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SUBMITTED IN THE PARTIAL FULFILLMENT DEGREE OF MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION (MBA) SESSION (2011-13) AFFILIATED TO MAHAMAYA TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY, NOIDA
DIVYA CHOUDHARY FACULTY OF KITE GROUPE OF INSTITUTE,MEERUT.
SYED IMRAN HASSAN (MBA 2011-13) ROLL NO-1117470087
KISHAN INSTITUTE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY UP.MEERUT
I here by declare that this project report of PEPSICO Pvt ltd, Submitted by me to the department of MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Is a bonafide work under taken by me for the award of M.B.A degree. I have conducted work under the guidance of PROFESSOR VIJETA AND DIVYA CHOUDHARY KITE GROUPEM OF INSTITUTE,MEERUT AND “Mr.S.K BAHL” HR MANAGER OF PEPSICO JAMSHEDPUR,
I also declare that this project report has not been previously formed the basis for the award to the candidate of any degree, or published any time before.
PLACE: MEERUT DATE: 26/07/2012 SYED IMRAN HASSAN (SIGNATURE)
Before I get into the thick of the things I would like to add a few heartfelt words for the people who were part of this project in numerous ways….people who gave unending support right from the stage the project was started, appreciated and encouraged when being depressed. In this context I would like to express my gratitude towards my parents and family members who have constantly supported and played a pivotal role in shaping my career. I take this opportunity to express my gratitude to Mr. P.S. Kumar (Director), Mr. Subroto Chakarwarty (T.D.M) and Mr. S.K. Bahl (Manager, HR) of S.M.V. Beverages who have given me the opportunity to do the project in their esteemed organization. I would also like to thank Mr. Shukla (A.D.C.) of SMV Beverages without whose support this project couldn’t have been in the form in which it is now. I owe more than what I can mention….mostly for teaching me to see the silver lining in every dark cloud. I also owe my regards to Mr. Harmeet Singh and Adarsh agency for their co-operation in the successful completion of the project. This has been one long project and naturally many people get associated with it. Any bouquet for the merit in this book should go to their door. I would like to thank the staffs and officials of SMV Beverages for their co-operation in providing us with all the information, which were required by us. I owe my sincere gratitude towards my faculty guide Prof. DIVYA CHOUDHARY AND Prof. VIJETA for extending the support towards the completion of the project. And finally I would like to thank my friends for their unending support.
.06 OBJECTIVE SCOPE OF THE STUDY…..…... 87 SUGESSTION………………………………………………………...CONTENTS INTRODUCTION…………………………………………………...07 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY……......08 LAST 5 YEARS DATA ANALYSIS...…...………………………....89 BIBLIOGRAPHY………………………………………………......88 REFERENCES………………………………………………………....GRAPH………........91 4 .85 LIMITATIONS…………………………………………….….12 CONCLUSION……………………………………………….90 QUESTIONNAIRE……………………………………………….….…...………..…………………….….….
INTRODUCTION 5 . The study area was restricted to Pepsi plant and its Organization.PREFACE Practical training is considered to be an essential part of all the professional institutions and those who are aspiring for Master of business administration. difference between different concepts and ground realities.M. It is also a widely accepted theory that this aspect of management education widens one’s thinking about the different concepts of management philosophy. Adityapur. The report gives a true picture of the practical activities done by me within the jurisdiction of the area assigned to me. on job training assumes even more significances. The bottling plant is located at Adityapur industrial area (AIDA). Ltd. which the franchise is owned bottling plant of PepsiCo India limited. Ltd. This project has been done on the “Recruitment and selection process” has been done under the supervision of S. Hence the results for research and mythology are applicable to Sakchi where indirect employee is working in particular manner.V Beverages Pvt. Adityapur is a part of Jamshedpur.M. As an aspect of management education which is receiving increased attention from institutes as well as from recruiters on job training is imparted to the students to acclimatize the student with the actual environment of business management.V Beverages Pvt. I have done my training in Jamshedpur under the guidance of the executives of S.
Then a brief note on the objectives of the study. The chapter-1 contains the report regarding INTRODUCTION part of the company. importance of the study. The chapter-2 is the origin of the PEPSICO Company. This holds information regarding the company history. and the important dates of the company. The chapter-3 is the profile of the company involving details regarding human sustainability. responsibilities and company information The chapter-4 gives information regarding PepsiCo India.the primary data and secondary data and the last is limitation of the study. the methodology. need and importance of the topic and the current process held up by the PepsiCo. milestones. mission and vision of the company The chapter-5 enables the main objective of the project i. This chapter starts with the introduction. research techniques and methodology of the study.an abstract and over view of the study. This study is helpful for my career as well as to the company.I have done my project on recruitment and selection process in PepsiCo Company. Holding details like company values and principles. R & D Drives. OBJECTIVES 6 . The detailed study of the topic is given under this chapter.e Recruitment and Selection process. In this part I discussed about the aims. This contains the objective. This is an overview of the company which shows the entire information regarding the management details. The reason I have chosen recruitment and selection process to enable the knowledge how the company recruit the candidates and on what basis they choose the candidate.
To know the loop holes of the process To suggest the suitable ways aimed at improving the recruitment process NEED AND IMPORTANCE Generally after finishing of the studies the next step of candidates is to get into the job or business.Recruitment and selection plays a vital role in any organization. This is even useful for organization for viewing their present situation whether they are processing properly or not and helpful to make the required changes for the future purpose. Since employees are the valuable assets of the company. To study hierarchy level of the process To know the various sources of recruitment and selection adopted by PEPSICO. This helps me for further steps. When it relates to me I can get the complete picture how the process is being taking place and helps for my career when I go for an interview. So in order to get a clear cut idea how organization recruit the candidates and what they prefer the most in a candidate. The preview of the recruitment and selection process Acts as guidelines Enables types of process is being used Enables the required changes Maintains the complete overview of the process METHODOLOGY 7 . I have done my project on recruitment and selection. they have to be placed in right position at right time. The main objective of my study is to know the key stones of recruitment and selection process and the next is to analyze the process and make the necessary changes if required. To study the recruitment process of the PEPSICO.
newspapers and libraries. SAMPLING METHOD AND SAMPLE SIZE I used both the primary as well secondary data to gather the data from the market.The methodology adopted aimed at a detailed study and scrutiny of the current recruitment and selection practices including retention ship. These summed up responses were calculated to derive the percentages-to make the interpretations more elucidated. I have gathered secondary data from website of different operators. Secondary data: Secondary data consist of information that already exists somewhere. while going to employees I carried down this questionnaire and started ticking the proper answers from the employees. SAMPLING METHODOLOGY Since I have done my project on basis of observation method. 8 . Before starting the work I have prepared questionnaire depending up on my requirements. The study is completely based on observation process by maintaining relevant questionnaire. being represented in the form of tables. since I followed the observation method I have noted down all related information. Research tool The primary data collected by using the observation method. having been collected for another purpose. Some answers obtain by observation of the employees. I directly visited the places and noted down the required information. Statistical terms used The responses of all the questions were summed up from all the answered questionnaires. pie-diagrams and other graphical tools. even I took personal interview of employee. even I took personal interview of the employees for some requirements. Primary data: I have collected the data directly from the employees.
. the President of Loft Inc. the logo was changed again. That year. The advertising theme "Delicious and Healthful" was then used over the next two decades. In 1931. Loft was a candy manufacturer with retail stores that contained soda fountains. at the depth of the Great Depression. In 1903. Brad ham sold 7. Brad ham sought to create a fountain drink that was delicious and would aid in digestion and boost energy. North Carolina in 1898 by Caleb Brad ham. which made it at his pharmacy where the drink was sold. possibly due to the digestive enzyme pepsin and kola nuts used in the recipe.ORIGIN OF PEPSICO It was first introduced as "Brad's Drink" in New Bern. In 1926. Pepsi received its first logo redesign since the original design of 1905. the company went bankrupt again. In 1929. Brad ham moved the bottling of Pepsi-Cola from his drugstore to a rented warehouse..968 gallons of syrup. Pepsi's assets were then purchased by Charles Guth. Eight years later. invigorating. Guth then had Loft's chemists reformulate the Pepsi-Cola syrup formula. It was later named Pepsi Cola. In 1909.848 gallons. the Pepsi-Cola Company entered bankruptcy . a fine bracer before a race". describing it as "A bully drink. The next year. 9 . automobile race pioneer Barney Old-field was the first celebrity to endorse Pepsi-Cola.in large part due to financial losses incurred by speculating on wildly fluctuating sugar prices as a result of World War Assets were sold and Roy C.refreshing. Megargel bought the Pepsi trademark. and sales increased to 19. Pepsi was sold in six-ounce bottles. He sought to replace Coca-Cola at his stores' fountains after Coke refused to give him a discount on syrup.
Simultaneously a new market came in name of Hyderabad Marketing Company. Mrinda. Mountain Dew. Ltd. Was established in the year 1967 and production commenced in March 1969. Till 1998 it was under its chairperson Smt Kokum Kamani and the country has constantly bagged numerous awards in various occasions for quality assurance and productivity.V. viz. The credit of establishing Jamshedpur in the soft drink map goes to late Dharamchnd Kamani. The company constitutes to adopt innovative technology in keeping with its policy of constant entered into an agreement with Pepsi food limited for the production and sales of soft drinks for the people of Jharkhand.. Ltd. and Dhanbad. which is creating the needs of whole Jharkhand state. Then he set up his own machine and started bottling without any brand name. And increase the production from his new plant is 600 bottles per minute. BEVERAGES Pvt. Ltd. M/s SMV Beverages Pvt. This plant operates only 3 months (summer). Ranchi. At the very start company installed state of art machines and technology for the production and bottling of soft drink. Kamani along with Rushab Marketing company. The company symbolizes self reliance in technology and ranked as the best bottling company of the country in terms of quality. but in March 1999 steel city beverage taken over by Mr. Entire state is divided into three territories Jamshedpur. Domestic tension forced him to march to Jameshedpur 50 years ago to seek a living for him. Steel City Beverages Pvt. Today his son Mr. Right now there is only one bottling plant of Pepsi in Jharkhand and it cater the need of all the Pepsi products in Jharkhand. K.ORIGIN OF SOFT DRINK IN JAMSHEDPUR Late Charan Singh is credited with initiative to set up Soft drink industry in the city. The previous name of SMV was STEEL CITY BEVERAGES. He was a resident of Phagwara. S. K. efficiency. Ltd. During the course of his business trips he was struck with the idea of setting up of a soft drink industry in Bihar. Sundar Gurudev is carrying out the legacy. N. June 1967 was significant for soft drink industry in Jamshedpur. Slice and Soda and it has now become a house hold word in the state of Jharkhand. which his father had left behind. He established another plant in the same name of SMV Beverages Pvt. He was very much enthusiastic to increase the production and sales and to nature the whole market of Jharkhand. Punjab and he used to sell soft drink in carts. Pepsi. Jaipuria From Mr. 7up. and productivity. 10 . and one territory development officer controls each territory. The bottling plant with a capacity of 220 bottles per minutes was totally automatic and also had a modern state of art intermix machine for bringing forth the right blend of flavors. Even today Jamshedpur remembers the great exponent THANDA WALA. S.M. In 1993 it bagged top honors for the best quality conscious plant among all the Pepsi bottling companies in India. Jamshedpur is a franchise owned bottling plant (FOBO) is located on the Tata Kandara road in Adityapur Industrial Area at Jamshedpur and producing Pepsi range of bottled soft drinks.
V. BEVERAGES Pvt. The external environment in which S. has to undertake special projects. S. government policy statements pertaining to S. BEVERAGES Pvt.V. issues. Beverages Pvt. or devise new strategies. Ltd. when S. Changes due to unforeseen development may also be investigated with regard to their impact on the organization. the changes in legislation and regulations which have a direct impact on an organization’s activities.ENVIRONMENT SCANNING The process by which organization monitors their relevant environment to identify opportunities and threats affecting their business are known as environment scanning. ≈ Trends are the general tendencies or the courses of action along which events takes place.M. conducts special surveys and studies to deal with specific environmental issues from time to time. business and industry and so on . for instance.M. Kamani and strides forth towards progress and prosperity for the fulfillment of the ideas of its revered founder. BEVERAGES Pvt. trends.M. Ltd. exists consists of a bewildering variety of factors. 11 .M.V.V. Ltd. and expectation on its strategic management process. Ltd. the S.V. Today S. strategist has to deal cautiously with the process of environmental scanning is collected systematically. and expectation of different interested groups. These factors (may also be termed as influences) are events. ≈ Issues are the current concern that arises in response to events and trends. Ltd. consider s the impact of the different events. By monitoring the environment though environmental scanning. could be collected continuously to monitor changes and take the relevant factors into account. Information related to markets and customers. stands as a proud monument the great visionary its founder Late D. evaluate existing strategies.N.M. BEVERAGES Pvt. trends. Since the environment facing organization is complex and its scanning is absolutely essential.M. These factors are explained below. ≈ Events are important and specific occurrences taking place in different environment sectors. ≈ Expectations are the demands made by interested groups in the light of their concern for issues. issues. Such studies may be conducted. Beverages Pvt.V. Ltd.
8 of them felt that job portals is the best resource procurement of the candidates. 12 .14 of them felt that news papers is the best resource for the procurement of the Candidates.LAST 5 YEAR’S Data analysis of PEPSICO COMPANY Sources of Applicant Graph 1: According to you what is the best source for the procurement of the candidates? Interpretation: Among the 50 respondents 28 of them felt that employee referrals is the best resource for the procurement of the candidates.
Criteria for filtering the candidate Graph 2: What are general criteria underlying the filtering of the candidate pool that the company requires? Interpretation: Among 50 respondents 30 of them felt that work experience should be the major criteria .14 of them felt that personal skills should be the major criteria. 13 .6 of them felt that qualification should be the major criteria.
10 of them felt stress interviews are best suitable for their requirement and 10 of them felt that depth interviews are best suitable for their requirement. What attracts candidates towards the organization? 14 .Interview techniques Graph 3 According to you which of the following interviewing technique is most suitable for the recruitment of candidates in PEPSI? Interpretation: Among 50 respondents 30 of them felt that behavioural interviews are best suitable for their requirement.
10 respondents felt that compensation and perks attracts the candidate towards the organization. in recruitment perspective? Interpretation Among 50 respondents 20 of them felt that job satisfaction attracts candidates towards the organization. Reference Check Graph 5: Do you feel that conducting a reference check before employing the candidate will make 15 .Graph 4: According to you what attracts candidates towards pearl beverages limited (PEPSI). 20 of them felt that career growth attracts candidates towards the organization.
recruitment process effective? InterpretationAmong 50 respondents 46 of the respondents felt that reference check will add value to the recruitment process and 4 respondents felt that it doesn’t add value to the recruitment process of the Pearl Beverages Ltd. Necessity of formal induction program Graph 6: Do you think that a formal induction program add value to the performance of inductees? 16 .
InterpretationAmong 50 respondents 48 of the respondents felt that the orientation program will add value to the performance of inductees and 2 of them felt that it doesn’t add value to the performance of inductees. Reasons for quitting the job Graph 7 Do you feel that conducting a reference check before employing the candidate will make recruitment process effective? 17 .
Work Environment Table 1: You are satisfied with the work environment you are put into. Strongly Agree 14 Agree 7 Neutral 20 Disagree 6 Strongly Disagree 3 18 . 10 of them told slow growth 5 of them told that the employees are uncomfortable with shift system.InterpretationAmong 50 respondents 30 respondents told that pay is the reason. and 5 of them told that the employees are leaving the org because of their personal reasons.
20 members are neutral. 6 members are disagree and 3 members are strongly disagree. Supervisor Guidance Table 2: You are given all the necessary inputs required to perform your job well by your supervisor.Graph 1: Interpretation: From the above Graph it can be inferred that. Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly Disagree 19 . out of 50 respondents 14 members are strongly agree. 7 members are agree.
Flexibility of Work Hours Table 3: Do you think your working hours are flexible enough to offer services to your organization? Strongly Agree 10 Agree 12 Neutral 10 Disagree 18 Strongly Disagree 0 20 .28 Graph 2: 15 7 0 28 Interpretation: From the above graph it can be inferred that out of 50 respondents 28 members of them are strongly agree. 15 members of them are agree. 7 members of them are neutral and none of them are disagree or strongly disagree.
GrapGraph 3: Interpretation: From the above graph it can be inferred that among 50 respondents 10 members of them are strongly agree. Job Satisfaction Table 4: The org gives you job satisfaction: Strongly Agree 8 Agree 12 Neutral 20 Disagree 10 Strongly Disagree 0 21 . 12 members of them are agree. 10 members of them are neutral. 18 members of them are disagree and none of them are strongly disagree.
44% of them are neutral and none of them are disagree or strongly disagree.e. Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly Disagree 22 . 24% of them are strongly agree.Graph 4: Interpretation: From the above graph it can be inferred that out of 50 respondents 12 members i. Opportunity for Advancement/Growth Table 5: You feel that there is opportunity for advancement in your organization which may help you to reach your career goal. 32% of them are agree.
11 members of them are agree. 6 members of them are neutral. 14 members of them are disagree and the remaining 14 members are strongly disagree. 23 .5 Graph 5: 6 6 17 16 Interpretation: From the above graph it can be inferred that out of 50 respondents 5 members of them are strongly agree.
10% of them are agree.e.Job Stress Table 7: The amount of work you are expected to do on your job is not reasonable and it is harder to perform. 20% of the respondents are neutral. 40% of them are Disagree and 30% of the respondents are strongly disagree. Strongly Agree 0 Graph 7: Agree 6 Neutral 10 Disagree 20 Strongly Disagree 14 Interpretation: From the above graph out of 50 employees 0% of the respondents are strongly agree. 24 . 5 respondents i.
e. So employees feel that “Experience teaches everything” ONE DAY IN PEPSI PLANT 25 .Qualifications Table 8: You feel that the qualification you possess is necessary & relevant to the job. 60% of the respondents are strongly disagree. 20% of them are disagree. none of them are neutral.e.e. 10 respondents i. 20% of the respondents are agree. 10 respondents i. Strongly Agree 0 Graph 8: Agree 10 Neutral 0 Disagree 10 Strongly Disagree 30 Interpretation: From the above graph it can be inferred that among 50 respondents none of them are strongly agree. 30 members i.
glass bottle. Here I want to share my experience of visiting the production unit of pepsi and knowledge I gained after seeing the production processes of different brands of pepsi.M. the preparation of main liquid or drink is same but the machines and equipments used for filling in different SKUs are different.M. Dhananjay Kumar (M. metal can. The diagram in the next page represents the flow or sequence of steps involved in S. Ltd. But before going into the deep I would like to thank Mr.E). Jamshedpur for manufacturing of Pepsi products.V.In summer. when the mercury level crosses 40˚F we wish to have ice creams or cold drinks only. All these ingredients are added at different stages by different processes.e. who changed the hottest day into my dream’s day and also to all staffs of S. Beverages Pvt.V. Ltd.V.M.M. Ltd. if one gets the chance to visit the production unit of a cold drink plant. Jamshedpur. 26 . Ltd. Jamshedpur also the same ingredients are used to prepare pepsi and its’ other brands. water and cold drink is prepared. tetra pack etc.g. Beverages Pvt. Pepsi production process: Any cold drinks (soft drinks) generally contains ≈ Water ≈ Sugar ≈ Flavors or fruit pulp ≈ Chemicals ≈ CO2 gas (in carbonated soft drinks) The below four ingredients are added with the first ingredient i. Jamshedpur for guiding me during this visit and sharing their vast knowledge and experience with me. and also gets opportunity to have cold drinks without any limit and cost on such a hot day.V. And it is as like a dream. also a dream’s day for me when I got such an opportunity to visit the production unit of pepsi of S. pet bottle. Pepsi products are available in different SKUs (stock keeping units) or packs. Here in S. e. Beverages Pvt. Beverages Pvt.
C o ldw a te r S y ru pfiltra tio nu n it 1 S y ru pc h illin gu n it 2 3 4 .S y ru pta n k 4 5 6 C O 2Ad d itio n E m p tyb o ttle s F la v o ra d d ition C ro w n in gm a c h in e B o ttlefille r F ille db o ttle s 7 8 9 W a s h e db o ttle s B o ttlew a s h in gp la n t 7 -C a u s ticS od a . Jamshedpur.C a u s ticS o d a 2 . I saw 27 .S y ru pta n k 5 .H ot w a te r 3 .S y ru pta n k 6 . Ltd. Beverages Pvt.M.V. 9 -C o ldw a te r During my visit to S. c o n ta in in gs u g a r s to c k s T rea te dw a te r S te a mlin e S tea mg e n e ra tion T re a te dw a te r fro m w a tertre a tm e n tp la n t S y ru pp re p a ra tio n ( S y ru pta n k ) 1 .Process flow diagram C ris ta ls u g a r fro ms u g a rs to re S u g a rs to rero o m .8 -H ot w a ter.
Ltd. where bottles are filled with the final product. Initially water is treated with all these chemicals in the treatment tank and becomes turbid. The brief introduction of each plants are given bellow. Water treatment plant. Coagulation process is used here for this purpose. which is used for cleaning the equipments and pipelines after every batch of production. Jamshedpur. is coming from the Sitarampur dam on the Kharkai river. calcium hydroxide (CaOH) and chlorine (Cl). 6. where used glass bottles are washed 3. All the impurities get settled at the base and remove the turbidity. before the production process starts.M. Water treatment plant Water in S. Syrup room. Beverages Pvt. Yard for keeping empty bottles and ware houses for storing the filled bottles. It is stored in a reservoir. 5. The water so obtained is completely free from any kind 28 .1. 1.V. where syrup is prepared from sugar. Acid room. Bottle washing plant. where water is purified. Then. where custic soda is kept. Main chemicals used are ferrous sulphate (FeSO4). 2. it is sent to the carbon tank where all the microorganisms and chlorines are removed. This raw water is being treated in the water treatment plant. Bottle filling plant. 4.
Bottles are then sent through the inspection center. This temperature is maintained throughout the whole process. where bottles are again washed with hot water at a temperature of 80-100˚ C. Bottle filling plant 29 . Here next flavors are added at a specified quantity with the syrup used for preparation of pepsi or other brands. sometimes there are some impurities presents in sugar. The temperature of this prepared sugar remains between 80-100˚C. 2. in the third compartment bottles are treated with cold or normal water at room temperature. Bottles are treated with 4% caustic soda in the first compartment at a temperature of 100-150˚ C. so this syrup is filtered to remove all those contaminations. where these are closely watched against white rays of light. Bottles containing any dust or other unwanted things are removed from the line here. The machine has three compartments. these bottles are passed through the bottle washing plant where these dirty bottles are washed. Bottle for washing are placed on the conveyer come inside the machine and get successive treatment. 4. This syrup contains some impurities as. The maximum alkalinity maintained until as much as 50 ppm. It is completely an auto process which takes place within a machine called washer machine. Bottle washing plant: Used bottles returning from the market are stealthy. Before storing in syrup tanks this syrup it is passed through the cooler where syrup temperature is reduced to 25-30˚C. Syrup is prepared by flowing steam and sugar crystals in a specified ratio into a closed container. Next these are conveyed to the second compartment. Time duration in each compartment is 10 minutes.of impurities and used in further processing. Syrup room: Here syrup is prepared. 3. Before filling these empty bottles with new product.
Ltd. crowns or caps are fitted on the filled bottles with the help of crowning machine. and mountain dew. And for this purpose. Beverages Pvt. next hot water and at the last cold water. for preparation of carbonated soft drinks brands like pepsi. Now these filled bottles are ladled and then sent for packing and storing in the godowns. 30 . 6. 7. mirinda. After filling. The first tank contains caustic soda.V.Next. fruit pulp is added.M. Jamshedpur has a large area in side its premises. Acid room: There are three tanks in this room. This machine can fill 60 bottles in one minute. Yard for keeping empty bottles: S. Warehouse: S. the 2 nd tank contains hot water and the third tank contains cold water. The produced products are sent to the customers from these warehouses. And for the brand like slice. Now the solution is ready for filling into the bottles.M. For transferring the filled bottles inside the company fork-lifts are used. 5. Beverages Pvt. Jamshedpur has its own warehouse in side its premises for storing the produced products. After finishing every batch of production the whole production lines and containers/tanks are washed.V. A large part of its open area is used for keeping the empty bottles. first of all caustic soda is passed through the pipeline. 7UP. carbondioxide gas ( CO2) is mixed with this prepared solution. The washed empty bottles are filled by automatic filler machine. Ltd.
However. Staffing is one basic function of management.Recruitment and selection are two of the most important functions of personnel management. All managers have responsibility of staffing function by selecting the chief executive and even the foremen and supervisors have a staffing responsibility when they select the rank and file workers. 32 . the personnel manager and his personnel department is mainly concerned with the staffing function. Recruitment precedes selection and helps in selecting a right candidate. Every organisation needs to look after recruitment and selection in the initial period and thereafter as and when additional manpower is required due to expansion and development of business activities. Recruitment is a process to discover the sources of manpower to meet the requirement of the staffing schedule and to employ effective measures for attracting that manpower in adequate numbers to facilitate effective selection of efficient personnel.
The operative manpower is equally important and essential for the orderly working of an enterprise.Right person for the right job’ is the basic principle in recruitment and selection. Every business organisation/unit needs manpower for carrying different business activities smoothly and efficiently and for this recruitment and selection of suitable candidates are essential. 33 . Human resource management in an organisation will not be possible if unsuitable persons are selected and employment in a business unit. especially its managers. Ever organisation should give attention to the selection of its manpower.
Recruitment is understood as the 34 .MEANING: RECRUITMENT Recruitment means to estimate the available vacancies and to make suitable arrangements for their selection and appointment.
b) Creation of new vacancies due to the growth. transfer. a pool of eligible and interested candidates is created for selection of most suitable candidates.are used. In the recruitment. employment exchanges. etc. In recruitment. “It is the process of finding and attracting capable applicants for the employment.process of searching for and obtaining applicants for the jobs.”Recruitment is the process of searching for prospective employees and stimulating them to apply for jobs in the organization. expansion and diversification of business activities of an enterprise. from among whom the right people can be selected.” Need for recruitment: The need for recruitment may be due to the following reasons / situation: a) Vacancies due to promotions. Recruitment represents the first contact that a company makes with potential employees Definition: According to EDWIN FLIPPO . A formal definition states. death and labour turnover. retirement. In addition. The result is a pool of applicants from which new employees are selected”. the available vacancies are given wide publicity and suitable candidates are encouraged to submit applications so as to have a pool of eligible candidates for scientific selection. permanent disability. For this different source such as newspaper advertisement. Purpose and importance of Recruitment: 35 . The process begins when new recruits are sought and ends when their applicants are submitted. In this. new vacancies are possible due to job specification. internal promotion. termination. information is collected from interested candidates.
7. Help increase the success rate of the selection process by reducing the number of visibly under qualified or overqualified job applicants. Meet the organization’s legal and social obligations regarding the composition of its work force. once recruited and selected. 5. 8. and eventually decided whether they wish to work for it. 6. Recruitment is a positive function in which publicity is given to the jobs available in the organization and interested candidates are encouraged to submit applications for the purpose of selection. Increase the pool of job candidates at minimum cost. Unscientific Recruitment and Selection: 36 . Help reduce the probability that job applicants. 3. It is through recruitment that many individuals will come to know a company. Recruitment represents the first contact that a company makes with potential employees. will leave the organization only after a short period of time. whereas. 2. Determine the present and future requirements of the organization on conjunction with its personnel-planning and job analysis activities. Increase organizational and individual effectiveness in the short term and long term. A well-planned and well-managed recruiting effort will result in high quality applicants. Evaluate the effectiveness of various recruiting techniques and sources for all types of job applicants. Begin identifying and preparing potential job applicants who will be appropriate candidates. 4. a haphazard and piecemeal efforts will result in mediocre ones.1.
The process comprises five interrelated stages. RECRUITMENT PROCESS Recruitment refers to the process of identifying and attracting job seekers so as to build a pool of qualified job applicants. the objective of “right man for the right job” is achieved in many organizations. Selection is important as it has its impact on work performance and employee cost. Strategy development. As result scientific methods of recruitment and selection are extensively for the selection of managers and the supervisory staff. 4. beliefs. Screening. 37 . personal prejudices of managers looking after the recruitment and selection of the staff. 1. As a result. 5. Planning. The net result of such unscientific recruitment and selection are: (a) Low productivity of labour (b) High turnover (c) Excessive wastage of raw materials (d) More accidents and corresponding loss to the organization (e) Inefficient working of the whole organization and finally (f) Ineffective executive of training and management development programs Scientific recruitment and selection The importance of selection recruitment and selection of staff is now accepted in the business world. Evaluation and control. The assistance of experts such as industrial psychologist and management consultants are also taken for the purpose of scientific selection. 2. Searching. Moreover.Previously. 3. the selection of candidates was influenced by superstitions. “right job” is the basic principle in manpower procurement.
where and how to look for the individuals with the appropriate qualifications and interests. Some of those contacted will be uninterested. STAGE 1: RECRUITMENT PLANNING: The first stage in the recruitment process is planning. what inducement to use for various types of applicants groups. 38 . Numbers of contact : Organization. by under/over selling the organisation or by inadequate screening applicants before they enter the selection process. The type of people depends on the tasks and responsibilities involved and the qualifications and experience expected. Recruitment programmes can miss the ideal in many ways i. Types of contacts: It is basically concerned with the types of people to be informed about job openings. when offered. to approach the ideal. nearly always. plan to attract more applicants than they will hire. by failing to attract an adequate applicant pool. Each time a recruitment Programme is contemplated. Thus.The ideal recruitment programme is the one that attracts a relatively larger number of qualified applicants who will survive the screening process and accept positions with the organisation. Planning involves the translation of likely job vacancies and information about the nature of these jobs into set of objectives or targets that specify the (1) Numbers and (2) Types of applicants to be contacted. one task is to estimate the number of applicants necessary to fill all vacancies with the qualified people. individuals responsible for the recruitment process must know how many and what types of employees are needed. These details are available through job description and job specification. unqualified or both. how to distinguish applicants who are qualified from those who have a reasonable chance of success and how to evaluate their work.e.
regional or local markets for technical employees and local markets for the clerical and blue-collar employees. 39 . Organizations. Sources of recruitment. Generally. This decision is mainly influenced by the available technology. (4). this is the ‘make’ or ‘buy’ decision. Technological Sophistication: The second decision in strategy development relates to the methods used in recruitment and selection. organisations look in to labour markets most likely to offer the required job seekers. or they can hire skilled labour and professional. (3). Make or Buy employees. Technological sophistication of recruitment and selection devices.STAGE 2: STRATEGY DEVELOPMENT : When it is estimated that what types of recruitment and how many are required then one has concentrate in (1). Essentially. Sequencing the activities in the recruitment process. companies look in to the national market for managerial and professional employees. (5). Although impersonal. computers have given employers and ob seekers a wider scope of options in the initial screening stage. Geographical distribution of labour markets comprising job seekers. ‘ Make’ or ‘Buy’: Organisation must decide whether to hire le skilled employees and invest on training and education programmes. which hire skilled and professionals shall have to pay more for these employees. When to look: An effective recruiting strategy must determine when to look-decide on the timings of events besides knowing where and how to look for job applicants. (2). The advent of computers has made it possible for employers to scan national and international applicant qualification. Where to look: In order to reduce the costs.
they must resist the temptation of overselling their virtues. 40 . sources and search methods are activated by the issuance of an employee requisition. Here. SOURCE ACTIVATION: Typically. Unsuccessful applicants must be sent letter of regret. Message refers to the employment advertisement. both the message and the media deserve attention. SELLING: A second issue to be addressed in the searching process concerns communications. Source activation and B). A). they want to do whatever they can to attract desirable applicants. B).STAGE 3: SEARCHNG: Once a recruitment plan and strategy are worked out. On the other hand. Search involves two steps A). Selling. If the organisation has planned well and done a good job of developing its sources and search methods. the search process can begin. activation soon results in a flood of applications and/or resumes. it may be stated that effectiveness of any recruiting message depends on the media. The application received must be screened. On one hand. This means that no actual recruiting takes place until lone managers have verified that vacancy does exist or will exist. With regards to media. organisation walks tightrope. while others enjoy high credibility. Media are severalsome have low credibility. Those who pass have to be contacted and invited for interview. In selling the organisation. Selection of medium or media needs to be done with a lot of care.
Registrar and subject experts conducts interview. abilities and interest required to do the job. Care must be exercised. The selection process will begin after the applications have been scrutinized and short-listed. excludes screening from its scope. those applicants who are visibly unqualified for the job. Effective screening can save a great deal of time and money. at an early stage. Campus recruiters and agency representatives use interviews and resumes. Hiring of professors in a university is a typical situation. though many view it as the first step in the selection process. The selection process commences only later. Interview and application blanks may be used to screen walk-ins. the recruitment process extends up to screening the applications. however. Here. Reference checks are also useful in screening. A selection committee comprising the Vice-chancellor.STEP 4: SCREENING: Screening of applicants can be regarded as an integral part of the recruiting process. we quoted in the beginning of this chapter. Even the definition on recruitment. Application received in response to advertisements is screened and only eligible applicants are called for an interview. In screening. to assure that potentially good employees are not rejected without justification. Purpose of screening The purpose of screening is to remove from the recruitment process. we have included screening in recruitment for valid reasons. It is both good practice and a legal necessity that applicant’s qualification is judged on the basis of their knowledge. skills. clear job specifications are invaluable. However. The techniques used to screen applicants vary depending on the candidate sources and recruiting methods used. 41 .
STAGE 5: EVALUATION AND CONTROL: Evaluation and control is necessary as considerable costs are incurred in the recruitment process. The costs generally incurred are: 1. Salaries for recruiters. 2. Management and professional time spent on preparing job description, job specifications, advertisements, agency liaison and so forth. 3. The cost of advertisements or other recruitment methods, that is, agency fees. 4. Recruitment overheads and administrative expenses. 5. Costs of overtime and outsourcing while the vacancies remain unfilled. 6. Cost of recruiting unsuitable candidates for the selection process.
EVALUATION OF RECRUITMENT PROCESS
The recruitment has the objective of searching for and obtaining applications for job seekers in sufficient number and quality. Keeping this objective in the mind, the evaluation might include: 1. Return rate of application sent out. 2. Number of suitable candidates for selection. 3. Retention and performance of the candidates selected. 4. Cost of the recruitment process 5. Time lapsed data 6. Comments on image projected. 42
Sources of Recruitment
SOURCES OF MANAGERIAL RECRUITMENT
INTERNAL SOURCES 1) Promotion 2) Transfers 3) Internal notification (Advertisement) 4) Retirement 5) Recall 6) Former employees 7) Miscellaneous external sources
EXTERNAL SOURCES 1) Campus recruitment 2) Press advertisement 3) Management consultancy service & private employment exchanges 4) Deputation of personnel or transfer from one enterprise to 6) Walk-ins, write-ins, talk-ins another 5) Management training schemes
The sources of recruitment can be broadly categorized into internal and external sources(I) Internal Recruitment – Internal recruitment seeks applicants for positions from within the company. The various internal sources include : Promotions and Transfers – Promotion is an effective means using job posting and personnel records. Job posting requires notifying vacant positions by posting notices, circulating publications or announcing at staff meetings and inviting employees to apply. Personnel records help discover employees who are doing jobs below their educational qualifications or skill levels. Promotions has many advantages like it is good public relations, builds morale, encourages competent individuals who are ambitious, improves the probability of good selection since information on the individual’s performance is readily available, is cheaper than going outside to recruit, those chosen internally are familiar with the organization thus reducing the orientation time and energy and also acts as a training device for developing middle-level and top-level managers. However, promotions restrict the field of selection preventing fresh blood & ideas from entering the organization. It also leads to inbreeding in the organization. Transfers are also important in providing employees with a broad-based view of the organization, necessary for future promotions.
Employee referralsEmployees can develop good prospects for their families and friends by acquainting them with the advantages of a job with the company, furnishing them with introduction and encouraging them to apply. This is a very effective means as many qualified people can be reached at a very low cost to the company. The other advantages are that the employees would bring only those referrals that they feel would be able to fit in the organization based on their own experience. The organization can be assured of the reliability and the character of the referrals. In this way, the organization can also fulfill social obligations and create goodwill. 44
Under the circumstances. management may not find suitable candidates in place of the one who had retired. after meritorious service. Former EmployeesThese include retired employees who are willing to work on a part-time basis. Even retrenched employees are taken up once again. management issues an internal notification for the benefit of existing employees. Internal notification (advertisement) : Sometimes. If an employee dies. Dependents of deceased employeesUsually. since they are familiar with the organization. banks follow this policy. his / her spouse or son or daughter is recruited in their place. Most employees know from their own experience about the requirement of the job and what sort of person the company is looking for. Retirements : At times. there is no need of an orientation programme for them. management may decide to call retired managers with new extension. it may de decided to recall that persons after the problem is solved. Recalls : When management faces a problem. which can be solved only by a manager who has proceeded on long leave. Also. individuals who left work and are willing to come back for higher compensations. This is usually an effective way to fulfill social obligation and create goodwill. The advantage here is that the people are already known to the organization and there is no need to find out their past performance and character. Often employees have 45 . his leave may be extended.
Advertisements :It is a popular method of seeking recruits. location of job. The various external sources include : Professional or Trade Associations :Many associations provide placement service to its members. the recruiters can zero on in specific job seekers. The advertisement has to sell the idea that the company and job are perfect for the candidate. The Act applies to all industrial establishments having 25 workers or more 46 . Want ads describe the job benefits. working conditions. advertisements may be placed in professional or business journals. Advertisements must contain proper information like the job content. It consists of compiling job seeker’s lists and providing access to members during regional or national conventions. the publications of these associations carry classified advertisements from employers interested in recruiting their members. (II) External Recruitment – External recruitment seeks applicants for positions from sources outside the company. as many recruiters prefer advertisements because of their wide reach. experienced or skilled personnel. Employment Exchanges:Employment Exchanges have been set up all over the country in deference to the provision of the Employment Exchanges (Compulsory Notification of Vacancies) Act. These are particularly useful for attracting highly educated. etc. growth aspects. identify the employer and tell those interested how to apply. Suitable persons are appointed at the vacant posts.friends or acquaintances who meet these requirements. Also. compensation including fringe benefits. job specifications. 1959. They have outnumbered the internal methods. Newspaper is the most common medium but for highly specialized recruits. It also cost effective. Also. especially for hard-to-fill technical posts. Recruitment advertisements can also serve as corporate advertisements to build company’ image.
Write-ins are those who send written enquiries. Some companies recruit a given number of candidates from these institutes every year. Campus recruitment is so much sought after that each college. university department or institute will have a placement officer to handle recruitment functions. Talk-ins involves the job aspirants meeting the recruiter (on an appropriated date) for detailed talks. Yet. research laboratories. Motorola and Reliance looking for global markets. it is a major source of recruitment for prestigious companies. Campus Recruitments:Colleges. Thus. sports fields and institutes are fertile ground for recruiters. HCL-HP. employment exchanges act as a link between the employers and the prospective employees. Walk-ins. white collar and technical workers. Write-ins and Talk-insThe most common and least expensive approach for candidates is direct applications. While direct applications are particularly effective in filling entry-level and unskilled vacancies. No application is required to be submitted to the recruiter. From employees’ viewpoint. even if recruiting process produces job offers and acceptances eventually. These jobseekers are asked to complete application forms for further processing. The major functions of the exchanges are to increase the pool of possible applicants and to do the preliminary screening. ANZ Grindlays. Citibank. some organizations compile pools of potential employees from direct applications for skilled positions. walk-ins are preferable as they are free from the hassles associated with other methods of recruitment. in which job seekers submit unsolicited application letters or resumes. Contractors:- 47 . These offices are particularly useful to in recruiting blue-collar. The Act requires all the industrial establishments to notify the vacancies before they are filled. Campus Recruitment is going global with companies like HLL. A majority leave the organization within the first five years of their employment. particularly the institutes.each. However. Direct applications can also provide a pool of potential employees to meet future needs. L&T. universities. it is often an expensive process.
Internet is becoming a popular option for recruitment today. However.com. This is a useful source when both the companies involved are in the same field. that his company is testing his loyalty. They also keep prospective employer and employee anonymous. Consultants:They are in the profession for recruiting and selecting managerial and executive personnel. and that too. However. There are specialized sites like naukri. Competitors:This method is popularly known as “poaching” or “raiding” which involves identifying the right people in rival companies. An agent is sent to represent the recruiting company and offer is made to the candidate. They are useful as they have nationwide contacts and lend professionalism to the hiring process. For instance. Head Hunters:They are useful in specialized and skilled candidate working in a particular company. Companies in the private sector are hesitant to use the media because of high costs and also because they fear that such advertising will make the companies look desperate and damage their conservative image. by government departments only.They are used to recruit casual workers. offering them better terms and luring them away. The names of the workers are not entered in the company records and. and the employee is reluctant to take the offer since he fears. It depends upon what is said and how it is delivered. difficulties experienced in maintaining permanent workers are avoided. several executives of HMT left to join Titan Watch Company. websites of companies have a separate section wherein. Radio. the cost can be a deterrent factor. there is nothing inherently desperate about using radio and television. aspirants can submit their resumes and applications. This provides a wider reach. Radio and television are used but sparingly. Television and Internet:Radio and television are used to reach certain types of job applicants such as skilled workers. Also. to this extent. There are legal and ethical issues involved in raiding rival firms for potential 48 .
if people are hired from external sources. there are many ethical issues attached to it. Violating this requirement shall bind the employee to pay a few months’ salary to his/ her present employer as a punishment. out of whom some may not be necessary any longer. the need to displace employees and to integrate a large number of them rather quickly into a new organization means that the personnel-planning and selection process becomes critical more than ever. As a result. new talents and new experiences. Scope for resentment. a pool of qualified job applicants. Mergers and Acquisitions:When organizations combine. Both new and old jobs may be readily staffed by drawing the best-qualified applicants from this employee pool. Evaluation of External Recruitment: External sources of recruitment have both merits and demerits. an employee is expected to join a new organization only after obtaining a ‘no objection certificate’ from his/ her present employer. From the legal point of view. However. new jobs may be created. It enables an organization to pursue a business plan. The merits are The organization will have the benefit of new skills.candidates. As a result. The management will be able to fulfill reservation requirements in favour of the disadvantaged sections of the society. the new organization has. they have a pool of employees. The demerits are- 49 . heartburn and jealousy can be avoided by recruiting from outside. in effect. However. This method facilitates the immediate implementation of an organization’s strategic plan.
Scanning descriptions of comparable jobs in the classified ads and other employment publications will also provide clues about prevailing wage rates. 50 . setting it too low risks a flood of applications from those unqualified for the job. Better motivation and increased morale associated with promoting own employees re lost to the organization. 98% of organizational success depends upon efficient employee selection 60-Second Guide to Hiring the Right People Define the Duties: To find promising employees. chances of right candidates being rejected and wrong applicants being selected occur. State and local chambers of commerce. you must first determine what you want them to do. Carefully consider all direct and associated responsibilities and incorporate them into a written job description. External recruitment is costly. as they have different meanings to different people. Be careful with general titles such as typist or sales clerk. High training time is associated with external recruitment. you don’t want to be overly generous or restrictive about compensation. Setting the bar too high may limit your available talent pool. Be reasonable about your expectations. Make it Worth their While: Likewise. and What it Takes to do Them : Fulfilling these responsibilities will require some level of skill and experience. even if it is an entry-level position. employment bureaus and professional associations can help you determine appropriate wages and benefits. If recruitment and selection processes are not properly carried out.
You’ve Found Them. you should have little difficulty identifying candidates for interviews.Spread the Word: How you advertise your job opening depends on who you want to attract. Now Keep Them: 51 . neighbors. Follow-up on Interviews: You want to believe your candidates are being honest. but never assume. After the interview. or those that involve handling substantial amounts of money and valuables. Some positions are as easy to promote as posting a “help wanted” sign in your store window or placing an ad in your local newspaper. Talk it Over: Because you have clearly defined the role and requirements. For jobs requiring more specialized skills. consider targeted channels such as trade magazines. prepare your questions and give the candidate your undivided attention. jot down any impressions or key points while they’re still fresh in your mind. And don’t overlook sources such as friends. Contact references to make sure you’re getting the facts or to clear up any uncertainties. Professional background checks are a wise investment for highly sensitive positions. Make sure you schedule them when you have ample time to review the resume. on-line job banks and employment agencies (though these may require a fee). suppliers customers and present employees. This will be a valuable reference when it’s time to make a decision.
The small business experts at SCORE can help you craft human resource policies and incentive plans that will ensure your company remains the small business employer of choice. The difference between recruitment and selection: Recruitment is identifying n encouraging prospective employees to apply for a job. An Selection is selecting the right candidate from the pool of applicants. make sure they stay with you by providing training and professional development opportunities. 52 .Now that you’ve hired ideal employees. Selection is basically picking an applicant from (a pool of applicants) who has the appropriate qualification and competency to do the job. SELECTION Selection is defined as the process of differentiating between applicants in order to identify (and hire) those with a greater likelihood of success in a job.
SELECTION PROCESS Selection is along process. commencing from the preliminary interview of the applicants and ending with the contract of employment. The following chart gives an idea about selection process: - External Environment Internal Environment d Application Preliminary Interview Selection Tests Employment Interview Reference and Background Rejecte Analysis Selection Decision Physical Examination Job Offer 53 Employment Contract Evaluation .
STEP 2 : SELECTION TEST: Job seekers who pass the screening and the preliminary interview are called for tests. on the other hand. company’s image. The last three constitute the internal environment and the remaining form the external environment of selection process. legal and political considerations.market conditions. aptitude and personality. eliminate of unqualified applicants. often called ‘courtesy interview’. Scrutiny enables the HR specialists to eliminate unqualified jobseekers based on the information supplied in their application forms. Generally. is a good public relation exercise. 54 . that is. STEP 1 : PRELIMINARY INTERVIEW The applicants received from job seekers would be subject to scrutiny so as to eliminate unqualified applicants. preliminary interview. Different types of tests may be administered.Environment factor affecting selection : Selection is influenced by several factors. This is usually followed by a preliminary interview the purpose of which is more or less the same as scrutiny of application. company’s policy. unemployment rate. Preliminary interview. tests are used to determine the applicant’s ability. human resources planning and cost of hiring. More prominent among them are supply and demand of specific skills in the labour market. labour. which did not appear in the application forms. Besides. helps reject misfits for reason. depending on the job and the company.
They cover such areas clerical aptitude. Aptitude test indicates the ability or fitness of an individual to engage successfully in any number of specialized activities. These tests help to detect positive negative points in a person’s sensory or intellectual ability. numerical aptitude. An example of such test is the general management aptitude tests (GMAT). of course. 2). motor co-ordination. punch-press operators. such as typing or dictation tests for an applicant for a stenographic position. which many business students take prior to gaining admission to a graduate business school programme. many unstandardised achievement tests given in industries. Aptitude test : Aptitude tests measure whether an individuals has the capacity or latent ability to learn a given job if given adequate training. Trade tests are the most common type of achievement test given. finger dexterity and manual dexterity. When applicant claims to know something. There are. electricians and machinists. It is concerned with what one has accomplished. An excellent illustration of this is the typing tests given to a prospective employer for secretarial job. Also called as ‘ACHEIVEMENT TESTS’. They focus attention on a particular type of talent such as learning or reasoning in respect of a particular field of work. mechanical aptitude. Questions have been prepared and tested for such trades as asbestos worker. 55 . Ability tests : Assist in determining how well an individual can perform tasks related to the job. Aptitudes tests help determine a person’s potential to learn in a given area. The use of aptitude test is advisable when an applicant has had little or no experience along the line of the job opening. an achievement test is taken to measure how well they know it.The following are the type of tests taken: 1).
Psychomotor or skills tests : They are those. numerical ability. which measure a person’s ability to do a specific job.skilled and repetitive jobs such as packing. Mental ability. presence of mind (alertness). etc. Such tests are conducted in respect of semi. etc. etc. Intelligence test : This test helps to evaluate traits of intelligence. It is taken to judge numerical. 2. Mental or intelligence tests : They measure the overall intellectual ability of a person and enable to know whether the person has the mental ability to deal with certain problems. Mechanical aptitude tests : They measure the ability of a person to learn a particular type of mechanical work. maintenance workers. memory and such other aspects can be measured. testing and inspection. Such tests also enable the company to provide 56 . These tests helps to measure specialized technical knowledge and problem solving abilities if the candidate.Forms of aptitude test: 1. skills. 4). They are useful in selection of mechanics. reasoning. Interest Test : This is conducted to find out likes and dislikes of candidates towards occupations. such tests indicate which occupations are more in line with a person’s interest. 3. 3). hobbies. memory and such other abilities. The intelligence is probably the most widely administered standardized test in industry.
vocational guidance to the selected candidates and even to the existing employees. General knowledge Test : Now days G. It is conducted to judge maturity. public relation staff.K. also. attitudes. Often an individual who possesses the intelligence. involve a serious problem of obtaining an honest answer. world affairs. aptitude and experience for certain has failed because of inability to get along with and motivate other people. 8). Projective Test : This test requires interpretation of problems or situations. These tests are particularly useful for students considering many careers or employees deciding upon career changes. 7). behavior under stress and strain. etc. social or interpersonal skills. where personality plays an important role. etc. Personality Test : The importance of personality to job success is undeniable. 9). Personality tests are similar to interest tests in that they. Tests are very common to find general awareness of the candidates in the field of sports. Graphology Test : 57 . politics. a photograph or a picture can be shown to the candidates and they are asked to give their views. For example. These tests are used to measure an individual’s activity preferences. Perception Test : At times perception tests can be conducted to find out beliefs.etc. and opinions about the picture. current affairs. 6). 5). and mental sharpness. this test is very much essential on case of selection of sales force.
inhibition and spontaneity. banks. 11). For example. Polygraph Test : Polygraph is a lie detector. It has been said that an individual’s handwriting can suggest the degree of energy.It is designed to analyze the handwriting of individual. which is designed to ensure accuracy of the information given in the applications. treasury offices and jewellery shops. Department store. as well as disclose the idiosyncrasies and elements of balance and control. Medical Test: It reveals physical fitness of a candidate. With the development of technology. big letters and emphasis on capital letters indicate a tendency towards domination and competitiveness. resilience upon exposure to hazardous CHOOSING TESTS: 58 . A slant to the right. moderate pressure and good legibility show leadership potential. that is. medical tests have become diversified. 10). Medical servicing helps measure and monitor a candidate’s physical chemicals. those highly vulnerable to theft or swindling may find polygraph tests useful.
The characteristics of both successful and less successful candidates are then identified. They are as follows: 1). 2. no test will be 100% accurate in predicting job success. Predictive Validity : . Tests. An individual’s intelligence.The test must be chosen in the criteria of reliability. VALIDITY : It is a test. 2). Concurrent Validity : . which helps predict whether a person will be successful in a given job. validity. There are three ways of validating a test. 59 . A validated test increases possibility of success. which produce wide variations in results. A person who takes tests one day and makes a certain score should be able to take the same test the next day or the next week and make more or less the same score. A test that has been validated can be helpful in differentiating between prospective employees who will be able to perform the job well and those who will not. is generally a stable characteristic. Naturally. serve little purpose in selection. So if we administer an intelligence test. objectivity and standardization. a person who scores 110 in March would score close to 110 if tested in July. RELIABILITY : It refers to standardization of the procedure of administering and scoring the test results. They are: - 1.this involves determining the factors that are characteristics of successful employees and then using these factors as the yardsticks. for example.it involves using a selection test during the selection process and then identifying the successful candidates.
STEP 3 : INTERVIEW: The next step in the selection process is an interview. 60 . 4.it involves taking parts of several similar jobs rather than one complete job to validate the selection test. the test is said to be objective. managerial and profession employees. It is face-to-face exchange of view. The purpose of standardization is to obtain norms or standard. Synthetic Validity : . so that a specific test score can be meaningful when compared to other score in the group. Interview is formal. Basically.3). in-depth conversation conducted to evaluate the applicant’s acceptability. interview is nothing but an oral examination of candidates. ideas and opinion between the candidates and interviewers. Interview can be adapted to unskilled. 3. Otherwise. OBJECTIVITY: When two or more people can interpret the result of the same test and derive the same conclusion(s). STANDARDRIZATION: A test that is standardized is administered under standard condition to a large group of person who are representatives of the individuals for whom it is intended. skilled. It is considered to be excellent selection device. the test evaluators’ subjective opinions may render the test useless.
The employee or the manager or the personnel manager may ask a few almost inconsequential questions like name. Types of interview: Interviews can be of different types. place of birth. names of relatives etc. products manufactured and the like 3) Helps build the company’s image among the applicants. There interviews employed by the companies. with the help of well structured questions. It id not planned and nobody prepares for it. Following are the various types of interview: 1) Informal Interview : An informal interview is an oral interview and may take place anywhere. the time and place of the interview will be stipulated by the employment office. either in their respective offices or anywhere outside the plant of company. 61 . This is used widely when the labour market is tight and when you need workers badly. 2) Formal Interview : Formal interviews may be held in the employment office by he employment office in a more formal atmosphere.Objectives of interview : Interview has at least three objectives and they are a follows: 1) Helps obtain additional information from the applicants 2) Facilitates giving general information to the applicants such as company policies. job.
5) Stress Interview : It is designed to test the candidate and his conduct and behavior by him under conditions of stress and strain.3) Non-directive Interview : Non-directive interview or unstructured interview is designed to let the interviewee speak his mind freely. “Mr. The idea is o give the candidate complete freedom to “sell” himself. we do not think your qualifications and experience are adequate for this position. He encourages the candidate to talk by a little prodding whenever he is silent e. a series of questions may be asked to test the depth of understanding and interest of the candidate. please tell us about yourself after your graduated from high school”. Joseph. without the encumbrances of the interviewer’s question. For example. on the contrary he may substantiate why he is qualified to handle the job. Ray.g.’ and watch the reaction of the candidates. The interviewer has no formal or directive questions. it is possible to get a good picture of the candidate. These probing questions must be asked with tact and through exhaustive analysis. The interviewer may start with “Mr. This type of interview is borrowed from the Military organisation and this is very useful to test behaviour of individuals when they are faced with disagreeable and trying situations. 4) Depth Interview : It is designed to intensely examine the candidate’s background and thinking and to go into considerable detail on particular subjects of an important nature and of special interest to the candidates. A good candidates will not yield. 62 . but his all attention is to the candidate. if the candidate says that he is interested in tennis. But the interviewer must be of higher caliber and must guide and relate the information given by the applicant to the objective of the interview.
as the candidate moves from room to room. 7) Panel Interview : A panel or interviewing board or selection committee may interview the candidate. so that each interviewer can ask questions in relation to his or her subject area of each candidate. 8) Sequential Interview : The sequential interview takes the one-to-one a step further and involves a series of interview.6) Group Interview : It is designed to save busy executive’s time and to see how the candidates may be brought together in the employment office and they may be interviewed. This type of interview pools the collective judgment and wisdom of the panel in the assessment of the candidate and also in questioning the faculties of the candidate. usually utilizing the strength and knowledgebase of each interviewer. usually in the case of supervisory and managerial positions. 63 .
especially when dealing with the large number of applicants. The structured questions provide a base of interview more conventional and permit greater insights into the unique differences between applicants. the interviewer while interviewing the job seekers uses a blend of structured and structured and unstructured questions. the interviewer uses preset standardized questions. It is useful when the interviewer tries to probe personal details of the candidate it analyse why they are not right for the job. But the Unpatterned interview lacks uniformity and worse. the interview is largely unplanned and the interviewee does most of the talking. 11) Mixed Interview: In practice. Applicants should be prepared at all times for on-the-spot interviews. especially in situations such as a job fair or a cold call. the later reveals more of his or her desire and problems. 10) Unstructured Interview: It is also known as ‘Unpatterned’ interview. Unguided interview is advantageous in as much as it leads to a friendly conversation between the interviewer and the interviewee and in the process. It is useful for valid results.9) Structures Interview : In a structured interview. This interview is also called as ‘Guided’ or ‘Patterned’ interview. this approach may overlook key areas of the applicant’s skills or background. This approach is called the Mixed Interview. It is an ideal time for employers to ask the 64 . which are put to all the interviewees. 12) Impromptu Interviews: This interview commonly occurs when employers are approached directly and tends to be very informal and unstructured.
Middle or senior management generally conducts the second interview. do not underestimate the value of casual discussion. or socially situated. If you are on your home telephone. some employers place a great value on it.candidate some basic questions to determine whether he/she may be interested in formally interviewing the candidate. Be prepared to switch gears rapidly. from fun talk to business 14) Telephone Interviews : Have a copy of your resume and any points you want to remember to say nearby. Decide what to eat quickly. talk. such as in a restaurant. Speak a bit slower than usual. however. informal. Avoid potentially messy foods. barking dogs etc. do not worry.). Be prepared for the conversation to abruptly change from friendly chat to direct interview questions. the interviewer is likely just taking some notes. 15) Second Interviews: Job seekers are invited back after they have passed the first initial interview. 65 . such as spaghetti. 13) Dinner Interviews: These interviews may be structured. make sure that all roommates or family members are aware of the interview (no loud stereos. since the interviewer cannot see your face. If there are pauses. It is crucial that you convey your enthusiasm verbally. some interviewers will ask you to order first (do not appear indecisive).
The telephone reference also has the advantage of soliciting immediate. But. and telephone references for the purpose of verifying information and interview to their advantage. The latter is advantageous because of its accuracy and low cost. known as public figures.together or separately. Previous employers. organisations sometimes hire applicants before checking references. and the employer will be expecting a greater level of preparation on the part of the candidates. Organisations normally seek letters of reference or telephone references. references are not usually checked until an applicant has successfully reached the fourth stage of a sequential selection process. The reasons are obvious: 1. Although listed on the application form. addresses. Applicants should continue to research the employer following the first interview. 66 . Previous employers are preferable because they are already aware of the applicant’s performance. relatively candid comments and attitude can sometimes be inferred from hesitations and inflections in speech. Applicants can expect more in-depth questions. neighbours or friends can act as references. The candidate approaches only those persons who would speak well about him or her. and be prepared to use any information gained through the previous STEP 4 : REFERENCE CHECK:Many numbers of employers request names. gaining additional background information on an applicant. university professors. It may be stated that the information gathered through references hardly influence selection decisions. the problem with this reference is the tendency on the part of the previous employers to over-rate the applicant’s performance just to get rid of the person. When the labour market is very tight. perhaps.
The HR manager plays a crucial role in the final selection. lest it might damage or ruin his/her career. the physical examination information can be used to determine if there are certain 67 . one reason for a physical test is to detect if the individual carries any infectious disease. People may not like to divulge the truth about a candidate. Thirdly. 3. People may write favorably about the candidate in order to get rid of him or her. The results of the medical fitness test are recorded in a statement and are preserved in the personnel records.must be made. the candidate is required to undergo a physical fitness test. The other stages in the selection process have been used to narrow the number of the candidates. Secondly. There are several objectives behind a physical test. selection decision. A job offer is. STEP 6 : PHYSICAL EXAMINATION : After the selection decision and before the job offer is made. often.the most critical of all the steps. The final decision has to be made the pool of individuals who pas the tests. STEP 5 : SELECTION DECISION:After obtaining information through the preceding steps. contingent upon the candidate being declared fit after the physical examination. interviews and reference checks.2. Obviously. The view of the line manager will be generally considered in the final selection because it is he/she who is responsible for the performance of the new employee. the test assists in determining whether an applicant is physically fit to perform the work.
If the new employee’s first job upon joining the company is to go on company until perhaps a week before such training begins. Thos is particularly necessary when he or she is already in employment. which means considerable preparation. medical check-up protects applicants with health defects from undertaking work that could be detrimental to them or might otherwise endanger the employer’s property. especially if the individual is unemployed and does not have sufficient finances. Naturally. Finally. this practice cannot be abused.physical capabilities. such an examination will protect the employer from workers compensation claims that are not valid because the injuries or illness were present when the employee was hired. Such a letter generally contains a date by which the appointee must report on duty. Their applicants may be preserved for future use. It needs no emphasis that the applications of selected candidates must also be preserved for the future references. Decency demands that the rejected applicants be informed about their non-selection. and movement of property. a new job may require movement to another city. STEP 7 : JOB OFFER : The next step in the selection process is job offer to those applicants who have crossed all the previous hurdles. Again. The appointee must be given reasonable time for reporting. which differentiate successful and less successful employees. Job offer is made through a letter of appointed. STEP 8 : CONTRACT OF EMPLOYMENT : 68 . if any. in which case the appointee is required to obtain a relieving certificate from the previous employer. The company may also want the individual to delay the date of reporting on duty. Fourth.
Job title 2. 69 . This form contains vital details about the candidate.) viii. 7. Holiday arrangements: i. method of payments. Maximum holiday that can be take at any one time. Hours of work including lunch break and overtime and shift arrangements.) iii. 3.) vi. Duties. Public holidays. Length of notice due to and from employee.) ix. Details of holiday year. as the company may from time to time direct”.) vii. including a parse such as “The employee will perform such duties and will be responsible to such a person. Qualifying period. The basic information that should be included in a written contract of employment will vary according to the level of the job.) Paid holidays per year. but the following checklist sets out the typical headings: 1. certain documents need to be executed by the employer and the candidate. Date when continuous employment starts and the basis for calculating service. 4. Calculation of holiday pay. Attestation form will be a valid record for the future reference. Accrual of holidays and holiday pay. allowance. Carry over of holiday entitlement. Dates when holidays can be taken.) v. There is also a need for preparing a contract of employment. 5. overtime and shift rates. which are authenticated and attested by him/her.) ii. 6.After the job offer has bee mad and candidates accept the offer. Rate of pay.) iv. One such document is the attestation form.
Special terms relating to rights to patent s and designs.8. Great care is taken to draft the contract forms. Work rules (or any reference to them). 12. 14. Such contracts seek to restrain job-hoppers. Employer’s right to vary terms of the contract subject to proper notification being given. Alternatively called employment agreements or simply bonds. Arrangements for union membership (if applicable). etc.) are engag4d to get the forms drafted and finalized. 10. Arrangements for terminating employment. confidential information and restraints on trade after termination of employment. Craigie. 9. services of law firms (prominent firms in this category include Mulla. Crawford Bailey. Often. Blunt and Caroe. advertising and media are more prone to use contracts. contract or no contract. But high turnover sectors such as software. to protect knowledge and information that might be vital to a company’s healthy bottom line and to prevent competitors from poaching highly valued employees. 11. STEP 9 : 70 . Disciplinary procedure (or any reference to it). contracts of employment serve many useful purposes. A determined employee is bound to leave the organisation. 13. Amarchand Mangaldas Hiralal. The employee is prepared to pay the penalty for breaching the agreement or the new employer will provide compensations. It is the reason that several companies have scrapped the contracts altogether. Most employers insist on agreements being signed by newly hired employees. The drawback with the contracts is that it is almost to enforce them. Grievances procedure (or reference to it).
2). staffing decisions are made at the organization’s headquarters. but the key jobs remain with staff from the parent country. People who work independent of HR department must conduct audit. Four Approaches to Selection: 1). Subsidiaries have limited autonomy. This is the approach. The selection process. Ethnocentric Selection : In this approach. They must be told that those who were selected were done purely on relative merit. each subsidiary is treated as a distinct national entity with local control key financial targets and investment decisions. and the employees from the headquarters at home and abroad fill key jobs. but because their profile did not match the requirement of the organisation. will ensure availability of such employees. An organisation must have competent and committed personnel. Polycentric Selection : In polycentric selection. How to evaluate the effectiveness of a selection programme? A periodic audit is the answer. the selection process will not end with executing the employment contract. Local citizens manage subsidiaries. not because of any serious deficiencies in their personality. There is another step – amore sensitive one reassuring those candidates who have not selected.CONCLUDING THE SELECTION PROCESS : Contrary to popular perception. if properly done. which is largely practiced in our country 71 . The table below contains an outline that highlights the areas and questions to be covered in a systematic evaluation. STEP 10 : EVALUATION OF SELECTION PROGRAMME : The broad test of the effectiveness of the selection process is the quality of the personnel hired. Nationals from the parent country dominate the organisations at home and abroad.
reliability and pressure. The impediments. in composition. Regiocentric Selection : Here. PROBLEMS IN EFFECTIVE SELECTION : The main objective of selection is to hire people having competence and commitment. 4). Staff development and promotion are based on ability. Regional managers have greater discretion in decision. business strategy is integrated thoroughly on global basis. Geocentric Staffing : In this case. Needless to say. fairness. Movement of staff is largely restricted to specific geographical regions and promotions to the jobs continue to be dominated by managers from the parents company. 72 . such organisations are Perception: Our inability to understand others accurately is probably the most fundamental barrier to selecting the right candidate. not nationality. are perception. which check effectiveness of selection. This objective s often defeated because of certain barriers.3). validity. reflecting the particular disposition of business and operations within the group. The broad and other parts of the top management structure are thoroughly international uncommon. control within the group and the movements of staff are managed on a regional basis.
as explained earlier.Selection demands an individual or a group of people to assess and compare the respective competencies of others. It can only increase possibility of success. We all perceive the world differently. a reliable test may fail to predict job performance with precision. with the aim of choosing the right persons for the jobs. Validity: Validity. But our views are highly personalized. Our limited perceptual ability is obviously a stumbling block to the objective and rational selection of the people. Like validated test. A test that has been validated can differentiate between the employees who perform well and those who will not. a validated test does not predict job success accurately. region. Fairness: Fairness in selection requires that no individual should be discriminated against on the basis of religion. Pressure: - 73 . which will produce consistent results when repeated in similar situations. is a test that helps predict job performance of an incumbent. But the low numbers of women and other less privileged sections of the society in middle and senior management positions and open discrimination on the basis of age in job advertisements and in the selection process would suggest that all the efforts to minimize inequity have not been effective. However. Reliability: A reliable method is one. race or gender.
interview and medical examination are conducted in order to select most suitable candidates. 74 . 4. publicity is given to them and applications are collected from interested candidates. In the selection process. who are interested and also qualified for job. It creates proper base for actual selection.Pressure is brought on the selectors by politicians. Difference (Recruitment and Selection) 1.) Recruitment is the process of searching for prospective candidates and motivating them to apply for job in the organisation Whereas.) Recruitment is prior to selection.) Recruitment is the positive function in which interested candidates are encouraged to submit application. 5. Tests.) In the recruitment process. Selection is next to recruitment. relatives. bureaucrats. friends and peers to select particular candidates.) In recruitment the purpose is to attract maximum numbers of suitable and interested candidates through applications. Candidates selected because of compulsions are obviously not the right ones. 3. In selection process the purpose is that the best candidate out of those qualified and interested in the appointment. 2. available applications are scrutinized. vacancies available are finalized. Appointments to public sectors undertakings generally take place under such pressures. selection is a process of choosing most suitable candidates out of those. It is out of candidates’ available/interested.
) Recruitment is not costly. However. In recruitment publicity is given to vacancies and applications are collected from different sources Selection is a lengthy process. it is a major source of recruitment for prestigious companies.Selection is a negative function in which unsuitable candidates are eliminated and the best one is selected. 7. and at premier management institutes such as the IIMs. 75 . It involves scrutiny of applications. Selection is a costly activity. A majority leave the organization within the first five years of their employment. as expenditure is needed for testing candidates and conduct of interviews. Infosys is the company of choice for campus recruitment programs in most major engineering institutes such as IITs. 6. Yet. giving tests. RECs etc. university department or institute will have a placement officer to handle recruitment functions. even if recruiting process produces job offers and acceptances eventually. CAMPUS: Campus recruitment is so much sought after that each college. arranging interviews and medical examination.) In recruitment services of expert is not required Whereas in selection. it is often an expensive process.) Recruitment is the short process. Expenditure is required mainly for advertising the posts. services of expert is required 8.
We hire management graduates from all disciplines. JOB FAIRS: What is job fair? 76 . Management Institutes: Campus hiring at management institutes typically starts in December and continues through March. with or without prior work experience in software or other fields. Shortlisted candidates are usually invited for an interview as part of the selection process. young and talented leaders for the company. These candidates also go through the same two rounds. All applications are pre-screened based on academic credentials. to bring on board the next generation of bright. here only the scale and basis on which they are evaluated changes.Engineering Institutes: Campus hiring at engineering institutes typically starts in May and continues through September. and MCA students at the campuses. We hire engineering graduates and post-graduates from all disciplines. We encourage current students at the campuses we visit to use this opportunity to interact with the Infosys recruitment teams during the hiring process to understand the company and our people philosophy. it just aims at giving those candidates a chance that were not able to go through the process before. OFF CAMPUS: It is the event for those candidates who do not get selected during campus recruitment. The process remains the same. Senior managers and officers from Infosys actively participate in this hiring.
Once the test is over. On the specified date. after going through certain recruitment process followed by them. 77 . registrations for the next group start. Next a logic test of 45 minutes is conducted and an English test of 15 minutes is conducted where in one is suppose to write an essay. Infosys banners are put up at the venue. Initially these counters are used for registrations. vocabulary and sentence framing ability. The candidates who are selected in the interview are informed then and there by displaying the list and are given the offer.Job fair is where several companies come under one roof for seeking eligible candidates who can join their company. They have around 3 to 4 counters. to check their handwriting. the registrations are stopped and the registered candidates fill the application forms at the counter. Once the number of registrations is equal to the total capacity of all the counters. At the same time the previous papers are evaluated and the candidates are selected for interview based on the cut-off marks. PROCESS FOLLOWED BY PEPSICO: Initially they advertise about the job fair in the local newspapers of all the states specifying the venue and date of the job fair.
The process is repeated for the next set of candidates. as many recruiters prefer advertisements because of their wide reach. Pepsico advertises in: NEWS PAPERS: Times of India The economic times Indian express Hindustan times The financial express Employment papers MAGAZINES: Business world Business Today India Today capital market Business journals magazines WEB: 78 . ADVERTISEMENTS:It is a popular method of seeking recruits. Job fair takes place for 3 to 4 days.
These jobseekers are asked to complete application forms for further processing. No application is required to be submitted to the recruiter. The advertisement sells the idea that the company and job are perfect for the candidate. Write-ins are those who send written enquiries.indiatimesjob. location of job.naukri. They are useful as they have nationwide contacts and lend professionalism to the hiring process. www.monster. growth aspects. WRITE-INS AND TALK-INS: Walk-ins are the most common and least expensive approach for candidates is direct applications. They also keep prospective employer and employee anonymous.com www. Talk-ins involves the job aspirants meeting the recruiter (on an appropriated date) for detailed talks.com www. job specifications. Direct applications provide a pool of potential employees to meet future needs. in which job seekers submit unsolicited application letters or resumes. working conditions. compensation including fringe benefits. etc. 79 .com Advertisements contain proper information like the job content. CONSULTANTS: Infosys also seeks the help of consultants who are in the profession for recruiting and selecting managerial and executive personnel. WALK-INS.
Normally for the posts of engineers degree cutoff is decided like say 60% on an average. A preliminary interview is conducted so as to select the suitable candidate who can go through further stages of interviews. INDUSTRIES: Infosys also hires experienced professionals from the industry at various mid-level and senior positions.related training. education. telephone number. And for higher posts applications and applicants both play a major role in the screening process. job. THE SELECTION PROCESS OF PEPSICO: Steps: 1. 2. work-experience 80 . Initial screening of interviews: Initial Screening is done on the basis of applicants and applications. Completion of application forms: Application form establishes the candidate’s general details like name. address. If the candidates do not meet the requirement they are rejected.
engineers. They are useful in selection of mechanics. The company establishes as many hypotheses about the candidate from the details provided in the application form. It then decides what areas of information it needs to explore or investigate more specifically during the interview.with dates. What drawn here is hypotheses and not conclusions. etc. they provide the necessary details to the organisation without affecting the sentiments and feelings of the candidate. hobbies and recreational pursuits. 3. and job details. company names. 81 . Company sees to it that no judgment is passed about the candidate based only at this level. Application forms are such framed that. Mechanical aptitude tests : They measure the ability of a person to learn a particular type of mechanical work. These tests helps to measure specialized technical knowledge and problem solving abilities if the candidate. Employment tests: logical test English test Vocabulary Reasoning Essay writing VARIOUS TESTS: Mental or intelligence tests : They measure the overall intellectual ability of a person and enable to know whether the person has the mental ability to deal with certain problems. professional or industrial involvement.
presence of mind (alertness). big letters and emphasis on capital letters indicate a tendency towards domination and competitiveness. where personality plays an important role. Patterned Interview : A patterned interview is also a planned interview. Mental ability. skills. behavior under stress and strain. It is taken to judge numerical.Intelligence test : This test helps to evaluate traits of intelligence. numerical ability. It has been said that an individual’s handwriting can suggest the degree of energy. social or interpersonal skills. with the help of well structured questions. For example. With the help of 82 . memory and such other abilities. etc. but it is more carefully preplanned to a high degree of accuracy. memory and such other aspects can be measured. moderate pressure and good legibility show leadership potential. inhibition and spontaneity. as well as disclose the idiosyncrasies and elements of balance and control. Interview: Formal Interview : Interviews are held in the employment office in a more formal atmosphere. A slant to the right. reasoning. this test is very much essential on case of selection of sales force. Medical Test: It reveals physical fitness of a candidate. precision and exactitude. etc. Personality Test : It is conducted to judge maturity. 4. Medical servicing helps measure and monitor a candidate’s physical resilience upon exposure business hazards. Graphology Test : It is designed to analyse the handwriting of individual. public relation staff.
For example.g. He encourages the candidate to talk by a little prodding whenever he is silent e. Stress Interview : It is designed to test the candidate and his conduct and behavior by him under conditions of stress and strain. A good candidates will not yield. “Mr. Depth Interview : It is designed to intensely examine the candidate’s background and thinking and to go into considerable detail on particular subjects of an important nature and of special interest to the candidates.job and man specifications. The interviewer may start with “Mr. we do not think your qualifications and experience are adequate for this position. on the contrary he may substantiate why he is qualified to handle the job. The interviewer has no formal or directive questions. but his all attention is to the candidate. if the candidate says that he is interested in tennis. 83 . Joseph. The idea is to give the candidate complete freedom to “sell” himself. a series of questions may be asked to test the depth of understanding and interest of the candidate. Non-directive Interview : Here the interviewee is allowed to speak his mind freely.’ and watch the reaction of the candidates. without the encumbrances of the interviewer’s question. please tell us about yourself after you’re graduated from high school”. a list of questions and areas are carefully prepared which will act as the interviewer’s guide. Ray.
Middle or senior management generally conducts the second interview. 5. usually in the case of supervisory and managerial positions. Previous employers are preferable because they are already aware of the applicant’s performance. addresses. References are not usually checked until an applicant has successfully reached the fourth stage of a sequential selection process. Mixed Interview : In practice. More in-depth questions are asked to the candidate and the employer expects a greater level of preparation on the part of the candidates. Second Interviews: Job seekers are invited back after they have passed the first initial interview. together or separately. it will start candidate’s interview at 6. 84 .What Pepsico practice is that if interview is planned at 5pm. the interviewer while interviewing the job seekers uses a blend of structured and structured and unstructured questions. The structured questions provide a base of interview more conventional and permit greater insights into the unique differences between applicants.30pm and watch the candidate’s behavior and stress level. and telephone numbers of references for the purpose of verifying information and perhaps. Panel Interview : A panel or interviewing board or selection committee interviews the candidate. Background Information: PEPSICO requests names. gaining additional background information on an applicant. This approach is called the Mixed interview.
Secondly. 5. 4. the selected person is induced and placed at the right job. 85 . The results of the medical fitness test are recorded in a statement and are preserved in the personnel records. Final Employment decision: It is a final step. A job offer is. 3. the candidate is required to undergo a physical fitness test. Fourth. Training is provided on regular basis that is monthly. depends upon the candidate being declared fit after the physical examination. quarterly. In this step company makes a very important decision. There are several objectives behind a physical test: 1. 6. The latter is advantageous because of its accuracy and low cost. the physical examination information can be used to determine if there are certain physical capabilities.e. which differentiate successful and less successful employees. often. In one batch there are 60 employees who are sent to Bangalore for training. These trainers have the experience of about 15-20 yrs. Physical Examination: After the selection decision and before the job offer is made. the test assists in determining whether an applicant is physically fit to perform the work. medical check-up protects applicants with health defects from undertaking work that could be detrimental to them or might otherwise endanger the employer’s property. After all these processes follow up is done i. Finally. One reason for a physical test is to detect if the individual carries any infectious disease. Thirdly.. such an examination will protect the employer from workers compensation claims that are not valid because the injuries or illness were present when the employee was hired. 7. 2.It normally seeks letters of reference or telephone references.
Ina bid to underscore this subtle point. the logical step in the HR process is the selection of qualified and competent people. This is where the complementary roles of Recruitment and Selection come in. however. a satisfied workforce is a stable workforce which also ensures that an organization has credible and reliable performance. These days. an organization safeguards its interests and standing. deliberated and studied. the emphasis is on aligning the organization’s objectives with that of the individual’s. Taking a closer perspective -it is the very quality of this asset that sets an organization apart from the others. the project examines the various processes and nuances one of the most critical activities of an organization. The end result of the recruitment process is essentially a pool of applicants.those individuals whose abilities are consistent with the organization’s requirements. The role of these aspects in the contemporary organization is a subject on which the experts have pondered. As such.Conclusion: The human element of organization is the most crucial asset of an organization. Every organization tailors the processes keeping in mind the nature of the organization.to yield a perfect employee for the organization. By making this a priority. its needs and constraints. Next to recruitment. this process concentrates on differentiating between applicants in order to identify – and hire. The reader will do well to note that the transition between the 2 activities is not stringent. the very element that brings the organization’s vision into fruition. The essence of recruitment can be summed up as ‘the philosophy of attracting as many applicants as possible for given jobs’. 87 . one can grasp the strategic implications that the manpower of an organization has in shaping the fortunes of an organization. The face value of this definition is what guided recruitment activities in the past. After all. Nor are these activities typecast. The 2 activities basically have one aim. considering the vital role that they obviously play. Thus.
In this project, we examine this angle through the case studies of 2 companies, involved in the same sector but essentially different in their perceptions towards recruitment and selection. And both seem to have benefited from their take on the 2 processes. In the end, this project endeavors to present a comprehensive picture of Recruitment and Selection and hopes to enable the reader to appreciate the various intricacies involved. .
The current study is based up on the information provided by the company. So the scope of the study fall within limitations of the current period of the company. The study is mainly concerned with the PepsiCo Jamshedpur unit.
The scope and period of study is restricted to the following. The scope is limited to the operations of PEPSICO CO information obtained from Primary and Secondary sources.
The key performance indications were taken from the period of duration, April 2012. The study is conducted under particular territories only, so the results cannot be generalize for entire division.
So the data which I collected is limited to the specified period only. The sample size of 50 might not represent the perception of whole population
We give the following suggestion that can be use for better management and the profitability of the company. The Pepsi is not so strong as compare to Coco cola. Its need to be more stronger for better competition. The company should provide attractive offer to indirect employees. The employee should be trained and to be effective towards their works. They should create open communication between management and employee. Pepsi fridge and racks should be make easily available for the retailers. More emphasis should be given in retaining and building loyalty among retailers while at the same time new retailers should be encouraged to sell Pepsi. Another brand of Cola flavor should be introduced and it should have strong taste and more fizz so as to attract the customers who like Thumps up more than Pepsi. Knowledge management,learning,and training should be in time. The company should concentrate on the brand awareness of its product. Must focus on hygienic substances like bottles, cane, packaging etc. Always should conduct interviews to remove grievance and to motivate employees. It must content a grip box as suitable place of factory.
John M. Ivancevich. 1956 91 . W. Steve Kneeland. Tata McGraw. Proper re-training should be provide in order to get better work efficiency. Stone.E Effective Personnel Selection Procedures. Tata McGraw. Incentives should be provide in order to motivate employees.Hill 131-176 2. Harold C and Kendell. discover an effective interviewing system. Chris Dukes. (2001) Recruiting the Right Staff 3. Management policy should be in favor of employees and easy adaptable. recruit outstanding performers 5. REFERENCES 1. (1999) Hiring People. K Ashwathappa.Hill. (1997) Human Resource and Personnel Management. Management should concentrate on better technology for raw syrup. 2004 4. Human Resource Management. avoid hiring the wrong person.
MARCH. 2012 92 .BIBLIOGRAPHY NEWS PAPERS: TIMES OF INDIA THE ECONOMIC TIMES MAGAZINES: BUSINESS WORLD BUSINESS TODAY INDIA TODAY PERIODICALS AND REPORTS: BUSINESS INDIA.
What type of industry does your organization participate in? ___________________________________________________________________________________ 2.com www.com www.learningmate.INDIA TODAY.google. MARCH. How many staff do you employ? ___________________________________________________________________________________ 3. What percentage of your employees are employed: Full time ___________________________________% Part time __________________________________% Casual ____________________________________% Temporary _________________________________% Contract ___________________________________% 7. How involved are the unions in your particular industry? (please circle) Not at all Low level Medium Level High Level 93 . 2012 WEB: www.com Questionnaire 1. What percentage of your workforce is low skilled? ____________________________________________________________________________________ 5. What percentage of your workforce is unskilled? __________________________________________________________________________________ 6.soople. What percentage of your workforce is high skilled? ___________________________________________________________________________________ 4.
Does the recruitment and selection strategy differ for each category? ___________________________________________________ 11. do you use the Internet site for recruitment? 14. How would you rate the turnover of staff in your organisation? (please circle) High Medium Low 9. Do you take into account any legislative requirements when recruiting? (please list) ___________________________________________________ 16. Do you have more than one category or type of employee? If yes. If you advertise a position in the newspaper. Do you have a requisition form for vacant or new positions? Yes Yes Yes No No No 15. Do you have an Internet site? (please circle) If yes. Do you use job descriptions and/or duty statements? Yes No 17. ___________________________________________________ 10. Which of the following sources do you use for recruitment? (please circle) (i)Newspaper Internet (iv)Word of Mouth (vi)Executive Search (viii)Recruitment Agency (ii)Referrals (iii)University Notice Boards (v)Graduate Recruitment Services (vii)Employment Consultant (viiii)Other (please list) 19.8. How often are job descriptions reviewed? (please circle) Not at all Monthly Every 3months Every 6 months Yearly As position becomes vacant 18. what paper do you use? (please circle) Local (i)Metropolitan daily (i)Suburban 94 . Who is responsible for recruitment in the organisation? ___________________________________________________ 12. Who is responsible for selection in the organisation? ___________________________________________________ 13. please list.
How would you class your interview structure? (please circle) Formal & structured Semi-structured Unstructured 29. how often? ________________________________ 25. do you acknowledge the application? Yes No 26. If you require applications and resumes to be sent in. Do you use recruitment agencies? Yes No If yes. how often? ________________________________ 24. Do you use employment consultants? Yes No If yes. Do you have an orientation program? 32. Do you notify all applicants even if they are unsuccessful? Yes No Yes No Yes No 95 . Do you have a specific room to conduct interviews in? 31. What type of interview technique do you use? (please circle) Listening Questioning Note-taking Other (please list) __________________________________ 30. what percentage was internal to external? Internal _________% External _________% 23. In the last five positions that you filled.20. Do you have an application form? Yes No 21. Do you use interviews as part of your recruitment process? Yes No 27. What type of interview process do you use? (please circle) Panel One on one Stress Group Video conference Telephone interview Computer-assisted interview Other (please list) _________________________________ 28. Does the organisation have a policy regarding internal recruitment versus external recruitment? _______________________________________ 22.
33. Do you have an evaluation process for recruitment & selection? Yes No 96 .
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