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recruitment ans selection process of pepsico jamshedpur

recruitment ans selection process of pepsico jamshedpur

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Published by Imran Hassan
recruitment and selection (HRM)
recruitment and selection (HRM)

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Published by: Imran Hassan on Apr 10, 2013
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SYED IMRAN HASSAN (MBA 2011-13) ROLL NO-1117470087


I here by declare that this project report of PEPSICO Pvt ltd, Submitted by me to the department of MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Is a bonafide work under taken by me for the award of M.B.A degree. I have conducted work under the guidance of PROFESSOR VIJETA AND DIVYA CHOUDHARY KITE GROUPEM OF INSTITUTE,MEERUT AND “Mr.S.K BAHL” HR MANAGER OF PEPSICO JAMSHEDPUR,

I also declare that this project report has not been previously formed the basis for the award to the candidate of any degree, or published any time before.



Before I get into the thick of the things I would like to add a few heartfelt words for the people who were part of this project in numerous ways….people who gave unending support right from the stage the project was started, appreciated and encouraged when being depressed. In this context I would like to express my gratitude towards my parents and family members who have constantly supported and played a pivotal role in shaping my career. I take this opportunity to express my gratitude to Mr. P.S. Kumar (Director), Mr. Subroto Chakarwarty (T.D.M) and Mr. S.K. Bahl (Manager, HR) of S.M.V. Beverages who have given me the opportunity to do the project in their esteemed organization. I would also like to thank Mr. Shukla (A.D.C.) of SMV Beverages without whose support this project couldn’t have been in the form in which it is now. I owe more than what I can mention….mostly for teaching me to see the silver lining in every dark cloud. I also owe my regards to Mr. Harmeet Singh and Adarsh agency for their co-operation in the successful completion of the project. This has been one long project and naturally many people get associated with it. Any bouquet for the merit in this book should go to their door. I would like to thank the staffs and officials of SMV Beverages for their co-operation in providing us with all the information, which were required by us. I owe my sincere gratitude towards my faculty guide Prof. DIVYA CHOUDHARY AND Prof. VIJETA for extending the support towards the completion of the project. And finally I would like to thank my friends for their unending support.


.….…..91 4 ..CONTENTS INTRODUCTION………………………………………………….....88 REFERENCES……………………………………………………….... 87 SUGESSTION………………………………………………………..….....08 LAST 5 YEARS DATA ANALYSIS.….85 LIMITATIONS……………………………………………..……………………...……….89 BIBLIOGRAPHY……………………………………………….........….….….07 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY…….12 CONCLUSION……………………………………………….......GRAPH………..06 OBJECTIVE SCOPE OF THE STUDY…...90 QUESTIONNAIRE………………………………………………...………………………..

INTRODUCTION 5 . Ltd. It is also a widely accepted theory that this aspect of management education widens one’s thinking about the different concepts of management philosophy.M. which the franchise is owned bottling plant of PepsiCo India limited. The report gives a true picture of the practical activities done by me within the jurisdiction of the area assigned to me. This project has been done on the “Recruitment and selection process” has been done under the supervision of S. Ltd. As an aspect of management education which is receiving increased attention from institutes as well as from recruiters on job training is imparted to the students to acclimatize the student with the actual environment of business management.V Beverages Pvt. The study area was restricted to Pepsi plant and its Organization.PREFACE Practical training is considered to be an essential part of all the professional institutions and those who are aspiring for Master of business administration. The bottling plant is located at Adityapur industrial area (AIDA). Adityapur is a part of Jamshedpur. on job training assumes even more significances. I have done my training in Jamshedpur under the guidance of the executives of S. Hence the results for research and mythology are applicable to Sakchi where indirect employee is working in particular manner. Adityapur. difference between different concepts and ground realities.M.V Beverages Pvt.

This chapter starts with the introduction. and the important dates of the company. responsibilities and company information The chapter-4 gives information regarding PepsiCo India. This contains the objective. The chapter-3 is the profile of the company involving details regarding human sustainability. milestones. R & D Drives.e Recruitment and Selection process. Then a brief note on the objectives of the study. OBJECTIVES 6 . mission and vision of the company The chapter-5 enables the main objective of the project i. The detailed study of the topic is given under this chapter. This holds information regarding the company history. the methodology. need and importance of the topic and the current process held up by the PepsiCo. The reason I have chosen recruitment and selection process to enable the knowledge how the company recruit the candidates and on what basis they choose the candidate. This study is helpful for my career as well as to the company. research techniques and methodology of the study.I have done my project on recruitment and selection process in PepsiCo Company. Holding details like company values and principles.the primary data and secondary data and the last is limitation of the study.an abstract and over view of the study. importance of the study. This is an overview of the company which shows the entire information regarding the management details. In this part I discussed about the aims. The chapter-1 contains the report regarding INTRODUCTION part of the company. The chapter-2 is the origin of the PEPSICO Company.

Recruitment and selection plays a vital role in any organization.  The preview of the recruitment and selection process  Acts as guidelines  Enables types of process is being used  Enables the required changes  Maintains the complete overview of the process METHODOLOGY 7 . Since employees are the valuable assets of the company. The main objective of my study is to know the key stones of recruitment and selection process and the next is to analyze the process and make the necessary changes if required.  To study hierarchy level of the process  To know the various sources of recruitment and selection adopted by PEPSICO. So in order to get a clear cut idea how organization recruit the candidates and what they prefer the most in a candidate. This is even useful for organization for viewing their present situation whether they are processing properly or not and helpful to make the required changes for the future purpose. I have done my project on recruitment and selection. When it relates to me I can get the complete picture how the process is being taking place and helps for my career when I go for an interview. they have to be placed in right position at right time.  To study the recruitment process of the PEPSICO.  To know the loop holes of the process  To suggest the suitable ways aimed at improving the recruitment process NEED AND IMPORTANCE Generally after finishing of the studies the next step of candidates is to get into the job or business. This helps me for further steps.

These summed up responses were calculated to derive the percentages-to make the interpretations more elucidated. pie-diagrams and other graphical tools.The methodology adopted aimed at a detailed study and scrutiny of the current recruitment and selection practices including retention ship. SAMPLING METHOD AND SAMPLE SIZE I used both the primary as well secondary data to gather the data from the market. having been collected for another purpose. since I followed the observation method I have noted down all related information. Statistical terms used The responses of all the questions were summed up from all the answered questionnaires. while going to employees I carried down this questionnaire and started ticking the proper answers from the employees. Some answers obtain by observation of the employees. newspapers and libraries. Research tool The primary data collected by using the observation method. even I took personal interview of employee. Before starting the work I have prepared questionnaire depending up on my requirements. 8 . SAMPLING METHODOLOGY Since I have done my project on basis of observation method. even I took personal interview of the employees for some requirements. Secondary data: Secondary data consist of information that already exists somewhere. The study is completely based on observation process by maintaining relevant questionnaire. being represented in the form of tables. I have gathered secondary data from website of different operators. I directly visited the places and noted down the required information. Primary data: I have collected the data directly from the employees.

Pepsi was sold in six-ounce bottles. Pepsi's assets were then purchased by Charles Guth.. That year. a fine bracer before a race".refreshing. possibly due to the digestive enzyme pepsin and kola nuts used in the recipe. He sought to replace Coca-Cola at his stores' fountains after Coke refused to give him a discount on syrup. the company went bankrupt again.ORIGIN OF PEPSICO It was first introduced as "Brad's Drink" in New Bern. Megargel bought the Pepsi trademark. Pepsi received its first logo redesign since the original design of 1905. Brad ham moved the bottling of Pepsi-Cola from his drugstore to a rented warehouse. North Carolina in 1898 by Caleb Brad ham. describing it as "A bully drink. the President of Loft Inc. In 1929. It was later named Pepsi Cola. invigorating. In 1903.968 gallons of syrup.in large part due to financial losses incurred by speculating on wildly fluctuating sugar prices as a result of World War Assets were sold and Roy C. In 1926.. The next year. In 1909. In 1931. which made it at his pharmacy where the drink was sold. Brad ham sought to create a fountain drink that was delicious and would aid in digestion and boost energy. automobile race pioneer Barney Old-field was the first celebrity to endorse Pepsi-Cola. the Pepsi-Cola Company entered bankruptcy . The advertising theme "Delicious and Healthful" was then used over the next two decades.848 gallons. 9 . Loft was a candy manufacturer with retail stores that contained soda fountains. Eight years later. Brad ham sold 7. the logo was changed again. and sales increased to 19. at the depth of the Great Depression. Guth then had Loft's chemists reformulate the Pepsi-Cola syrup formula.

Pepsi. Till 1998 it was under its chairperson Smt Kokum Kamani and the country has constantly bagged numerous awards in various occasions for quality assurance and productivity. He established another plant in the same name of SMV Beverages Pvt. S. Steel City Beverages Pvt. In 1993 it bagged top honors for the best quality conscious plant among all the Pepsi bottling companies in India. and productivity. viz. Entire state is divided into three territories Jamshedpur. Simultaneously a new market came in name of Hyderabad Marketing Company. M/s SMV Beverages Pvt. And increase the production from his new plant is 600 bottles per minute. BEVERAGES Pvt. The company symbolizes self reliance in technology and ranked as the best bottling company of the country in terms of quality. Jaipuria From Mr. Was established in the year 1967 and production commenced in March 1969. Slice and Soda and it has now become a house hold word in the state of Jharkhand. which his father had left behind. Ranchi.ORIGIN OF SOFT DRINK IN JAMSHEDPUR Late Charan Singh is credited with initiative to set up Soft drink industry in the city. Domestic tension forced him to march to Jameshedpur 50 years ago to seek a living for him. Mrinda. K. 10 . Punjab and he used to sell soft drink in carts. N. This plant operates only 3 months (summer). The credit of establishing Jamshedpur in the soft drink map goes to late Dharamchnd Kamani. Ltd. Jamshedpur is a franchise owned bottling plant (FOBO) is located on the Tata Kandara road in Adityapur Industrial Area at Jamshedpur and producing Pepsi range of bottled soft drinks. Today his son Mr. June 1967 was significant for soft drink industry in Jamshedpur. Right now there is only one bottling plant of Pepsi in Jharkhand and it cater the need of all the Pepsi products in Jharkhand. Kamani along with Rushab Marketing company.M. Ltd. Mountain Dew. Then he set up his own machine and started bottling without any brand name. efficiency. 7up. During the course of his business trips he was struck with the idea of setting up of a soft drink industry in Bihar. K. but in March 1999 steel city beverage taken over by Mr. Ltd. At the very start company installed state of art machines and technology for the production and bottling of soft drink.. The previous name of SMV was STEEL CITY BEVERAGES. and one territory development officer controls each territory. He was very much enthusiastic to increase the production and sales and to nature the whole market of Jharkhand. The bottling plant with a capacity of 220 bottles per minutes was totally automatic and also had a modern state of art intermix machine for bringing forth the right blend of flavors. and Dhanbad. Sundar Gurudev is carrying out the legacy. Even today Jamshedpur remembers the great exponent THANDA WALA. He was a resident of Phagwara. The company constitutes to adopt innovative technology in keeping with its policy of constant entered into an agreement with Pepsi food limited for the production and sales of soft drinks for the people of Jharkhand.V. S. Ltd. which is creating the needs of whole Jharkhand state.

has to undertake special projects.M. Today S. Since the environment facing organization is complex and its scanning is absolutely essential. stands as a proud monument the great visionary its founder Late D. These factors are explained below. S. Ltd.V. for instance. trends. These factors (may also be termed as influences) are events. Kamani and strides forth towards progress and prosperity for the fulfillment of the ideas of its revered founder. Ltd.V. the changes in legislation and regulations which have a direct impact on an organization’s activities. Beverages Pvt. exists consists of a bewildering variety of factors.M.ENVIRONMENT SCANNING The process by which organization monitors their relevant environment to identify opportunities and threats affecting their business are known as environment scanning. could be collected continuously to monitor changes and take the relevant factors into account. Ltd. issues.V.V. government policy statements pertaining to S. issues. Beverages Pvt. BEVERAGES Pvt. conducts special surveys and studies to deal with specific environmental issues from time to time. ≈ Expectations are the demands made by interested groups in the light of their concern for issues. trends. or devise new strategies.M. ≈ Events are important and specific occurrences taking place in different environment sectors. By monitoring the environment though environmental scanning. consider s the impact of the different events. The external environment in which S. ≈ Issues are the current concern that arises in response to events and trends. BEVERAGES Pvt. business and industry and so on . Such studies may be conducted. Ltd. ≈ Trends are the general tendencies or the courses of action along which events takes place.N. Information related to markets and customers. BEVERAGES Pvt.M. and expectation of different interested groups. Changes due to unforeseen development may also be investigated with regard to their impact on the organization. strategist has to deal cautiously with the process of environmental scanning is collected systematically. Ltd. the S.M. and expectation on its strategic management process. when S. 11 .V. Ltd. BEVERAGES Pvt. evaluate existing strategies.M.V.

14 of them felt that news papers is the best resource for the procurement of the Candidates. 12 .LAST 5 YEAR’S Data analysis of PEPSICO COMPANY Sources of Applicant Graph 1: According to you what is the best source for the procurement of the candidates? Interpretation: Among the 50 respondents 28 of them felt that employee referrals is the best resource for the procurement of the candidates.8 of them felt that job portals is the best resource procurement of the candidates.

6 of them felt that qualification should be the major criteria. 13 .14 of them felt that personal skills should be the major criteria.Criteria for filtering the candidate Graph 2: What are general criteria underlying the filtering of the candidate pool that the company requires? Interpretation: Among 50 respondents 30 of them felt that work experience should be the major criteria .

10 of them felt stress interviews are best suitable for their requirement and 10 of them felt that depth interviews are best suitable for their requirement. What attracts candidates towards the organization? 14 .Interview techniques Graph 3 According to you which of the following interviewing technique is most suitable for the recruitment of candidates in PEPSI? Interpretation: Among 50 respondents 30 of them felt that behavioural interviews are best suitable for their requirement.

Graph 4: According to you what attracts candidates towards pearl beverages limited (PEPSI). 10 respondents felt that compensation and perks attracts the candidate towards the organization. Reference Check Graph 5: Do you feel that conducting a reference check before employing the candidate will make 15 . 20 of them felt that career growth attracts candidates towards the organization. in recruitment perspective? Interpretation Among 50 respondents 20 of them felt that job satisfaction attracts candidates towards the organization.

recruitment process effective? InterpretationAmong 50 respondents 46 of the respondents felt that reference check will add value to the recruitment process and 4 respondents felt that it doesn’t add value to the recruitment process of the Pearl Beverages Ltd. Necessity of formal induction program Graph 6: Do you think that a formal induction program add value to the performance of inductees? 16 .

InterpretationAmong 50 respondents 48 of the respondents felt that the orientation program will add value to the performance of inductees and 2 of them felt that it doesn’t add value to the performance of inductees. Reasons for quitting the job Graph 7 Do you feel that conducting a reference check before employing the candidate will make recruitment process effective? 17 .

and 5 of them told that the employees are leaving the org because of their personal reasons. Strongly Agree 14 Agree 7 Neutral 20 Disagree 6 Strongly Disagree 3 18 .InterpretationAmong 50 respondents 30 respondents told that pay is the reason. Work Environment Table 1: You are satisfied with the work environment you are put into. 10 of them told slow growth 5 of them told that the employees are uncomfortable with shift system.

6 members are disagree and 3 members are strongly disagree. Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly Disagree 19 . 7 members are agree. 20 members are neutral. Supervisor Guidance Table 2: You are given all the necessary inputs required to perform your job well by your supervisor.Graph 1: Interpretation: From the above Graph it can be inferred that. out of 50 respondents 14 members are strongly agree.

28 Graph 2: 15 7 0 28 Interpretation: From the above graph it can be inferred that out of 50 respondents 28 members of them are strongly agree. 15 members of them are agree. 7 members of them are neutral and none of them are disagree or strongly disagree. Flexibility of Work Hours Table 3: Do you think your working hours are flexible enough to offer services to your organization? Strongly Agree 10 Agree 12 Neutral 10 Disagree 18 Strongly Disagree 0 20 .

GrapGraph 3: Interpretation: From the above graph it can be inferred that among 50 respondents 10 members of them are strongly agree. 10 members of them are neutral. 18 members of them are disagree and none of them are strongly disagree. 12 members of them are agree. Job Satisfaction Table 4: The org gives you job satisfaction: Strongly Agree 8 Agree 12 Neutral 20 Disagree 10 Strongly Disagree 0 21 .

24% of them are strongly agree. Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly Disagree 22 .e. 32% of them are agree. Opportunity for Advancement/Growth Table 5: You feel that there is opportunity for advancement in your organization which may help you to reach your career goal.Graph 4: Interpretation: From the above graph it can be inferred that out of 50 respondents 12 members i. 44% of them are neutral and none of them are disagree or strongly disagree.

23 . 6 members of them are neutral. 11 members of them are agree. 14 members of them are disagree and the remaining 14 members are strongly disagree.5 Graph 5: 6 6 17 16 Interpretation: From the above graph it can be inferred that out of 50 respondents 5 members of them are strongly agree.

24 .Job Stress Table 7: The amount of work you are expected to do on your job is not reasonable and it is harder to perform. 20% of the respondents are neutral. Strongly Agree 0 Graph 7: Agree 6 Neutral 10 Disagree 20 Strongly Disagree 14 Interpretation: From the above graph out of 50 employees 0% of the respondents are strongly agree. 5 respondents i.e. 40% of them are Disagree and 30% of the respondents are strongly disagree. 10% of them are agree.

e.Qualifications Table 8: You feel that the qualification you possess is necessary & relevant to the job. none of them are neutral. 10 respondents i. 20% of the respondents are agree. So employees feel that “Experience teaches everything” ONE DAY IN PEPSI PLANT 25 . Strongly Agree 0 Graph 8: Agree 10 Neutral 0 Disagree 10 Strongly Disagree 30 Interpretation: From the above graph it can be inferred that among 50 respondents none of them are strongly agree. 60% of the respondents are strongly disagree. 20% of them are disagree.e. 30 members i.e. 10 respondents i.

the preparation of main liquid or drink is same but the machines and equipments used for filling in different SKUs are different. Here I want to share my experience of visiting the production unit of pepsi and knowledge I gained after seeing the production processes of different brands of pepsi.M. Beverages Pvt.E).M. But before going into the deep I would like to thank Mr. Beverages Pvt.In summer.V.V.V. Ltd. The diagram in the next page represents the flow or sequence of steps involved in S. Ltd. Beverages Pvt. Beverages Pvt.g. pet bottle. who changed the hottest day into my dream’s day and also to all staffs of S. e.M. Ltd. All these ingredients are added at different stages by different processes. if one gets the chance to visit the production unit of a cold drink plant. tetra pack etc. Jamshedpur. Here in S. Pepsi products are available in different SKUs (stock keeping units) or packs. Ltd. 26 . Jamshedpur also the same ingredients are used to prepare pepsi and its’ other brands. and also gets opportunity to have cold drinks without any limit and cost on such a hot day. water and cold drink is prepared. Jamshedpur for manufacturing of Pepsi products.V. Dhananjay Kumar (M. Jamshedpur for guiding me during this visit and sharing their vast knowledge and experience with me. when the mercury level crosses 40˚F we wish to have ice creams or cold drinks only. Pepsi production process: Any cold drinks (soft drinks) generally contains ≈ Water ≈ Sugar ≈ Flavors or fruit pulp ≈ Chemicals ≈ CO2 gas (in carbonated soft drinks) The below four ingredients are added with the first ingredient i. metal can. glass bottle. And it is as like a dream.e.M. also a dream’s day for me when I got such an opportunity to visit the production unit of pepsi of S.

Beverages Pvt.S y ru pta n k 4 5 6 C O 2Ad d itio n E m p tyb o ttle s F la v o ra d d ition C ro w n in gm a c h in e B o ttlefille r F ille db o ttle s 7 8 9 W a s h e db o ttle s B o ttlew a s h in gp la n t 7 -C a u s ticS od a .H ot w a te r 3 .8 -H ot w a ter. Jamshedpur.C o ldw a te r S y ru pfiltra tio nu n it 1 S y ru pc h illin gu n it 2 3 4 .V.C a u s ticS o d a 2 . c o n ta in in gs u g a r s to c k s T rea te dw a te r S te a mlin e S tea mg e n e ra tion T re a te dw a te r fro m w a tertre a tm e n tp la n t S y ru pp re p a ra tio n ( S y ru pta n k ) 1 . I saw 27 .M.Process flow diagram C ris ta ls u g a r fro ms u g a rs to re S u g a rs to rero o m .S y ru pta n k 5 .S y ru pta n k 6 . 9 -C o ldw a te r During my visit to S. Ltd.

5. Acid room. The water so obtained is completely free from any kind 28 . Coagulation process is used here for this purpose. Water treatment plant Water in S. where water is purified. Initially water is treated with all these chemicals in the treatment tank and becomes turbid.1. calcium hydroxide (CaOH) and chlorine (Cl). where custic soda is kept.V.M. it is sent to the carbon tank where all the microorganisms and chlorines are removed. 6. It is stored in a reservoir. Main chemicals used are ferrous sulphate (FeSO4). Bottle washing plant. Beverages Pvt. Bottle filling plant. where syrup is prepared from sugar. where used glass bottles are washed 3. Syrup room. Jamshedpur. Then. 2. before the production process starts. Water treatment plant. 4. which is used for cleaning the equipments and pipelines after every batch of production. 1. All the impurities get settled at the base and remove the turbidity. is coming from the Sitarampur dam on the Kharkai river. where bottles are filled with the final product. Yard for keeping empty bottles and ware houses for storing the filled bottles. The brief introduction of each plants are given bellow. This raw water is being treated in the water treatment plant. Ltd.

Bottle washing plant: Used bottles returning from the market are stealthy. Bottles are treated with 4% caustic soda in the first compartment at a temperature of 100-150˚ C. Bottles containing any dust or other unwanted things are removed from the line here. Before filling these empty bottles with new product. Bottles are then sent through the inspection center. Time duration in each compartment is 10 minutes. Syrup is prepared by flowing steam and sugar crystals in a specified ratio into a closed container. The machine has three compartments. Bottle for washing are placed on the conveyer come inside the machine and get successive treatment. Here next flavors are added at a specified quantity with the syrup used for preparation of pepsi or other brands. where bottles are again washed with hot water at a temperature of 80-100˚ C. so this syrup is filtered to remove all those contaminations. Before storing in syrup tanks this syrup it is passed through the cooler where syrup temperature is reduced to 25-30˚C. It is completely an auto process which takes place within a machine called washer machine. This syrup contains some impurities as. 3. 2. The maximum alkalinity maintained until as much as 50 ppm. where these are closely watched against white rays of light.of impurities and used in further processing. these bottles are passed through the bottle washing plant where these dirty bottles are washed. 4. Bottle filling plant 29 . The temperature of this prepared sugar remains between 80-100˚C. Syrup room: Here syrup is prepared. This temperature is maintained throughout the whole process. sometimes there are some impurities presents in sugar. in the third compartment bottles are treated with cold or normal water at room temperature. Next these are conveyed to the second compartment.

The washed empty bottles are filled by automatic filler machine. Acid room: There are three tanks in this room. 7.V. And for the brand like slice. first of all caustic soda is passed through the pipeline. Warehouse: S. mirinda. 6. This machine can fill 60 bottles in one minute. Beverages Pvt. Ltd. And for this purpose. Beverages Pvt. Yard for keeping empty bottles: S. Jamshedpur has a large area in side its premises. For transferring the filled bottles inside the company fork-lifts are used. Now these filled bottles are ladled and then sent for packing and storing in the godowns.Next.M. and mountain dew. Ltd. The first tank contains caustic soda. for preparation of carbonated soft drinks brands like pepsi. After filling. Jamshedpur has its own warehouse in side its premises for storing the produced products. crowns or caps are fitted on the filled bottles with the help of crowning machine. the 2 nd tank contains hot water and the third tank contains cold water. 5. fruit pulp is added.V. next hot water and at the last cold water. After finishing every batch of production the whole production lines and containers/tanks are washed. A large part of its open area is used for keeping the empty bottles. 30 .M. Now the solution is ready for filling into the bottles. carbondioxide gas ( CO2) is mixed with this prepared solution. 7UP. The produced products are sent to the customers from these warehouses.

31 .

Recruitment is a process to discover the sources of manpower to meet the requirement of the staffing schedule and to employ effective measures for attracting that manpower in adequate numbers to facilitate effective selection of efficient personnel. Staffing is one basic function of management. Recruitment precedes selection and helps in selecting a right candidate. 32 .Recruitment and selection are two of the most important functions of personnel management. Every organisation needs to look after recruitment and selection in the initial period and thereafter as and when additional manpower is required due to expansion and development of business activities. the personnel manager and his personnel department is mainly concerned with the staffing function. All managers have responsibility of staffing function by selecting the chief executive and even the foremen and supervisors have a staffing responsibility when they select the rank and file workers. However.

Human resource management in an organisation will not be possible if unsuitable persons are selected and employment in a business unit. 33 .Right person for the right job’ is the basic principle in recruitment and selection. Ever organisation should give attention to the selection of its manpower. especially its managers. The operative manpower is equally important and essential for the orderly working of an enterprise. Every business organisation/unit needs manpower for carrying different business activities smoothly and efficiently and for this recruitment and selection of suitable candidates are essential.

Recruitment is understood as the 34 .MEANING: RECRUITMENT Recruitment means to estimate the available vacancies and to make suitable arrangements for their selection and appointment.

Purpose and importance of Recruitment: 35 . In recruitment.”Recruitment is the process of searching for prospective employees and stimulating them to apply for jobs in the organization. expansion and diversification of business activities of an enterprise. transfer. the available vacancies are given wide publicity and suitable candidates are encouraged to submit applications so as to have a pool of eligible candidates for scientific selection. The result is a pool of applicants from which new employees are selected”. permanent disability. termination. b) Creation of new vacancies due to the growth. For this different source such as newspaper advertisement.” Need for recruitment: The need for recruitment may be due to the following reasons / situation: a) Vacancies due to promotions.are used. retirement. The process begins when new recruits are sought and ends when their applicants are submitted. from among whom the right people can be selected. Recruitment represents the first contact that a company makes with potential employees Definition: According to EDWIN FLIPPO . In the recruitment. A formal definition states. information is collected from interested candidates. employment exchanges. new vacancies are possible due to job specification. “It is the process of finding and attracting capable applicants for the employment. a pool of eligible and interested candidates is created for selection of most suitable candidates.process of searching for and obtaining applicants for the jobs. internal promotion. In addition. death and labour turnover. etc. In this.

Recruitment represents the first contact that a company makes with potential employees. Determine the present and future requirements of the organization on conjunction with its personnel-planning and job analysis activities. 7. It is through recruitment that many individuals will come to know a company. A well-planned and well-managed recruiting effort will result in high quality applicants.1. 2. Recruitment is a positive function in which publicity is given to the jobs available in the organization and interested candidates are encouraged to submit applications for the purpose of selection. Begin identifying and preparing potential job applicants who will be appropriate candidates. Evaluate the effectiveness of various recruiting techniques and sources for all types of job applicants. whereas. Increase the pool of job candidates at minimum cost. a haphazard and piecemeal efforts will result in mediocre ones. 6. Increase organizational and individual effectiveness in the short term and long term. will leave the organization only after a short period of time. Meet the organization’s legal and social obligations regarding the composition of its work force. once recruited and selected. 3. 5. Help reduce the probability that job applicants. and eventually decided whether they wish to work for it. 4. Help increase the success rate of the selection process by reducing the number of visibly under qualified or overqualified job applicants. 8. Unscientific Recruitment and Selection: 36 .

personal prejudices of managers looking after the recruitment and selection of the staff. Planning. 1. 2. Evaluation and control. The process comprises five interrelated stages. beliefs. The net result of such unscientific recruitment and selection are: (a) Low productivity of labour (b) High turnover (c) Excessive wastage of raw materials (d) More accidents and corresponding loss to the organization (e) Inefficient working of the whole organization and finally (f) Ineffective executive of training and management development programs Scientific recruitment and selection The importance of selection recruitment and selection of staff is now accepted in the business world. the objective of “right man for the right job” is achieved in many organizations. Selection is important as it has its impact on work performance and employee cost. RECRUITMENT PROCESS Recruitment refers to the process of identifying and attracting job seekers so as to build a pool of qualified job applicants. Searching. As a result. The assistance of experts such as industrial psychologist and management consultants are also taken for the purpose of scientific selection. “right job” is the basic principle in manpower procurement. Strategy development. Moreover. Screening. the selection of candidates was influenced by superstitions. 4. As result scientific methods of recruitment and selection are extensively for the selection of managers and the supervisory staff. 37 . 3. 5.Previously.

nearly always. Each time a recruitment Programme is contemplated. unqualified or both. Some of those contacted will be uninterested. by failing to attract an adequate applicant pool. Planning involves the translation of likely job vacancies and information about the nature of these jobs into set of objectives or targets that specify the (1) Numbers and (2) Types of applicants to be contacted. Types of contacts: It is basically concerned with the types of people to be informed about job openings. Thus.e. These details are available through job description and job specification. Numbers of contact : Organization. one task is to estimate the number of applicants necessary to fill all vacancies with the qualified people. how to distinguish applicants who are qualified from those who have a reasonable chance of success and how to evaluate their work. individuals responsible for the recruitment process must know how many and what types of employees are needed.The ideal recruitment programme is the one that attracts a relatively larger number of qualified applicants who will survive the screening process and accept positions with the organisation. 38 . Recruitment programmes can miss the ideal in many ways i. what inducement to use for various types of applicants groups. STAGE 1: RECRUITMENT PLANNING: The first stage in the recruitment process is planning. plan to attract more applicants than they will hire. to approach the ideal. by under/over selling the organisation or by inadequate screening applicants before they enter the selection process. when offered. where and how to look for the individuals with the appropriate qualifications and interests. The type of people depends on the tasks and responsibilities involved and the qualifications and experience expected.

Geographical distribution of labour markets comprising job seekers.STAGE 2: STRATEGY DEVELOPMENT : When it is estimated that what types of recruitment and how many are required then one has concentrate in (1). (5). ‘ Make’ or ‘Buy’: Organisation must decide whether to hire le skilled employees and invest on training and education programmes. Although impersonal. Technological sophistication of recruitment and selection devices. or they can hire skilled labour and professional. which hire skilled and professionals shall have to pay more for these employees. Generally. (2). this is the ‘make’ or ‘buy’ decision. Technological Sophistication: The second decision in strategy development relates to the methods used in recruitment and selection. companies look in to the national market for managerial and professional employees. (3). 39 . regional or local markets for technical employees and local markets for the clerical and blue-collar employees. The advent of computers has made it possible for employers to scan national and international applicant qualification. computers have given employers and ob seekers a wider scope of options in the initial screening stage. Make or Buy employees. Sources of recruitment. Organizations. This decision is mainly influenced by the available technology. Where to look: In order to reduce the costs. organisations look in to labour markets most likely to offer the required job seekers. Sequencing the activities in the recruitment process. When to look: An effective recruiting strategy must determine when to look-decide on the timings of events besides knowing where and how to look for job applicants. Essentially. (4).

40 . Media are severalsome have low credibility. Search involves two steps A). Selection of medium or media needs to be done with a lot of care. Those who pass have to be contacted and invited for interview. With regards to media. Unsuccessful applicants must be sent letter of regret. In selling the organisation. it may be stated that effectiveness of any recruiting message depends on the media. SELLING: A second issue to be addressed in the searching process concerns communications. both the message and the media deserve attention. B).STAGE 3: SEARCHNG: Once a recruitment plan and strategy are worked out. Source activation and B). Here. activation soon results in a flood of applications and/or resumes. SOURCE ACTIVATION: Typically. they want to do whatever they can to attract desirable applicants. This means that no actual recruiting takes place until lone managers have verified that vacancy does exist or will exist. the search process can begin. On the other hand. Message refers to the employment advertisement. sources and search methods are activated by the issuance of an employee requisition. The application received must be screened. while others enjoy high credibility. organisation walks tightrope. they must resist the temptation of overselling their virtues. Selling. If the organisation has planned well and done a good job of developing its sources and search methods. On one hand. A).

Care must be exercised.STEP 4: SCREENING: Screening of applicants can be regarded as an integral part of the recruiting process. excludes screening from its scope. The selection process will begin after the applications have been scrutinized and short-listed. Here. Campus recruiters and agency representatives use interviews and resumes. Application received in response to advertisements is screened and only eligible applicants are called for an interview. skills. Effective screening can save a great deal of time and money. at an early stage. However. those applicants who are visibly unqualified for the job. The techniques used to screen applicants vary depending on the candidate sources and recruiting methods used. Reference checks are also useful in screening. the recruitment process extends up to screening the applications. to assure that potentially good employees are not rejected without justification. Purpose of screening The purpose of screening is to remove from the recruitment process. however. we have included screening in recruitment for valid reasons. clear job specifications are invaluable. Hiring of professors in a university is a typical situation. we quoted in the beginning of this chapter. Interview and application blanks may be used to screen walk-ins. A selection committee comprising the Vice-chancellor. In screening. abilities and interest required to do the job. though many view it as the first step in the selection process. Registrar and subject experts conducts interview. It is both good practice and a legal necessity that applicant’s qualification is judged on the basis of their knowledge. The selection process commences only later. 41 . Even the definition on recruitment.

STAGE 5: EVALUATION AND CONTROL: Evaluation and control is necessary as considerable costs are incurred in the recruitment process. The costs generally incurred are: 1. Salaries for recruiters. 2. Management and professional time spent on preparing job description, job specifications, advertisements, agency liaison and so forth. 3. The cost of advertisements or other recruitment methods, that is, agency fees. 4. Recruitment overheads and administrative expenses. 5. Costs of overtime and outsourcing while the vacancies remain unfilled. 6. Cost of recruiting unsuitable candidates for the selection process.


The recruitment has the objective of searching for and obtaining applications for job seekers in sufficient number and quality. Keeping this objective in the mind, the evaluation might include: 1. Return rate of application sent out. 2. Number of suitable candidates for selection. 3. Retention and performance of the candidates selected. 4. Cost of the recruitment process 5. Time lapsed data 6. Comments on image projected. 42

Sources of Recruitment


INTERNAL SOURCES 1) Promotion 2) Transfers 3) Internal notification (Advertisement) 4) Retirement 5) Recall 6) Former employees 7) Miscellaneous external sources

EXTERNAL SOURCES 1) Campus recruitment 2) Press advertisement 3) Management consultancy service & private employment exchanges 4) Deputation of personnel or transfer from one enterprise to 6) Walk-ins, write-ins, talk-ins another 5) Management training schemes


The sources of recruitment can be broadly categorized into internal and external sources(I) Internal Recruitment – Internal recruitment seeks applicants for positions from within the company. The various internal sources include :  Promotions and Transfers – Promotion is an effective means using job posting and personnel records. Job posting requires notifying vacant positions by posting notices, circulating publications or announcing at staff meetings and inviting employees to apply. Personnel records help discover employees who are doing jobs below their educational qualifications or skill levels. Promotions has many advantages like it is good public relations, builds morale, encourages competent individuals who are ambitious, improves the probability of good selection since information on the individual’s performance is readily available, is cheaper than going outside to recruit, those chosen internally are familiar with the organization thus reducing the orientation time and energy and also acts as a training device for developing middle-level and top-level managers. However, promotions restrict the field of selection preventing fresh blood & ideas from entering the organization. It also leads to inbreeding in the organization. Transfers are also important in providing employees with a broad-based view of the organization, necessary for future promotions.

 Employee referralsEmployees can develop good prospects for their families and friends by acquainting them with the advantages of a job with the company, furnishing them with introduction and encouraging them to apply. This is a very effective means as many qualified people can be reached at a very low cost to the company. The other advantages are that the employees would bring only those referrals that they feel would be able to fit in the organization based on their own experience. The organization can be assured of the reliability and the character of the referrals. In this way, the organization can also fulfill social obligations and create goodwill. 44

 Dependents of deceased employeesUsually. management issues an internal notification for the benefit of existing employees. since they are familiar with the organization. Former EmployeesThese include retired employees who are willing to work on a part-time basis. Most employees know from their own experience about the requirement of the job and what sort of person the company is looking for. management may not find suitable candidates in place of the one who had retired. which can be solved only by a manager who has proceeded on long leave. Even retrenched employees are taken up once again.  Internal notification (advertisement) : Sometimes. If an employee dies. banks follow this policy. Under the circumstances. management may decide to call retired managers with new extension. there is no need of an orientation programme for them. individuals who left work and are willing to come back for higher compensations. his leave may be extended. after meritorious service. The advantage here is that the people are already known to the organization and there is no need to find out their past performance and character. Also. This is usually an effective way to fulfill social obligation and create goodwill. Often employees have 45 .  Recalls : When management faces a problem.  Retirements : At times. it may de decided to recall that persons after the problem is solved. his / her spouse or son or daughter is recruited in their place.

experienced or skilled personnel. advertisements may be placed in professional or business journals. The Act applies to all industrial establishments having 25 workers or more 46 . It consists of compiling job seeker’s lists and providing access to members during regional or national conventions. working conditions. identify the employer and tell those interested how to apply. especially for hard-to-fill technical posts. Suitable persons are appointed at the vacant posts. as many recruiters prefer advertisements because of their wide reach. Advertisements must contain proper information like the job content.  Employment Exchanges:Employment Exchanges have been set up all over the country in deference to the provision of the Employment Exchanges (Compulsory Notification of Vacancies) Act. Also. (II) External Recruitment – External recruitment seeks applicants for positions from sources outside the company. etc.friends or acquaintances who meet these requirements. the publications of these associations carry classified advertisements from employers interested in recruiting their members. location of job. Recruitment advertisements can also serve as corporate advertisements to build company’ image. the recruiters can zero on in specific job seekers. job specifications. Also. They have outnumbered the internal methods. These are particularly useful for attracting highly educated. Want ads describe the job benefits. Newspaper is the most common medium but for highly specialized recruits.  Advertisements :It is a popular method of seeking recruits. The various external sources include :  Professional or Trade Associations :Many associations provide placement service to its members. It also cost effective. growth aspects. The advertisement has to sell the idea that the company and job are perfect for the candidate. 1959. compensation including fringe benefits.

Talk-ins involves the job aspirants meeting the recruiter (on an appropriated date) for detailed talks. it is a major source of recruitment for prestigious companies. From employees’ viewpoint. in which job seekers submit unsolicited application letters or resumes. No application is required to be submitted to the recruiter. Campus recruitment is so much sought after that each college. HCL-HP. Write-ins and Talk-insThe most common and least expensive approach for candidates is direct applications. university department or institute will have a placement officer to handle recruitment functions.  Campus Recruitments:Colleges. Some companies recruit a given number of candidates from these institutes every year. Direct applications can also provide a pool of potential employees to meet future needs. The major functions of the exchanges are to increase the pool of possible applicants and to do the preliminary screening. These offices are particularly useful to in recruiting blue-collar. universities. The Act requires all the industrial establishments to notify the vacancies before they are filled. even if recruiting process produces job offers and acceptances eventually. employment exchanges act as a link between the employers and the prospective employees. some organizations compile pools of potential employees from direct applications for skilled positions. Campus Recruitment is going global with companies like HLL. ANZ Grindlays. However. Yet. white collar and technical workers. L&T. A majority leave the organization within the first five years of their employment. sports fields and institutes are fertile ground for recruiters. particularly the institutes. it is often an expensive process. These jobseekers are asked to complete application forms for further processing. Write-ins are those who send written enquiries.each. While direct applications are particularly effective in filling entry-level and unskilled vacancies.  Walk-ins. research laboratories. Thus. Citibank.  Contractors:- 47 . Motorola and Reliance looking for global markets. walk-ins are preferable as they are free from the hassles associated with other methods of recruitment.

This is a useful source when both the companies involved are in the same field.  Consultants:They are in the profession for recruiting and selecting managerial and executive personnel. offering them better terms and luring them away. The names of the workers are not entered in the company records and. Television and Internet:Radio and television are used to reach certain types of job applicants such as skilled workers. aspirants can submit their resumes and applications. They are useful as they have nationwide contacts and lend professionalism to the hiring process. However.  Head Hunters:They are useful in specialized and skilled candidate working in a particular company. Radio and television are used but sparingly. there is nothing inherently desperate about using radio and television. For instance. They also keep prospective employer and employee anonymous. There are specialized sites like naukri. Also. by government departments only. websites of companies have a separate section wherein.They are used to recruit casual workers. Companies in the private sector are hesitant to use the media because of high costs and also because they fear that such advertising will make the companies look desperate and damage their conservative image. This provides a wider reach. There are legal and ethical issues involved in raiding rival firms for potential 48 . that his company is testing his loyalty.  Radio. and the employee is reluctant to take the offer since he fears. An agent is sent to represent the recruiting company and offer is made to the candidate. difficulties experienced in maintaining permanent workers are avoided. the cost can be a deterrent factor. several executives of HMT left to join Titan Watch Company. Internet is becoming a popular option for recruitment today. to this extent. However. It depends upon what is said and how it is delivered.  Competitors:This method is popularly known as “poaching” or “raiding” which involves identifying the right people in rival companies. and that too.com.

in effect. they have a pool of employees. As a result.  Mergers and Acquisitions:When organizations combine. Evaluation of External Recruitment: External sources of recruitment have both merits and demerits. a pool of qualified job applicants. new jobs may be created. As a result. new talents and new experiences. Violating this requirement shall bind the employee to pay a few months’ salary to his/ her present employer as a punishment. out of whom some may not be necessary any longer.  Scope for resentment. This method facilitates the immediate implementation of an organization’s strategic plan.  The management will be able to fulfill reservation requirements in favour of the disadvantaged sections of the society. the need to displace employees and to integrate a large number of them rather quickly into a new organization means that the personnel-planning and selection process becomes critical more than ever. an employee is expected to join a new organization only after obtaining a ‘no objection certificate’ from his/ her present employer. The demerits are- 49 . From the legal point of view. Both new and old jobs may be readily staffed by drawing the best-qualified applicants from this employee pool. The merits are The organization will have the benefit of new skills. However. It enables an organization to pursue a business plan. However. there are many ethical issues attached to it. the new organization has.candidates. if people are hired from external sources. heartburn and jealousy can be avoided by recruiting from outside.

setting it too low risks a flood of applications from those unqualified for the job. Be careful with general titles such as typist or sales clerk. Make it Worth their While: Likewise. State and local chambers of commerce. you must first determine what you want them to do.  External recruitment is costly. employment bureaus and professional associations can help you determine appropriate wages and benefits. Carefully consider all direct and associated responsibilities and incorporate them into a written job description. Be reasonable about your expectations. chances of right candidates being rejected and wrong applicants being selected occur. even if it is an entry-level position.  If recruitment and selection processes are not properly carried out. Better motivation and increased morale associated with promoting own employees re lost to the organization. Setting the bar too high may limit your available talent pool. 98% of organizational success depends upon efficient employee selection 60-Second Guide to Hiring the Right People Define the Duties: To find promising employees.  High training time is associated with external recruitment. Scanning descriptions of comparable jobs in the classified ads and other employment publications will also provide clues about prevailing wage rates. as they have different meanings to different people. you don’t want to be overly generous or restrictive about compensation. and What it Takes to do Them : Fulfilling these responsibilities will require some level of skill and experience. 50 .

neighbors. Professional background checks are a wise investment for highly sensitive positions. Talk it Over: Because you have clearly defined the role and requirements. Follow-up on Interviews: You want to believe your candidates are being honest. Contact references to make sure you’re getting the facts or to clear up any uncertainties. on-line job banks and employment agencies (though these may require a fee). For jobs requiring more specialized skills. or those that involve handling substantial amounts of money and valuables. prepare your questions and give the candidate your undivided attention. jot down any impressions or key points while they’re still fresh in your mind. You’ve Found Them. After the interview. suppliers customers and present employees. consider targeted channels such as trade magazines. Now Keep Them: 51 . but never assume. This will be a valuable reference when it’s time to make a decision. Make sure you schedule them when you have ample time to review the resume. And don’t overlook sources such as friends.Spread the Word: How you advertise your job opening depends on who you want to attract. you should have little difficulty identifying candidates for interviews. Some positions are as easy to promote as posting a “help wanted” sign in your store window or placing an ad in your local newspaper.

52 . Selection is basically picking an applicant from (a pool of applicants) who has the appropriate qualification and competency to do the job. The small business experts at SCORE can help you craft human resource policies and incentive plans that will ensure your company remains the small business employer of choice. SELECTION Selection is defined as the process of differentiating between applicants in order to identify (and hire) those with a greater likelihood of success in a job.Now that you’ve hired ideal employees. An Selection is selecting the right candidate from the pool of applicants. make sure they stay with you by providing training and professional development opportunities. The difference between recruitment and selection: Recruitment is identifying n encouraging prospective employees to apply for a job.

commencing from the preliminary interview of the applicants and ending with the contract of employment. The following chart gives an idea about selection process: - External Environment Internal Environment d Application Preliminary Interview Selection Tests Employment Interview Reference and Background Rejecte Analysis Selection Decision Physical Examination Job Offer 53 Employment Contract Evaluation .SELECTION PROCESS Selection is along process.

company’s image. labour.Environment factor affecting selection : Selection is influenced by several factors. unemployment rate. preliminary interview. is a good public relation exercise. STEP 1 : PRELIMINARY INTERVIEW The applicants received from job seekers would be subject to scrutiny so as to eliminate unqualified applicants. which did not appear in the application forms. This is usually followed by a preliminary interview the purpose of which is more or less the same as scrutiny of application. helps reject misfits for reason. company’s policy. human resources planning and cost of hiring. often called ‘courtesy interview’. on the other hand.market conditions. STEP 2 : SELECTION TEST: Job seekers who pass the screening and the preliminary interview are called for tests. tests are used to determine the applicant’s ability. Different types of tests may be administered. Generally. eliminate of unqualified applicants. Besides. legal and political considerations. 54 . Scrutiny enables the HR specialists to eliminate unqualified jobseekers based on the information supplied in their application forms. The last three constitute the internal environment and the remaining form the external environment of selection process. Preliminary interview. More prominent among them are supply and demand of specific skills in the labour market. aptitude and personality. that is. depending on the job and the company.

Also called as ‘ACHEIVEMENT TESTS’. 55 . an achievement test is taken to measure how well they know it. An excellent illustration of this is the typing tests given to a prospective employer for secretarial job. electricians and machinists. of course. such as typing or dictation tests for an applicant for a stenographic position. numerical aptitude. finger dexterity and manual dexterity. It is concerned with what one has accomplished. which many business students take prior to gaining admission to a graduate business school programme. The use of aptitude test is advisable when an applicant has had little or no experience along the line of the job opening. many unstandardised achievement tests given in industries. Questions have been prepared and tested for such trades as asbestos worker. Aptitude test indicates the ability or fitness of an individual to engage successfully in any number of specialized activities. Trade tests are the most common type of achievement test given. These tests help to detect positive negative points in a person’s sensory or intellectual ability. 2). motor co-ordination. There are. They cover such areas clerical aptitude. punch-press operators. Aptitudes tests help determine a person’s potential to learn in a given area. Aptitude test : Aptitude tests measure whether an individuals has the capacity or latent ability to learn a given job if given adequate training. mechanical aptitude. When applicant claims to know something. An example of such test is the general management aptitude tests (GMAT). They focus attention on a particular type of talent such as learning or reasoning in respect of a particular field of work.The following are the type of tests taken: 1). Ability tests : Assist in determining how well an individual can perform tasks related to the job.

Such tests are conducted in respect of semi. etc. maintenance workers. The intelligence is probably the most widely administered standardized test in industry. etc. such tests indicate which occupations are more in line with a person’s interest. skills. memory and such other abilities. presence of mind (alertness). 3). Mental ability. testing and inspection. Intelligence test : This test helps to evaluate traits of intelligence. 4). 3. etc. They are useful in selection of mechanics. It is taken to judge numerical. memory and such other aspects can be measured. Mechanical aptitude tests : They measure the ability of a person to learn a particular type of mechanical work. Psychomotor or skills tests : They are those. Interest Test : This is conducted to find out likes and dislikes of candidates towards occupations.Forms of aptitude test: 1.skilled and repetitive jobs such as packing. which measure a person’s ability to do a specific job. 2. reasoning. These tests helps to measure specialized technical knowledge and problem solving abilities if the candidate. numerical ability. Such tests also enable the company to provide 56 . hobbies. Mental or intelligence tests : They measure the overall intellectual ability of a person and enable to know whether the person has the mental ability to deal with certain problems.

public relation staff. and opinions about the picture. where personality plays an important role. this test is very much essential on case of selection of sales force. Projective Test : This test requires interpretation of problems or situations. General knowledge Test : Now days G. 6). 9). social or interpersonal skills. attitudes. and mental sharpness. etc. world affairs. 8). Personality Test : The importance of personality to job success is undeniable. Tests are very common to find general awareness of the candidates in the field of sports. etc. Often an individual who possesses the intelligence. involve a serious problem of obtaining an honest answer. behavior under stress and strain. Personality tests are similar to interest tests in that they. It is conducted to judge maturity.etc. These tests are particularly useful for students considering many careers or employees deciding upon career changes. Perception Test : At times perception tests can be conducted to find out beliefs. Graphology Test : 57 . a photograph or a picture can be shown to the candidates and they are asked to give their views. These tests are used to measure an individual’s activity preferences. aptitude and experience for certain has failed because of inability to get along with and motivate other people.K.vocational guidance to the selected candidates and even to the existing employees. For example. current affairs. also. 5). 7). politics.

It is designed to analyze the handwriting of individual. It has been said that an individual’s handwriting can suggest the degree of energy. those highly vulnerable to theft or swindling may find polygraph tests useful. moderate pressure and good legibility show leadership potential. 10). big letters and emphasis on capital letters indicate a tendency towards domination and competitiveness. inhibition and spontaneity. For example. as well as disclose the idiosyncrasies and elements of balance and control. resilience upon exposure to hazardous CHOOSING TESTS: 58 . Department store. Medical Test: It reveals physical fitness of a candidate. 11). Medical servicing helps measure and monitor a candidate’s physical chemicals. Polygraph Test : Polygraph is a lie detector. A slant to the right. treasury offices and jewellery shops. that is. banks. which is designed to ensure accuracy of the information given in the applications. medical tests have become diversified. With the development of technology.

objectivity and standardization. A test that has been validated can be helpful in differentiating between prospective employees who will be able to perform the job well and those who will not. Tests. no test will be 100% accurate in predicting job success. 59 . 2. 2). Naturally. Concurrent Validity : . A person who takes tests one day and makes a certain score should be able to take the same test the next day or the next week and make more or less the same score. a person who scores 110 in March would score close to 110 if tested in July. A validated test increases possibility of success.The test must be chosen in the criteria of reliability.this involves determining the factors that are characteristics of successful employees and then using these factors as the yardsticks. They are as follows: 1).it involves using a selection test during the selection process and then identifying the successful candidates. validity. The characteristics of both successful and less successful candidates are then identified. VALIDITY : It is a test. which helps predict whether a person will be successful in a given job. Predictive Validity : . serve little purpose in selection. RELIABILITY : It refers to standardization of the procedure of administering and scoring the test results. There are three ways of validating a test. for example. is generally a stable characteristic. They are: - 1. which produce wide variations in results. So if we administer an intelligence test. An individual’s intelligence.

it involves taking parts of several similar jobs rather than one complete job to validate the selection test. Interview is formal. OBJECTIVITY: When two or more people can interpret the result of the same test and derive the same conclusion(s). STANDARDRIZATION: A test that is standardized is administered under standard condition to a large group of person who are representatives of the individuals for whom it is intended. Basically. in-depth conversation conducted to evaluate the applicant’s acceptability. ideas and opinion between the candidates and interviewers.3). the test evaluators’ subjective opinions may render the test useless. Otherwise. Synthetic Validity : . Interview can be adapted to unskilled. 60 . The purpose of standardization is to obtain norms or standard. managerial and profession employees. 4. It is face-to-face exchange of view. skilled. interview is nothing but an oral examination of candidates. so that a specific test score can be meaningful when compared to other score in the group. the test is said to be objective. STEP 3 : INTERVIEW: The next step in the selection process is an interview. 3. It is considered to be excellent selection device.

Objectives of interview : Interview has at least three objectives and they are a follows: 1) Helps obtain additional information from the applicants 2) Facilitates giving general information to the applicants such as company policies. 61 . Types of interview: Interviews can be of different types. either in their respective offices or anywhere outside the plant of company. There interviews employed by the companies. 2) Formal Interview : Formal interviews may be held in the employment office by he employment office in a more formal atmosphere. This is used widely when the labour market is tight and when you need workers badly. names of relatives etc. Following are the various types of interview: 1) Informal Interview : An informal interview is an oral interview and may take place anywhere. products manufactured and the like 3) Helps build the company’s image among the applicants. with the help of well structured questions. The employee or the manager or the personnel manager may ask a few almost inconsequential questions like name. place of birth. job. It id not planned and nobody prepares for it. the time and place of the interview will be stipulated by the employment office.

This type of interview is borrowed from the Military organisation and this is very useful to test behaviour of individuals when they are faced with disagreeable and trying situations. But the interviewer must be of higher caliber and must guide and relate the information given by the applicant to the objective of the interview. on the contrary he may substantiate why he is qualified to handle the job.g. it is possible to get a good picture of the candidate. He encourages the candidate to talk by a little prodding whenever he is silent e.3) Non-directive Interview : Non-directive interview or unstructured interview is designed to let the interviewee speak his mind freely. 5) Stress Interview : It is designed to test the candidate and his conduct and behavior by him under conditions of stress and strain. please tell us about yourself after your graduated from high school”. The interviewer may start with “Mr. These probing questions must be asked with tact and through exhaustive analysis.’ and watch the reaction of the candidates. Joseph. The idea is o give the candidate complete freedom to “sell” himself. we do not think your qualifications and experience are adequate for this position. The interviewer has no formal or directive questions. a series of questions may be asked to test the depth of understanding and interest of the candidate. 62 . 4) Depth Interview : It is designed to intensely examine the candidate’s background and thinking and to go into considerable detail on particular subjects of an important nature and of special interest to the candidates. Ray. but his all attention is to the candidate. without the encumbrances of the interviewer’s question. For example. A good candidates will not yield. “Mr. if the candidate says that he is interested in tennis.

8) Sequential Interview : The sequential interview takes the one-to-one a step further and involves a series of interview. usually utilizing the strength and knowledgebase of each interviewer. 63 . as the candidate moves from room to room.6) Group Interview : It is designed to save busy executive’s time and to see how the candidates may be brought together in the employment office and they may be interviewed. usually in the case of supervisory and managerial positions. This type of interview pools the collective judgment and wisdom of the panel in the assessment of the candidate and also in questioning the faculties of the candidate. so that each interviewer can ask questions in relation to his or her subject area of each candidate. 7) Panel Interview : A panel or interviewing board or selection committee may interview the candidate.

12) Impromptu Interviews: This interview commonly occurs when employers are approached directly and tends to be very informal and unstructured. Unguided interview is advantageous in as much as it leads to a friendly conversation between the interviewer and the interviewee and in the process. It is useful when the interviewer tries to probe personal details of the candidate it analyse why they are not right for the job. 11) Mixed Interview: In practice. 10) Unstructured Interview: It is also known as ‘Unpatterned’ interview. the interviewer uses preset standardized questions. especially when dealing with the large number of applicants. the interviewer while interviewing the job seekers uses a blend of structured and structured and unstructured questions. It is useful for valid results. the interview is largely unplanned and the interviewee does most of the talking. Applicants should be prepared at all times for on-the-spot interviews. especially in situations such as a job fair or a cold call.9) Structures Interview : In a structured interview. It is an ideal time for employers to ask the 64 . But the Unpatterned interview lacks uniformity and worse. This interview is also called as ‘Guided’ or ‘Patterned’ interview. which are put to all the interviewees. the later reveals more of his or her desire and problems. The structured questions provide a base of interview more conventional and permit greater insights into the unique differences between applicants. This approach is called the Mixed Interview. this approach may overlook key areas of the applicant’s skills or background.

talk. the interviewer is likely just taking some notes. If there are pauses. such as in a restaurant. 65 .). do not worry. 13) Dinner Interviews: These interviews may be structured. If you are on your home telephone. Decide what to eat quickly. Be prepared to switch gears rapidly. Avoid potentially messy foods.candidate some basic questions to determine whether he/she may be interested in formally interviewing the candidate. some employers place a great value on it. do not underestimate the value of casual discussion. Speak a bit slower than usual. from fun talk to business 14) Telephone Interviews : Have a copy of your resume and any points you want to remember to say nearby. Be prepared for the conversation to abruptly change from friendly chat to direct interview questions. however. Middle or senior management generally conducts the second interview. 15) Second Interviews: Job seekers are invited back after they have passed the first initial interview. make sure that all roommates or family members are aware of the interview (no loud stereos. such as spaghetti. barking dogs etc. since the interviewer cannot see your face. informal. some interviewers will ask you to order first (do not appear indecisive). or socially situated. It is crucial that you convey your enthusiasm verbally.

references are not usually checked until an applicant has successfully reached the fourth stage of a sequential selection process. university professors. But. known as public figures. It may be stated that the information gathered through references hardly influence selection decisions.together or separately. and telephone references for the purpose of verifying information and interview to their advantage. organisations sometimes hire applicants before checking references. gaining additional background information on an applicant. The telephone reference also has the advantage of soliciting immediate. Organisations normally seek letters of reference or telephone references. Previous employers are preferable because they are already aware of the applicant’s performance. The latter is advantageous because of its accuracy and low cost. and the employer will be expecting a greater level of preparation on the part of the candidates. neighbours or friends can act as references. Applicants should continue to research the employer following the first interview. The reasons are obvious: 1. Previous employers. Although listed on the application form. relatively candid comments and attitude can sometimes be inferred from hesitations and inflections in speech. and be prepared to use any information gained through the previous STEP 4 : REFERENCE CHECK:Many numbers of employers request names. When the labour market is very tight. perhaps. the problem with this reference is the tendency on the part of the previous employers to over-rate the applicant’s performance just to get rid of the person. The candidate approaches only those persons who would speak well about him or her. 66 . addresses. Applicants can expect more in-depth questions.

interviews and reference checks. the test assists in determining whether an applicant is physically fit to perform the work. STEP 6 : PHYSICAL EXAMINATION : After the selection decision and before the job offer is made. 3. lest it might damage or ruin his/her career. The final decision has to be made the pool of individuals who pas the tests. A job offer is.2. often. The results of the medical fitness test are recorded in a statement and are preserved in the personnel records. selection decision. The other stages in the selection process have been used to narrow the number of the candidates. The HR manager plays a crucial role in the final selection. People may not like to divulge the truth about a candidate. Thirdly. The view of the line manager will be generally considered in the final selection because it is he/she who is responsible for the performance of the new employee. contingent upon the candidate being declared fit after the physical examination. STEP 5 : SELECTION DECISION:After obtaining information through the preceding steps. the candidate is required to undergo a physical fitness test.the most critical of all the steps. one reason for a physical test is to detect if the individual carries any infectious disease. Obviously.must be made. People may write favorably about the candidate in order to get rid of him or her. There are several objectives behind a physical test. Secondly. the physical examination information can be used to determine if there are certain 67 .

if any. Fourth. If the new employee’s first job upon joining the company is to go on company until perhaps a week before such training begins. in which case the appointee is required to obtain a relieving certificate from the previous employer. Finally. a new job may require movement to another city. It needs no emphasis that the applications of selected candidates must also be preserved for the future references. this practice cannot be abused. which means considerable preparation. Job offer is made through a letter of appointed. The company may also want the individual to delay the date of reporting on duty. Such a letter generally contains a date by which the appointee must report on duty. Decency demands that the rejected applicants be informed about their non-selection. Again. The appointee must be given reasonable time for reporting. Their applicants may be preserved for future use. such an examination will protect the employer from workers compensation claims that are not valid because the injuries or illness were present when the employee was hired. medical check-up protects applicants with health defects from undertaking work that could be detrimental to them or might otherwise endanger the employer’s property. especially if the individual is unemployed and does not have sufficient finances. STEP 8 : CONTRACT OF EMPLOYMENT : 68 . Naturally. Thos is particularly necessary when he or she is already in employment. and movement of property. STEP 7 : JOB OFFER : The next step in the selection process is job offer to those applicants who have crossed all the previous hurdles.physical capabilities. which differentiate successful and less successful employees.

Dates when holidays can be taken.After the job offer has bee mad and candidates accept the offer. Date when continuous employment starts and the basis for calculating service.) ix. allowance. Qualifying period. Details of holiday year.) ii. This form contains vital details about the candidate. Public holidays. overtime and shift rates. The basic information that should be included in a written contract of employment will vary according to the level of the job. 6.) iii. There is also a need for preparing a contract of employment. Hours of work including lunch break and overtime and shift arrangements. 5. 69 . Holiday arrangements: i. method of payments. Attestation form will be a valid record for the future reference. but the following checklist sets out the typical headings: 1. Maximum holiday that can be take at any one time. Job title 2. One such document is the attestation form. Rate of pay. Length of notice due to and from employee. 3. as the company may from time to time direct”. Carry over of holiday entitlement. 7.) vii.) vi. Duties. Calculation of holiday pay. 4.) iv. including a parse such as “The employee will perform such duties and will be responsible to such a person.) v.) Paid holidays per year. which are authenticated and attested by him/her. Accrual of holidays and holiday pay.) viii. certain documents need to be executed by the employer and the candidate.

Work rules (or any reference to them). The drawback with the contracts is that it is almost to enforce them. 9. services of law firms (prominent firms in this category include Mulla. A determined employee is bound to leave the organisation. Disciplinary procedure (or any reference to it).) are engag4d to get the forms drafted and finalized. STEP 9 : 70 . Special terms relating to rights to patent s and designs. 13. contract or no contract. Blunt and Caroe. advertising and media are more prone to use contracts. But high turnover sectors such as software. 10. Crawford Bailey. Arrangements for union membership (if applicable). 12. Such contracts seek to restrain job-hoppers. 14. to protect knowledge and information that might be vital to a company’s healthy bottom line and to prevent competitors from poaching highly valued employees. Arrangements for terminating employment. etc. Great care is taken to draft the contract forms. contracts of employment serve many useful purposes. The employee is prepared to pay the penalty for breaching the agreement or the new employer will provide compensations. Craigie. Employer’s right to vary terms of the contract subject to proper notification being given. Alternatively called employment agreements or simply bonds. Grievances procedure (or reference to it). It is the reason that several companies have scrapped the contracts altogether. confidential information and restraints on trade after termination of employment. Amarchand Mangaldas Hiralal. 11. Most employers insist on agreements being signed by newly hired employees. Often.8.

but the key jobs remain with staff from the parent country. Ethnocentric Selection : In this approach. STEP 10 : EVALUATION OF SELECTION PROGRAMME : The broad test of the effectiveness of the selection process is the quality of the personnel hired. and the employees from the headquarters at home and abroad fill key jobs. The selection process. Subsidiaries have limited autonomy.CONCLUDING THE SELECTION PROCESS : Contrary to popular perception. but because their profile did not match the requirement of the organisation. the selection process will not end with executing the employment contract. will ensure availability of such employees. They must be told that those who were selected were done purely on relative merit. Nationals from the parent country dominate the organisations at home and abroad. There is another step – amore sensitive one reassuring those candidates who have not selected. staffing decisions are made at the organization’s headquarters. if properly done. How to evaluate the effectiveness of a selection programme? A periodic audit is the answer. which is largely practiced in our country 71 . An organisation must have competent and committed personnel. People who work independent of HR department must conduct audit. each subsidiary is treated as a distinct national entity with local control key financial targets and investment decisions. This is the approach. Four Approaches to Selection: 1). 2). Polycentric Selection : In polycentric selection. Local citizens manage subsidiaries. not because of any serious deficiencies in their personality. The table below contains an outline that highlights the areas and questions to be covered in a systematic evaluation.

Needless to say. such organisations are Perception: Our inability to understand others accurately is probably the most fundamental barrier to selecting the right candidate. 4). are perception. in composition. 72 . Regional managers have greater discretion in decision. which check effectiveness of selection. The broad and other parts of the top management structure are thoroughly international uncommon. not nationality. business strategy is integrated thoroughly on global basis. Geocentric Staffing : In this case. PROBLEMS IN EFFECTIVE SELECTION : The main objective of selection is to hire people having competence and commitment. validity.3). Staff development and promotion are based on ability. reliability and pressure. This objective s often defeated because of certain barriers. reflecting the particular disposition of business and operations within the group. The impediments. fairness. Regiocentric Selection : Here. Movement of staff is largely restricted to specific geographical regions and promotions to the jobs continue to be dominated by managers from the parents company. control within the group and the movements of staff are managed on a regional basis.

Reliability: A reliable method is one. Fairness: Fairness in selection requires that no individual should be discriminated against on the basis of religion. a reliable test may fail to predict job performance with precision. We all perceive the world differently. which will produce consistent results when repeated in similar situations. as explained earlier. However. with the aim of choosing the right persons for the jobs. is a test that helps predict job performance of an incumbent. region.Selection demands an individual or a group of people to assess and compare the respective competencies of others. race or gender. Validity: Validity. Our limited perceptual ability is obviously a stumbling block to the objective and rational selection of the people. Like validated test. a validated test does not predict job success accurately. Pressure: - 73 . A test that has been validated can differentiate between the employees who perform well and those who will not. But our views are highly personalized. But the low numbers of women and other less privileged sections of the society in middle and senior management positions and open discrimination on the basis of age in job advertisements and in the selection process would suggest that all the efforts to minimize inequity have not been effective. It can only increase possibility of success.

Difference (Recruitment and Selection) 1. 3. selection is a process of choosing most suitable candidates out of those.) Recruitment is prior to selection. friends and peers to select particular candidates. In the selection process.) In the recruitment process. Candidates selected because of compulsions are obviously not the right ones.) Recruitment is the positive function in which interested candidates are encouraged to submit application. interview and medical examination are conducted in order to select most suitable candidates. bureaucrats. It creates proper base for actual selection. 5. It is out of candidates’ available/interested. 2. available applications are scrutinized. In selection process the purpose is that the best candidate out of those qualified and interested in the appointment. 4.Pressure is brought on the selectors by politicians. Tests. Appointments to public sectors undertakings generally take place under such pressures. publicity is given to them and applications are collected from interested candidates.) In recruitment the purpose is to attract maximum numbers of suitable and interested candidates through applications. vacancies available are finalized. who are interested and also qualified for job. Selection is next to recruitment. 74 . relatives.) Recruitment is the process of searching for prospective candidates and motivating them to apply for job in the organisation Whereas.

In recruitment publicity is given to vacancies and applications are collected from different sources Selection is a lengthy process. Selection is a costly activity. it is a major source of recruitment for prestigious companies. services of expert is required 8. arranging interviews and medical examination.  CAMPUS: Campus recruitment is so much sought after that each college. 6. RECs etc. it is often an expensive process. giving tests. even if recruiting process produces job offers and acceptances eventually. However. Expenditure is required mainly for advertising the posts. and at premier management institutes such as the IIMs. university department or institute will have a placement officer to handle recruitment functions. Infosys is the company of choice for campus recruitment programs in most major engineering institutes such as IITs. A majority leave the organization within the first five years of their employment.) In recruitment services of expert is not required Whereas in selection.) Recruitment is not costly.) Recruitment is the short process. Yet. It involves scrutiny of applications. 7. as expenditure is needed for testing candidates and conduct of interviews. 75 .Selection is a negative function in which unsuitable candidates are eliminated and the best one is selected.

The process remains the same. Management Institutes: Campus hiring at management institutes typically starts in December and continues through March. to bring on board the next generation of bright. here only the scale and basis on which they are evaluated changes. Shortlisted candidates are usually invited for an interview as part of the selection process.  OFF CAMPUS: It is the event for those candidates who do not get selected during campus recruitment.  JOB FAIRS: What is job fair? 76 . We encourage current students at the campuses we visit to use this opportunity to interact with the Infosys recruitment teams during the hiring process to understand the company and our people philosophy.Engineering Institutes: Campus hiring at engineering institutes typically starts in May and continues through September. and MCA students at the campuses. These candidates also go through the same two rounds. We hire management graduates from all disciplines. with or without prior work experience in software or other fields. All applications are pre-screened based on academic credentials. We hire engineering graduates and post-graduates from all disciplines. young and talented leaders for the company. it just aims at giving those candidates a chance that were not able to go through the process before. Senior managers and officers from Infosys actively participate in this hiring.

 Once the test is over. PROCESS FOLLOWED BY PEPSICO:  Initially they advertise about the job fair in the local newspapers of all the states specifying the venue and date of the job fair.  The candidates who are selected in the interview are informed then and there by displaying the list and are given the offer. Once the number of registrations is equal to the total capacity of all the counters. Infosys banners are put up at the venue. after going through certain recruitment process followed by them. Initially these counters are used for registrations. 77 . At the same time the previous papers are evaluated and the candidates are selected for interview based on the cut-off marks. They have around 3 to 4 counters.  On the specified date.  Next a logic test of 45 minutes is conducted and an English test of 15 minutes is conducted where in one is suppose to write an essay.Job fair is where several companies come under one roof for seeking eligible candidates who can join their company. vocabulary and sentence framing ability. registrations for the next group start. the registrations are stopped and the registered candidates fill the application forms at the counter. to check their handwriting.

 The process is repeated for the next set of candidates.  ADVERTISEMENTS:It is a popular method of seeking recruits. Pepsico advertises in: NEWS PAPERS:  Times of India  The economic times  Indian express  Hindustan times  The financial express  Employment papers MAGAZINES:  Business world  Business Today  India Today  capital market  Business journals  magazines WEB: 78 .  Job fair takes place for 3 to 4 days. as many recruiters prefer advertisements because of their wide reach.

 www. 79 . working conditions. They are useful as they have nationwide contacts and lend professionalism to the hiring process. The advertisement sells the idea that the company and job are perfect for the candidate.indiatimesjob. job specifications.com Advertisements contain proper information like the job content.com  www.monster. They also keep prospective employer and employee anonymous. in which job seekers submit unsolicited application letters or resumes. etc. These jobseekers are asked to complete application forms for further processing.naukri.  CONSULTANTS: Infosys also seeks the help of consultants who are in the profession for recruiting and selecting managerial and executive personnel. location of job. WRITE-INS AND TALK-INS: Walk-ins are the most common and least expensive approach for candidates is direct applications. growth aspects. compensation including fringe benefits. Talk-ins involves the job aspirants meeting the recruiter (on an appropriated date) for detailed talks. Direct applications provide a pool of potential employees to meet future needs.com  www. No application is required to be submitted to the recruiter.  WALK-INS. Write-ins are those who send written enquiries.

2. A preliminary interview is conducted so as to select the suitable candidate who can go through further stages of interviews.related training. Initial screening of interviews: Initial Screening is done on the basis of applicants and applications. INDUSTRIES: Infosys also hires experienced professionals from the industry at various mid-level and senior positions. address. THE SELECTION PROCESS OF PEPSICO: Steps: 1. And for higher posts applications and applicants both play a major role in the screening process. work-experience 80 . Normally for the posts of engineers degree cutoff is decided like say 60% on an average. Completion of application forms: Application form establishes the candidate’s general details like name. job. telephone number. If the candidates do not meet the requirement they are rejected. education.

These tests helps to measure specialized technical knowledge and problem solving abilities if the candidate. company names. 3. It then decides what areas of information it needs to explore or investigate more specifically during the interview. Company sees to it that no judgment is passed about the candidate based only at this level. Application forms are such framed that. engineers. What drawn here is hypotheses and not conclusions. hobbies and recreational pursuits. Mechanical aptitude tests : They measure the ability of a person to learn a particular type of mechanical work. Employment tests:   logical test English test  Vocabulary  Reasoning  Essay writing VARIOUS TESTS: Mental or intelligence tests : They measure the overall intellectual ability of a person and enable to know whether the person has the mental ability to deal with certain problems.with dates. they provide the necessary details to the organisation without affecting the sentiments and feelings of the candidate. They are useful in selection of mechanics. The company establishes as many hypotheses about the candidate from the details provided in the application form. 81 . and job details. professional or industrial involvement. etc.

etc. 4. Interview: Formal Interview : Interviews are held in the employment office in a more formal atmosphere. Graphology Test : It is designed to analyse the handwriting of individual. Medical Test: It reveals physical fitness of a candidate. memory and such other abilities. precision and exactitude. public relation staff. presence of mind (alertness). social or interpersonal skills. etc. big letters and emphasis on capital letters indicate a tendency towards domination and competitiveness. With the help of 82 . with the help of well structured questions. moderate pressure and good legibility show leadership potential. inhibition and spontaneity. this test is very much essential on case of selection of sales force. but it is more carefully preplanned to a high degree of accuracy. Patterned Interview : A patterned interview is also a planned interview. as well as disclose the idiosyncrasies and elements of balance and control.Intelligence test : This test helps to evaluate traits of intelligence. behavior under stress and strain. For example. where personality plays an important role. Personality Test : It is conducted to judge maturity. Mental ability. It has been said that an individual’s handwriting can suggest the degree of energy. skills. memory and such other aspects can be measured. numerical ability. reasoning. Medical servicing helps measure and monitor a candidate’s physical resilience upon exposure business hazards. It is taken to judge numerical. A slant to the right.

a list of questions and areas are carefully prepared which will act as the interviewer’s guide. “Mr. without the encumbrances of the interviewer’s question. if the candidate says that he is interested in tennis. For example. A good candidates will not yield. Stress Interview : It is designed to test the candidate and his conduct and behavior by him under conditions of stress and strain. we do not think your qualifications and experience are adequate for this position. Joseph. The interviewer may start with “Mr. Non-directive Interview : Here the interviewee is allowed to speak his mind freely. on the contrary he may substantiate why he is qualified to handle the job.g. but his all attention is to the candidate. please tell us about yourself after you’re graduated from high school”. He encourages the candidate to talk by a little prodding whenever he is silent e. The interviewer has no formal or directive questions. 83 . The idea is to give the candidate complete freedom to “sell” himself.’ and watch the reaction of the candidates. Depth Interview : It is designed to intensely examine the candidate’s background and thinking and to go into considerable detail on particular subjects of an important nature and of special interest to the candidates. a series of questions may be asked to test the depth of understanding and interest of the candidate.job and man specifications. Ray.

What Pepsico practice is that if interview is planned at 5pm. Panel Interview : A panel or interviewing board or selection committee interviews the candidate. addresses. Background Information: PEPSICO requests names. References are not usually checked until an applicant has successfully reached the fourth stage of a sequential selection process. Middle or senior management generally conducts the second interview. 5. gaining additional background information on an applicant. usually in the case of supervisory and managerial positions. This approach is called the Mixed interview. More in-depth questions are asked to the candidate and the employer expects a greater level of preparation on the part of the candidates. The structured questions provide a base of interview more conventional and permit greater insights into the unique differences between applicants. the interviewer while interviewing the job seekers uses a blend of structured and structured and unstructured questions. together or separately. Mixed Interview : In practice.30pm and watch the candidate’s behavior and stress level. 84 . Previous employers are preferable because they are already aware of the applicant’s performance. Second Interviews: Job seekers are invited back after they have passed the first initial interview. and telephone numbers of references for the purpose of verifying information and perhaps. it will start candidate’s interview at 6.

There are several objectives behind a physical test: 1. After all these processes follow up is done i.. Fourth. 6. which differentiate successful and less successful employees. often. In one batch there are 60 employees who are sent to Bangalore for training. A job offer is. Thirdly.e. the candidate is required to undergo a physical fitness test. Secondly. Finally. The latter is advantageous because of its accuracy and low cost. The results of the medical fitness test are recorded in a statement and are preserved in the personnel records. One reason for a physical test is to detect if the individual carries any infectious disease.It normally seeks letters of reference or telephone references. Final Employment decision: It is a final step. 7. Physical Examination: After the selection decision and before the job offer is made. 3. 2. 85 . depends upon the candidate being declared fit after the physical examination. In this step company makes a very important decision. the physical examination information can be used to determine if there are certain physical capabilities. medical check-up protects applicants with health defects from undertaking work that could be detrimental to them or might otherwise endanger the employer’s property. Training is provided on regular basis that is monthly. quarterly. These trainers have the experience of about 15-20 yrs. 4. such an examination will protect the employer from workers compensation claims that are not valid because the injuries or illness were present when the employee was hired. the test assists in determining whether an applicant is physically fit to perform the work. the selected person is induced and placed at the right job. 5.

86 .

As such. The essence of recruitment can be summed up as ‘the philosophy of attracting as many applicants as possible for given jobs’. Nor are these activities typecast. By making this a priority. the emphasis is on aligning the organization’s objectives with that of the individual’s. the very element that brings the organization’s vision into fruition. however. the project examines the various processes and nuances one of the most critical activities of an organization. After all. The role of these aspects in the contemporary organization is a subject on which the experts have pondered. a satisfied workforce is a stable workforce which also ensures that an organization has credible and reliable performance. This is where the complementary roles of Recruitment and Selection come in. its needs and constraints. considering the vital role that they obviously play. an organization safeguards its interests and standing. deliberated and studied. Taking a closer perspective -it is the very quality of this asset that sets an organization apart from the others. The reader will do well to note that the transition between the 2 activities is not stringent. Thus. one can grasp the strategic implications that the manpower of an organization has in shaping the fortunes of an organization. the logical step in the HR process is the selection of qualified and competent people. The end result of the recruitment process is essentially a pool of applicants.those individuals whose abilities are consistent with the organization’s requirements. 87 . Ina bid to underscore this subtle point. The 2 activities basically have one aim. this process concentrates on differentiating between applicants in order to identify – and hire. These days. The face value of this definition is what guided recruitment activities in the past.to yield a perfect employee for the organization.Conclusion: The human element of organization is the most crucial asset of an organization. Every organization tailors the processes keeping in mind the nature of the organization. Next to recruitment.

In this project, we examine this angle through the case studies of 2 companies, involved in the same sector but essentially different in their perceptions towards recruitment and selection. And both seem to have benefited from their take on the 2 processes. In the end, this project endeavors to present a comprehensive picture of Recruitment and Selection and hopes to enable the reader to appreciate the various intricacies involved. .


 The current study is based up on the information provided by the company. So the scope of the study fall within limitations of the current period of the company.  The study is mainly concerned with the PepsiCo Jamshedpur unit.

 The scope and period of study is restricted to the following.  The scope is limited to the operations of PEPSICO CO information obtained from Primary and Secondary sources.

 The key performance indications were taken from the period of duration, April 2012.  The study is conducted under particular territories only, so the results cannot be generalize for entire division.

 So the data which I collected is limited to the specified period only.  The sample size of 50 might not represent the perception of whole population


We give the following suggestion that can be use for better management and the profitability of the company.  The Pepsi is not so strong as compare to Coco cola. Its need to be more stronger for better competition.  The company should provide attractive offer to indirect employees.  The employee should be trained and to be effective towards their works.  They should create open communication between management and employee.  Pepsi fridge and racks should be make easily available for the retailers.  More emphasis should be given in retaining and building loyalty among retailers while at the same time new retailers should be encouraged to sell Pepsi.  Another brand of Cola flavor should be introduced and it should have strong taste and more fizz so as to attract the customers who like Thumps up more than Pepsi.  Knowledge management,learning,and training should be in time.  The company should concentrate on the brand awareness of its product.  Must focus on hygienic substances like bottles, cane, packaging etc.  Always should conduct interviews to remove grievance and to motivate employees.  It must content a grip box as suitable place of factory.


Harold C and Kendell. K Ashwathappa.  Management policy should be in favor of employees and easy adaptable.Hill 131-176 2. (1999) Hiring People. Stone.Hill. Tata McGraw. John M.E Effective Personnel Selection Procedures. Tata McGraw. Chris Dukes. recruit outstanding performers 5. 1956 91 . Ivancevich. Incentives should be provide in order to motivate employees. Human Resource Management. (2001) Recruiting the Right Staff 3. 2004 4.  Management should concentrate on better technology for raw syrup. REFERENCES 1. (1997) Human Resource and Personnel Management. Steve Kneeland. W. discover an effective interviewing system.  Proper re-training should be provide in order to get better work efficiency. avoid hiring the wrong person.


2012 WEB: www.com Questionnaire 1.learningmate.com www.soople. MARCH.INDIA TODAY. How involved are the unions in your particular industry? (please circle) Not at all Low level Medium Level High Level 93 . What percentage of your workforce is high skilled? ___________________________________________________________________________________ 4. What type of industry does your organization participate in? ___________________________________________________________________________________ 2.google. What percentage of your workforce is unskilled? __________________________________________________________________________________ 6. What percentage of your workforce is low skilled? ____________________________________________________________________________________ 5. What percentage of your employees are employed: Full time ___________________________________% Part time __________________________________% Casual ____________________________________% Temporary _________________________________% Contract ___________________________________% 7.com www. How many staff do you employ? ___________________________________________________________________________________ 3.

Do you take into account any legislative requirements when recruiting? (please list) ___________________________________________________ 16. what paper do you use? (please circle) Local (i)Metropolitan daily (i)Suburban 94 . Who is responsible for recruitment in the organisation? ___________________________________________________ 12. If you advertise a position in the newspaper. Who is responsible for selection in the organisation? ___________________________________________________ 13. Which of the following sources do you use for recruitment? (please circle) (i)Newspaper Internet (iv)Word of Mouth (vi)Executive Search (viii)Recruitment Agency (ii)Referrals (iii)University Notice Boards (v)Graduate Recruitment Services (vii)Employment Consultant (viiii)Other (please list) 19. ___________________________________________________ 10. Do you have a requisition form for vacant or new positions? Yes Yes Yes No No No 15. Do you use job descriptions and/or duty statements? Yes No 17. Does the recruitment and selection strategy differ for each category? ___________________________________________________ 11. please list. Do you have an Internet site? (please circle) If yes. How often are job descriptions reviewed? (please circle) Not at all Monthly Every 3months Every 6 months Yearly As position becomes vacant 18. How would you rate the turnover of staff in your organisation? (please circle) High Medium Low 9. do you use the Internet site for recruitment? 14.8. Do you have more than one category or type of employee? If yes.

If you require applications and resumes to be sent in. do you acknowledge the application? Yes No 26. Do you use employment consultants? Yes No If yes. How would you class your interview structure? (please circle) Formal & structured Semi-structured Unstructured 29. Do you use interviews as part of your recruitment process? Yes No 27. What type of interview process do you use? (please circle) Panel One on one Stress Group Video conference Telephone interview Computer-assisted interview Other (please list) _________________________________ 28. Do you have an application form? Yes No 21. Do you notify all applicants even if they are unsuccessful? Yes No Yes No Yes No 95 . Does the organisation have a policy regarding internal recruitment versus external recruitment? _______________________________________ 22. In the last five positions that you filled. how often? ________________________________ 24. what percentage was internal to external? Internal _________% External _________% 23. Do you have a specific room to conduct interviews in? 31. Do you use recruitment agencies? Yes No If yes. Do you have an orientation program? 32. What type of interview technique do you use? (please circle) Listening Questioning Note-taking Other (please list) __________________________________ 30. how often? ________________________________ 25.20.

33. Do you have an evaluation process for recruitment & selection? Yes No 96 .

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