. 0on'L |is| puLLinq iL on Lhe
composL pile.
Follow a c|op-|oLaLion plan (·ee µµ?0-?I) Lo
discou|aqe |ecu||enL diseases l|om buildinq
up in Lhe same a|eas.
(l|om Lop) Bacterîal leaf spet, blessem end ret, checelate spet, clubreet
Bacterîal leaf spet
AllecLs va|ious veqeLables-pa|Licula|ly b|assicas and cucumbe|s.
Leaves develop q|ay o| b|own spoLs o| paLches ol dead leal Lissue,
olLen wiLh a b|iqhL yellow ¨halo.¨ As Lhese sp|ead, Lhe leaves die.
0auses and treatment
BacLe|ia aLLac| Lhe leal Lissue, olLen enLe|inq via damaqed a|eas.
They sp|ead via |ain o| splashinq du|inq waLe|inq. CauqhL ea|ly,
Lhe disease is unli|ely Lo be laLal. Remove and desL|oy inlecLed
leaves, and waLe| Lhe soil a|ound Lhe planL |aLhe| Lhan iLs loliaqe.
Blîght ·ee poLaLo bliqhL (µI0º) onJ LomaLo bliqhL (µ??ó)
Blessem end ret ·ee LomaLoes (µ??ó)
Betrytîs ·ee leLLuces (µI88)
0hecelate spet ·ee b|oad beans (µIZZ)
0lubreet ·ee cabbaqes (µZ8)
0rewn ret ·ee |huba|b (µ?ZI)
0ucumber mesaîc vîrus ·ee cucumbe|s (µ?JZ)
0ampîng eff
AllecLs all younq seedlinqs.
RooLs and sLem bases da||en in colo| and |oL. Seedlinqs Lhen
collapse and die. Some seeds may noL qe|minaLe aL all.
Caused by a lunqus in Lhe soil, which sp|eads |apidly in damp,
poo|ly venLilaLed condiLions, and can desL|oy whole seed L|ays ol
younq planLs. 0nce Lhe disease has La|en hold, Lhe|e is no
L|eaLmenL. 0iscou|aqe iL by noL sowinq seeds densely, by usinq
l|esh poLLinq mix and sc|upulously clean seed L|ays o| poLs, by
ensu|inq qood venLilaLion, and by avoidinq ove|waLe|inq. Sp|ayinq
wiLh a coppe|-based lunqicide may help, Loo.
(l|om Lop) 0ucumber mesaîc vîrus, dampîng eff, feet and reet ret, fungal leaf spet
0ewny mîldew
AllecLs a wide |anqe ol veqeLables-pa|Licula|ly leLLuces, onions,
|ooL veqeLables, and cabbaqes and oLhe| b|assicas.
Yellow o| b|own paLches develop on Lhe uppe| su|lace ol leaves,
wiLh whiLe lully mold on Lhe unde|side, and leaves die. 0nce Lhe
planL is wea|ened, q|ay mold (·ee µI88) may lollow.
0auses and treatment
Caused by lunqi LhaL li|e damp, humid condiLions. 0esL|oy inlecLed
leaves, and sp|ay wiLh a lunqicide li|e mancozeb. 0iscou|aqe by
sowinq Lhinly Lo |eep ai| ci|culaLinq, and noL ove|waLe|inq.
Feet and reet rets
AllecL aspa|aqus, cele|y, LomaLoes, cucumbe|s, zucchini, peas,
and beans.
Il Lhe planL sLem base is inlecLed, iL da||ens and Lissues sh|in|
and die. Leaves and sLems will wilL, Lu|n yellow o| b|own, and die.
InlecLed |ooLs may Lu|n blac| o| b|own and b|ea| up o| |oL.
0auses and treatment
Caused by lunqi LhaL live in soil and sLandinq waLe|. 0nce Lhe
disease has La|en hold, Lhe|e is no L|eaLmenL. Remove and desL|oy
inlecLed planLs and soil. 0iscou|aqe by usinq l|esh poLLinq mix and
clean seed L|ays. C|op |oLaLion will help avoid |ecu||ence.
Fungal leaf spet
AllecLs va|ious-pa|Licula|ly beeLs, cele|iac, and cele|y.
Leaves develop spoLs ol dead Lissue, pe|haps in concenL|ic q|ay
o| b|own |inqs. SpoLs may sp|ead and join, allecLinq la|qe a|eas
ol leaves. Tiny blac| o| b|own q|owLhs a|e Lhe LellLale siqn LhaL
Lhe disease is lunqal |aLhe| Lhan bacLe|ial leal spoL.
0auses and treatment
A |anqe ol dille|enL lunqi aLLac| Lhe leal Lissues-some La|qeL
specilc veqeLables. CauqhL ea|ly, Lhe disease is unli|ely Lo be
laLal. Remove and desL|oy inlecLed leaves. 0on'L leave any lyinq
a|ound aL Lhe end ol Lhe yea|, o| Lhe spo|es may su|vive Lhe
winLe|. Funqicides such as ca|bendazim o| mancozeb may help.
0ray meld ·ee leLLuces (µI88)
Kale blîght
AllecLs dwa|l F|ench and |unne| beans.
Leaves develop da|| spoLs each wiLh a b|iqhL yellow ¨halo¨
a|ound iL. They Lhen Lu|n yellow beLween Lhe veins. As Lhe yellow
a|eas sp|ead, Lhe leaves die. InlecLed pods develop q|ay paLches.
0auses and treatment
Caused by bacLe|ia LhaL may have lain do|manL in Lhe seed. IL
sp|eads via |ain o| waLe| l|om a can o| hose splashinq l|om one
leal Lo Lhe nexL. ImmediaLely |emove and desL|oy inlecLed planLs,
includinq seeds. Ca|elully waLe| Lhe soil a|ound any planLs LhaL
appea| unallecLed |aLhe| Lhan splashinq Lhe loliaqe l|om above.
Keney fungus ·ee |huba|b (µ?ZI)
Leek rust ·ee lee|s (µI55)
0nîen neckJwhîte ret ·ee onions (µI44)
Parsnîp canker ·ee pa|snips (µI?4)
Pea leafJped spet ·ee peas (µIó4)
Petate black leg ·ee poLaLoes (µI0º)
Petate blîght ·ee poLaLoes (µI0º)
Petate cemmen scab ·ee poLaLoes (µI0º)
Petate pewdery scab ·ee poLaLoes (µI0º)
Pewdery mîldew
AllecLs a wide |anqe ol veqeLables.
A whiLe powde|y coaLinq ol mildew appea|s on uppe| (and olLen
lowe|) su|lace ol leaves. IL may Lu|n sliqhLly pu|ple. Leaves qo
yellow and lall oll. C|owLh is impai|ed, and Lhe planL may die.
(l|om Lop) Kale blîght, heney fungus, leek rust, enîen whîte ret
0auses and treatment
The lunqi Lh|ive in d|y soil. spo|es sp|ead via wind and |ain-splash.
Remove and desL|oy inlecLed leaves, and sp|ay wiLh a sysLemic
lunqicide. Sow Lhinly lo| qood ai| ci|culaLion, and waLe| |equla|ly.
khîzectenîa ·ee Flo|ence lennel (µIJº)
kust ·ee lee| |usL (µI55)
Scleretînîa ·ee Je|usalem a|Licho|es (µ?ó5)
Temate blîght ·ee LomaLoes (µ??ó)
Temate ghest spet ·ee LomaLoes (µ??ó)
Vîelet reet ret
AllecLs aspa|aqus, cele|y, and |ooL veqeLables such as ca||oLs,
beeLs, pa|snips, and poLaLoes.
Tube|s and |ooLs a|e cove|ed in a mass ol pu|ple Lh|eads Lo which
soil sLic|s. Blac|, velveLy lunqal q|owLhs appea|, and |ooLs miqhL
|oL. Above q|ound, inlecLed planLs discolo| and q|ow poo|ly.
0auses and treatment
The lunqus Lh|ives in wa|m, weL, acidic soils, olLen lo| yea|s.
The|e is no L|eaLmenL lo| Lhe disease, and iL can be dillculL Lo
e|adicaLe. ImmediaLely |emove and desL|oy inlecLed planLs and
Lhei| soil. F|acLice c|op |oLaLion Lo L|y Lo discou|aqe |ecu||ence.
Whîte blîster
AllecLs cabbaqes and oLhe| b|assicas.
Chal|y o| shiny whiLe spoLs o| blisLe|s appea| on Lhe unde|side
ol leaves, wiLh yellow-b|own paLches on Lhe uppe| su|lace.
Leaves and lowe|heads may become badly disLo|Led.
0auses and treatment
The lunqus Lh|ives in damp, humid ai|. Remove and desL|oy inlecLed
leaves o| planLs. Choose |esisLanL va|ieLies, p|acLice c|op |oLaLion,
and sow Lhinly Lo ensu|e qood ai| ci|culaLion and low humidiLy.
(l|om Lop) Parsnîp canker, petate blîght, pewdery mîldew, scleretînîa
Pests and parasîtes
MosL qa|dene|s lnd a way ol coexisLinq happily wiLh insecLs, bi|ds, and animals.
NoL so lo| veqeLable q|owe|s. IL's a baLLle Lo sLop Lhe wo|sL ol Lhem l|om eaLinq
c|ops belo|e you do. Fea, bean, o| co|n seeds a|e always unde| Lh|eaL l|om mice
and bi|ds, while younq seedlinqs a|e aL |is| ol beinq lelled by sluqs, snails, cuLwo|ms,
o| leaLhe|jac|eLs. F|esh q|een loliaqe may be |iddled wiLh holes whe|e caLe|pilla|s
and lea beeLles have been leedinq. MaLu|e planLs may be smoLhe|ed by sap-
suc|inq, honeydew-exc|eLinq aphids. Even |ooL c|ops |eady Lo ha|vesL can be
saboLaqed by |ooL lies, beeLles, and wi|ewo|ms. CeL Lo |now Lhe enemy. Lhe
mo|e you |now abouL Lhei| lile cycle, leedinq habiLs, and behavio|, Lhe easie| iL
will be Lo delend you| planLs wiLhouL |eso|Linq Lo poLenLially ha|mlul chemicals.
Slugs and snaîls
These leave behind Lhem a LellLale, silve|y slime
L|ail, and a|e Lhe bane ol many a qa|dene|'s lile.
AL Lhei| mosL acLive aL niqhL and alLe| |ain,
Lhey munch holes in leaves and planL sLems,
and can devou| a |ow ol seedlinqs in one niqhL.
They someLimes eaL inLo cele|y sLal|s, leavinq
discolo|ed paLches p|one Lo |oL, and Lhey can
bu||ow deeply inLo poLaLoes, leavinq Lhem
|iddled wiLh holes.
Eco-friendly control
A simple, loolp|ool, nonchemical soluLion Lo
Lhe p|oblem ol sluqs and snails doesn'L yeL exisL.
IL's impossible Lo e|adicaLe Lhem compleLely
l|om a veqeLable paLch, Lhe challenqe is how
besL Lo minimize Lhe damaqe LhaL Lhey do.
FelleLs a|e Lhe mosL |eliable conL|ol, buL may
be ha|mlul Lo oLhe| animals, includinq peLs.
The|e a|e many inqenious alLe|naLives, some ol
which a|e mo|e successlul Lhan oLhe|s.
(la| lelL) A pretectîve cîrcle ef sharp sand may qua|d a
vulne|able seedlinq l|om sluqs and snails.
(lelL) Te make a slug trap, hall-lll sLeep-sided conLaine|s wiLh
bee| and sin| Lhem inLo Lhe q|ound so Lhe edqes a|e jusL above
Lhe su|lace. AL niqhL, sluqs and snails may lall inLo Lhe L|aps and
can be pic|ed ouL and desL|oyed in Lhe mo|ninq.
Plant defenses
Su||ound vulne|able planLs wiLh a ci|cle ol
someLhinq so ollpuLLinq LhaL only Lhe hunq|iesL
sluqs and snails will be p|epa|ed Lo c|oss iL. T|y
sha|p q|avel, c|ushed eqqshells, b|an, o| coppe|
bands (which seL up a sLaLic cha|qe). 0l cou|se,
Lhe mo|e inL|epid will bu||ow unde|neaLh.
5lug nematodes
P/o·no//o/J/t/· /e/noµ//oJ/to is a pa|asiLic
nemaLode LhaL lnds iLs way inside Lhe bodies
ol sluqs (and Lo a lesse| exLenL snails) when
Lhey bu||ow unde|q|ound, and L|iqqe|s a laLal
bacLe|ial inlecLion. IL is mosL ellecLive in sp|inq
and lall, and in moisL, wa|m condiLions.
An anti-slug-and-snail checklist
Weed |equla|ly, |eep q|ass sho|L, and clea|
planL deb|is so Lhey have lewe| places Lo hide.
WaLe| in Lhe mo|ninq |aLhe| Lhan Lhe
eveninq so Lhe soil is noL damp aL niqhL.
Co ouL aL niqhL wiLh a lashliqhL and hand-
pic| as many sluqs as you can lnd.
FuL ouL decoy lood-li|e leLLuce o| coml|ey
leaves-Lo LempL sluqs away l|om planLs.
C|ow ¨sac|ilcial¨ planLs LhaL you don'L mind
beinq aLLac|ed.
F|oLecL vulne|able seedlinqs wiLh cloches-
imp|ovised l|om cuL-oll plasLic boLLles.
Line poLs and conLaine|s wiLh coppe| Lape.
Foe |equla|ly Lo b|inq sluqs and eqqs Lo Lhe
su|lace whe|e p|edaLo|s may qeL Lhem.
FuL ouL upLu|ned o|anqe o| q|apel|uiL
halves. Sluqs and snails will conq|eqaLe unde|
Lhem, and can Lhen be desL|oyed.
Foweve| ene|qeLically you lollow eco-l|iendly
p|ocedu|es, Lhe|e may be Limes when an
inlesLaLion is so seve|e, o| pesLs and pa|asiLes
a|e so |esisLanL Lo q|een o| bioloqical conL|ol
measu|es, LhaL you need Lo use an insecLicide.
They wo|| in dille|enL ways.
¨ConLacL¨ insecLicides |ill insecLs LhaL come
inLo conLacL wiLh Lhe sp|ay o| powde|. Il Lhey
eaL Lhe poisonous subsLance, Lhey will also die.
¨SysLemic¨ insecLicides don'L |ill so di|ecLly.
They a|e abso|bed by planLs and lnd Lhei| way
inLo Lhei| sap. Buqs LhaL leed on Lhe sap will die.
All insecLicides a|e chemical, buL some a|e
q|eene| Lhan oLhe|s. You won'L lnd a|senic,
cyanide, o| me|cu|y in sheds o| qa|aqes any
mo|e, and inlamous insecLicides such as 00T
have lonq been wiLhd|awn. Mode|n synLheLic
insecLicides a|e |iqo|ously LesLed, and many
a|e hiqhly selecLive. Lhey La|qeL only ce|Lain
species. 0|qanically app|oved insecLicides
include de||is, py|eLh|um, and insecLicidal
soaps, all de|ived l|om planL exL|acLs.

Fe|e a|e some simple |ules Lo lollow.
Wea| qloves and, il necessa|y, a mas|
and qoqqles.
Follow manulacLu|e|s' insL|ucLions ca|elully.
Sp|ay ea|ly in Lhe mo|ninq o| laLe in Lhe
eveninq when bees and oLhe| benelcial
insecLs a|e less li|ely Lo be ha|med.
Ta|e ca|e Lo sp|ay conLacL insecLicides all
ove| Lhe planL-above and below Lhe leaves.
0on'L |eso|L Lo sp|ayinq insecLicides unless
you have Lo.
0on'L sp|ay in windy weaLhe|.
0on'L use an insecLicide sp|aye| lo| le|Lilize|
o| weed|ille|.
0on'L ma|e up mo|e Lhan you need and don'L
sLo|e any lelLove|s.
0on'L eaL veqeLables sho|Lly alLe| sp|ayinq.
(l|om Lop) 0reen aphîds, asparagus beetle, blackbîrd, black bean aphîd
Also |nown as blac|ly o| q|eenly, Lhey may also be yellow, pin|,
q|ay-whiLe, o| b|own. The|e a|e hund|eds ol dille|enL |inds. MosL
a|e abouL
in (2 mm) lonq buL some q|ow Lo
in (5-o mm).
Some have winqs and oLhe|s do noL. Aphids b|eed Lh|ouqhouL Lhe
summe| and Lhei| numbe|s can mulLiply exponenLially. WiLhin a
wee| ol bi|Lh, younq aphids a|e |eady Lo b|eed.
Some Lypes ol aphid |esL|icL Lhei| aLLac| Lo a specilc veqeLable,
oLhe|s a|e much less choosy. EiLhe| way, heavy inlesLaLions sLunL
q|owLh and cause leaves Lo cu|l up and disLo|L. Aphids exc|eLe a
sLic|y, suqa|y subsLance called honeydew ove| leaves, on which
blac|, sooLy mold q|ows-Lhis can cause blisLe|inq. Because
aphids leed on sap, Lhey olLen L|ansle| vi|uses beLween planLs.
Sp|ay inlesLed planLs wiLh an app|op|iaLe insecLicide. Fi|imica|b
La|qeLs aphids, and isn'L ha|mlul Lo ladybuqs and bees. 0|qanic
L|eaLmenLs include py|eLh|um, de||is, and insecLicidal soaps.
Ladybuqs, lacewinqs, and oLhe| insecLs ma|e naLu|al p|edaLo|s
(·ee µµJJ8-JJº). See o/·o blac| bean aphids (µJJJ), leLLuce |ooL
aphids (µI88), mealy cabbaqe aphids (µZZ), onJ |ooL aphids (µJJó).
Asparagus beetle ·ee aspa|aqus (µ?5Z)
In Lhe |iLchen qa|den o| in Lhe veqeLable paLch, a wide va|ieLy ol
bi|ds can cause headaches.
The leaves ol peas, beans, cabbaqes, and oLhe| b|assicas may be
damaqed o| even sL|ipped by piqeons. Fea and b|oad bean pods
a|e always aL |is|, pa|Licula|ly l|om jays. Newly sown pea and
beans seeds and l|eshly planLed onion seLs may also be duq up,
olLen by blac|bi|ds. Seedlinqs a|e also someLimes pulled up.
Sca|ec|ows, mi||o|s, unwanLed C0s, humminq wi|es o| Lapes,
windmills, and even dummy caLs o| bi|ds ol p|ey may all wo|| lo|
a while. BuL bi|ds a|e savvy and Lhey won'L be deLe||ed lo| lonq.
F|oLecLinq you| planLs wiLh neLs is Lhe only |eal answe|.
(l|om Lop) 0abbage caterpîllars, carret Hy damage, celery leaf mîner, 0elerade beetle
Black bean aphîds
Blac| bean aphids (also |nown as blac|ly) abouL
in (2 mm)
in lenqLh cove| Lhe q|owinq Lips and new leaves ol b|oad bean,
qlobe a|Licho|e, and ca|doon planLs.
They a|e aLL|acLed Lo Lhe Lende| new q|owLh aL shooL Lips. They
eaL sap, sLunL leaves, and sLop bean pods l|om lo|minq p|ope|ly.
0nce planLs a|e lully q|own, pinch ouL Lips and disca|d. Sp|ay
inlesLed planLs wiLh bilenLh|in o| anoLhe| app|op|iaLe insecLicide.
Fi|imica|b La|qeLs aphids, and isn'L ha|mlul Lo ladybuqs and bees.
0|qanic L|eaLmenLs include py|eLh|um, de||is, and insecLicidal soaps.
Ladybuqs and lacewinqs a|e naLu|al p|edaLo|s (·ee µµJJ8-JJº).
0abbage caterpîllars ·ee cabbaqes (µZZ)
0abbage reet fly ·ee cabbaqes (µZZ)
0arret fly ·ee ca||oLs (µµI?0-I?I)
These a|e easy Lo see leedinq on leaves, buL ha|de| when bo|inq inLo
planLs o| in Lhe soil leedinq on |ooLs. Many species aLLac| veqeLables,
and may be va|ious colo|s and sizes, and smooLh o| hai|y.
They leed on planL Lissue, aL besL me|ely pe|lo|aLinq Lhe leaves
wiLh holes, aL wo|sL laLally damaqinq Lhe hea|L ol Lhe planL.
Fic| oll caLe|pilla|s by hand, loo|inq unde|neaLh leaves as well as
on Lop. Those LhaL leed aL niqhL can be easie| Lo see il you qo ouL
wiLh a lashliqhL alLe| da||. Sp|ay badly inlesLed planLs wiLh
|oLenone, bilenLh|in, o| anoLhe| app|op|iaLe insecLicide. 0|qanic
L|eaLmenLs include py|eLh|um and de||is. See o/·o cabbaqe
caLe|pilla|s (µZZ), cuLwo|ms (µJJ4), and pea moLhs (µIó4).
0elery leaf mîner ·ee cele|y (µIJJ)
0elerade beetle ·ee poLaLoes (µI0º)
These a|e acLually moLh caLe|pilla|s. They a|e c|eamy-b|own and
q|ow Lo abouL I
in (4.5 cm) lonq. They live in Lhe soil.
They seve| Lhe sLems o| |ooLs ol younq planLs, causinq Lhem Lo
wilL and die. Cabbaqes, lee|s, cele|y, and leLLuces a|e pa|Licula|ly
badly allecLed. They also leed on leaves nea| Lhe su|lace ol Lhe
q|ound, and may eaL inLo ca||oLs and poLaLoes.
They come Lo Lhe su|lace aL niqhL and may be easie| Lo spoL by
lashliqhL. Loo| lo| Lhem in Lhe soil a|ound a planL LhaL has |ecenLly
been aLLac|ed. Sp|ay planLs o| L|eaL soil wiLh an app|op|iaLe
insecLicide. Requla| weedinq |educes Lhei| choice ol lood.
Flea beetles
These a|e shiny blac| o| blue-blac|, olLen wiLh yellow sL|ipes
down Lhei| bac|s, and a|e usually ha|d Lo see wiLh Lhe na|ed eye.
Apa|L l|om Lhe damaqe, one LellLale siqn ol inlecLion is LhaL Lhey
all jump in Lhe ai| when disLu|bed. They spend Lhe winLe| in planL
deb|is and lay eqqs in sp|inq, so Lhey can be a p|oblem in summe|.
They eaL small |ound holes in leaves. They a|e unsiqhLly |aLhe|
Lhan laLal, buL bad inlesLaLions can |ill seedlinqs. veqeLables
mosL olLen allecLed a|e a|uqula, |adishes, Asian salad leaves,
cabbaqes, sea |ale, and poLaLoes and oLhe| |ooL veqeLables.
Time sowinq so vulne|able seedlinqs q|ow quic|ly. WaLe| |equla|ly
Lo sLop planLs l|om d|yinq ouL. Cove| wiLh lne mesh o| leece. 0usL
wiLh py|eLh|um o| de||is, o| sp|ay wiLh |oLenone o| bilenLh|in.
InsecLs LhaL live beneaLh leaves, leed on planL sap, and jump in Lhe
ai| when disLu|bed. 0l Lhe Lhousands ol species, Lhe p|oblemaLic
ones a|e mainly q|een o| yellow and
in (2-² mm) lonq.
ImmaLu|e nymphs may be c|eamy whiLe, and do noL yeL have winqs.
They leed l|om unde|neaLh leaves and cause pale, moLLled spoLs
o| paLches LhaL can be seen l|om above. FlanLs allecLed include
(l|om Lop) 0utwerm, Hea beetle damage, petate leaf hepper, leatherjackets
LomaLoes, eqqplanLs, peppe|s, and cucumbe|s-especially il
q|own in q|eenhouses-and beans, leLLuces, poLaLoes, and he|bs
such as saqe, minL, o|eqano, basil, |osema|y, and Lhyme.
Sp|ay badly inlesLed planLs wiLh an app|op|iaLe insecLicide.
0|qanic L|eaLmenLs include py|eLh|um. Ladybuqs, lacewinqs,
and spide|s ma|e naLu|al p|edaLo|s (·ee µµJJ8-JJº).
The la|vae ol Lhe c|ane ly. They a|e q|ay-b|own in colo| and q|ow
Lo abouL I
in (4.5 cm) lonq. They have no leqs, no| anyLhinq
|ecoqnizable as a head. They live in Lhe soil.
They eaL Lh|ouqh sLems and |ooLs, causinq planLs Lo wilL and
die-pa|Licula|ly leLLuce, cabbaqe, and oLhe| b|assica seedlinqs.
They a|e |esisLanL Lo mosL insecLicides, buL sLa|linqs, Lh|ushes,
and blac|bi|ds love Lhem. Li|ely Lo come Lo Lhe su|lace ol Lhe
soil alLe| loLs ol |ain. A nemaLode called Ste/ne/neno je/t/oe is
available, iL |ills Lhem by inlecLinq Lhem wiLh a bacLe|ial disease.
Lettuce reet aphîds ·ee leLLuces (µI88)
Mealy cabbage aphîds ·ee cabbaqes (µZZ)
Females a|e laLLish, c|eamy-whiLe insecLs up Lo
in (5 mm) lonq
LhaL eaL planL sap and sec|eLe a lully, sLic|y whiLe wax Lo p|ovide
a p|oLecLive cove|inq. AdulL males don'L live lonq and don'L leed.
They can wea|en planLs and |esL|icL q|owLh. In Lempe|aLe climaLes,
Lhey a|e li|ely Lo be a p|oblem only in q|eenhouses, whe|e Lhey
may aLLac| LomaLoes, eqqplanLs, peppe|s, and cucumbe|s.
They can be ¨painLed¨ one by one wiLh a b|ush dipped in meLhylaLed
spi|iLs. AlLe|naLively, sp|ay wiLh insecLicidal soap o|, in summe| when
iL's hoL, inL|oduce a ladybuq called 0/,µto/oena· nont/oaz/e//
inLo you| q|eenhouse-iL may eaL Lhe mealybuqs and Lhei| eqqs.
(l|om Lop) Mealybugs, meuse, enîen thrîps, pea meth caterpîllar
Fouse mice, wood mice, and leld mice can all be pesLs.
They a|e ve|y lond ol peas, beans, and sweeL co|n, and will diq up
seeds Lo eaL Lhem as soon as Lhey sLa|L Lo sp|ouL, il noL belo|e.
T|aps a|e mo|e |eliable Lhan p|oLecLinq seedbeds wiLh neLs o|
chic|en wi|e-and Lhey a|e a|quably mo|e humane Lhan poison.
0nîen fly ·ee onions (µI44)
0nîen thrîps ·ee onions (µI44)
Pea and bean weevîls ·ee b|oad beans (µIZZ)
Pea aphîdsJmethsJthrîps ·ee peas (µIó4)
Petate cyst eelwerm ·ee poLaLoes (µI0º)
ked spîder mîte
Tiny, eiqhL-leqqed miLes, ha|d Lo see wiLh Lhe na|ed eye, Lhey a|e
yellow-q|een mosL ol Lhei| lives, and Lu|n |ed in Lhe lall and
winLe|. 0n badly inlesLed planLs you may see lne sil| webs.
Leaves develop dull, pale-yellow lec|s o| moLLlinq, Lhen cu|l, Lu|n
b|own, and may die. In Lempe|aLe climaLes, miLes a|e li|ely Lo be
a p|oblem only du|inq hoL, d|y summe|s o| in q|eenhouses, whe|e
Lhey may aLLac| LomaLoes, eqqplanLs, peppe|s, and cucumbe|s.
Sp|ay |equla|ly wiLh bilenLh|in o| an insecLicidal soap. F|om laLe
sp|inq Lo ea|ly lall, when dayLime Lempe|aLu|es above 70°F
(2I°C), inL|oduce inLo you| q|eenhouse a miLe called P/,to·e/a/a·
µe/·/n///· LhaL miqhL eaL Lhe |ed spide| miLes and eqqs.
keet aphîds
RooL aphids leed on |ooLs |aLhe| Lhan leaves. They a|e usually
in (2-² mm) lonq and c|eamy-b|own in colo|, someLimes
cove|ed in a whiLe powde|y sec|eLion LhaL can be seen on Lhe soil.
They wea|en planLs and ma|e Lhem wilL, pa|Licula|ly in wa|m
(l|om Lop) ked spîder mîte damage,
reet aphîds, slug
weaLhe|. 0ille|enL species aLLac| F|ench and |unne| beans,
ca||oLs and pa|snips, leLLuces, and Je|usalem and Chinese a|Licho|es.
They live unde|q|ound so iL's ha|de| Lo e|adicaLe |ooL aphids Lhan
o|dina|y ones. 0|ench soil wiLh bilenLh|in, pi|imica|b, o| anoLhe|
app|op|iaLe insecLicide. F|acLice c|op |oLaLion Lo p|evenL nexL
yea|'s c|ops l|om beinq aLLac|ed by aphids LhaL su|vive Lhe winLe|.
Slugs and snaîls ·ee sluqs and snails (µµJJ0-JJI)
AdulLs a|e abouL
in (2 mm) lonq wiLh whiLe winqs, Lhey ly up
when disLu|bed. They lay eqqs on Lhe unde|sides ol leaves, which
haLch Lo |elease Liny scaleli|e nymphs LhaL leed on sap. Blac|,
sooLy mold q|ows on Lhe sLic|y honeydew Lhey exc|eLe.
They aLLac| cabbaqes, B|ussels sp|ouLs, and oLhe| b|assicas,
plus zucchini and sweeL poLaLoes. Classhouse whiLely aLLac|s
q|eenhouse planLs li|e LomaLoes, cucumbe|s, peppe|s, eqqplanLs,
and o||a. In hoL summe|s, Lhey Lh|ive ouLdoo|s as well as indoo|s.
Feavy inlesLaLions may sLunL q|owLh and cause leaves Lo yellow.
Sp|ay seve|e inlesLaLions wiLh bilenLh|in, py|eLh|um, o| insecLicidal
soap. Classhouse whiLely may be |esisLanL. T|y yellow sLic|y L|aps
o| a pa|asiLic wasp called Fnco/·/o jo/no·o.
These a|e Lhe la|vae ol clic| beeLles. They have o|anqe-b|own
bodies and a|e abouL I in (2.5 cm) lonq, wiLh six leqs aL Lhe same
end as Lhei| head. They live in Lhe soil.
Li|e cuLwo|ms, Lhey can seve| Lhe sLems o| |ooLs ol younq planLs,
causinq Lhem Lo wilL and die. LeLLuces a|e pa|Licula|ly badly
allecLed. They also eaL inLo poLaLoes, Lu|nips, ca||oLs, and oLhe|
|ooL veqeLables.
Wi|ewo|ms a|e |esisLanL Lo mosL insecLicides. 0iq up |ooL c|ops
as soon as Lhey a|e |eady Lo ha|vesL, belo|e Lhe damaqe is done,
buL il Lhey a|e aLLac|ed, loo| lo| wi|ewo|ms in Lhe soil and
desL|oy Lhem.
(l|om Lop) Snaîl,
whîteHy, wîrewerms
Natural allîes
IL should qo wiLhouL sayinq LhaL noL all insecLs, bi|ds, and animals a|e enemies.
Many a|e posiLively benelcial and, qiven a chance, will p|ove Lo be amonq you|
mosL valuable allies in Lhe baLLle aqainsL pesLs and diseases.
In any |iLchen qa|den and in any veqeLable paLch Lhe|e is a naLu|al o|de| in
which pesLs and p|edaLo|s a|e balanced aqainsL each oLhe|. The qood quys |eep
Lhe bad quys unde| conL|ol. Ladybuqs and hove|lies eaL aphids, cenLipedes leed
on sluqs, as do l|oqs and Loads, bi|ds eaL snails, and so on. When eve|yLhinq is
wo||inq p|ope|ly, Lhe pesL populaLion is manaqed ellecLively, and Lhe damaqe
Lhey cause is limiLed.
Werkîng wîth nature
Two Lhinqs can Lh|ow eve|yLhinq oll balance.
The l|sL is Lhe use ol chemicals. InsecLicides,
lunqicides, and weed|ille|s all ca||y some |is|
Lo wildlile, and Lhei| ove|use may Lh|eaLen Lo
|ill oll as many allies as enemies. The second
is monoculLu|e. A ploL devoLed Lo q|owinq jusL
one o| Lwo dille|enL |inds ol veqeLables is
mo|e li|ely Lo sulle| p|oblems Lhan a dive|se
one planLed wiLh a wide va|ieLy ol c|ops,
includinq plenLy ol lowe|inq planLs Loo.
(cloc|wise l|om Lop lelL)
KeverHîes lay Lhei| eqqs in Lhe midsL ol aphid inlesLaLions.
When Lhe eqqs haLch, Lhe la|vae eaL Lhe aphids.
Earthwerms ae|aLe Lhe soil by Lunnelinq Lh|ouqh iL, imp|ovinq
d|ainaqe, and d|awinq su|lace o|qanic maLLe| such as manu|e
and dead planL maLe|ial unde|q|ound.
Attract lacewîngs by qivinq Lhem a box Lo hibe|naLe in ove|
Lhe winLe|, by q|owinq plenLy ol lowe|s, o| by buyinq a baLch ol
eqqs in Lhe lo|m ol a bioloqical conL|ol. The la|vae leed on aphids.
Ladybugs (boLLom middle) and Lhei| la|vae (boLLom |iqhL) leasL
vo|aciously on aphids, so Lhey should be welcomed.
Attract bees Lo you| qa|den by planLinq b|iqhLly colo|ed lowe|s.
Bîelegîcal centrels
ve|y p|ecise La|qeLinq ol specilc pesLs can be
achieved by inL|oducinq bioloqical p|edaLo|s.
These a|e usually nemaLodes (mic|oscopic
wo|ms), p|edaLo|y miLes, pa|asiLic wasps, o|
even live bacLe|ia. They a|e |eleased inLo Lhe
soil o| onLo planLs LhaL have an inlesLaLion,
someLimes in a q|eenhouse buL also ouLdoo|s.
Fnco/·/o jo/no·o, lo| example, is a Liny
pa|asiLic wasp LhaL lays iLs eqqs in Lhe la|vae
ol whiLelies. When Lhe younq haLch, Lhey eaL
Lhe la|vae. P/,to·e/a/a· µe/·/n///· is a
p|edaLo|y miLe LhaL leeds on Lhe eqqs ol |ed
spide| miLes. And 8oc///a· t/a//nq/en·/· is a
bacLe|ium LhaL is sp|ayed on leaves Lo |ill
caLe|pilla|s by inlecLinq Lhem wiLh a laLal
disease. MosL ol Lhese conL|ols can be bouqhL
by mail o|de|.
(opposiLe paqe, cloc|wise l|om Lop lelL)
Nasturtîums attract blackHîes and may successlully LempL
Lhem away l|om inlesLinq oLhe| c|ops.
French marîgeld Hewers p|oduce a scenL LhaL whiLelies
disli|e so much LhaL iL may |eep Lhem oll nea|by LomaLoes.
Peached egg Hewers (l/nnont/e· Joaq/o·//) will aLL|acL
bees and hove|lies.
Basîl is seeminqly i||esisLible Lo whiLelies and ma|es a qood
sac|ilcial planL lo| a q|eenhouse.
Benefîcîal plantîng
NaLu|al allies include planLs as well as animals
and insecLs. Ma|inq su|e LhaL you| veqeLable
qa|den includes a qood mix ol lowe|inq planLs
has Lwo clea| benelLs.
Fi|sL, lowe|s will aLL|acL a wide va|ieLy
ol benelcial insecLs-Lhe ones you delniLely
wanL, Lhe pollinaLo|s and Lhe p|edaLo|s. Bees
will ol cou|se be d|awn Lo Lhem. And F|ench
ma|iqolds a|e well |nown lo| aLL|acLinq aphid-
eaLinq hove|lies.
Second, because ce|Lain planLs a|e jusL
as noLo|ious lo| aLL|acLinq pesLs, you may
choose Lo use Lhem as a ¨sac|ilce.¨ FlanLinq
nasLu|Liums, which blac|lies lnd i||esisLible,
close Lo b|oad beans may noL p|oduce Lhe
healLhiesL-loo|inq nasLu|Liums buL iL miqhL
|eep Lhe blac|lies oll Lhe beans. You miqhL
also L|y q|owinq a lew leLLuces LhaL you a|e
p|epa|ed Lo lose as a way ol ¨baiLinq¨ sluqs
in o|de| Lo aLL|acL and Lhen desL|oy Lhem.
The|e a|e nume|ous ways Lo encou|aqe an
inlux ol c|eaLu|es inLo you| qa|den Lo help
|eep pesLs and p|edaLo|s aL bay.
FlanL a mix ol veqeLables, l|uiL, and lowe|s.
0ive|siLy encou|aqes a wide |anqe ol visiLo|s.
Keep one o| Lwo semi-wild a|eas aL Lhe edqes
ol you| ya|d. Beinq sc|upulously Lidy doesn'L
leave anywhe|e lo| c|eaLu|es Lo colonize.
FlanL a hedqe. IL will p|ovide a loL mo|e
camoulaqe and cove| lo| wildlile Lhan a
neaL wi|e lence.
Sp|ay wiLh pesLicides and weed|ille|s only
when you |eally have Lo.
C|eaLe a nesLinq siLe lo| beeLles and wasps.
Ma|e a small loq pile and leL iL |oL naLu|ally.
Sp|ead o|qanic mulches ove| Lhe soil. Apa|L
l|om |eLaininq moisLu|e, Lhey shelLe| beeLles,
cenLipedes, spide|s, and so on.
FuL up nesLinq boxes lo| bi|ds and baLs, and
hibe|naLion boxes lo| insecLs such as
ladybuqs, lacewinqs, and mason bees.
0iq a pond. Foweve| small, iL will aLL|acL
l|oqs and Loads, which will leasL on sluqs.
342 IN0EX
Faqe numbe|s in /to//c· indicaLe an
illusL|aLion, while paqe numbe|s in
bold |ele| Lo a main enL|y.
acidiLy 47
adzu|i beans 205
allalla I8?, 205
al|aliniLy 47
Ame|ican c|ess ·ee land c|ess
anLiques in qa|den ²I
aphids ²²2, JJ?
·ee o/·o |ooL aphids
apple minL ?ºI
Ap|il Las|s 307
a|ches, lo| ve|Lical desiqn 25
a|Licho|es ·ee Chinese a|Licho|es,
qlobe a|Licho|es, Je|usalem
a|uqula I8?, I90-I
salad IºI
wild Iº0
Asian musLa|d ·ee musLa|d
Asian salad I8?, I94-5
aspa|aqus ?5?, 254-7, 255
Blac|lim ?5Z
Connove|'s Colossal ?5Z
cuLLinq bac| ?5ó
desiqninq wiLh ²0
dividinq c|owns ?55
division oº, óº
ha|vesLinq ?5ó, 257
planLinq c|owns 25o
p|oblems 257
|ecommended va|ieLies 257
|ouLine ca|e 25o
sowinq seeds 25o
when Lo planL 25o
whe|e Lo planL 255
aspa|aqus beans I7º
aspa|aqus beeLle 257, JJ?
AuqusL Las|s 3I3
bacLe|ial leal spoL J?ó, ²2o
bacLe|ia as allies ²²º
balcony qa|dens ²4
basil ?Z4, 27o-7
Al|ican Blue ?ZZ
cinnamon ?ZZ
companion planLinq J40
C|ee| 277
leLLuce-leaved 277, ?ZZ
pu|ple ?ZZ
sweeL 277
BaLavian chico|y ·ee endive
bay ?Z4, 278
bay L|ees, desiqninq wiLh ²0
bean weevil I77
exoLic I58, I78-9
l|eezinq o7
·ee o/·o ·µec/jc /eon·
eq |unne| beans
bed sysLems I7-IB
widLh IB
bees JJº
beeLs ?I, II4-I7
Bi|o|es IIZ
BolLa|dy IIZ
Chioqqia II5
Fo|ono IIZ
ha|vesLinq IIo, IIó
leal Lypes 92-3
p|oblems II7
|ecommended va|ieLies II7
Red Ace I04
|ouLine ca|e IIo
sowinq seed 55
sowinq seeds IIo
Lhinninq seedlinqs IIó
waLe|inq JIº
when Lo planL II5
whe|e Lo planL II5
Belqian chico|y ·ee chico|y
bell peppe|s ·ee peppe|s
bindweed óJ
biodeq|adable poLs 5J, 54
bioloqical pesL conL|ol o4, 338-9
·ee o/·o ·µec/jc /n·ect·
bi|ds, damaqe l|om ²²2
blac| bean aphid JJ?, ²²²
blac|-eyed peas I7B
blac|ly I77
blac| leq I0º
blanchinq IJ?
ca|doons ?ó?
caulilowe| ºó
chico|y Iº8
|huba|b ?óº
bliqhL ·ee poLaLo bliqhL, LomaLo
blossom end |oL 22o, J?ó
bo| choy Z?, 8I
Joi Choi 8I
bo|de|s 24
bo|loLLi beans ·ee F|ench beans
bo|on delciency ²22, J??
8ot/,t/· 22o
bouqueL qa|ni 27B
boxwood lo| edqinq ?4, 24
colla|s Zó
c|op |oLaLion 2I
li|inq al|aline soil 47
·ee o/·o ·µec/jc veqeto//e·
eq caulilowe|s
b|ic| paLhs IB, I8, ²I
b|oad beans I58, I74-7
cuLLinq down IZó
ha|vesLinq I7o
pinchinq ouL IZó, I77
p|oblems I77
|ecommended va|ieLies I77
Red Epicu|e IZZ
|ouLine ca|e I7o
l|om seeds 54
sowinq seeds I7o
suppo|Linq o0-I, óI, IZ5
The SuLLon IZZ
when Lo planL I7o
whe|e Lo planL I75
b|oadcasLinq seed 55, 55
b|occoli Z?, 98-I0I
Cla|eL I0I
Ea|ly WhiLe Sp|ouLinq I0I
l|eezinq o7
ha|vesLinq I00, I00
LaLe Fu|ple Sp|ouLinq ºº
|ecommended va|ieLies I0I
Romanesco I0I
|ouLine ca|e I00
sowinq seeds I00
as sp|ouLinq seed 205
suppo|Linq ºº
when Lo planL ºº
whe|e Lo planL ºº
B|ussels sp|ouLs Z?, 82-5
Boswo|Lh 85
0iablo 85
l|eezinq o7
ha|vesLinq 84, B5
planLinq seedlinqs B4
|ecommended va|ieLies B5
Red 0elicious 85
|emovinq leaves 84
Romulus 8?
|ouLine ca|e B4
sowinq seeds B4
when Lo planL B2
whe|e Lo planL B²
Bu|| qhe||in 2²B
buLLe| beans I7B
buLLe|cup, c|eepinq óJ
buLLe|head ·ee leLLuces
cabbaqe caLe|pilla|s 77
cabbaqe |ooL ly 77
cabbaqes ?I, Z?, 74-9
desiqninq wiLh ²0
diseases 7B
ha|vesLinq 77, ZZ
Ice 0ueen Z8
pesLs 77
planLinq ouL Zó
p|oLecLion Zó, JI0
|ecommended va|ieLies 7B, Z8-º
|ouLine ca|e 77
Ruby Ball Z8
sowinq seeds 7o
sp|inq 75
Sp|inq Fe|o Z8
SLonehead Z8
sLo|inq o7
summe|/lall 75
Lop-d|essinq 5I
when Lo planL 7o
whe|e Lo planL 75
winLe| 75
calab|ese 98-I0I
calcium delciency ²20
canes oI
cannellini beans ·ee F|ench beans
capsaicin 2I7
ca|doon, desiqninq wiLh ²0
ca|doons ?5?, 2o2-3
ca||oL ly I20-I, I?I, I?5, JJJ
ca||oLs II8-2I
Banqo| I?I
CampesL|a I?I
ha|vesLinq I20, I?0, JIJ
he|iLaqe I2I
InlniLy I0?
Fa|mex I?I
p|oblems I20-I
Fu|ple Faze I?I
|ecommended va|ieLies I20-I
|ouLine ca|e I20
sowinq seeds I20
sowinq wiLh onions I4I
sLo|inq o7
Lhinninq seedlinqs I20
when Lo planL IIº
whe|e Lo planL IIº
leLLuces IBo
whaL Lo q|ow ²4
caLe|pilla|s JJJ, ²²², JJ5
caulilowe| Z?, 94-7
blanchinq and l|osL p|oLecLion ºó
ea|ly summe| º5
l|eezinq o7
ha|vesLinq º7
Maylai| ºZ
mini- ºZ
p|oblems º7
pu|ple-headed ºZ
|ecommended va|ieLies º7
|ouLine ca|e ºo
seedlinqs ºo
sowinq seeds ºo
sp|inq-headinq º5
summe|/lall º5
when Lo planL ºo
whe|e Lo planL º5
winLe|-headinq º5
cavolo ne|o ·ee |ale
cele|iac I34-5
Mona|ch IJ5
|ouLine ca|e IJ4
cele|y I30-3
blanchinq IJ?
ha|vesLinq IJJ, I²²
leal I²I, I²²
p|oblems I²²
|ecommended va|ieLies I²²
|ouLine ca|e I²2
seedlinqs I²2
sell-blanchinq/q|een I²I, I²²
sowinq seeds I²2
L|ench I²I, I²²
vicLo|ia IJJ
when Lo planL I²I
whe|e Lo planL I²I
cele|y leal mine| IJJ, JJJ
chal|y soil 47
cha|d ·ee Swiss cha|d
chemical-l|ee qa|deninq o4-5
che|vil ?Z4, 279
chic| peas ·ee qa|banzos
chico|y I8?, I97-9
Ame|ican ·ee endives
Belqian Iº7, Iºº
blanchinq Iº8
lo|cinq Iº8
ha|vesLinq Iºº, JI5
Falla Rossa Iºº
p|oblems Iºº
|ecommended va|ieLies Iºº
|ed Iº7, Iºº
|ouLine ca|e IºB
sowinq seeds IºB
suqa|loal Iº7, IºZ, Iºº
when Lo planL IºB
whe|e Lo planL IºB
WiLlool Iº7, Iºº
chili peppe|s 2I2-I7, ?IJ
d|yinq óº
Fabane|o ?IZ
ha|vesLinq ?I5
344 IN0EX
Jalapeno ?IZ
|ecommended va|ieLies 2I7
|ipeninq ?I4
seedlinqs 2I4
lo| windowsill JZ
·ee o/·o peppe|s
Chinese a|Licho|es ?5?, 2oo
Chinese cabbaqe Z?, 80
Ea|ly Jade Faqoda 80
Chinese chives 2B0
Chinese leaves ·ee Chinese cabbaqe
Chinese lonq beans I7º
chiLLinq I08, J04
chives ?Z4, 280
chocolaLe spoL I77, J?ó
cilanL|o ?Z4, 28I
clamps I?8
clay soil 4o, 4ó
clayLonia ·ee pu|slane, winLe|
climaLes lo| veqeLables I4-I5
climbinq veqeLables IJ, J?, J5
L|aininq o0-I
cloches ²I, 55, 5º, 5º, J08
club|ooL 47, 7B, J?ó
cold l|ames 5º, 5º
leLLuces I88
colla|s Zó, 77, IJJ
Colo|ado poLaLo beeLle I0º, JJJ
companion planLinq ·ee mixed
planLinq in lowe| beds
composL 4B-50
lo| bed sysLems IB
diqqinq in 48, 4º, JIZ
lo| eco-qa|deninq o4
whaL Lo add 50
composL bins 4º
conLaine|s IJ, J0-I, J5, 44-5
lo| balconies ²4
chic ²I
Chinese a|Licho|es ?óó
he|bs ²0, JIó
minL 2ºI
mode|n 2º
lo| paLios ²²
Swiss cha|d º?
L|adiLional ²I
lo| ve|Lical desiqn 25
whaL Lo q|ow ²²
wooden J?
coppe| delciency ²22, J??
co|iande| ·ee cilanL|o
co|n, sweeL ?08, 2I8-2I, J40
conLaine|s J?
ha|vesLinq 220, ??0
planLinq in bloc|s ?Iº
p|oblems 22I
|ecommended va|ieLies 22I
|ouLine ca|e 220
seedlinqs 220
l|om seeds 54
sowinq seeds 220
Sundance ??I
Swallow ?Iº
SwilL ??I
when Lo planL 2Iº
whe|e Lo planL 2Iº co|n salad
I8?, I92
viL Iº?
co|nichons ·ee qhe||ins
cos ·ee leLLuces
coLLaqe veqeLable qa|den 27
coLLon lavende| ·ee SanLolina
couch q|ass óJ
cowpeas I7B
c|ispheads ·ee leLLuces
c|op |oLaLion 20-I, J?5
c|owde| beans I7B
c|own |oL 27I
cucumbe| mosaic vi|us 2²7,
cucumbe|s 230-7, ?J?
C|ysLal Apple 2²5, ?JZ
ha|vesLinq 2²o
FeLiLa ?JZ
planLinq ouL 5ó
p|oblems 2²7
|ecommended va|ieLies 2²7
|ouLine ca|e 2²o
seedlinqs ?J5, 2²o
sowinq seeds 2²o
suppo|Linq ?Jó
when Lo planL 2²5
whe|e Lo planL 2²5
Zeina ?J5
culLivaLo|, p|onqed 4²
|osema|y JI?
saqe ?º4
cuLwo|ms ²²4, JJ4
dai|on ·ee |adishes
dampinq oll ²2o, J?Z
dandelion óJ
0ecembe| Las|s 3I7
deep bed sysLem IB
de||is o4
desiqn ·ee planninq Lhe ploL
desiqne| |iLchen qa|dens
dibbe| 4², 4J
dill ?Z4, 282
diseases 324-9
division oº
doc| óJ
downy mildew I44, ²27
d|ainaqe holes, d|illinq 45
dwa|l beans, conLaine|s J?
ea|Lhinq up I0B, I0º, IóZ
ea|Lhwo|ms JJº
ea|wiq L|ap ó4
eco-qa|deninq o4-5
edqinq beds IB, I8, 24
L|adiLional ²I
eqqplanL ?08, 2I0-II
ha|vesLinq ?II
l|om seeds 5²
EqypLian onions I45
endive I8?, 200-I
blanchinq ?00
b|oad-leaved 200, ?0I
cu|ly 200, ?0I
JeLi ?0I
Fancalie|i ?0I
esca|ole ·ee endive
exposu|e I4
la|mya|d manu|e 4B-50
Feb|ua|y Las|s 305
lennel ?Z4, 283
b|onze ?8J
desiqninq wiLh ²0
d|yinq seedheads óº
lo| heiqhL 25
lenuq|ee| 205
le|Lilize|s 5I, 320-3
applyinq 5I, 5I
leld peas I7B
laqeoleL beans ·ee F|ench beans
lea beeLles IºI, 20², JJ4, ²²4
leece J0Z
Flo|ence lennel I38-9
ha|vesLinq IJº
Romanesco I²º
lood lo| l|ee oB-º
looL |oL ²27, J?Z
lo|cinq poL/ja| ²I, ?óZ, ?óº
lo|| 40
lo|mal ploLs Ió, I7
l|eezinq veqeLables o7
F|ench beans I58, Ioo-9
Blue La|e Ióº
bo|loLLi Io7, IóZ
sLo|aqe Ió8
C|oppe| Teepee Ióº
laqeoleL Io7
ha|vesLinq Ioº
ha|vesLinq Ioº
p|oblems Ioº
|ecommended va|ieLies Ioº
|ouLine ca|e IoB
sowinq seed 55
sowinq seeds IoB
sLo|aqe Ió8
suppo|Linq IóZ, Ió8
when Lo planL IoB
whe|e Lo planL Io7
wiqwams J?
F|ench ma|iqolds as companion
planLinq J40
F|ench ma|jo|am 2Bº
F|ench pa|sley 2º2
F|ench so||el 2º7
F|ench La||aqon 2ºº
l|isée ·ee endives
l|osL poc|eLs I4
l|osL p|oLecLion, caulilowe| ºó
l|uiLinq veqeLables ?0ó-?º
c|op |oLaLion 2I
·ee o/·o ·µec/jc veqeto//e·
eq LomaLoes
lunqal leal spoL J?Z, ²27
lunqal sp|ead ²24
lunqicides ²25
qa|banzos 205, ?05
qa|lic I50-I
ElephanL I5I
sowinq in modules I50
sLo|aqe I5I
sLo|inq o7
qa|lic chives 2B0
qhe||ins ?J?, 238
BesLal ?J8
qinqe| minL ?ºI
qlobe a|Licho|e 258-oI, ?5º
C|een Clobe ?óI
ha|vesLinq 2o0, ?ó0
ove|winLe|inq 2o0
p|oblems 2oI
p|opaqaLion ?5º, 2o0
|ecommended va|ieLies 2oI
|ouLine ca|e 2o0
sowinq seeds 25º
violeLLo di Chioqqia ?óI
when Lo planL 25º
whe|e Lo planL 25º
qlobe a|Licho|es ?5?
desiqninq wiLh ²0
division oº
qooseq|ass óJ
q|ass cuLLinqs lo| mulches 5ó-Z
q|ass paLhs IB
q|avel paLhs I8
q|ay waLe| ó5
q|een onions I05, I48-9
Lase| I4º
No|Lh Folland Blood Red I4º
Lhinninq seedlinqs I48
WhiLe Lisbon I4º
q|een manu|e 50, 5I
q|eenhouse 5º
lo| c|eaLinq mic|oclimaLes I5
q|ound elde| óJ
q|owinq baqs 45, 45, ??5
halo bliqhL ²2B, J?8
hanqinq bas|eLs JZ, ²7
ha|deninq oll 5o
ha|icoL beans ·ee F|ench beans
ha|vesLinq oo-7
·ee o/·o ·µec/jc veqeto//e·
hedqinq a|ound beds 24
heelinq in I54
he|b qa|dens 24
layinq ouL ?Z8
in mode|n plan 2º
he|bs 272-30I
in conLaine|s ²0, JIó
division ?80
d|yinq J00
indoo|s ²7
lo| windowsill JZ
hoe 4I
d|aw 4²
hoeinq J0Z
honey lunqus 27I, J?8
ho|se|adish ?Z4, 284
hove|lies JJº
hyqiene |ules J?5
indoo| veqeLable q|owinq ²7
inlo|mal ploLs I7
insecLicides ²²I
insecLs, benelcial o4, 338-9
inLe|c|oppinq IBo, I8Z, ?0?
i|on delciency ²2²
ILalian pa|sley 2º2
34o IN0EX
Janua|y Las|s 304
Japanese a|Licho|es ·ee Chinese
Japanese bunchinq onions I45
Je|usalem a|Licho|es 2o4-5
Fuseau ?ó4
July Las|s 3II
June Las|s 3I0
|ale Z?, 90-I
desiqninq wiLh ²0
ha|vesLinq ºI, ºI
pesLs ºI
|ecommended va|ieLies ºI
Red Russian ºI
Redbo| ºI
|ouLine ca|e ºI
sowinq seeds ºI
when Lo planL ºI
whe|e Lo planL ºI
|idney beans ·ee F|ench beans
|iLchen qa|den desiqn 2²
hisLo|ical ²0
mode|n 2B-²I
small ?J
|iLchen wasLe 50, ó4
|ohl|abi I3o-7
Fu|ple 0anube IJZ
|omaLsuna Iº5, I95
labels 4²
lacewinqs JJº
ladies' lnqe|s ·ee o||a
ladybuqs as allies ²²5, JJº
lamb's leLLuce ·ee co|n salad
land c|ess I8?, Iºó, I9o
leal beeLs 92-3
leal musLa|d ·ee musLa|d q|eens
leal spoL
bacLe|ial ²2o, J?ó
lunqal ²27
leal veqeLables 70-I0I
lealhoppe|s JJ4, ²²4-5
lealmold 4º
leaLhe|jac|eLs ²²5
lee| |usL I55, J?8
lee|s I05, I52-5
bolLinq I55
collecLinq seeds oº
desiqninq wiLh ²0
Fannibal I5J
ha|vesLinq I54
lo| heiqhL ?5
p|oblems I55
|ecommended va|ieLies I55
|ouLine ca|e I54
seedlinqs I5J, I54
sowinq seeds I54
Toledo I55
when Lo planL I5²
whe|e Lo planL I5²
lequmes I5o-79
c|op |oLaLion 2I
as q|een manu|e 50
·ee o/·o ·µec/jc veqeto//e·
eq peas
lemon balm ?Z4, 285
lemonq|ass ?Z4, 28o
leLLuce |ooL aphids IBB
leLLuces I8?, I84-9
All The Yea| Round I88
bolLinq IBo, I88
buLLe|head IBB
conLaine|s J4
cos IBB
c|ispheads IBB
desiqninq wiLh ?J
ha|vesLinq IB7
Icebe|q I88
LiLLle Cem I88
Lollo Rosso I88
loose-leal IBB
ha|vesLinq I8Z
p|oblems IBB
|aised beds I85
|ecommended va|ieLies IBB
|ouLine ca|e IBo
seedlinqs I8ó, IBo
sowinq seeds IBo
when Lo planL IBo
whe|e Lo planL IB5
lima beans I7B, IZ8
limesLone soil 47
liminq soil 47, 4Z, B2
l/nnont/e· Joaq/o·// as companion
planLinq J40
locaLinq veqeLable qa|den I4-I5
loose-leal leLLuces ·ee leLLuces
loppe| 4²
lovaqe ?Z4, 287
mache ·ee co|n salad
maqnesium delciency ²20, J?I
manqanese delciency J??, ²2²
manu|e 4B-50, JI5
q|een 50, 5I
Ma|ch Las|s 30o
ma|iqolds, lo| edqinq 24
ma|jo|am ?Z4, 288-9
poL/F|ench 2Bº
ma||ows ·ee veqeLable ma||ows
maLe|ials lo| mode|n desiqn 2º
May Las|s 308-9
mealy cabbaqe aphids 77
mealybuqs ²²5
meLal conLaine|s 45
Mexican hus| LomaLoes ·ee
mibuna I8?, I95
mice Io4, JJ5, ²²o
mic|oclimaLes I4
mic|oqa|deninq ²o-7
mine|'s leLLuce ·ee pu|slane, winLe|
minimalism ²0
minL ?Z5, 290-I
miLes as allies ²²o, ²²º
mixed planLinq 27, 340-I
whaL Lo q|ow ²²
mizuna Iº4, I94
modules 54, I50
molybdenum delciency J??, ²2²
mooli ·ee |adishes
composLs 4º
aqainsL d|ouqhL I², o5
lo| paLhs I8, IB
planLinq Lh|ouqh 5ó, 57
|huba|b ?Z0
Swiss cha|d 93
aqainsL weeds I²
munq beans ?05, 205
mush|oom composL 47, 4º
musLa|d and c|ess 205
musLa|d q|eens I95
musLa|d spinach ·ee |omaLsuna
as companion planLinq J40
lo| edqinq 24, ?5
nemaLodes ²²I, ²²5, ²²º
neLLle óJ
niL|oqen 5I
delciency ²20-I, J?I
lxaLion 2I, Io7
Novembe| Las|s 3Io
nuL|ienL delciency 320-3
0cLobe| Las|s 3I5
oils, lavo|ed óZ
o||a ?08, 229
l|om seeds 5²
onion ly I44
onion nec| |oL I44
onion Lh|ips I44, JJ5
onion whiLe |oL I44, J?8
onions I40-5
Bullalo I44
collecLinq seeds oº
desiqninq wiLh ²0
d|yinq I8
ha|vesLinq I4²
Fa|is Silve| S|in I44
p|oblems I44
p|opaqaLion oº
|ecommended va|ieLies I44
Red Ba|on I4I
|ouLine ca|e I4²
sowinq seeds I42
sowinq seLs I42, I4?
sLo|aqe I4J
SLu|on I44
unusual I44
when Lo planL I4I
whe|e Lo planL I4I
·ee o/·o shalloLs, sp|inq onions
o|eqano (wild ma|jo|am) ?Z4,
o|qanic composLs 4B-50
o|qanic le|Lilize|s 5I
ouLdoo| livinq plans 2º, ?º
pa| choi ·ee bo| choi
pans 45
pa|asiLes 330-7
pa|sley ?Z5, 292
pa|snip can|e| I?4, J?º
pa|snips I22-5
ha|vesLinq I2²
Javelin I?5
p|oblems I2²
|ecommended va|ieLies I24
|ouLine ca|e I2²
sowinq seeds I2², I?J
sLo|aqe I?5
sLo|inq o7
Tende| and T|ue I?5
when Lo planL I2²
whe|e Lo planL I2²
paLhs I8, IB
L|adiLional ²I
paLio qa|dens ²²
pea aphids Io4
pea moLhs Io4, JJ5
pea Lh|ips Io4
pea weevil I77
peas I58, Io0-5
q|owinq lo| shooLs Ió4
ha|vesLinq IóJ, Io²
Fu|sL C|een ShalL Ió4
Kelvedon Wonde| Ió4
0|eqon Suqa| Fod Ió4
p|oblems Io4
|ecommended va|ieLies Io4
|ouLine ca|e Io2-²
SouLhe|n I7B, IZ8
sowinq seeds Io2, Ió?
Suqa|snap Ió4
suppo|Linq óI, Ió?-J
when Lo planL Io2
whe|e Lo planL IoI
pea sLic|s o0
peppe|s ?08, 2I2-I7
Cypsy ?IZ
ha|vesLinq 2I5, ?I5
Jinqle Bells ?IZ
p|oblems 2I7
|ecommended va|ieLies 2I7
|ipeninq ?I4
|ouLine ca|e 2I5
seedlinqs 2I4
l|om seeds 5²
sowinq seeds 2I4
when Lo planL 2I²
whe|e Lo planL 2I²
pesLs 330-7
pF ol soil 47
phospho|us 5I
delciency ²2I, J?I
pic|linq o7
pinchinq ouL
b|oad beans IZó, I77
|unne| beans IZI
saqe ?º4
pineapple minL ?ºI
planninq Lhe qa|den Io-Iº, 22-5
c|op |oLaLion 2I
deco|aLive leaLu|es 25
planninq Lhe yea| 302-I7
planLe|s ·ee conLaine|s
plasLic poLs 45
lo| seeds 54
pluq planLs 5ó
pollinaLion by hand ?4?
polyLhene lo| wa|minq soil 55,
poLaqe| desiqn 2², ?J
edqinq beds 24
lo| he|bs and salads 24
348 IN0EX
hisLo|ical ²0
poLassium 5I
delciency J?I, ²2I
poLaLo blac| leq I0º
poLaLo bliqhL I0º, J?º
poLaLo common scab I0º
poLaLo cysL eelwo|m I0º
poLaLo leal hoppe| JJ4
poLaLo powde|y scab I0º
poLaLoes I0o-II
Belle de FonLenay III
Cha|loLLe III, III
chiLLinq I08, J04
conLaine|s J4
diseases I0º
ea|Lhinq up I0B, I0º, J0º
lowe|s I0Z
Fo|emosL III
ha|vesLinq I0B
haulms I0º, I0º
he|iLaqe III
Fiqhland Bu|qundy Red III
InLe|naLional Kidney III
Kinq Edwa|d III
Maxine III
Nicola I0Z
pesLs I0º
Fin| Fi| Apple III
planLinq J0ó
p|opaqaLion oº
Red 0u|e ol Yo|| III
Roseval III
|ouLine ca|e I0B
Salad Blue III
seed I0B
sLo|aqe I0B-º, I0º
sLo|inq o7
when Lo planL I07
whe|e Lo planL I07
Wilja III
·ee o/·o sweeL poLaLoes
poLs 44-5
biodeq|adable 5J, 54, ?40
lo| seeds 54
·ee o/·o conLaine|s
poLLinq mix 54
lo| seeds 54, J?5
powde|y mildew 2²7, ?48, ²2B-º,
p|ese|vinq o7
p|ic|inq ouL 54
p|opaqaLion oº
p|opaqaLo|s 54, 54
p|une|s 4I
p|uninq saw 4²
pump|ins ?J?, 244-9, ?45
ALlanLic CianL ?48
ha|vesLinq 24B
p|oblems 24B
|ecommended va|ieLies 24B
Rouqe vil d'ELampes ?48
|ouLine ca|e 24o
seedlinqs ?4ó
sowinq seeds 24o
sLo|aqe ?48, JI4
suppo|Linq ?4ó-Z
L|aininq ?4ó
when Lo planL 245
whe|e Lo planL 245
pu|slane I8?, I93
summe| IºJ
winLe| IºJ
py|eLh|um o4
|adicchio ·ee chico|y
|adishes I8?, 202-3
F|ench B|ea|lasL ?0J
ha|vesLinq ?0?
inLe|sowinq wiLh pa|snips I?4
li|inq acidic soil 47
ManLanqhonq ?0J
|ain ba||el ó5
|aised beds IB, I85
|a|e 4I
|ecycled iLems ²I
|ed chico|y ·ee chico|y
|ed spide| miLe ²²o, JJó
RhizocLonia I²º
|huba|b ?5?, 2o8-7I
division oº, 270, JIó
lo|cinq ?óº, J04
ha|vesLinq 270, ?Z0
li|inq acidic soil 47
mulchinq ?Z0
planLinq seLs 270
p|oblems ?ZI
|ecommended va|ieLies ?ZI
|ouLine ca|e 270
sowinq seeds 270
Timpe|ley Ea|ly ?ZI
vicLo|ia ?óº
when Lo planL 2oº
whe|e Lo planL 2oº
|idqe| 4², 4J
|ool qa|den ²4, J5
|ooL aphids JJó, ²²o-7
|ooL cuLLinqs ?óZ
|ooL |oL J?Z, ²27
|ooL veqeLables I02-55
c|op |oLaLion 2I
·ee o/·o ·µec/jc veqeto//e·
eq ca||oLs
|osema|y ?Z5, 293
cuLLinqs JI?
Miss Jessopp's up|iqhL ?ºJ
F|osL|aLus 2º²
|ows ol veqeLables I7, IZ
|ucola ·ee a|uqula
|unne| beans ?I, I58, I70-3
dwa|l, ha|vesLinq óZ
ha|vesLinq I72
Lady 0i IZJ
pinchinq ouL IZI
planLinq ouL J0º
p|oblems I72
|ouLine ca|e I72
sowinq seeds I72
suppo|Linq IZI
L|enches IZ?
Lunnels óI
when Lo planL I7I
whe|e Lo planL I7I
WhiLe Eme|qo IZJ
wiqwam 27, J?, óI
Russian La||aqon 2ºº
|uLabaqas I04, I28-9
BesL ol All I?º
Ma|ian I?º
sLo|aqe I?8
saqe 275, ?º4
IcLe|ina 2º4, ?º4
Fu|pu|ea 2º4, ?º4
T|icolo| 2º4, ?º4
salad qa|dens 24
salad leaves I80-205
cuL-and-come-aqain IB5, I85
lo| windowbox ²7, JZ
salad |oc|eL ·ee a|uqula
sandy soil 4o, 4ó
Sonto//no lo| edqinq 24
savo|y ?Z5, 29o
saw, p|uninq 4²
scab I0º
scle|oLinia 2o5, J?º
Scoville |aLinq 2I7
sea, p|oblems nea| I5
sea |ale ?5?, 2o7
seed-sowinq mixes 54
seedlinqs 5J
ha|deninq oll 5o
p|ic|inq ouL 54
Lhinninq 55
L|ansplanLinq 5o-7, JI0
collecLinq oº
savinq oº
seed Lape II5
sowinq inside 5², 5J, J05
sowinq ouLside 55, 55
semi-cos ·ee leLLuces
SepLembe| Las|s 3I4
shalloLs I05, I4o-7
collecLinq seeds oº
0elicaLe I4Z
Fi|anL I4Z
sLo|inq o7
silL 47
slips, sweeL poLaLo II², IIJ
sluqs ²²0-I, JJó
snails ²²0-I
soa|e| hose ó5
soil 4o-7
pF 47
wa|minq 55, J05
so||el ?Z5, 297
SouLhe|n peas I7B, IZ8
soybeans I7º
space needed I²
planLinq closely 27
usinq small space c|eaLively ²2-5
spade 40
spea|minL ?ºI
spinach Z?, 8o-8
conLaine|s J?
ha|vesLinq BB
Monnopa 8º
New Zealand 89
Falco 8º
pe|peLual ·ee spinach beeL
|ecommended va|ieLies BB
|ouLine ca|e BB
sowinq seeds BB
when Lo planL B7
whe|e Lo planL B7
spinach beeL 92-3
pe|peLual spinach ºJ
spinach musLa|d ·ee |omaLsuna
sp|inq q|eens 77
sp|ouLinq seeds I8?, 204-5
indoo|s ²7
sowinq in ja|s ?04
squashes ?J0
climbinq 35
collecLinq seeds oº
sLo|aqe JI4
summe| ?J?, 240-3
·ee zucchini jo/ ca/ta/e
CusLa|d WhiLe ?4?
Sunbu|sL ?4?
suppo|Linq óI
Tu||'s Tu|ban J5
winLe| ?J?, 244-9
·ee pump|ins jo/ ca/ta/e
0ueensland Blue ?48
SweeL 0umplinq ?48
uchi|i Ku|i ?45
sLable manu|e 4B-50
sLinqinq neLLle óJ
sLone paLhs IB
sLo|inq veqeLables oo-7
sL|awbe||y poL ?ºº
suqa|loal chico|y ·ee chico|y
summe| savo|y 2ºo
sun L|aps I5
sunlowe|s, as windb|ea|s I4
suppo|Ls 4², o0-I, IóJ, IZI, IZ5,
?Jó, ?4ó-Z
sweeL peppe|s ·ee peppe|s
sweeL poLaLoes I04, II3-I4
Beau|eqa|d II?
|ooLinq slips óº
sweeL co|n ·ee co|n
Swiss cha|d Z?, 92-3
conLaine|s ²2
desiqninq wiLh ²0
ha|vesLinq º², ºJ
planLinq ouL 5ó-Z
|ecommended va|ieLies º²
|ouLine ca|e º2
sowinq seeds º2
when Lo planL º2
whe|e Lo planL º2
WhiLe Silve| ºJ
La||aqon ?Z5, 298-9
LaLsoi BI
Le||a-coLLa conLaine|s 45, 45
Le||a-coLLa poLs, lo| seeds 54
Lhinninq seedlinqs 55
LhisLle, c|eepinq óJ
Lhonqs 2o7
Lhyme ?Z5, 300-I
LomaLillos 228
LomaLo bliqhL 22o
LomaLo qhosL spoL 22o
LomaLoes 222-7
Blac| Russian ??ó
bush 22², ??J
L|aininq 225
collecLinq seeds oº, óº
conLaine|s ²2
l|eezinq o7
Colden Sun|ise ??ó
hanqinq bas|eLs ²7
ha|vesLinq 225
pinchinq ouL JI?
350 IN0EX
planLinq ouL J08
p|oblems 22o
|ecommended va|ieLies 22o
Roma ??ó
|ouLine ca|e 225
seedlinqs 225
l|om seeds 5², 54
sowinq seeds 224
Sunqold ??ó
Tiqe|ella ??ó
ToLem ?08
Tumble| ??ó
Tumblinq Tom ??J
vine 22², ??J
when Lo planL 224
whe|e Lo planL 224
·ee o/·o Mexican hus| LomaLo
Lools and equipmenL 40-²
Lop-d|essinq 5I, 5I
L|ace elemenLs 5I
delciencies º7
L|ansplanLinq 5o-7, 5ó-Z
L|ays 54
L|ee onions I45
L|ellis oI, óI
L|owel 4I
Lunnels oI, óI
as cloches 5º 5º
lo| ve|Lical desiqn 25
·ee o/·o polyLunnels
Lu|nips I04, I2o-7
Blanc de C|oissy I?Z
ha|vesLinq I?Z, JI0
sowinq in modules I?Z
To|yo C|oss I?Z
Lwine 4²
U, V
upland c|ess ·ee land c|ess
veqeLable ma||ows ?J?, 239
Lonq C|een T|ailinq ?Jº
|aisinq l|om ea|Lh ?Jº
violeL |ooL |oL 257, ²2º
vi|al sp|ead ²2
as shelLe| I5, I5
lo| ve|Lical desiqn 25
wasps, pa|asiLic ²²7, ²²º
waLe|, conse|vaLion o5
waLe|inq I²
p|oblems J?J
waLe|inq can 4², 4J
weedinq I², o2, ó?
weed|ille|s o2
weeds o2-²
annual o2
pe|ennial o2
Welsh onions I45
WesL Indian qhe||in 2²B
wheelba||ow 4², 4J
whipLail º7
whiLe blisLe| ²2º
whiLely ºI, ²²7, JJZ
wiqwams ²², JJ, oI, óI, IZI, ?Jó,
?4Z, J0Z
wild a|uqula ·ee a|uqula
wildlile as allies 340-I
windb|ea|s I4, I5
lo| balconies ²4
windowboxes JZ
whaL Lo q|ow ²7
windowsills JZ
seeds 5²
whaL Lo q|ow ²7
winLe| savo|y 2ºo
wi|ewo|ms ²²7, JJZ
WiLlool chico|y ·ee chico|y
wo|ms lo| composL bins 5I
Y, Z
ya|dlonq peas I7º
zucchini ?J?, 240-3
0elende| ?4?
l|eezinq o7
hand pollinaLion ?4?
ha|vesLinq ?40, 242, JIJ
p|oblems 242
|ecommended va|ieLies 242
|ouLine ca|e 24I
seedlinqs ?4I
sowinq seeds 24I
T|omboncino ?4?
when Lo planL 24I
whe|e Lo planL 240
Auther's acknewledgments
Than|s Lo Lhe Leam aL 0o|linq Kinde|sley,
especially KaLie 0oc| and Rachael SmiLh, Lo
Jo WhiLLinqham lo| all he| help and advice,
and Lo Ba|ba|a Wood, my ploL neiqhbo| aL
Lhe Royal Faddoc|s AlloLmenLs, FampLon Wic|,
lo| so qene|ously sha|inq he| |nowledqe
(and many ol he| planLs') wiLh me.
Publîsher's acknewledgments
0o|linq Kinde|sley would li|e Lo Lhan| Zia
Allaway lo| ediLo|ial assisLance, Michele
Cla||e lo| compilinq Lhe index, T|evo| Cole
lo| assisLance wiLh Lhe uS ediLion, and Lhe
lollowinq lo| Lhei| |ind pe|mission Lo
|ep|oduce Lhei| phoLoq|aphs.
(Key. a-above, b-below/boLLom, c-cenLe|,
l-lelL, |-|iqhL, L-Lop)
2-3 0AP Photos Ltd: Rob WhiLwo|Lh/RFS
FampLon Cou|L Flowe| Show/0esiqne|. Faul
SLone. o Airedale Publishing. I2 Modeste
Herwig: WesL 0ean Ca|dens (bl). I5 0arden
World Images: F 0avis (c). Io Airedale
Publishing. 20 Airedale Publishing: (bl).
28 Andrew Lawson: RFS Chelsea Flowe|
Show Iººº/0esiqne|. Si| Te|ence Con|an.
30 The 0arden 0ollection: Liz Eddison/
RFS Chelsea Flowe| Show/0esiqne|. Si|
Te|ence Con|an (b). 3I The 0arden
0ollection: Liz Eddison/RFS TaLLon Fa||
Show 2004/0esiqne|s. Jo ChapsLic| and
Nic|y SaddinqLon (L). Liz Eddison (b).
33 0arden World Images: 0 Bevan. 35
0arden World Images: John SwiLhinban|
(Ll). 0erek 5t Romaine: (L|). 3o The 0arden
0ollection: Liz Eddison/RFS FampLon Cou|L
Flowe| Show 2002/0esiqne|. Che||y Bu|Lon
(bl). 39 Airedale Publishing. 42 0ourtesy of
www.wolf-garten.com (Ll). Airedale
Publishing: (b|). 53 Airedale Publishing: (b).
58 Airedale Publishing: (b|). o8 Airedale
Publishing: (bl). 72 0arden World Images:
F 0avis (c). 0 T Brown 5eeds (b). 73 Photos
Horticultural. (b|). 78 Le 5canff-Mayer.
79 0arden Picture Library: Jacqui Fu|sL
(bl), Fowa|d Rice (L|). Photos Horticultural:
(Ll) (b|). 80 0arden World Images: F 0avis.
8I 0 T Brown 5eeds. 89 0AP Photos Ltd:
Michael Fowes (Ll). 0arden World Images:
(bl). 93 Jo Whitworth: (b|). 94 0arden
Picture Library: James Cuilliam. 97 0arden
World Images: (bl). 98 Airedale Publishing.
99 Jo Whitworth: RFS Ca|dens, Rosemoo|.
I0I 0arden Picture Library: Fowa|d Rice
(bl). 5utton 5eeds (b|). I03 Airedale
Publishing. I04 Airedale Publishing: (ca),
Mr Fothergill's 5eeds (L|). 5utton 5eeds
(bc|). I05 Thompson and Morgan (cal)
(ca|) & (bl). II0 Airedale Publishing: (L|).
III 0AP Photos Ltd: JonaLhan Buc|ley (b).
0arden Picture Library: Ch|is Bu||ows (a).
II2 0AP Photos Ltd: JonaLhan Buc|ley.
II3 Airedale Publishing. II7 Airedale
Publishing: (L|). I2I Mr Fothergill's 5eeds
(bl) (al). I25 0arden World Images: A
BaqeLL (b|). 5utton 5eeds (bl). I2o 0AP
Photos Ltd: JonaLhan Buc|ley (bl). 0arden
Picture Library: Fowa|d Rice (b|).
I29 0arden World Images: C Wheele| (L).
Photos Horticultural: (b). I3o Thompson
and Morgan. I37 0arden World Images.
I38 Jo Whitworth. I40 Airedale
Publishing. I44 Airedale Publishing: (L).
0AP Photos Ltd: Ceoll Kidd (b). 0arden
World Images: (c). I47 Andrew Lawson:
(b). Photos Horticultural: (L). I49 0 T
Brown 5eeds (L|). 0arden World Images:
(Lc). 0arden Picture Library: Ch|is Bu||ows
(b). I5I Airedale Publishing: (Ll).
I52 Airedale Publishing. I55 0AP Photos
Ltd: S & 0 (bl). Ca|den Wo|ld Imaqes. (|).
I58 Photos Horticultural: F0RA (b).
I59 Thompson and Morgan (b|).
Io3 0arden Picture Library: SLephen
FamilLon (L|). Io4 0arden World Images:
Jacqui 0|acup. Io5 Airedale Publishing:
(L|). 0AP Photos Ltd: JonaLhan Buc|ley (b|).
0arden Picture Library: Ch|isLi Ca|Le| (Ll),
Michael Fowes (bl). Ioo Airedale
Publishing. Io9 0arden Picture Library:
0avid As|ham (L). Photos Horticultural:
F0RA (b). I73 0AP Photos Ltd: JonaLhan
Buc|ley (|). Photos Horticultural: (l).
I74 0AP Photos Ltd: JonaLhan Buc|ley.
I77 0arden Picture Library: 0avid As|ham
(b). I78 Airedale Publishing: (L). I79 Photos
Horticultural: (L). Thompson and Morgan
(b). I89 FLPA: Niqel CaLLlin (L|). 0arden
World Images: (b|). The 0arden 0ollection:
To|ie Chuqq (bl). I92 0arden World
Images. I99 Photos Horticultural. 20I Jo
Whitworth. 2I0 0AP Photos Ltd. JonaLhan
Buc|ley. 2II Photos Horticultural: (b).
2Io Airedale Publishing: (Ll). 0AP Photos
Ltd: JonaLhan Buc|ley (b|) (L|). 0arden
Picture Library: BoLanica (bl). 22I Photos
Horticultural: (|). 223 5utton 5eeds.
22o 0 T Brown 5eeds (b), Photos
Horticultural: (L). 227 0arden Picture
Library: Michael Fowes (Ll). Photos
Horticultural: (bl). 233 0 T Brown 5eeds
(bl), 0arden Picture Library: Michele
LamonLaqne (b|). 234 Airedale Publishing.
237 0 T Brown 5eeds (L). 0AP Photos Ltd:
JonaLhan Buc|ley (b). 238 0arden
Exposures Photo Library: And|ea Jones.
2²º Photos Horticultural: (L). 243 0 T
Brown 5eeds (L|). 0AP Photos Ltd:
JonaLhan Buc|ley (Ll). The 0arden
0ollection: To|ie Chuqq (bl). 248 Airedale
Publishing: (b). 249 0AP Photos Ltd:
JonaLhan Buc|ley (L|). 0arden Picture
Library: Michele LamonLaqne (b|). 0arden
World Images: A Biddle (Ll). The 0arden
0ollection: And|ew Lawson (bl). 253 0 T
Brown 5eeds (cl). 0arden World Images:
F McC|aLh (b|). Photos Horticultural: (bl).
257 Airedale Publishing. 2oI Airedale
Publishing. 2o2 Photos Horticultural:
F0RA. 2o4 0 T Brown 5eeds. 2oo Photos
Horticultural. 2o7 Photos Horticultural:
(b). 2o8 0arden World Images: F McC|aLh.
27I 0arden World Images. 274 0AP
Photos Ltd: visions (L|). 282 0AP Photos
Ltd: visions. 290 Airedale Publishing: (Ll).
295 Airedale Publishing: (Ll). 299 0arden
Picture Library: BoLanica. 3I4 Airedale
Publishing: (b). 3Io Photos Horticultural:
RFS Chelsea Flowe| Show Iºº0
Femb|o|eshi|e Fo|LiculLu|al SocieLy (bl).
3I9 Airedale Publishing. 32I FLPA: Niqel
CaLLlin (ca) (b) (cb). 322 FLPA: Niqel CaLLlin
(ca) (cb), Len McLeod (b). 0arden World
Images: 0 Bevan (L). 323 0arden World
Images: S ChesLe|man (L). 324 Photos
Horticultural: MJK (|). 32o 0arden World
Images: 0 Bevan (L) (cb). 5cience Photo
Library: Niqel CaLLlin (ca). 327 0arden
World Images. 0 Bevan (cb), F McC|aLh (L).
0arden Picture Library: Fowa|d Rice (ca).
328 0arden World Images: 0 Bevan (L).
0arden Picture Library: Ma|| Winwood
(ca). 329 0AP Photos Ltd: FhF C|eenmedia
(L). 5cience Photo Library: Clive Schaupmaye|/
AqsLoc|uSA (ca). 330 Airedale Publishing:
(|). 332 5cience Photo Library: C|own
copy|iqhL cou|Lesy ol CSL (ca). 333 0arden
World Images: 0 Bevan (cb). 5cience Photo
Library: C|own copy|iqhL cou|Lesy ol CSL
(b). 334 0arden Picture Library: Animals
Animals/Ea|Lh Scenes (b). 0arden World
Images: 0 Wild|idqe (L). 335 0AP Photos
Ltd: J S Si|a (L). 5cience Photo Library:
Jac| Cla||/AqsLoc|uSA (cb). 33o 5cience
Photo Library: C|own copy|iqhL cou|Lesy ol
CSL (c). 337 5cience Photo Library: 0|
Ma|lin E Rice (b). 338 Airedale Publishing:
(Ll). 0K Images: Ted BenLon (bl).
34I Airedale Publishing: (bl)
All oLhe| imaqes © 0o|linq Kinde|sley.
Fo| lu|Lhe| inlo|maLion see www.d|imaqes.com.
Baker 0reek Heirloom
5eed 0o.
227B Ba|e| C|ee| Road
Mansleld, M0 o5704
lo/qe ·e/ect/on oj /e///oon
veqeto//e jowe/ onJ
/e// ·eeJ·
²00 Fa|| Avenue
Wa|minsLe|, FA IBº74
veqeto//e onJ jowe/ ·eeJ·
0hiltern 5eeds
Bo|L|ee SLile
Cumb|ia LAI2 7FB
Mon, /o/e onJ ana·ao/ ·eeJ·
/nc/aJ/nq veqeto//e· jowe/·
µe/enn/o/· t/ee· ·//a/·
onJ /oa·eµ/ont·
0urney's 5eed & Nursery 0o.
F.0. Box 4I7B
C|eendale, IN 47025
veqeto//e j/a/t /e// onJ
jowe/ ·eeJ· onJ µ/ont·
ºº0 TeLhe|ow Rd.
Williams, 0R º7544
lo/qe /onqe oj µ/ont·
/nc/aJ/nq j/a/t· onJ /e///e·
µe/enn/o/· onJ o/nonento/
t/ee· ·//a/· onJ q/o··e·
Johnny's 5elected 5eeds
º55 BenLon Avenue
Winslow, ME 04º0I
veqeto//e onJ jowe/ ·eeJ·
/nc/aJ/nq /e///oon vo//et/e·
onJ o/qon/c ·eeJ· onJ too/·
onJ ·aµµ//e·
Park 5eed 0ompany
I Fa||Lon Ave
C|eenwood, SC 2ºo47
veqeto//e onJ jowe/ ·eeJ·
Peaceful Valley Farm
& 0arden 5upply
F.0. Box 220º
C|ass valley, CA º5º45
Aota/o/ je/t///ze/· /enejc/o/
/n·ect· onJ ·eeJ· µ/ont·
onJ qo/Jen/nq ·aµµ//e·
Planet Natural
IoI2 Cold Ave.
Bozeman, MT 5º7I5
Aota/o/ µe·t cont/o/·
conµo·t/nq e(a/µnent
/,J/oµon/c ·aµµ//e·
onJ ·eeJ·
5t. Lawrence Nurseries
²25 SLaLe Fiqhway ²45
FoLsdam, NY I²o7o
T/a/, /o/J, j/a/t onJ nat
t/ee· jo/ no/t/e/n qo/Jen·
5and Hill Preservation
IB7B 2²0Lh SL|eeL
Calamus, IA 5272º
/e///oon ·eeJ· onJ µ/ont·
onJ /e//toqe µoa/t/,
5elect 5eeds Antique
IB0 SLic|ney Fill Road
union, CT 0o07o
Po/e onJ o/J-jo·//oneJ
jowe/ ·eeJ· /a//·
onJ µ/ont·
5tokes 5eeds
F.0. Box 54B
Bullalo, NY I4240
veqeto//e onJ jowe/ ·eeJ·
Territorial 5eed 0ompany
F.0. Box I5B
CoLLaqe C|ove, 0R º7424
una·ao/ onJ /e///oon jowe/
j/a/t onJ veqeto//e ·eeJ·
onJ µ/ont·
Underwood 0ardens
I4I4 Zimme|man Road
WoodsLoc|, IL o00ºB
W/Je /onqe oj /e///oon
oµen-µo///noteJ onJ
/o/e ·eeJ·

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