Question 4 One of the important and practical aspects of materials selection in the design, development and production of new
components (or parts/ structures) is the possibility of failure of the component (or parts/ structures) under normal operation. a) In term of materials selection and design, explain the important and the value failure analysis. [20 Marks] Important Any component failure that occurs prior to what is considered to be the design or useful life of the component Failures that occur at the design lifetime but by what is considered an abnormal failure mode Value Potential savings will vary on a case by case basis. Used to identify the party at fault. Financial losses resulting from a failure can often be recovered when deficiencies in design, workmanship or materials can be identified as the root cause of the failure. b) Discuss the objectives of failure analysis and decide how it can be implemented [20 Marks] There are 3 primary objectives; The first objective is to examine the objective evidence presented by the failed components and, from that evidence, determine the failure mechanism. The second objective is to determine the primary cause, or what is commonly called the root cause, of the failure. This is accomplished by examining design and operational issues to determine what specific factor, or factors, was responsible for the failure. The third objective, recommendation of corrective actions that will prevent similar failures, can be accomplished once the root cause of the failure has been identified.
The majority of engineering failures are caused by fatique failure. Fatigue fractures are actually caused by the simultaneous action of cyclic stress, tensile stress, and plastic strain. i) Sketch the schematic diagram that exhibits three (3) stages of fatigue fracture of a metal and interprets each of the them. [20 Marks] The process of fatigue consists of three stages;Ph 1 - crack initiation (ratchet-marks) Ph 2 - Crack propagation-Progressive crack growth across the part (beach marks and striations) Ph-3 - Final Fracture - Sudden fracture of the remaining cross section (ductile/ brittle overload)
nicks and dings. corrosion pits. etc. Harden the outer surface of the structure by case hardening (carburizing.
Fatigue cracks initiate at specific defects. stress-corrosion cracks. fretting locations. Recommend the possibilities defects which are commonly implicated as fatigue origins [20 Marks]
grinding and machining marks. Recommends five (5) preventive action that may be taken to increase the resistance to the fatigue failure of a metal alloy [20 Marks]
Polish the surface to remove stress amplification sites. keyways. non-metallic inclusions which intersect the metal surface. nitriding) or shot peening. Reduce the number of internal defects (pores. Modify the design to eliminate notches and sudden contour changes. Using lubrication during machinery operating.) by means of altering processing and fabrication techniques. notches. etc.
by miscalculation of the service stresses. misuse or abuse in service. and toughness of metallic materials. polymers
. or processing.
b) • • • • • • • • • • • • •
Identify five (5) factors as the root cause of overload failures.
stresses exceed the load-bearing capacity of the material from either excessive applied stress or degradation of the load-bearing capacity of the material from damage. A brittle fracture surface typically appears shiny with flat facets which are created during cleavage fracture. or other factors.example. insufficient material strength underdesign . polymers Brittle fracture Small/ no plastic deformation Facetted Low energy absorption before fracture Characterized by rapid crack propagation Unexpected failure Unstable crack Eg: Ceramics. ductility. embrittlement. fibrous appearance and often resembles a cup-and coneconfiguration. a) What are the characteristics of the surface of a (i) ductile and (ii) brittle fracture of a metal? [5 Marks]
A ductile fracture surface has a dull. specification. overload failures refer to the ductile or brittle fracture of a material. Compare the general characteristic of ductile and brittle fracture.Question 5 From the perspective of materials failure analysts. [15 Marks] Ductile fracture Plastic deformation Dimple High energy absorption before fracture Characterized by slow crack propagation Detectable failure Stable crack Eg: Metals. improper material selection. poor manufacturing Design mistakes stress concentration material defects material alteration change in material microstructure Embrittlement a wide variety of manufacturing and material characteristics can act singly or combine synergistically to reduce the strength.
Necking or plastic deformation . [20 Marks]
.Irregular trans-granular fracture .Singular crack with limited/no branching Brittle Fracture . [20 Marks] Visual Observation Ductile Fracture . Visual inspection. optical microscope and scanning electron microscope viewing are three (3) major procedures used to implement the fractographic study in order to determine the behaviour for both of these particular types of fractures.Plastic distortion of grains .Inter-granular or trans-granular .Micro-voids elongation in direction of load .
As-polish metallograph shows necking and stretching between adjacent thread crests are evident on a cross section
i) Recommend the four possibilities to the root cause of screw failure [10 Marks] • • • • • • • • • Porosity weakened the mechanical properties of screw Too tight fitting Different materials Different tread Different size Different hardness Stucked by corrosion Narrow opening of screw hole Improper installation – abuse/ robbers work ii) Recommend the preventive that should be taken to prevent the same failure. Distinguish the characters of ductile and brittle fracture under (i) visual inspection.Minimal deformation .Cleavage or inter-granular . The fractographic features were consistent with dimple structure.d)
Characteristics of brittle and ductile fracture generally depending on the scale of observation. (ii) optical and (iii) electron microscope. the macroscopic necking and stretching between adjacent thread crests as shown metallographically in Figure 1.Little/no plastic deformation .Shiny.Chevrons .Discontinuity or stress riser at origin
Optical Microscopic SEM Microscopic
The screw was found fractured during installation of new equipment.Shear lips . crystalline fracture surface . course.Dull and fibrous fracture surface .
16. 7. 14. Normal stress orientations 16. 17. Maintenance procedures 8. 5. 18. name. [25 Marks] Moderately cold-bent during installation results residual/ internal stress Not stress-relief-annealed results residual/ internal stress still present in the tube The steam drum lacked adequate devices for separation of steam and water. 20. Identify the important information needed from plant engineers that could helps you getting some primary clues. Note small window that has been blown out of the wall. possibly causing carryover of boiler water results hot water enter the tube & forces the acceleration of oxidation reaction Micro structural analysis revealed plastically deformed grains from the cold bending shows an elongated grain proves the presents of residual/internal stress
. 5. 13. The steam drum lacked adequate devices for separation of steam and water. Operational documentation (standard. It had been moderately cold-bent during installation. 4. create your hypothesis regarding the root cause of the tube failure? Stress-Corrosion Cracking
Give four (4) reasons to justify your hypothesis. The tube was then removed and sends to your consultancy firm for further failure investigation. 19.
To initiate the failure investigation. 3. Description. The corrodent was sodium hydroxide from boiler-water carryover. Location. temp. Photographs 20. Part No.Cleaning history 11. 8. Maintenance history 9. Service deviations 15. 21. Cleaning procedures 10. 6. 2. Function of item 7./ pressure etc) 12. The cracks were highly branched and ran between the grains (intergranular) as they passed through the tube wall. Manufacturer or fabricator 6. 4. Type of materials (Chemical composition) 13. 9.Operational procedures (temp. 15. 11. 2.Similar hardness between screw & screw hole
Question 6 A schematic diagram of a tube illustrated in Figure 2 is one of numerous tubes that failed located at first stage superheater tubes in the boiler. and load swings were frequent./ pressure etc) 14. Previous inspections reports. Drawings 19. Microstructural analysis revealed plastically deformed grains from the cold bending. and load swings were frequent. [20 Marks] 1. and was not stress-relief-annealed. you have to make a site visit to the plant to get some background information. 10. Opinions of related personnel [5 Marks]
From the above statement. Precipitating events 18. 3. Figure 2: Schematic diagram shows the transverse crack in a bent carbon steel superheater tube. One of the carbon steel tubes was found cracked after only 3 months of operation. possibly causing carryover of boiler water. Extent of incident 17.
EDS: to Identify of the chemical species present in the corrosion deposits Failure mechanism: to determine the root cause of the failure. recommend [15 marks] • two (2) types of tube materials that should be replacing carbon steel Killed carbon steel (3 marks) Stainless steel (3 marks) High chromium steel (1 marks) Superalloys (0.5 marks) • three (3) corrective actions that should be taken in order to prevent the same failure. manufacturing process and/ or the damage mechanism
6) Fractographis analysis (SEM) & microanalysis (EDS) 7) Determination of failure mechanism & recommendations
7) Report writing
SEM analysis: to identify of the fine scale features fracture mode. Recommendations to determine whether the components should be replaced or not and to eliminate or reduce the frequency of future failures. Reduce the concentration of chemical species that promotes corrosion Avoid cold bending during installation process Avoid bending in the plant’s design Proper stress-relief-annealing Intelligent corrosion monitoring and smart sensors Signal analysis and artificial intelligence First-class practice in inspection management Implement fitness for service test before operation Expert system on failure analysis Mind setting aim for zero failure
. As-polished microstructure. spectrometer 5) Metallographic analysis by metallurgical microscope. 2) Visual examination followed by To record of the original & locations condition closed-up photographs by digital camera. For documentation To be send to customer
e) • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
Considering the root cause of failure. propose the procedures that should be carried out to implement failure analysis and briefly justify reason for each of the procedures [35 Marks] Procedures Reason 1) Obtaining background data • To investigate the basic information to be a primary clue of the root cause analysis. to determined and the relationship between the microstructure and the type of materials.
The cracks were highly branched shows the presents of stress ran between the grains (intergranular) shows the presents of corrosion The corrodent was sodium hydroxide from boiler-water carryover shows hydroxide ion from NaOH acts as active corrosion agent
Concisely. 3) Chemical composition analysis To make sure whether the material meets the specified composition by using XRF or spark emission limits. to identify the presence of defects such as inclusions and voids or microstructural anomalies Etched microstructure.