INTRODUCTION:Management of organic waste in environment friendly manner is becoming difficult due to rapid increase in population and urbanization

. Organic waste materials are available in huge amounts in the form of farm waste, city waste, poultry litter and the industrial wastes (food, sugar, cotton, and rice industry). The continuous accumulation of these materials is becoming a potential source of land, water and air pollution. Recycling of organic waste is one of the major options, which could be effective for reducing huge piles of organic wastes. Composting is an alternative technology for a sustainable solid waste management. It is a biological decomposition of organic matter by micro-organisms (Golue ke 1972; Rynk et al., 1992; Beffa et al., 1996; Tiquia et al., 1996). During composting, the starting material is transformed through a variety of biological and biochemical processes in which enzymes play a role [Garcia et al., 1992, 1993; Vuorinen 1999, 2000]. A big significance for the process of composting represents the cell wall of micro organisms through which mass transfer is possible. Low molecular weight and water soluble molecules can easily pass through the cell wall where they take part in the cell metabolism, providing energy and being built up into larger polymers, with the help of intracellular enzymes. To attack high molecular weight components, which cannot pass through the cell wall, micro organisms secrete extracellular enzymes. They break molecules down into the fragments that can be assimilated, while the rest is converted into a stable product, humus or compost [Haug, 1980; Biddlestone, J., Gray, 1985]. Xylanases (E.C. a group of hemicellulolytic enzymes, are required for the hydrolysis of β 1,4- xylans present in lignocellulosic materials [Kheng, Omar, (2005)] . Xylanases are the microbial enzymes that have aroused great interest recently due to their potential application in many industrial processes viz; nutritional improvement of lignocellulosic feed stuff (Wallace et al., (2001), production of hydrolysates from agro-industrial wastes (Kheng and Omar, (2005). Applications of microbial enzymes extend from food and beverage manufacturing to biomass conversion, and waste treatment.


The present study was undertaken in the following aspects  Xylanase production from Bacillus sp, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Rhizopus nigricans and Trichoderma viride by using different agro residues.  Compost production using EM solution, crude xylanase, and mixing of crude xylanase and EM solution.  To find out the macro and micro nutrient status of EM treated organic waste, crude xylanase treated organic waste and mixing of EM and xylanase treated organic waste .  To compare the seed germination, growth parameters of greengram under different treated organic composts.  To analyse the carbohydrate and protein content in green gram grown in different treatments.


REVIEW OF LITERATURE:XYLANASE PRODUCTION:Abundance of xylan:Xylan together with hemicelluloses forms the second most abundant renewable polysaccharide in the biosphere. It has been estimated that 500 million tons of such materials could be annually available from the residues of major crops [Detroy, 1981].In some higher plants and agricultural wastes, xylan constitutes from 20-40% of the dry weight [Detroy, 1981 and Petterson, 1984]. Xylan is widely distributed in plant cell walls and forms a main part of the hemicelluloses fraction [Holt, Sharpe and Williams, 1989]. Xylans are linear homopolymers that contain Dxylose monomers linked through β -1, 4- glycosyl bonds [Srinivasan and Rele, 1999]. Types of Xylan:There are two types of hemicelluloses, the acetylated xylan of hard wood and arabinoxylan of soft wood (Timell, 1961). Hard wood xylan is typical O-acetyl-4-0 methyl flucuronic xylan with approximately 10% xylose units substituted with X-1, 2 linked 4-0-methyl glucoronic acid side chain and 70% of xylose residues are acetylated at the C2, or C3 position. Acetylation occurs more frequently at the C3 and double acetylation of a D-xylose unit has also been reported (Bouveng, 1967). The presence of acetyl groups makes the xylan signification soluble in water. It constitutes about 15-30% of the cell wall content. Soft wood xylan is commonly arabinoxylan in which 10% of xylose units are substituted with a-2, 3 linked arabinofuranose residues. It constitutes about 7-10% of the cell wall content (Whistler, 1970 and Biely, 1985). Structure of xylan:The structure of xylan found in cell walls of plants can differ greatly depending on their origin but they always contain a β -1,4 linked D-xylose back bone.

glucuronidase. of finely powdered agro wastes 100 ml. 4-xylanase which hydrolyzes the xylanopyranose of the central chain and (2) β -xylosidese which hydrolyze other xylooligo saccharides resulting from the action of endoxylanase. 1999). (1983) was followed for xylan extraction from agro wastes. arabino-4-0methyl. Biodegradation of xylan:Biodegradation of xylan requires action of several enzymes.1. Xylan was precipitated and the precipitate was washed many times with tap water and dried in an oven at 50o C.arabinofuranosyl.C. To 50 gm.8 (1-4)-B-D xylano hydrolase. A complete and efficient biodegradation of xylan depends mainly on 2 types of enzymes: (1) Endo-β -1. of 3% NaOH was added and incubated at 121o C for one hour.. Xylan is heterogenous polysaccharide consisting of a homopolymeric back bone of 1. Xylan extraction:The method of Panbangred et al.2.3. 2005).1. 4 . D-glucuronoxylan and glucuronoxylan D-xylanases of this type have been assigned the number E. Other enzymes used for biodegradation were acetyl xylanoasterases.[Ebringerova and Heinze.. 2000]. et al. among which xylanases play a key role (Blanco.2. endoxylanase and 3. -D-glucuronyl residues. The xylanases commonly act on the xylans like arabinoxylan.4-linked β -Xylopyranose residues and short chain branches including acetyl. 50 ml.3 (1-4) β -D-xylo hydrolase endoxylanase. L-arabinofuranosidase (Maria and Samia. ethanol was added and mixed thoroughly with glass rod. X-L.

Xylanase is responsible for hydrolysis of xylan. SUBSTRATE Sugarcane baggase Cornhusk... 5 . (2005) 2.endo. chemical and pulp industries (Seyis and Aksoz. of NaOH Xylanase (E. 1. food and feed industries. Rice bran Corn cob Barley straw Xylanase:- Tachaapaikoon et al. clarifying and liquefying fruit and vegetable juices.2.No. (2008) Rezaeian et al. baggase. Rice straw.. ALKALI METHOD ACID METHOD 0. The major uses of this enzyme are in biopulping. 4. use of xylanase causes decrease in consumption of chlorine. (2005) 1. Absorbable Organic Halogen (AOH).0g /1 H2So4 3 ml. paper. 1-4-D-xylanase) is mainly responsible for the hydrolysis of xylan with β -1-4 xylanolytic linkages. biobleaching. During the last decades xylanases have been received a great deal of attention mainly due to their various industrial applications such as pulp. Corn cob. This enzyme is extensively used in food processing. 2005).β.3.8.1. (2006) 1N NaoH 3..C. sugarcane AUTHOR & YEAR Bocchini et al. Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and improves thereby the quality of waste water. Yang et al.5ml of H2So4 S.Table 1 Xylan extraction method for various authors. a major hemicellulose of plant cell wall (second most abundant). In paper and pulp industries.

2000. 1998)]. Xylanases production from micro organisms:Xylanases are produced by microorganisms including bacteria. Xylanase Production:The basic factors for efficient production of xylanolytic enzymes are the choice of an appropriate inducing substrate and an optimum medium composition.1999] bacteria [(Gessesse and Mamo. snails and germinating plant seeds (Taiz and Horingman.. 2003). Nascimento et al.. 1985) three different xylanases have been reported in purified form from the culture filterate of Clostridium stercorarium and in streptomyces sp (Marui et al. 1997. Most commercial xylanases are produced by Trichoderma.. 1998]. Polizeli et al. 1998. 2002) Xylaneses have been reported from fungi [ Ishihara et al.. 1976).... and actinomycetes [ Fernandez et al. In general.. The important of cellulose free xylanase systems in the paper and pulp industry has initiated research into the correlation between the production of xylanase and cellulases by micro organisms. They occur in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes (Dekker and Richards. 1998.Occurrence of xylanase:Xylanase are widely distributed. 1985).. Penicillium. the level of xylanase in fungal culture is typically much higher than those from yeasts or bacteria (Singh et al.. Aureobasidium and Talaromyles species [Li et al. Garg et al. [Icjart et al. 1999. Inagaki et al.. Aspergillus. 2005] 6 . Occurrence of Multiple xylanases in Micro organisms:Multiple xylanases have been reported in numerous micro organisms (Dekker. 1976) and have been demonstrated in higher eukaryotes including protozoa insects. Bacillus. fungi and actinomycetes (Subramaniyam and Prema.

A large number of bacteria and fungi are known to produce xylanases (Kulkarni et al.. Harada et al.... Oakley et al.. Bacillus is an industrially important source of xylanases [Shah et al. 2006.. 1999). Swaroopa Rani and Krishnanand.subtilis B. Estrada et al. 2003. 2007. Qureshy et al. 2007. Hernandez et al. 2006.. Liu et al... 2005. 7 .. Yin et al... Avcioglu et al. 2000. Senthil kumar et al.... 2008. 2002.. 2002. Intensive investigations have been performed with xylanolytic enzymes derived from bacteria. Bocchini et al. Bacterial xylanases:Bacterial xylanases hydrolyse xylan to xylotriose and higher oligosaccharides. 2006.. Chang et al. Chauhan et al. Table 2:List of xylanolytic bacteria studied by various authors... Techapun et al. Very few bacterial xylanases have been well characterized and most have been found to be endoxylanases producing xylobiose as the main end products.. licheniformis B. 2006 Moriya et al. 2005. 2003. Among the bacterial sources. 2001.. 2008. pumilus B.Kapoor et al.. Ninawe and Kuhad. both aerobic and anaerobic. Damiano et al. Ninawe et al.. flavigena Clostridium sp Clostridium absonum Eschericia coli Geobacillus sp Paenibacillus Pseudomonas sp Streptomyces cyaneus Streptomycs sp References Tanaka et al. 2007 . 2006. Bacteria Aureobasidium pullulans Bacillus circulans B. 2005 Dhillon et al. 2005. 2005... 2005. 2005. 2005. Battan et al. Petrosyan et al. 2002.. Wu et al... 1999]. coagulans B. 2008. Marichamy and Mattiasson. 2004 Aleksandrova et al. Virupakshi et al. Delgado et al.firmis Bacillus sp Bacillus Cellulomonas flavigenia C.. 2000. Chungool et al.. 2005. Heck et al. 2003. Xu et al. 2000. 2005.

. Ai et al. Dekker.. Most commercial xylanases produced by Trichoderma. et al. [Polizeli. et al.. Gupta et al. Kittur et al. 2004. Aspergillus... 1988. 2000] 8 . Aureobasidium and Talaromyces sp... 2003. 2004.. 2005. From an industrial point of view. filamentous fungi are interesting produces of these enzymes due to xylanases releasing and their easy cultivation [ Wong. Bacillus. Penicillium. 2007.. Azadi. 2003]. 2000. 2005. Ding et al. Xue and Shao. Tas and Saddler.olivaceoviridis Staphylococcus sp Thermotoga maritime Fungal xylanases:- Khurana et al.S. Tan et al.. 2008.violaceroruber S.

starch etc.. rice straw.. gram bran.. Deschamps et al. (2003). PRODUCTION OF XYLANASE BY CHEAPER HEMICELLULOSIC AGRO WASTES:Agricultural by products that contain cellulose.. paddy straw.. Vilas Boas et al. apple pomace. coconut coirpith. rice husk.. (2002). tamarind seed. Wheat bran served as a good carbon source for xylanase production in Thermomyces lanuginosus (Haq and Deckwer.Table 3: List of xyanolytic fungi studied by various authors. stream pretreated willow.. maize bran. wheat bran. steamed rice. Wiacekzyclinka et al. sugar beet pulp. paddy husk. rape seed cake. coconut oil cake. mustard oil cake.. 2000). saw dust. sago hampas. palm oil mill waste. 1998) and wheat straw enhanced maximum xylanase 9 . grape vine trimmings dust. banana waste. 1995). (1984). hemicellulose and ligain could serve as inexpensive sources for xylanase production [ Nascimento et al. wheat bran. Ferreira et al (1994). Pleurotus sps. cassava waste. (1992). Smith and Wood (1991). corn flour.. and Bacillus licheriformis (Archana and Satyanarayana.flavus A. Chaetomium globosum and A. Gomes et al. niger Candida utilis Authors. Cheaper hemicellulosic substrates namely cotton fibre. 2002. Fungi Aspergillus nidulans A. Youn and Rungyu (1999). A.. saw dust and wheat straw were used as substrates for xylanase production. cassava flour. (1994). (1996). corn stalk. Wheat straw served as a good substrate for xylanase production in Cryptococcus adeliue (Gomes et al. (2001). 2002. wheat flour. sugarcane baggase. paper pulp.niger A. Mac cabe et al. corn cobs. 2003] Sugarcane baggase. Reddy et al. Techapun et al. Lenartoviez et al. wheat straw. Arunachalam et al. corn cob.. sweet sorghum pulp. rice bran. soy hull. Bailey and Viikari (1993). (2001). peanut meal.niger Kansoh et al.fumigatus Trichoderma sp.

2001). 1999. 2008).. Kuhad et al. rice straw and oat straw have been used by many scientists for xylanase synthesis [Siedenberg et al.. 2008)... 2000] using solid state fermentation or submerged culture fermentation. 1998. (Bakri et al. (1999) reported that the synthesis of cellulases and xylanases were induced when grown on medium containing crystalline cellulose and plant raw materials.. 2002) 10 . Sugar cane baggasse (Gutierrew-correa... Gawande and Kamat. (1999). Gawande & Kamat.. 2001).. Elisashvili et al. Agricultural waste material or by products like corn cobs. Cochliobolus sp....production in Cryptococcus adeliue (Gomes et al. Haq et al. rice husk. Corncobs supported maximum enzyme production in Aspergillus feetidus (Christov et al. 2000). A number of studies have been already done on lignocellulosic wastes mainly wheat bran [(Ninawe (1994). 1998] and treated wheat straw [ Alfani et al. 1999. 1999). Christov et al. sugarcane baggasse. (2006)]. Aspergillus flaviceps (Ruckmani and Rajendran. 2001) and Rhizopus oryzae (Bakir et al. and maize straw and jowar straw in Trichoderma viride (Goyal et al.. Corn fibre xylan supported more xylanase production in Fusarium verticillioidies (Saha.

pumilus Streptomyces sp B. 2001. Substrates Wheat bran Organism Bacillus sp B. 1.. 2005 Petroysan et al. 2005. 2000. 9. Virupakshi et al. Rice bran 4. 2005 . Moriya et al. 2006. 1998. Yuan et al. 2005. 2005.. Kapoor et al.. 2003. 10. Bocchini et al. 2005. Hermandez et al. 11 . 2005 Chauhan et al. Delgado et al.. S.. 8. Wheat straw B. oliva leoriridis Bacillus sp Thermotoga maritima B. 2007. 2008.coagulans 5.. 2008 Beg et al.. circulans B.. 2008 Santos et al. 2006 Harada et al... Bocchini et al. Chauhun et al. 2005 Xu et al..... 2003 Ninawe and Kuhad.licheniformis B.. circulars Streptomyces sp.Table 4: Use of agro residues as substrates for bacterial xylanase production.. Churgool et al. 2003.. 2005. 2006..coagulans Paenibacillua Thermoascus aurantiacus Bacillus sp Authors Bataillon et al. Senthilkumar et al. Shah et al. Heck et al. Tan et al. Damiano et al. 6.. 2002. 7...No. 1999..pumilus Streptomyces sp S. 2002 Estrada et al. 2005. 2005 Avciglu et al. Battan et al. Ai et al. Techapun et al. Lemon peel Sugarcane baggasse Corn cob Grass Corn husk Rice straw Corn straw Soyabean residue Streptomyces sp Cellulomonas flavigen B.. 11.subtilis Pseudomonas sp 2. 2007... Dhillon et al. B... 3. 2006.coagulans B..

1992).Xylanase Assay Method:Methods used for the assay of xylanase are reported as many workers. was chosen by many workers rather than Somogyi-Nelson (SN) method. 2. The biological or natural degradation of organic waste to compost results in the production of material which has lost its original identity through reduction in particle size and the loss of volatile organic materials. it is environmentally sound way to reduce organic wastes and produce organic fertilizer or soil conditioner (Gajdos. nutrients. Produces CO2 .. 12 . Compost is prepared by biological degradation of plant and animal residues under controlled. 1985). Water vapour. Requires a solid. This is because SN method is giving a lower result than DNS (Breull and Saddler. 1997). minerals and reasonably stable organic matter. earthy material that can be utilized in sustainable agricultural production without damage to the environment. (Eghball et al. aerobic conditions. Most of them report xylanase activities based on the release of reducing sugars from partially soluble xylan substrates (Tan et al. The end product is humic. heterogeneous organic substrates and both mesophyllic and thermophyllic organisms. controlled bio-oxidative process that: 1.. Basic principles of composting:Composting is a naturally occurring. Sugar detection by the DNS methods 9-Dinitro Salicyclic Acid. 1985). Composting Composting is an aerobic process by which organic materials are degraded through the activities of successive groups of microorganisms.

and actinomycetes are the micro organisms that are primarily responsible for the decomposition of organic material. During the final curing stage when the materials cools down. each of which being adapted to a particular environment. nitrogen. Proteolysis or the enzymatic break down of protein:This is accomplished by micro organisms that release extra cellular enzymes called proteinase which convert long chains complex protein into smaller amino acid groups called polypeptides which then further degrade to individual amino acids. Bacteria. Traditional composting process involves an initial stage conducted at moderate temperature (10 – 40o C). phosphoric and oxygen such as protein. Composting is a microbiological process.Basic elements of the composting process:(i) Micro organisms:Different microbial communities predominate during the various composting phases (mesopilic and thermophillic). nitrogen and phosphorous must be available to build protein. complex sugars and fats are excellent sources of carbon and nitrogen for micro organisms. 1996). followed by a stager when thermophilic micro organisms drive the temperature up to 60o C at which lipids. fungi. (ii)Nutrients and organic matter:Products rich in carbon. during which the liable organic matter is rapidly consumed by mesophilic micro organisms. mesophilic organisms are able to recolonize and break down the remaining recalcitrant organic matter (Chefetz et al.. These nutrients are required for a composting operation and to facilitate microbial growth. 13 . Carbon. proteins and complex carbohydrates are consumed and broken down. little is known about micro organisms involved and their activities during specific phases of the composting process.

Fungi and actinomycetes are extremely proteolytic and valuable in initial stages of solid waste composting operations and in the later stages to further degrade resistant organic compounds. To increase the porosity of the mass for effective aeration in all methods of composting. Aerobic conditions must be maintained by turning the compost pile or forcing air through it (Tchobanoglous et al. 1996..70% throughout the degradation process. R. Tcho-banoglous et al. The synthesis of protein is necessary to promote rapid microbial population growth which hastens decomposition of organic material. (iii)Oxygen:Aerobic conditions are essential for efficient composting operations. 1993). micro organisms derive the nutrients they require for protein synthesis and growth. (iv) Moisture:Moisture is essential to provide a nutrient – rich source for micro organisms. 1996). Aerobes are micro organisms that predominate in an air – rich environment. The ranges for optimum moisture content greatly depend on the type of feed stock. Generally ranges of 50 – 60% are desirable (Landreth and Rebers. 2003). 1996 . (v)Temperature:This is a key environmental factor which influences biological activity within a composting operation.T. Davis and Cornwell. Oxygen should reach to the all points of the mass (Sincero and Sincero. To assure proper rate of bio degradation. moisture should be in the range of 50% . 2003).. this is normally done by mixing the wet and dry materials (Sincero and Sincero. The phases which can be distinguished in the composing processes according to temperature patterns are: lag. its particle size and the rate of composting desired (Landreth and Rebers. 1996). active and maturation (curing) 14 . Air is to be supplied in order to provide oxygen facilitating the growth of micro organisms and also to drive away the hot gases (Haug. From this source. 1998).

Benitez et al.phases (Kreith. The temperature change during the composting has a profound effect on the efficiency of the composting process. (ii) Biodegradation of leather waste by enzymatic treatment:Extra cellular alkaline proteases enzyme produced by Bacillus subtilis and it is treated for leather degradation.. 1973). The CMA is a combination of eight micro organisms from bacteria. 2005). The CMA can increase itself very fast in the high organic matter soil preventing other harmful micro organisms to grow. The CMA is more affective when mixed with the rubber factory waste. Heat is generated by decomposing process of the organic matter by micro organisms (Hagerty. actinomycetes. et al. growth. 2006). 2009). water hyacinth and sludge since a good fertilizer is achieved. 1995. Enzyme activities have been used widely as an index of soil fertility or ecosystem status because they are involved 15 .. Enzymatic activities during composing:Several enzymatic activities have been measured to describe organic matter decomposition in two microbial –driven processes. Different types of organic waste degradation accelerators:(i) Cellulolytic Microbial Activator (CMA):CMA is a group of micro organisms which is highly capable of decomposing agricultural or organic washes to produce fertilizers in a short period of time. 2002. 1994.. It has been discovered by the land development department of Thailand since 1986. The purpose of curing phase is to ensure that compost is stabilized allowing the remaining nutrients to be metabolized by the available micro organisms (Landreth and Rebers.. and fungi that is able to produce high decomposed cellulose enzyme. 1996). composting and vermicomposting (Garcia et al. 1996). 1994) or latent. Srinithrar Wandee. (Muhammad Nauman Aftab et al. (Thaniya kaosol. thermophilic and maturation phases (Polpraset.

cell debris.. 2005). Specific examples of enzymes important in soil microbiology include. Enzymes that catalyse the degradation of polymeric 16 . There fore. Godden. nitrate reeductase. The digestive enzymes of earthworms are responsible for the decomposition and humification of organic matter. 1999). Some attention was paid to cellulose (Myrback. F. B. hemicelluloses. 2002). free enzymes and or enzymes absorbed by clay or immobilized in humic complexes (Ceccanti and Garcia. 2002.. lignin. and acid and alkaline the biological transformations of native and foreign compounds in soils (Tate. 1971. Reports about the evolution of particular enzyme activities during composting are very rare. K. the quantification of enzyme activity during composting can reflect the dynamics of composting process in terms of decomposition of organic matter and nitrogen transformation. and phosphatases. 1996). In correlation with enzyme activity the changes in microbial number and types also helpful in providing information about the maturity of the composted product (Tiqwa. which degrade the polymer cellulose into smaller components. Nannipieri et al.. which converts dinitrogen gas into biologically available ammonia.. 1994. Tate 1995. starch and different protein compounds present in waste are degraded by specific enzymes. 1961. The major constituents like cellulose. 1992 Vuorinen. which remove phosphate groups from organic compounds (Burn 1978. Nannipieri et al.. Usually there is not any correlation between the enzyme activities and microbial biomass and respiration. 1995 a. 1985). nitrogenase. Earthworm bioreactors have an in house supply of enzymes such as amylase. cellulases. 2000). sulphatases. These enzymes biodegrade the complex biomolecules into simple compounds. which release protein and certain organic compounds.. and this may depend on the fact that enzymatic activity is due to enzymatic which may be in a living or dead cell. cellulose. Stuzenberger. The biological decomposition of organic matter is mediated by a variety of biochemical processes in which enzymes play a key role (Garcia et al. Alef and Nannipieri.

composting .. 1976). subsequent catabolism may proceed intra cellular (Skujjins. animal feed. etc. The composition of the microbial community charged with ligno cellulose bio degradation determines the rate and extent there of. (2) 17 . particularly from the straw of rice and cotton. hemicelulose and lignin. Lignocellulose bio degradation:The problem of increasing the utility of lignocelluloses wastes has been known for decades. and may provide information about the maturity of the composed product. Cellulose and hemicelluloses / Enzymes and degradation:The efficient hydrolysis of cellulose requires the concerted action of at least 3 enzymes: (i) endo-glucanases to randomly cleave intermonomer bonds. Pleurotus sajor-caju (Bisaria et al. Inter cellular and extra cellular enzymes cannot be distinguished in soil and compost suspensions. 2000). Biodegradation:Microbial biodegradation of the waste is generally considered to be a safe effective and environmentally process. are extra cellular because the polymer is too large to be transported across the cellular membrane ( Priest. but also the degradative capacity of the microbial population (Wal drop et al. Ligno cellulose is a complex substrate and its biodegradation is not dependent on environmental conditions alone.substances.). Characterizing and quantifying the enzymatic activity during composting can reflect the dynamics of the composting process in terms of the decomposition of organic matter and nitrogen transformations. such as cellulose. For example. 1984). Polyporous versicolor (Crawford and Crawford 1976). (Lovie 1988) have been found to be effective in lignin and cellulose degradation. 1987) and Pleurotus sp. once the polymer has been reduced to its smaller units.. In addition to the growing demand for traditional applications (paper manufacture. biomass fuel. However. and certain mushrooms have showed good potentials for degrading coir pith.

. 1997). Aerobic fungi and bacteria characteristically comprise non-complexed cellulase systems. and (3) β -glucosidase to hydrolyse glucose dimmers (Tomme et al. 1999)... especially lignin peroxidases. which entail the secretion of the cellulose hydrolysis enzymes into the culture medium Complexed cellulase systems allow greater co ordination between the different hydrolyzing enzymes. 1997). The rate limiting step is the ability of endoglucanases to reach amorphous regions with in the crystalline matrix and create new chain ends. Bacterial and fungal feruloyl and p-coumaroyl esterases are relatively novel enzymes capable of releasing feruloyl and p-coumaroyl play an important role in biodegration of recalcitrant cell walls in grasses (Kuhad et al. Deobold and Crawford 1997). Grasses are more susceptible to actinomycete attack than wood (Antai and Crawford 1981. Lignocellulose biodegradation by prokaryotes is essentially a slow process characterized by the lack of powerful ligno cellulose degrading enzymes. These enzymes are synergistically with xylanases to distrupt the hemicellullose-lignin association. where active aeration and agitation is required. hemicellulose degradation is required before efficient lignin removal can commence. loss of the secreted enzymes and their degradation intermediates due to dynamic environmental conditions.exoglucanases to remove mono and dimmers from the end of the glucose chain. 1995). A fundamental different exists in the mechanism of cellulose hydrolysis between aerobic and anaerobic fungi and bacteria (Leschine 1995 . Although similar types of enzymes are required for hemicelluloses hydrolysis. actinomycetes 18 .. Tomme et al. Therefore. which exo-cellobiohydrolases can attack. without mineralization of the lignin (Fillingham et al. Their close association will restrict loss of degradation intermediates due to dynamic environmental conditions. Of these. xylanase is the best studied enzyme (Kuhad et al. Mc Carthy 1987). In aerobic systems. more enzymes are required for its complete degradation because of its greater complexity compared to cellulose. 1995. The concerted actions of these enzymes are required for complete hydrolysis and utilization of cellulose.. Together with bacteria.

controls the growth and spread of weeds and provides a long term source for nutrient supply of the farm (Gonzales. water hyacinth (Chatterjee et al. improves the soil structure and the water storage capacity of the soil. a nutrient-rich. 2003). 2005). Compost:Compost. organic fertilizer and soil conditioner is a product of humification of organic matter. Composting Materials:Substrates suitable for making humus rich compost include cereal straw and bran (Hort et al.. 2007 a). 2003). 19 . et al. 1990. 2003). including cellulases and xylanases (Hodrova et al.. 2006.. 2006: Cayuela et al... Olive palm and grape wastes (Alburquerque et al... These fungi produce active polymer degrading enzymes. 1998).. and worms which transform and enhance lignocellulosic waste into humic like substance (Eyheraguibel et al.2000..) from part of the rumen microflora. Chodak et al.. Neo calli-mastix sp. lemon tree prunnings. Benefits of Compost:Compost as an effective much surface to increase the amount of soil organic matter.. 2003. Biodegradation by fungi:Most fungi are capable cellulose degraders. Anaerobic fungi (Piromyces sp.. Aravanitoyannis et al. Sikora and Enkiri. Aoumare. fungi. This process is aided by a combination of living organisms including bacteria. Orpinomycess a significant role in the humification process associated with soils and composts (Trigo and Ball 1994). 2006). Urban wastes (Taiwo and Oso. He . 1999.. et al. horticultural wastes (Lopez et al. 2008). 2004). cotton waste and brewery waste (GarciaGomez et al. Levy and Tylor. et al. 2001..

1980. 1991).. plant nutrients. Application of EM is known to increase the microbial diversity of soil and plants. EM can be used in agriculture via a number of methods EM is inoculated into the rhizosphere with the intention to regenerate soil. yeast. Alternatively EM can be used as a means of processing organic waste to create a rich compost to facilitate crop growth. 2000). 1995. it has also gained a reputation as a very effective tool in waste management.. 10 genera and 80 different species (Higa and Wididana. The microbial solution has the ability to break down organic matter. Effective micro organisms is a technology now widespread around the globe and known for its versatility and effectiveness under a wide range of environmental situation (Higa. 2006). Types of Organic Composts:EM Compost:EM stands for effective micro organisms. photosynthetic and nitrogen fixing bacteria. raise yields. 2002). Wididana and Higa (1999) investigated the beneficial aspects of integrated recycling of urban organic waste with EM technology. Perner et al. EM is not specific type of micro organisms. All of these are mutually compatible with one another and can co exist in liquid culture for extended periods (Higa. Originally developed for enhancing the soil and promoting growing conditions for food crops. improve soil quality. promoting plant growth and inhibiting root pathogens or soil-borne diseases (Hoitink. and improve the nutrient content of foods.Benefits of compost application in agriculture mainly result from its content of organic matter. 1991 a). 1994. Alvarez et al. It is a mixed liquid culture solution containing lactic acid bacteria. EM can be drip fed or sprayed in dilution on to crops and soil. Kishore. ray fungi and molds making about 5 families. 20 . thereby producing plant nutrients and enhancing physical and chemical properties (Yadav. 2002). and enhance growth and increase yield and quality of crops (Higa and Parr.

lactic acid is a strong sterilizer. substances from secretions of roots. Lactic acid bacteria have the ability to suppress Fusarium propagation which is harmful micro organism that causes disease problem in continuous cropping. There are primarily 5 types of bacteria used to prepare EM solution. However. et al. working synergistically with other micro organisms to provide the nutritional requirement to the plant and also reduce the disease problem.Principles of Effective Micro organisms:. So the efficiency of the plants is increased.. Photosynthetic bacteria (Phototrophic bacteria):. VA mycorrhiza increases the solubility of phosphates in soils thereby supplying unavailable phosphorous to plants.Produces lactic acid from sugars.(Anibal. They can use the energy from infra red band of solar radiation from 700 nm to 1200 nm to produce the organic matter. 2007) The principle of activity of the EM is by increasing the bio diversity of the micro flora increasing the yield of the crop. More over lactic acid bacteria enhances the break down of organic matter such as lignin and cellulose. 21 . These bacteria synthesize aminoacids. while plants cannot. nucleic acids.are independent self supporting micro organisms. organic matter (carbon) by using sunlight and the heat of soil as sources of energy. Food and drinks such as yogurt and pickles have been made by using lactic acid bacteria. and ferment these materials which normally take plenty of time. VA mycorrhiza can coexist with Azotobactor as nitrogen fixing bacteria and enhance nitrogen fixing ability by legumes. Photosynthetic bacteria are the back bone of the EM. It suppresses harmful micro organisms and increases rapid decomposition of organic matter. Lactic acid bacteria:. These metabolites are absorbed into plants directly and also cut as substrates for bacteria increasing the biodiversity of the micro flora. VA (Vesicular – arbuscular) mycorrhiza in the rhizosphere is increased due to the availability of nitrogenous compounds (amino acids) for use as substrates secreted by photosynthetic bacteria. For example. bioactive substances and sugars. Adding photosynthetic bacteria in the soil enhances other effective micro organisms.

Bioactive substances such as hormones and enzymes produced by yeasts promotes active cell and root division. Hui-lian et al.Yeasts:. Thus. Greater mineralization of carbon (Daly and Stewart. More efficient release of nutrients from organic matter (Sangakkara and Weerasekera. 2000). Effective micro organisms can become established in soil as an associative group of positive interactions. produces antimicrobial substances from amino acids secreted by photosynthetic bacteria and organic matter. organic matter and plant roots. whether carried out domestically or as large scale systems. has many benefits for soil health and agriculture.are the structure of which is intermediate to that of bacteria and fungi. 22 . 1999) Greater resistance to water stress (Xu 2000. by increasing the antimicrobial activity of the soil. both species enhance the quality of the soil environment. Their secretions are useful substrates for effective micro organisms such as lactic acid bacteria and actinomycetes. esters and antimicrobial substances. including: • • • • Decomposition of residual agrochemicals in soils (Higa. These suppress odors and prevent infestation of harmful insects and maggots. Actinomycetes:. Fermenting fungi:. Benefits of EM compost:The use of EM compost made from a free resource. These antimicrobial substances suppress harmful fungi and bacteria. 1993).. • Enhanced protein activity. Actinomycetes can coexist with photosynthetic bacteria.Such as Aspergillus and Penicillium decompose organic matter rapidly to produce alcohol. The benefits are immense. our organic waste.Synthesize antimicrobial and useful substances for plant growth from amino acids and sugars secreted by photosynthetic bacteria. 2001).

Earthworm castings contain abundant essential elements that plants need for healthy growth. make vermicomposting a suitable system for studying microbe – earthworm interactions (Aira et al. 23 .. Domiquez et al. 1997). are characterized by having a control donor dynamics. increases beneficial micro organisms in the soil and helps control pathogens by competitive exclusion. (1997) reported that solid wastes may be converted into useful products by composting and or vermicomposting. 1969). helps to correct nutritional and physiological crop disorders. is an excellent technique for recycling food waste in the apartment as well as composting yard wastes in the backyard (Bowen. • Accelerates the decomposition of organic waste. Decomposition systems. 2000).2006 a).• Enhanced soil fertility. reduces adverse effect of continuous cropping. Application of both compost and vermicompost decreased the soil bulk density and increased the water holding capacity of compost media and this was also significant and proportional to the rate of compost application (Smith et al.. Lohar & Killedar. The transformations in physiochemical and properties (Dominguez. enhances soil physical characteristics. increase crop yield and crop quality. that is. (2003) defines vermicoposting as the digestion of organic materials by earthworms known as casts. 2004) and the short time in which they can occur. decomposer and detritivores do not control the rate of regeneration of their resources (Pimm. Chaoui et al. like vermicomposting. Vermicompost:Vermicomposting. Vermicomposting involves the bio-oxidation and stabilization of organic matter through the joint action of earth warms and micro organisms.. Vermiculture farming involves the use of earth worms as versatile natural bioreactors for cleaning up the environment with cost-effective waste management technology for sustainable agriculture (Suryawanshi.. 1982). or composting with earth worms.

destroy soil pathogens and convert organic wastes into vitamins. which has a potentially high economic value as soil conditioner for plant growth (Prabha. They effectively harness the beneficial soil microflora. 2005). antibiotics. Organic wastes. and biologically stimulators in the decomposer system. enzymes. result in a stable non-toxic material with good structure. chemically degraders. broken down and fragmented rapidly by earth worms. 24 . Jeyaraj & Jeyaraj . crushers and mixers.Earth worm are physically aerators. growth hormones and protein rich casts.

Coir pith. 25 . Corn cob.4 (Booth. Tea waste.. Coimbatore. Vol.MATERIALS AND METHODS Xylanase production:General Mycological Techniques. Production of Xylanase Substrates:Wheat bran. Cultures used:The bacteria used in these studies were Bacillus sps. Rice bran. USA.G. Corn stover.R. 1971). These cultures were obtained from the laboratory of P. Glass ware:Sterilized glassware of “Borosil glassware” was used. Tamilnadu. India. Groundnut shell. Sugarcane baggase. Bacterial cultures were maintained on nutrient agar slants and fungal cultures were maintained on potato dextrose agar slants. Pseudomonas flouroscense and fungi used in these studies were Rhizopus nigricans and Trichoderma viride. Saw dust. Chemicals:All chemicals used in the present study were of analar grade from Galaxo company except the following: Oat spelt xylan was obtained from Sigma chemical Co.S. Pine apple fibre. Krishnammal College for women. Mycological techniques followed were generally as described in methods in Microbiology. Waste cotton.

24 gm 0.40 gm 0.005 gm 1. Above said agro residues were used as carbon source for Bacterial and fungal growth.Culture media: The following culture media were used.6 gm 1.0 gm 3. 7.50 gm 0.2 gm 1000 ml. Peptone Yeast extract K2 HP02 Mgso4 7H2O Distilled water pH Nutrient Agar medium:Peptone Beef extract Sodium chloride Agar Distilled water pH 5.0 gm 1. 6.0 gm 15 gm 1000 ml.0 gm 0.5 gm 26 . Urea MgsO4 Cacl2 Znso4 Cuso4 Feso4 EDTA NaH2 Po4 Peptone Yeast 1.8 5.0 gm 5.5 Carter and Bulls medium for fungal growth.0 gm 5.0 gm 0.56 gm 7. Horikoshi II Basal medium (liquid medium) for Bacterial growth.20 gm 0.0 gm 2.

Source of inoculums:Four days old cultures on nutrient agar medium.. 50 ml of ethanol was added and mixed thoroughly with glass rod. Xylan was precipitated and the precipitate was washed many times with tap water and dried in an oven at 500 C. 7. Tea waste. Pine apple fibre. Coir pith. 100 ml.0 Extraction of xylan from various agro wastes:The method of Panbangred et al. Waste cotton). of 3% NaOH was added to 50 gm of finely powdered agro wastes and incubated at 1210 C for one hour. Three replicates were maintained for each experiment. Corn cob.20 gm 1000 ml. (1983) was followed for xylan extraction from eleven agro wastes (wheat bran. corn stover. 27 . Glass wares were sterilized in a hot air oven. Groundnut shell.0 gm 0. Rice bran. in petridishes were used as a source of inoculums. Sterilization:Distilled water.Sodium sulphate MnS04 Distilled water pH PDA medium :Potato Agar Dextrose pH - 1. four day old fungal cultures were used as a source of inoculums. Liquid state fermentation:Conical flasks (150 ml) containing 50 ml of liquid media were used for liquid state fermentation. In the same way. Saw dust. media were sterilized in autoclave at 15 psi for 15 min. Bacteria from growing front were removed using sterile loop.0 - 200 gm 15gm 15 gm 7. Sugarcane baggase.

(1982) was followed. 1992). Oat spelt xylan used as the substrate for xylanase and the amount of xylose released was measured by DNS method of Miller. of 0. Storage of enzyme:The crude enzyme was stored at 4o C in refrigerator till use. The 28 .05 M phosphate buffer pH 7. It was heated to boiling point and cooled with continued stirring. One gram of oat spelt xylan was homogenized in 50 ml. 1978).. The supernatant was used as crude enzyme preparation. Bacterial mat and fungal mat grown in conical flasks (150 ml) containing 50 ml of liquid media used for liquid state fermentation and it was filtered through double layered muslin cloth and the filtrate was centrifuged at 5000 rpm for 30 min. Preparation of oat spelt xylan substrate for xylanase assay (Bailey et al. Enzyme assay:The amount of xylanase was estimated by following method of Bailey et al. When necessary the enzyme extracts were stored at 4o C till use (Shewale and Sadana. (1992). Incubation periods:The conical flasks were incubated at room temperature under lab conditions for 2 days for bacterial growth. Enzyme assay:The production of extra cellular xylanase by various isolates was determined as follows:Liquid state fermentation:The method of Johri and Pandey.Inoculation of liquid culture:A single loop of the bacteria and fungi were inoculated into the liquid medium for separate experiments.0. (1959). 4 days for fungal growth.

Reagent blank was used to set zero in the calorimeter. for a maximum period of one week.8 ml. One international unit of xylanase is the amount of enzyme required to liberate reducing equivalent to 1 µ mol of D-xylose per min per ml. 0. The test tubes containing assay mixtures and the 2 blanks were incubated at 50o C in a water bath for 10 min.volume is made up to 100 ml with the same buffer and stored at 4 o C.0) Reagent blank and substrate blanks were maintained:The reagent blank contained distilled water instead of enzyme and the substrate blank contained distilled water instead of substrate.5 ml. To the supernatant was added 3 ml of DNS reagent and the tubes were cooled to room temperature and the absorbance was measured at 530 nm in a calorimeter.2 ml.2 ml. 1. of 10% Trichloroacetic acid (TCA).. The reaction was stopped by adding 0. 0. 29 . The contents were centrifuged at 3000 rpm for 10 min. (Bailey et al. The difference in OD between substrate blank and the enzyme mixture was noted and the amount of xylose released was calculated using a xylose standard graph. Assay mixture:The assay mixture contained Oat spelt xylan (1%) Crude enzyme Phosphate buffer (0. Unit of enzyme activity:Reducing sugar released was calculating using a xylose standard and the activity is expressed in international units. 1992).05 M pH 7.

It should be clean. 30 . not contaminated with chemicals and have an airtight lid. a white layer of actinomyeetes was formed on the top of the solution companied by pleasant smell. Activated EM can be diluted up to 1:200 to 1: 1000. Enzyme activity is expressed in International units and expressed as U/ml of culture filtrate. coir pith. As gas pressure will develop. TN. Compost preparation:Biodegradable wastes can be composted with the help of EM and crude enzyme of xylanase. Preparation of activated EM solution:1 litre of EM stock solution and 1 Kg. For each treatment 2 feet pit was prepared. Coimbatore. Compost treatments:Effective micro organisms:EM stock solution (Maple EM. During the period of activation. of organically grown jaggery are to be mixed with 20 litres of water. The raw material used for the compost includes vegetable wastes. One international unit of enzyme activity is 1µ mol of reducing sugars released per minute. For each experiment three replicates were maintained and the average value of enzyme produced was calculated. For compost preparation 4 treatments were done. The water has to be clean and free form chlorine. The pH of the EM should be below 4. The container should be of good grade plastic.0. the lids have to be opened every day for a second release it.Calculation:The amount of reducing sugars presents at 0 time (of enzyme assay) in the enzyme extract was measured and this was deducted while calculating enzyme activity.1) was brought from Sri Raam biotech. cow dung and water. leaf litter.

5g of sodium thio sulphate was added and mixed well and allowed to stand for 30 min. Then the pits was covered with polythene sheet to maintain moisture content. In this way alternative layer of agro wastes and cow dung slurry was laid up to 2 feet. of conc. Total nitrogen:-(Vogel. Estimation of Micro. The composts will be ready after 60 days and it can be used after sieving. The contents were mixed well and were allowed to stand for 15 min. 1961) A quantity of 10 g. Then 10 g of potassium sulphate – copper sulphate mixture was added and the contents were digested over a bunser burner until the contents became apple green or colourless. For T4 experiment mixing of 500 ml of EM and 500 ml of crude xylanase were sprinkled. of the sample was transferred into a clean dry kjeldahl flask. For EM treatment (T2) the activated EM solution should be sprayed the fresh waste. 30 ml. In the same way for T3 experiment 1 liter of xylanase enzyme solution were sprinkled. Macro nutrients:The composted organic waste obtaned from different treatments were analysed for the following important parameters. in a pit biodegradable wastes are spreaded over that cow dung slurry was sprinkled. For 6 kg. Watering also done for moisture content. of wastes 2 liter of activated EM solution will be sprayed.Treatments:T1 T2 T3 T4 Control EM treated organic waste Crude xylanase enzyme treated organic waste Mixing of EM and crude xylanase treated organic waste. The wastes were turned twice in a week for aeration. Sulphuric acid containing 1 g of salicyclic acid was added to it. For each treatments. 31 .

The residue was filtered with small quantities of 1:4 nitric acid until no yellow colour was left.1 N sulphuric acid taken b = Volume of 0.1 N sulfuric acid was taken in a beaker and 2-3 drops of methyl red indicator was added to it. The mouth of the flask was immediately closed and the distillation was started. The completion of the distillation was noted by collecting a drop of the distillate on a moist red litmus paper. 120 ml of 40% sodium hydroxide was added till the contents became distinctly alkaline and then. either 32 . when the red litmus retained the red colour. followed by dissolving again 1:1 nitric acid. 10 ml of 10% sodium sulphate was added. It was transferred into a silica basin using hot water and evaporated to dryness over a water bath.0014* (a-b) * (100/10)* [100/(100-M)] a = Volume of 0. Then the insoluble silica was allowed to settle overnight. beaker and evaporated into a small bulk. 0. The process was repeated for atleast 6 times to ensure the complete transfer of the digested material to the distillation flask.1 N potassium hydroxide M = Moisture percentage 0. The distillate with excess acid was then titrate with 0.1 N potassium hydroxide. Total phosphorus:A quantity of 200 ml of hydrochloric acid was pipette out into a 400 ml.0014 is constant. 25 ml of 0. Then the basin was kept in a hot air oven at 105o C for 3 hrs. to dehydrate the silica and thus it was made insoluble.The kjeldahl flask was cooled and 50 ml of distilled water was added. The percentage of nitrogen present in the sample was calculated using the formula. The beaker was kept at the delivery end. The contents were mixed well and the supernatant liquid alone was transferred into the distillation flask. The residue was dissolved again by adding a small quantity of 1:1 hydrochloric acid and evaporated to dryness over a water bath. The end point was the charge of colours from pinkish red to straw yellow. The ammonia evolved was collected in 0. which was well immersed inside the acid.1N sulphuric acid.

From that various standards prepared ranging from 10-100 ppm. The volume of the alkali added was noted. retaining the precipitate in the beaker itself. pouring only the supernatant liquid onto the filter paper.1619N potassium hydroxide was added to it until the yellow precipitate completely dissolved. drop by drop. A quantity of another 5 ml. 0. A drop of phenolphthalein indicator was added and titrated against 0. Total potassium:The standard solution was prepared by dissolving 1.0005 g phosphorus. to make a colourless solution. 5g solid ammonium nitrate was added and kept on a thermostat at 65o for 15 min. of 0. 1ml. of 0. The atomizer was fixed in its place and distilled water was introduced. A quantity of 10 ml. The percentage of phosphorus on the sample was calculated using the formula 0. and then it was made up into a pulp. the burner was lighted with distilled water set zero by using the zero adjustment knob. of the precipitant mixture was added to the beaker in the thermostate. distilled water. Then it was filtered by decantation. Again.1619N nitric acid.1619N potassium hydroxide was added to keep the alkali I fair excess quantity. The beaker was kept in the thermostate for another 30 min. to allow complete the basin or in the filter paper.0005 * (a-b)* (500/200)* (100/W)* [100(100-M)] M= Moisture content of the soil. nitric acid. The filter paper with the precipitate was transferred to the beaker in which precipitation was already done. of 1000 ppm diluted to 11 gave 100 ppm potassium solution. W= Weight of the sample. The end point was disappearance of pink colour. The precipitate was washed with cold distilled water until the filtrate become acid free. 100 ml. It gave 1000 ppm of potassium. The compressor was treated and the pressure was adjusted 19o 1016S.1619M potassium hydroxide = 0. The process was 33 . The extract was made alkaline with concentrated ammonium hydroxide and distinctly acidic with conc. 100 ppm potassium solution was introduced the knob was adjusted to read 100 on the scale.907 g of potassium chloride in 11 ml. distilled water was introduced and adjusted to read zero.

repeated until the meter reading showed 0 with distilled water and 100 with 100 ppm potassium solution, without any zero adjustments. Then various standard solutions were introduced and the readings were recorded. They were plotted to draw a standard curve. The filtrate obtained from sesquioxide estimation was taken in small vial and introduced through the atomizer. The reading was recorded and the percentage of potassium was calculated using the standard curve. The percentage of potassium was calculated using the formula (A.106)* (500/50)* (100/W)* [100(100-M)] M= Moisture content of the soil. W= Weight of the sample. Estimation of organic carbon content:Weight 0.5 gm of the sample. Add 10 ml. of potassium dichromate and 20ml. of conc. Sulphuric acid. This solution is kept at room temperature for 30 min. Then 200 ml. of distilled water is added. This solution is titrated against ferrous ammonium sulphate using ferroin indicator. Blank sample also titrated against ferrous ammonium sulphate using ferroin indicator indicator. The end point is brown colour. The percentage of organic carbon present in the sample were calculated using the formula. {[(B-T)* 1/B]* 0.003* 100} /0.1 B = Blank titrate value T = Sample titrate value 1ml. of ferrous ammonium sulphate = 0.003 g. of organic carbon. C:N ratio: The C:N ratio was calculated by dividing organic carbon by total nitrogen of the organic waste sample.


Calclium:To 5 ml. of digested sample, 4 ml. hydroxylamine hydrochloric (5%), 3 ml. of KOH (25%) and a pinch of patrons readers indicators was added and made up to 30 ml. with distilled water and titrated against 0.01N EDTA solution. The titrant value was noted. End point was the appearance of Blue colour. The calcium content was calculated and expressed in percentage. Magnesium:5 ml. of digested sample was taken and 10 ml. calcium Magnesium buffer, 15 ml. distilled water and Erichrome black indicator was added and titrated with 0.01N EDTA. The titrant value was noted. End point was the appearance of blue colour. The magnesium content was calculated and expressed in percentage. Sodium:5 ml. of digested sample was added to 25 ppm sodium chloride solution and 50 ppm distilled water. The reading was calculated in flame photometer. Calculation

Sodium content = Where, Factor was measured from the reading of sodium chloride solution (25/50 ppm) from the flamephotometer. pH: (Jackson, 1973) A quantity of 10g of the sample was taken in a conical flask and added with 100 ml of distilled water, kept in a rotary shaker for 30 minutes. After 30 min it was filtered through muslin cloth. The filterate was used for pH determination. EC: (Jackson, M.L. 1973)


The EC of the sample was estimated by conductivity bridge using soil water ratio 1:10 based on the method suggested by Jackson(1973) Moisture content: A known quantity of sample was taken in a pre-weighed moisture bottle and kept in an oven at 110°C for 12h. After drying, the moisture bottle along with the sample was weighed and the difference in weight due to moisture loss was calculated. Field Experiment:Testing plant:The plant chosen for this study was Green gram (Vigna radiata, (L) wilczek. It is one of the most whole some among pulses in India. It is free from the heaviness and tendency to flatulence, which is associated with other pulses. It is an erect or sub erect herb. Field preparation:The experimental field was ploughed well and narrowed. Then the field was divided into four equal plots, for 4 different treatments. Ridges and furrows were constructed in the field. Totally 100 seeds were taken at the rate of 25 seeds for each treatments. The seeds were sown on the ridges of the plots. 1st plot was kept as T1 (control) 2nd plot was kept as T2 (EM) 3rd plot was kept as T3 (crude xylanase) 4th plot was kept as T4 (EM and crude xylanase) Replicates was constructed for all the treatments. Seed Viabilty The viability of the seed accession is a measure of how seeds are alive and could develop into plants which were reproduce themselves, given the appropriate condition. Viability of the seed is tested by seed germination method.


Paper is rolled loosely toward the end and it is kept on a ventilated plastic box. so the seeds are viable . to fold the paper without damage. Avoid tearing of the paper or damaging the roots and record the number of seeds germinated in each replicate. and it is moistened.Between paper method A random sample of seeds is selected from the accession about 100 seeds were selected and that is divided into 4 replicates then an absorbent paper is taken and it is cut into equal on the outside of the paper. the name of the seed replicate of the test and date of test started is noted. Wet absorbent paper is kept over another absorbent paper. Oxygen is essential for respiration during germination. If it is not germinated again roll the paper and kept in a ventilated container and it was cheeked next day. 37 . Then the paper is moistened seeds are arranged at regular intervals on the paper. Another absorbent paper is taken. which contain seeds. At the edge 2cm space is leaved. so the container used should be adequately ventilated and the moisture content of the paper is also maintained. Days later unroll the paper carefully. Number of seeds taken: 100 Replicate 1:25 Replicate 2:25 Replicate 3:25 Replicate 4:25 Number of seeds germinated Replicate 1:23 Replicate 2:24 Replicate 2:24 Replicate 2:24 The mean percentage viability of the accession is considered next day it is above 90%.

days after germination respectively.Growth Attributes:Germination percentage of the plants grown in different treatments:Germination percentage of all the seeds sown were observed using the formula. 5 plants were taken at random at each stage and the mean value was expressed in cm. Length of Leaves:The length of green gram under different treatments were measured on 56 th day. 5 plants were taken at random and the mean value was expressed in cm. 14th. Number of Leaves in Different Treatments:The No. of leaves of green gram under different treatments were measured on 56th day. 42nd. 5 plants were taken at random and the mean value was expressed in cm. 56th. 49th. Shoot Length of Green Gram Under Different Treatments:The shoot length of green gram plant was measured from ground level to tip of the topmost leaf on 7th. Root Length of Green Gram Grown Under Different Treatments:The root length of green gram grown under different treatments were measured on 56th day. 28th. 21st. 38 . 35th. 5 plants were taken at random and the mean value was expressed in cm.

of distilled water added and shaken well. To that 2 gm sodium carbonate was added . Preparation of phosphate buffer:A quantity of 1. of seed material was taken and it was ground in pestle and mortar using 80% ethanol. T2.5. of sodium potassium tartarate was dissolved in 100 ml of water. of distilled water and the pH was corrected to 6. 1951). The extract was centrifuged and the supernatant was taken. Preparation of Reagent B:A quantity of 1 gm.5 gm of copper sulphate was added. Hence the carbohydrate content of the seeds was calculated.2 gm. of Conc.Biochemical Analysis:Estimation of carbohydrate content (Hedge and Hofreiter. 39 .9 gm. To 1 ml. The O. of anthrone was dissolved in 100 ml. To that 0.. of potassium dihydrogen phosphate were dissolved in 100 ml. of sodium hydrogen phosphate and 0. Preparation of Reagent A:A quantity of 0. of the extract 6 ml. sulphuric acid. T4).4 gm of NaOH was dissolved in 100 ml of distilled water.D values were calculated at 620 nm in spectrometer for each sample (T1. of anthrone and 3 ml. Estimation of protein. T3. (Lowry et al. Procedure:A quantity of 1 gm. 1962) Preparation of anthrone reagent:A quantity of 1 gm.

Preparation of alkaline copper sulphate reagent. and then cooled. 0. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: The results were expressed as means of standard deviation and the data were analysed using ANOVA. the value of proteins present in the sample taken was estimated for each treatment. of 10% tricarboxylic acid was added. The O. 1ml. of 1N NaoH. The tubes were placed in water both for 10 min. The groups were compare by DUNCAN multiple range test by the method suggested by Bennet and Franklin. of buffer and centrifuged. 5 ml. the protein content of the taproot was calculated.D values were calculated at 620 nm in spectrophotometer for each sample and then from the standard graph. After 5 min. The precipitate obtained was dissolved in 1 ml.5 ml. of alkaline copper sulphate reagent was added. The volume of the supernatant was made up to 20 ml using phosphate buffer. Hence. 40 . Preparation of Folin phenol reagent:Commercially available folin phenol reagent was diluted with water in the ratio of 1:1. of supernatant was pipette out and 1 ml. of Reagent B. of plant material was homogenized in 20 ml. After 10 min.(1967). of folin phenol reagent was added. Procedure:A quantity of 1 gm. A quantity of 50 ml Reagent A mixed with 1 ml.

Wheat bran. Xylans from all these agro residues were extracted (as mentioned in materials and methods) and used as substrates as the only carbon source for liquid state fermentation. 1. Rice bran. Sugarcane bagasse. Corn cob. rice bran was found to support maximum xylanase production in liquid state fermentation in these two species. Waste cotton and Coir pith on xylanase production by Bacillus sp and Pseudomnonas fluorescens in liquid state fermentation. Groundnut shell. Pine apple fibre.. Tea waste. Saw dust. Rice bran enhanced maximum xylanase production in Thermoascus aurantiacus (Santos et al... Hence an experiment was carried out to find out the effect of various agro wasters namely. Corn stover. 41 . Plate I. Enzyme was extracted and assayed as mentioned in materials and methods. A single loop of bacterial inoculum was grown in conical flasks (150 ml) containing 50 ml of liquid media (Horikoshi II basal medium) used for liquid state fermentation. From Table 1 and Figure 1.. Plate 1. orange bagasse in Streptomyces cyaneus (Ninawe et al. 2008) and corn cob in Thermotogo maritime (Tan et al. 2007).EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS XYLANASE PRODUCTION EXPERIMENT I Production of xylanase from various agro wastes by Bacillus sp and Pseudomonas fluorescens in liquid state fermentation. 2003) Bacillus pumilus (Battan et al. 2008). Various agricultural residues have been screened for xylanase production. it can be seen that in Bacillus sp and Pseudomnonas fluorescens of the various agro residues tried. The results are presented in Table 1 and Fig.

06 b 5 Coir pith 0.Table: 1 Production of xylanase from various agro wastes by Bacillus sp and Pseudomonas fluorescens in liquid state fermentation.03 a 6 Groundnut shell 0.18 o 0.58 o 8 Tea waste 0. S. 5% level by DMRT Means followed by a common letter are not significantly different at the 42 .08 b 0.25 i 10 Cotton waste 0.04 a 0.05 ab 0.13 c 9 Rice bran 8.02 a Observation values are mean of three replicates.27 h 2 Sugarcane baggase 0.17 d 5.09 f 0.67 f 3 Corn cob 0.18 e 0.16 d 11 Saw dust 0.26 e 7 Pineapple fibre 2.No Substrate Bacillus sp Pseudomonas fluorescens 7.04 a 9.02 a 1 Wheat Bran 5.06 b 4 Corn stover 0.13 c 0.04 a 0.

. sugarcane bagasse in Trichoderma harzianum (Rezende et al. Wheat bran enhanced maximum xylanase production in Aspergillus japonicus (Simoes and Tank – Tornisielo. et al.. Wheat bran. Sugarcane bagasse. Pineapple and Waste cotton. Plate 2. Coirpirth. The results are presented in Table 2 and Fig 2. 2008). wheat straw in Cochliobolus sativus (Yasser Bakri. Groundnut shell. Rice bran.EXPERIMENT II Production of xylanase from various agro wastes by Trichoderma viride and Rhizopus nigricans in liquid state fermentation. 43 . Xylans from all these agro residues were extracted (as mentioned in materials and methods) and used as the only carbon source for liquid state fermentation. Saw dust. Various agricultural residues have been screened for xylanase production. Hence an experiment was carried out to find out the effect of various agro wastes namely. Enzyme was extracted and assayed as mentioned in materials and methods. Corn stover. plate II it can be seen that in Trichoderma viride and Rhizopous nigricans of the various agro residue tried. Corn cob. 2002). From Table 2 and Fig 2. Tea waste. wheat bran was found to support maximum xylanase production in liquid state fermentation in these two species. 2006).

12 a 0.12 a 7 Pineapple fibre 0.23 f 0.Table 2: Production of xylanase from various agro wastes by Trichoderma viride and Rhizopous nigricans in liquid state fermentation.14 ab 4 Corn stover 0.21 b 0.52 c 0.18 de 9 Rice bran 3. Trichoderma Rhizopus nigricans 9.14 ab 8 Tea waste 0.28 h 10 Cotton waste 1.No Substrate Means followed by a common letter are not significantly different at the 44 .15 bc 6 Groundnut shell 0.20 e Observation values are mean of three replicates.82 d 0.12 a 0.18 ab 0.11 e 0.05 o 11 Saw dust 0. 5% level by DMRT S.13 ab viride 1 Wheat Bran 8.51 f 2 Sugarcane baggase 0.17 cd 3 Corn cob 0.17 ab 7.61 f 5 Coir pith 0.11 a 0.

Maximum phosphorous content was seen in mixing of EM and crude xylanase treated organic waste and maximum potassium in xylanase treated organic wastes. 1979). copper sulphate mixture.. 45 .EXPERIMENT III Macronutrient status in different treated organic wastes Pati and Chandra (1981) reported that nitrogen-fixing bacteria on leaf surface could markedly increase crop yield. However. When EM was applied to soil or plant leaf. Potassium was using atomizer by sequioxide estimation method. In general. xylanase treated organic wastes and mixing of EM and crude xylanase treated organic wastes was analysed and percentage of NPK was found out. the population of nitrogen fixing and photosynthetic bacteria increase dramatically (Reid. From Table 3 Fig 3 it can be seen that in maximum nitrogen content was noticed in EM treated organic wastes. there is immobilization of nitrogen due to decomposition of cereal straw. Phosphorous was estimated in nitric acid medium. salicyclic acid mixture and potassium sulphate. followed by titration. where the samples were subjected to sulphuric acid. After and before composting treatments are represented Plate 3.1985). with farmyard manure (FYM) or compost application no such effect is observed. An experiment was carried out to find out the macro nutrients content of control (untreated). The addition of FYM and cereal residues result in improvement of total soil nitrogen(Bhardwaj and Gaur. Nitrogen was estimated by kjeldahl method. EM treated organic wastes. followed by titration. The results are tabulated in Table 3 and presented in Fig 3.

450 T3 6.452 46 . (in Percentage) S.02 0.21 0.20 0.44 0.39 0.49 0.Table: 3 Macronutrient status in different treated organic wastes.85 0.392 T2 7. No 1 2 3 Parameters Nitrogen Phosphorous Potassium Composts T1 5.82 0.470 T4 6.

C:N ratio plays an essential part. The carbon was estimated with Erlenmayer flask when the samples were subjected to the reaction with potassium dichromate and sulphuric acid. 2008. 47 . C:N ratio was analysed in the treated organic wastes. Hence. C:N ratio of EM compost was narrowed down drastically to 16:1 from 43:7. According to Padmaja and Adlene Sangeeth. followed by titration. C:N ratio was presented in Table 4 and Fig 4 and from this results crude xylanase treated organic wastes showed the minimum C:N ratio. Estimation of 'N' content was already estimated. Which was a good indicator of the compost.EXPERIMENT IV C:N ratio of different treated organic wastes Although the values of macronutrients are important for assessing the quality of compost.

No Parameters T1 2. C/N Ratio 48 .Table: 4 C/N Ratio of status in different treated organic wastes Composts S.87 T2 1.54 T3 1.46 T4 1.63 1.

crude xylanase treated organic waste and mixing of EM and crude xylanase treated organic waste was analysed and percentage of sodium. moisture. EC was maximum in control followed by xylanase treated organic waste. where as acidic pH showed in crude xylanase treated organic waste and mixing of EM and crude xylanase treated organic waste. organic carbon. pH and EC was found out. mositure and EC also carried out in treated organic waste. Alkaline pH showed in T1 control and (T2) EM treated organic waste . Hence micronutrients content of control. calcium. Calcium was estimated by adding of hydroxylamine hydrochloric acid to sample and KOH. Sodium was estimated by adding sodium chloride solution and reading was calculated in flamephotometer. From this results EM treated organic waste (T2) showed maximum sodium content and calcium content. 49 .EXPERIMENT V Micronutrients of different treated organic wastes: According to Stoeppler-Zimmer and Petersen(1997). the organic compost contains high levels of phosphorous. patrons readers indicators and titrated against EDTA solution. Moisture content was maximum in xylanase treated organic waste. magnesium and calcium. and minimum in xylanase treated organic waste (T3). pH. Organic carbon was found to be maximum in T1 control . EM treated organic waste. The results are tabulated in Table 5 and represented in Fig 5.

40 12.14 2.11 50 .Table: 5 Micronutrient status in different treated organic wastes S.19 T3 0.70 10.32 16.82 13.0 2.51 6.50 10.20 14.56 8.86 2. No Parameters Sodium Organic Carbon Calcium Moisture pH EC Composts T2 0.8 107.2 104.5 114.0 12.26 8.0 T4 0.40 10.6 116.12 T1 0.82 1.50 6.

and maximum germination ratio was seen in mixing of EM and xylanase compost treated plants (T4).Growth attributes of the green gram EXPERIMENT VI Germination of ratio of green gram: Determination of germination ratio of green gram in control. 51 . mixing of EM and xylanase compost treated plants. The germination rate of green gram seeds was calculated. The results are tabulated in Table 6 and Fig 6. (1994) states that EM can stimulate seed germination and early growth of food crops. Sangakkara and Higa. EM compost. xylanase compost.

5% level by DMRT. T1 2. No Treatment 1. Germination rate(%) 92 a 94 b 94 b 96 c Means followed by a common letter are not significantly different at the 52 . T3 4.Table: 6: Germination rate of green gram under different compost treatments S. T2 3. T4 Observation values are mean of five replicates.

Hence. xylanase treated organic waste and mixing of EM and xylanase treated organic waste on shoot length of green gram. the shoot length of the crops was taken at random for all the treatments. plate 4.EXPERIMENT VII Effect of EM treated organic waste. The shoot length of the plants determine the healthy nature of the plants. it can be seen that the maximum value of the height of the plant was observed in T4 (71. The results were taken and the mean value were found out . This attributes to the increased nutrient uptake of the plants. The final values are tabulated in the Table 7 and represented in Fig 7.5cm) 53 .5cm) and least height was recorded in T1 (41. Calderia (2000) reported that seedling growth increased with increasing properties of the vermicompost. From the Table 7. at an interval of 7 days from the date of germination.

No.1 f 23. T4 8.8 b 71.1 h 8.3 b 8. Days 5% level by DMRT. 56th 41. 49 40.3 g st 3.9 f 36.1 g 15.1 c 50.7 e 42.7 e th 5.Table 7: Shoot length of green gram under different treatment. 35 25. 21 11. Shoot length(cm) T1 T2 T3 1. 28th 15. 14 8. 7th 6.3 h th 2.3 a 70.0 c 61.9 c th 7.3 e 32.8 d 6.4 b 61.2 a 69.2 g 15. S.1 h 8.4 b 60.7 e 34.3 d 41.1 g 25. 42nd 33.2 f 24.6 f 4.2 d 53.8 h 16.4 c 50.3 d 41.5 a Means followed by a common letter are not significantly different at the 54 .2 a Observation values are mean of five replicates.

et al. Plate 5 From the Table 8 it can be noticed that the maximum root length was observed in T3 (15.9cm). The results were noted and the mean value was found out. xylanase treated organic waste. Bhowmik. The root length of the crops was taken at random for all treatments at the end of the 56th day.7cm) the least value in T1 (7. The final values were tabulated in Table 8 and represented in Fig 8. EM+ xylanase treated organic waste on root length of green gram..EXPERIMENT VIII Effect of EM treated organic waste . 55 . 2004 reported that the root volume of plants increased by adding biofertilizers.

No.57 a 2.28 b Observation values are mean of five replicates.20 c 3. 56 . Means followed by a common letter are not significantly different at the 5% level by DMRT. Treatment Root Length (cm) 1. T1 7. T4 12. T3 15. T2 15.68 d 4.Table 8: Root length of green gram under different treatments (cm) S.

The values were tabulated in Table 9 and represented in Fig 9. (2001) reported the number of leaves/branches was increased by using organic fertilizer application.EXPERIMENT IX Number of leaves of green gram / plant. (2003) in Solanum villosum by using organic fertilizer. The increasing of leaf yield was studied by Kipkosgei. et al.. Abdel-Mouty et al. EM+xylanase compost treated plants (T4) showed the maximum number of leaves / plant.. Number of leaves of the crops was observed for all treatments. 57 .

Table 9: Number of leaves of green gram / plant S. Treatment No. No. 58 . Means followed by a common letter are not significantly different at the 5% level by DMRT.of leaves/Plant 1 T1 36 a 2 T2 50 b 3 T3 60 c 4 T4 75 d Observation values are mean of five replicates.

EXPERIMENT X Length of green gram leaves under different treatments: Hameeda et al.8cm) and the least value in T1 (9.(2007) found that rice straw compost applied at 2. From the Table 10 the maximum value for the length of leaves was observed in T4 (15.5 t ha-1 showed significant improvement in shoot length. plant biomass. The final values were tabulated in Table 10 and represented in Fig 10.9cm) 59 . root volume and mycorrhizal colonization of sorghum plant. The length of the green gram leaves was taken at random for all treatments.. The results were noted and the mean value was found out. leaf area.

Table 10: Length of green gram leaves under different treatments S. 60 . No Treatments Length of leaves (cm) 1. Means followed by a common letter are not significantly different at the 5% level by DMRT.8 a 2.2 b 3.3 b 4. T3 15. T2 15.7 c Observation values are mean of five replicates. T1 9. T4 15.

From the table 11.. following the attributes of the crop. The sample was extracted in phosphate buffer and to it alkaline copper sulphate and folin phenol reagent were added the protein content of the sample were determined using spectrophotometer. it was observed that protein content of the sample was found to be maximum in T4 for green gram. 61 . the protein content of pea plant increased with organic and bio fertilizers application. The observation was presented in Table 11 and represented in Fig 11.Biochemical analysis:The biochemical analysis was done to determine the quality. EXPERIMENT XI Estimation of protein:According to Wange et al. (1997).

82 62 . 4. No 1. 2. (mg/g).75 20.Table 11 Estimation of Protein content of green gram under different treatments. Treatments T1 T2 T3 T4 Protein Content (mg/g) 18. 3.16 20.78 20. S.

The samples were extracted in 80% ethanol and anthrone reagent was added to the extract followed by water. The observation results are tabulated in Table 12 and represented in Fig 12. The value of carbohydrate content of the samples was determined with spectrophotometer..EXPERIMENT XII Estimation of Carbohydrates:Uher et al. (2006) reported that. the improvement of nutritive values in pea plants by adding organic manures. Carbohydrate contents of the seed were estimated by anthrone method. it was observed that carbohydrate content of the sample was found to be maximum in T4 for green gram. 63 . From the Table 12.

80 64 .Table 12 Estimation of Carbohydrate content of green gram under different treatments.23 20. S. 3.70 20. Treatments T1 T2 T3 T4 Carbohydrate Content (mg / g) 18.25 20. 4. No 1. 2.

wheat bran. It enhanced the enzyme production up to 8. rice husk. corn stover. wheat straw. tea waste. The use of purified xylan as substrate for uneconomical for large scale production of xylanases. several natural agro residues were tested as substrates (wheat bran. 1983). sugarcane bagasse. corn cob and waste cotton) for xylanases production using Horikoshi basal medium.. tea wastes. coir pith.Discussion This study aims to investigate the effect of different treated organic waste composts on the growth and biochemical parameters of seedlings of Vigna radiate. maize bran. apple pomace used for xylanase production (Balasubramanium et al. Xylanase production xylanases are produced by diverse genera and species of bacteria and fungi (Subramanian and Prema. cassava waste. Various agricultural wastes like sugarcane bagasse. Among the 11 substrates tested. soy hull. Therefore. pine apple fiber. (L) wilczek. corn cobs.18 (U/ml)in Pseudomonas fluorescens. 65 . The bacteria used in there studies ware Bacillus sp and Pseudomonas flourescens. rice bran. banana wastes. At the same time. groundnut shell.. sawdust. rice bran was found to be the most suitable substrate xylanase production. 2001) There is an urgent need to manage the bulk wastes effectively and economically. 2000). gram bran.25 (U/ml) in Bacillus sps and 9. rice bran. rice straw. Bacterial xylanase production Bacteria showing high xylanase activity were isolated from 300 soil samples (Panbangred et al. Recently the interest in thermostable enzyme has increased and thermo stability has become a desirable property of enzyme used in many application. The results of this study are discussed here. it is also necessary to generate value added products from these wastes.

and in Aspergillus tamari (Ferreira et al. Wheat bran consists of 30% cellulose. 1996).1% dry) and galactose (2.Rice bran neutral xylan contains 46% xylose..15 (U/ml) in Trichoderma viridae and 9.1% hydrouronic acid (Shibuya et al. Panagiotu et al. Lequart et al. 2003. 66 . (1994) reported that Thermoascus lanuginosus and T. (1999) reported that the enhanced production of xylanase may be due to the presence of considerable amount of soluble sugars like glucose (42.1998). arabinose (3. maximum xylanase production was obtained with wheat bran. Among the 11 substrate tested.). wheat bran was found to be the most suitable substrate for xylanase production. 1999. It enhanced the enzyme production up to 8. 1.. xylose (15. Alam et al.aurantiacus produced xylanase activity when grown on various lignocellulosic substrates. 27% hemicelluloses... 2008) Fungal xylanase production: The fungi used in these studies were Trichoderma viridae and Rhizopus nigricans.. 2008) and in Arthobacter sp (Khandepatker and Bhosle.5% dry). 21% lignin and 8% ash (Gawande and Kamat. 1989). Rice bran supported maximum xylanase production in a number of organisms namely in Bacillus pumilus (Poorna and Prema.9% arabinose. 44. Aureobasidium pullulans (Karani et al. 1985) The highest production of xylanase on rice bran may be possible due to very low lignin and silica content as compared to other substrates rice bran is a complete nutritious feed for micro organisms having all in gradients and also remains loose. 2007) Paenibacillus sp (Harada et al.4% dry).. even under moist conditions providing a large surface area (Babu and Satyanarayana.7% dry).23 (U/ml) in Rhizopus nigricans. 1999) Wheat bran supported maximum xylanase production in a number of organisms in Schizophyllm radiatum (Cavazzoni et al. 6.1% galactose..9% glucose and 1.

Bacteria may also attack more complex materials. age and micro organisms (Lakshmi prabha et al. or may exploit substances released from the less-degradable substances due to extra cellular enzyme activities of other organisms (Epstein. The organic materials are broken down by microbes and enzymes. cellulose. cellobiase. 2007) It shows the enzymes are one of the factor to breakdown the organic materials. 2002). 2004). Enzyme activity in earthwoms is regionally specialized and influenced by physiological state.Composting: The modern concept of environment is based on the recycling of waste in this context. 1997) Role of enzymes in composting: Enzymatic parameters also reflect the activity of the microbial community and indicate the ability of composting to degrade a wide range of common organic substrates (Mondini et al. In this study. acid phosphatase. It has been promoted as an eco-friendly and sustainable solution to urban waste management. During the last few years. composting has gained wide acceptance as a key component of integrated solid waste management. the complex organic molecules are digested through a mutualist earthworm micro flora-digestion system. alkaline phosphatase and nitrate reductase produced jointly by earthworms and gut microflora are supposed to play a central role in the process of digestion and gentrification of soil organic matter. As a 67 . composting appear to be a safe form of treatment of some waste and the reclamation of the nutrients contained in them (Iranzo et al. It encourages the production of beneficial micro organisms which in turn breaks down organic matter to create humus. Amylase.. In vermicomposting. as they are implicated in the biological and biochemical processes through which the initial organic substrates are transformed into the end product (Tiquia. xylanase. and finally composts or manure produced. Enzymatic activities play an important role during the composting process. xylanase and mixing of EM and xylanase. endoglucanase. 2004).. the organic wastes were decomposed by different treatments like EM..

macro nutrient of the compost was analysed. et al. K contents are found to increased in organic waste treatments than in untreated control. Composted organic material can used as a source of important nutrients for sustainable crop productivity. Despite of the fact that measurement of enzymatic activities is easy. (2004) reported that change in the location of enzymes throughout the composting process. might be useful at the moment of evaluating compost stability. 1994).The composted organic wastes cannot only act as supplement to chemical fertilizers but may also improve the organic matter status and physico-chemical properties of soil (Harmsen et al. 1994). 2002. it is difficult to establish general threshold values to apply enzymatic activities as indicators of compost stability due to the widely different organic substrates involved in the composting processes. specific enzymatic activities could provide a way of characterizing the composting process with relation to the rate of transformation of organic residues and the stability of the end product.e. Mondini et al. raise yields in organic agriculture. The increase of total nitrogen in compost was caused by the decrease of substrate carbon resulting from the loss of CO 2 (because of the decomposition of the organic matter which is chemically bound with nitrogen) (Soumare. from extra cellular to complexed with humic-like substances. containing nutrients and hormones that facilitate plant growth. Zorpas. it is necessary to follow the dynamics of enzymatic activities over time. P. Thus. quick and in expensive. helping to re-establish a balanced soil ecology. Micro organisms decompose and ferment organic matter into humus. The N. for compost characterization. i. The N. et al. K contents showed a wide difference in the 3 composts.... P.consequence. and to combat oxidative stress in plants and humans. EM (Effective Microorganisms) can be applied to turn over organic and food waste and even our effluent into beneficial microbe and nutrient rich compost that has the capacity to assert a powerful regenerative effect on soil (Higa. 68 . 2003).. The micro.

(Sunita Gaind et al. The compost alkalinity can against some pathogenic 69 . The decrease in total N content was due to conversion of organic nitrogen to ammonia and the subsequent loss of ammonia. Micro nutrients like sodium and calcium increased in EM treated organic waste organic carbon was decreased in xylanase treated organic waste. (Hardy et al.. 1993). The initial content of carbon however gradually decreased as the decomposition progressed. The increase of pH values can be indicator of maturity.. et al. 1996). 2002 reported that... According to Michel et al. The decrease of C:N ratio corresponded to stable from of the organic matter. They play an important role in the degrading natural polymers process and colonize organic materials after bacteria and fungi have consumed easily degrade fractions: their enzymes enable them degrade tough debris such as: woody stems. The interaction between various functional groups of micro organisms depends on nutrient resources and biochemical mechanisms of organic and in organic matter transformation changes. lytic enzymes or even by parasitism. pH level of the 3 treatment composts was studied. Levels of phosphorus along with quality of nitrogen and potassium are important to determine. 1998 reported that the decrease of the C/N ratio is explained by the transformation of carbon into CO2 followed by lower decrease in the concentration of organic acids. So this C/N ratio is regarded as a criterion of maturity of compost. Chefetz.The total organic carbon decreased substantially in all treated composts the decrease might be attributed to the mineralization of organic matter to CO2 and H2O by microorganisms. This is depends up on the type of material being composted than in high C:N ratio.Phosphorus is not volatilized during the composting process (Warman and Termeer. Insam et al. The C:N ratio being an important parameter to judge the maturity of compost. the xylanase treated organic waste shows low C:N ratio. In this experiments. Actinomycetes compete with other organisms for nutrients and can inhibit microbial growth due to the production of antibiotics. 2006). (1996) C/N ratio is among one of the important factor affecting compost quality.. bark or newspaper.

1999). This increase the EC of compost obtained after 270 days of maturation did not exceed the limit value of 3ms cm-1 indicating a material that could be safely applied to soil. The EC also affects the quality of composts in a large way because it reflects their salinity and suitability for crop growth.fe. alkaline pH was noticed in untreated (control) and EM treated organic waste. Recently a great attention was paid towards the application of bio-organic farming to avoid the heavy use of agrochemical that resulted in numerous environmental troubles (Lampkin. High alkaline pH can reduce the availability of P. among all treatments mixing of EM and xylanase (T4) compost showed maximum seed germination and shoot length. mn (Sunita gaind et al.. 2002). the xylanase treated organic waste showed the maximum EC. (Soumarie et al.The addition of liquid animal wastes to the maturation piles and the turning of the piles could have a been responsible for the increase in EC. In our study xylanase treatment (T3) and mixing of 70 . Growth parameters: The coincident application of organic manures and biofertilizers is frequently recommended for improving soil properties and obtaining clean agricultures products (Gomaa. Among 4 treatments. 1995). suggesting the alkalinization of the manure as a consequence of the release of ammonia from the degradation and mineralization of organic compounds. This study demonstrated the effectiveness of different bio-composts for promoting growth and nutrition in green gram under field conditions. In our experiment. xylanase treated organic waste showed acidic pH. et al.. The pH of compost plays an important role in the availability of nutrients. An increase in the pH values was recorded during the active phase. 2006).. In this study.fungi since a large number of fungi grow only under acid conditions (Saidi. 2006). This may be due to the nutrition content of the compost.

3 cm to 70. rice.68 cm).2 cm in xylanase compost (T3) and 8. potassium is a essential plant nutrient.57cm). Hader 2001. The effect of compost or vermicompost on plant growth depends on the source of material used for compost or vermicompost preparation role of micro organisms and nutrient content (Jack and Thies. Savithri et al. Sangakkara and Higa 2000. yield and quality of crops.8cm to 71. Prinsloo 2002).2 cm. papaya. Fujita 2000. There was a noticeable increase in plant height from 8. vegetables and apples with application of EM fertilizer (Daly and Stewart 1999. (T2) EM compost treated plants (15. Chagas et al. A maximum increase in the root volume was recorded in (T3) xylanase compost treated plants (15.05 cu mm to 0.5cm in mixing of xylanase and EM compost (T4) over the absolute control from 6. 2001. 2006). Somida.1 cm to 41. Phosphorous was maximum in mixing of EM and xylanase treatment compost (T4) and potassium was maximum in xylanase treatment compost (T3). 8. (2002) states that.EM and xylanase treatment (T4) compost showed the maximum phosphorous and potassium content. herbage grasses. lettuce. It plays an important role in growth.. EM fertilizer increased yields in maize.. 71 . 1999 phosphorous (P) enhances seed germination and hastens maturity.2 cm) and the minimum root volume was observed in the control T1 (7. Bruggenwart 2001. According to Espinosa et al.3cm in EM compost (T2). Potassium acts as catalyst for many enzymatic processes.1cm to 69...49 cu mm from 30 to 90 days after seedlings by treating chilies with EM-soil application treatment.The results were on par with the results of Thenmozhi (2003) who registered a sharp increase of 0. onion. regulates water use in the plant. 1999 attained an increased yield of radish with coir pith compost plants grown in composted coir pith recorded significant increase in plant growth.

70 mg/g. 72 . There was maximum increase in plant height. number of leaves. which helped to build up growth parameters of the cotton crop (Higa & Wididana. Carbohydrate content: A maximum increase in total carbohydrate content was noticed in T4 which showed 20. (2001) who observed that the application of N and P increases the protein content in soyabean. root volume. The effectiveness of those microorganisms was also studied to decompose wastes by anaerobic decomposition which helps to maintain the C/N ratio in the waste to supply the nutrients to the crop. Manonmani and Anand (2002) observed an increase in biochemical constituents such as carbohydrate in leaf tissue of lady's finger by the application of vermicompost..Number of leaves / plant increased significantly in T4 which shows 75 number compared to absolute control.7cm) over than control T1 (9. leaf length by application of combined EM and xylanase treated compost.80 mg/g and the control (T1) showed 18. 1991 a). This increase might be due to the activities of micro organisms which decompose or ferment the compost and enriched the nutrient portion of the compost. In this present study the combination of EM and xylanase was a good catalyst for decomposing the wastes in to compost. Biochemical analysis: Protein content: A significant increase in protein content was observed in T4 (20. The result is in accordance with the result of Saxena et al. T1 (36).8cm).16mg/g). Length of green gram leaves increased in T4 (15.82 mg /g) over than T1 (18.

number of leaves. EC and moisture. The growth parameters like seed germination. The bacteria used for this study was Bacillus sp and Pseudomonas fluroscencs. crude xylanase. Coimbatore. The treated organic wastes are turn into compost after 60 days. It was activated using jaggary under anaerobic conditions for 1 week. and length of leaves were observed maximum in combination of EM and xylanase compost treated plants (T4). 73 . The biochemical contents of protein and carbohydrate was maximum in combination of EM and xylanase treated plants (T4). moisture content was maximum found in xylanase treatment. Minimum C/N ratio content was found in xylanse treated organic waste (T3) where as phosphorous content maximum in combination of EM and xylanase treated organic wastes(T4). Nitrogen.Summary: The effect of compost derived organic wastes which was treated by EM. The EM solution. and combination of EM and crude xylanase on the growth of greengram has been studied under field conditions. crude xylanase solution was applied to the organic wastes under different treatments like EM treatment. The EM solution was brought from Sri Ram biotech. The crude xylanase enzyme was produced by bacteria and fungi. where as in fungal species wheat bran showed maximum xylanase production. The control was also maintained. (untreated). Root length was maximum in xylanase treated compost (T3). The treated organic wastes are evaluated to micro. calcium. macronutrients. Among 11 substrates rice bran was showed maximum xylanase production in bacterial species. and sodium content was found to be maximum in EM treated organic wastes. combination of EM and xylanase treatment. shoot length. xylanase treatment. Potassium. The fungi used for this study was Trichoderma viridae and Rhizopus nigricans. pH.

The inoculation of EM and crude xylanase could be very useful to improve the composting process.CONCLUSION Composting process proved to be a useful device for the reduction of organic domestic waste. So composting is a best waste management tool to reduce environmental pollution. 74 .

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