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According to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK), a ―project‖ is a temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product or service.‖ 2. Triple constraint- project scope, time and cost 3. A portfolio is a collection of projects or programs and other work that are grouped together to facilitate effective management of that work to meet strategic business objectives. The projects or programs in the portfolio may not necessarily be interdependent or directly related 4. Project Portfolio Management is a management process to select the projects that should be invested in. Specifically, it is the selection process based on the need, profitability, and affordability of the proposed projects. 5. A project management office (PMO) is an organizational unit to centralize and coordinate the management of projects under its domain. A PMO can also be referred to as a "program management office," "project office," or "program office." A PMO oversees the management of projects, programs, or a combination of both 6. Project management is a set of tools and techniques that are used to organize the work of the project to help bring about a successful project. 7. The contract between the organization and the vendor super cedes all other workrelated documents 8. Customers, internal or external, are the most important stakeholders in a project 9. Scope verification must take place at the end of each phase 10. Money already spent on a project is called sunk cost and should not be taken into consideration when determining if a project should continue. Instead, the cost of the work to complete is one of the elements that should be taken into consideration when considering to kill a project 11. Phase end reviews are also called phase exits, phase gates, or kill points. 12. The project life cycle goes through a series of phases to create the product 13. Project managers manage things, but lead people. What's the difference? Management is the process of getting the results that are expected by project stakeholders. Leadership is the ability to motivate and inspire individuals to work towards those expected results. 14. Project 1. Projects don't last forever. They are temporary and unique
2. Projects pass through logical phases to reach their completion 3. Purpose of Project is to attain its objective and then terminate 15. Operations 1. Operations, however, do go on and on. They are ongoing and repetitive 2. Operations may be influenced, or even created, by the outcome of a project 3. Objective of an ongoing operation is to sustain business 16. Organization Structure 1. Functional 2. Matrix 1. Weak 2. Balanced 3. Strong 3. Projectized 17. Organization Structure And Project Characteristics 1. Functional 1. PM's Authority [Little or none] 2. Resource Availability [Little or none] 3. Who controls Project Budget [Functional Manager] 4. PM's Role [Part - Time] 5. PM Admin Staff [Part - Time] 2. Weak Matrix 1. PM's Authority [Limited] 2. Resource Availability [Limited] 3. Who controls Project Budget [Functional Manager] 4. PM's Role [Part - Time] 5. PM Admin Staff [Part - Time] 3. Balanced Matrix 1. PM's Authority [Low to moderate] 2. Resource Availability [Low to moderate] 3. Who controls Project Budget [Mixed] 4. PM's Role [Full - Time] 5. PM Admin Staff [Part - Time] 4. Strong Matrix 1. PM's Authority [Moderate to high] 2. Resource Availability [Moderate to high] 3. Who controls Project Budget [Project Manager] 4. PM's Role [Full - Time] 5. PM Admin Staff [Full - Time] 5. Projectized 1. PM's Authority [High to almost total] 2. Resource Availability [High to almost total] 3. Who controls Project Budget [Project Manager] 4. PM's Role [Full - Time] 5. PM Admin Staff [Full - Time] 18. The WBS is a decomposition of all the deliverables the project will create
Each resource in the project must be accounted for and assigned to a cost category. which typically increases cost. 31. For example. The critical path is the longest path to completion in the network diagram. Walk-throughs 20. overtime issues. Inspections may also be known as: a. a project may require the project team to work nights and weekends so as not to disturb the ongoing operations of the organization during working hours. the project calendar accounts for holidays. Total float is the amount of time an activity can be delayed without affecting the project end date. and so on 24.' 'optimistic. Heuristic is simply a rule of thumb 30. Specifically. Product reviews c. and work shifts that the project will cover 23. 26. Resource calendar The resource calendar controls when resources. Categories include the following: a. Crashing involves adding resources. In addition. Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) uses a weighted average formula to predict the length of activities and the project. 28. PERT uses a 'pessimistic. such as project team members. Crashing adds more resources to activities to decrease their duration. consultants. Audits d. Labor costs . Reviews b. other commitments within the organization. and SMEs are available to work on the project. 27. Project calendar This calendar shows when work is allowed on the project. Fast tracking adds risk as tasks are allowed to overlap 32. Free float is the amount of time an activity can be delayed without affecting the next activity's scheduled start date. It takes into account vacations. or restrictions on contracted work. Activities on the critical path have no float or slack. working hours.' and 'most likely' estimate to predict when the project will be completed 25. which typically adds cost 22. Graphical evaluation and review technique (GERT) models allow for loops and conditional branching 21. 29.19.
b. Referent 40. There are five types of powers the project manager yields: (R F C E R) a. different grades of metal. according to the PMBOK. Schedules b.b. Resources d. Administrative policies and procedures . Definitive estimates This estimate type is one of the most accurate. Reward b. Technical beliefs e. The design of experiments (DOE) approach relies on statistical what-if scenarios to determine what variables within a project will result in the best outcome. 37. 38. Software costs g. Travel costs d. Priorities c. and even different grades of travel. Expert & Reward are considered the best types of powers and Coercive (penalty) is "Least" for obvious reasons 42. There are three generally accepted categories of estimating accuracy: a. Special categories (inflation. Seven reasons for conflict. Quality is the sum of the characteristics of a product that allow it to meet the demands or expectations of the project 36. The range of variance for the estimate can be –25 percent to +75 percent. cost reserve. The range of variance for the estimate can be –10 percent to +25 percent. Supplies e. The opportunity cost is the amount of the project that was not chosen 35. Coercive (penalty) d. Grade. ―is a category or rank given to entities having the same functional use but different technical characteristics. in order of most common to least common: a. Among the above powers Reward. The range of variance for the estimate can be –5 percent to +10 percent. Expert e. It is used late in the planning processes and is associated with bottom-up estimating. Rough order of magnitude This estimate is ―rough‖ and is used during the Initiating processes and in top-down estimates. 34. Material costs c. c.‖ For example. Formal c. there are different grades of paint. Design of experiments is an analytical technique that identifies the elements or variables that will have the greatest effect on overall project outcomes 39. Hardware costs f. and so on) 33. Budget estimate This estimate is also somewhat broad and is used early in the planning processes and also in top-down estimates. Formal & Coercive (penalty) come with the "Position" 41.
Subcontract c. and voice inflections b. All contracts in the United States are backed by the US court systems 54. According to the Guide to the PMBOK.win) are the ONLY two modes that result in a RESOLUTION to the conflict. In a Weak Matrix structure. One of the first inputs to risk management is the project charter 49. Contracts are known by many names: a. Force majeure is a powerful and unexpected event. Purchase order d. Agreement b. and body language 48. or other confirmation signals c. When a project is performed under contract. the contract can serve as the project charter . Compromising (lose . Five different approaches to conflict resolution a. functional management will have more authority than the project manager 47. Feedback: sender confirmation of the message by asking questions. such as a hurricane or other disaster 52. the project charter should be published by a manager external to the project but with sufficient power and authority to carry it off. 55. Brainstorming is likely the most common approach to risk identification 51. Effective listening: receiver offers confirmation of the message. Historical information is always an excellent source of information for risk identification 50. Within communicating there are five characteristics that affect the message: a. Smoothing e. for a response. Confronting (Problem Solving) is the best problem-solving technique since it meets the problem directly 46. e. Memorandum of understanding 53. Problem solving (win .lose) d. such as nodding their head. or other interactions. Withdrawal NOTE: Forcing (win .lose) and Problem Solving (win . 44.lose) c. Personalities 43. The halo effect is the promoting the person to manage projects since he/she is good at a technology 45. Costs g. Forcing (win .win) [BEST] b. hand gestures. tone. Active listening: receiver confirms message receipt d. Paralingual: pitch. asking questions. Nonverbal: facial expressions.f.
the project manager is identified and assigned as an output of the Initiation process. 63. The work package level is the lowest level in the WBS. preferential logic. It is a top-down estimating technique that considers previous similar activities when calculating estimates 69. Cause-and-effect diagrams. also called preferred logic. The WBS is the deliverables-oriented hierarchy of project work. "Best Practice‖ often refers to a specific sequence of work. Time and cost estimation is easily determined at this level as are resource assignments. project managers are very often assigned at the beginning of this process. Mandatory dependency. It is an output of Organizational Planning 68. These are collectively known as the code of accounts 65. are defined by the project management team 71. their requirements. 62. The primary function of the Closing process is to formalize project completion and disseminate this information to the project participants 61. Analogous estimating is not a qualitatively based technique. The staffing management plan details how and when human resources will be added to and taken off the project. The code of accounts is assigned to the elements in the WBS 64. also known as hard logic. According to the Guide to the PMBOK.56. 67. desc ribed in terms of ―Soft Logic‖. Quality control measurements can be determined at this level as well. and measurable criteria used to determine project completion 58. Sometimes "Experience" is also attributes to Soft Logic . Mandatory dependencies are inherent in the nature of the work 70. Each element in the WBS is assigned a unique identifier. Cost reimbursable contracts are used when the degree of uncertainty is high and when the project requires a large investment prior to completion of the project 57. The scope statement contains an exhaustive list of the project deliverables. The scope statement is an output to the Scope Definition process and is used to create the WBS 59. and soft logic. The Responsibility Assignment Matrix (RAM) links project roles and responsibilities with project activities 66. also called Ishikawa or fishbone diagrams. In practice. show the relationship between the effects of quality problems and their causes 60. Discretionary dependencies.
TQM = Quality must be managed in and must be a continuous process 83.4 defects per million. Joseph M. 85. Six Sigma = Six Sigma is a measurement-based strategy. b. Formally authorizes the project. Quality by design. 82. Myers Brigg‘s theory states that ―Sensing‖ and ―Intuition‖ personality types are related to ―Information‖ preference in other words ‗Hard Data verses what might be‘ 78. Norming and Performing ‖ are the stages of team development 76. Statement of work (SOW) comprises of 1. Edwards Deming suggested that as much as 85 percent of the cost of quality is a management problem 81. Project Charter. 86. States what work is to be accomplished and what deliverables need to be produced. Conflict should be addressed early and usually in private. Juran = Fitness for use. Continuous improvement = Watch continuously for ways to improve quality. no more than 3. using a direct.72. States how the work will be performed 74. conformance. Organization. According to Bruce Tuckmann. c. Shewhart = Plan-Do-Check-Act cycle. WBS Dictionary‖ is a document which describes the details for each component in the WBS. There are three major documents and each has a specific purpose: a. Philip Crosby devised the zero defects theory. Product Scope Description and 3. 79. Business Need 2. improve quality of people first. Finish to start is the most commonly used logical relationship in PDM and most project management software packages 73. The performing stage is similar to Maslow‘s self-actualization 77. collaborative approach 88. Juran is noted for his fitness for use premise. Storming. Strategic Plan 87. Project Management Plan. ―Forming. It includes a breif description of the of the ―Scope‖ or ―Statement of the . Simply put. Project Scope Statement. 84. 80. Kaizen = Continuous improvement. W. Proper Quality Planning leads to less rework and higher productivity 75. Environmental & external assumptions should be addressed by the Project Charter 89. this means the stakeholders‘ and customers‘ expectations are met or exceeded. meaning do it right the first time.
Histograms. Critical Chain Project Management‖ is typically the ―Management of Buffers‖ 93. 2. c. The key components of the communication model include: a. Also referred as ―collocated‖ 101. 98.work‖ . 91. S curves. Noise. There are 3 stages of ―reaction to stress‖ (Alarm. Order of Magnitude estimates are also knows as conceptual. 2. Intelligence. Decode. and a list of milestones 90. Bar charts. 3. Ambition. Flexibility. ballpark or preliminary estimates 100. Strategies for ―Postive Risks or Opportunities‖ (Share Exploit Enhance) 103. Technical inability and poor risk management by the contractor is mostly the reason for the project not to meet the customer expectations 92. 97. The Critical Chain method adds duration buffers that are non-work schedule activities to maintain focus on the planned activity durations 95. Some of the traits/qualities exhibited by effective leaders are 1. e. ―Tight Matrix‖ is putting all project personnel together. 99. a list of associated activities. 3. and 4. Common Strategy for both threats and opportunities is ―Acceptance‖ 104. defined deliverables. ―Prevention Costs‖. 2. d. Critical Chain is another schedule network analysis technique that modifies the project schedule to account for limited resources 94. Tables. Cost Of Quality (COQ) are the cost types in modern quality management 1. b. Common formats for performance reports include 1. Encode. Project Manager must consider ―cultural differences‖ while deciding upon recongnization and rewards during team development. Medium. . Resistance & Exhaustion) 105. Strategies for ―Negative Risks or threats‖ (Avoid Transfer Mitigate) 102. Message. ―failure costs‖ 96. ―appraisal costs‖ & 3. Face-to-face meetings are the most effective means for communicating and resolving issues with stakeholders.
Quality Control is done first.Decisiveness. o planning: project management plan. An abnormal trend is formed when seven or more consecutive data points reflect a steadily increasing or decreasing pattern over time 108. Chart of Accounts monitors project costs by category 113. arrows are activities and nodes are dependencies 116. In decision tree. 7. while ADM can use more than one time estimate. quality audits. ADM tasks can only have FS relationships 118. Quality Assurance (Executing) is focused on process: process analysis. which is part of Project Plan and note its NOT WBS. 119. 110. In Precedence Diagramming Method (PDM) or Activity on Node (AON) network diagrams. 5. PDM uses one time estimate to determine duration. o Risk Audit in Risk Monitoring and Control. Persistence and Energy 106. Code of Accounts identifies WBS items. Detailed Tasks are detailed in ―Project Schedule‖. Quality Control (Monitoring and Controlling) is focused on sampling results to see if they meet quality standards 112. Scope Verification is done during Project monitoring and controlling BUT Product verification is done during the Project Closing 120. a circle is a chance 114. etc. 6. Scope Verification is concerned with the acceptance of deliverables 109. Dummies are only used on ADM 117. nodes are activities and arrows are dependencies 115. 111. o Procurement Audits in Close Contracts 121. The outputs of process groups are: o initiating: charter and preliminary scope statement. In Arrow Diagramming Method (ADM) or Activity on Arrow (AOA) network diagrams. Creativity. 4. . Audits: o Quality Audit in Perform QA. Quality control is concerned with making sure the deliverables meet quality requirements. o Inspections and Audits in Contract Administration. both are Monitoring and Controlling processes. WBS is a ―deliverable oriented document‖ 107.
and helps you determine what additional training would be beneficial. corrective actions and preventative actions. & 3. stakeholder notifications and status reports. o closing: project product. WBS Dictionary 128. formality and frequency. Manage Project Team is a Controlling Process. o Progress Report (what happened since the last report). Contingency Reserve (Known Unknowns) is for the risks remaining after the Risk Response Planning Management Reserve (Unknown Unknows is any extra amount reserved t cover ―unforeseen risks‖ . 124. o Variance Report (what happened vs. Scope Baseline includes 1. what should have happened). o Earned Value Report (focuses on Earned Value Management). These are typically done in tabular or graphical format. Develop Project Team is an Executing Process. WBS. 2. o Status Report (state of the project at the current time). Administrative closure focuses on closing the project or project phase whereas Contract closure focuses on closing a contract that is part of the project 130. Reporting formats: o Forecast Report (what is expected to happen on a project). A large portion of the PM‘s time while the work is being done is spent measuring and implementing corrective actions 129. Project Close Process includes creation of two procedures o Administrative closure procedure and o Contract closure procedure The difference between the two is focus. It creates a Team Performance Assessment. which are comparisons of performance to the performance baselines. It creates Organizational Process Assets such as project presentations. Project Scope Statement.o executing: work results. It creates input to performance appraisals as well as recommended changes. 123. Information Distribution is an Executing process. It creates Performance Reports. o monitoring: corrective actions. 126. 122. 125. Performance Reporting is a Controlling process. 127.
Senior Management is responsible for the Quality of entire Organization 135. Change control system. Payback period does not consider the time value of money and is therefore the least precise of all the cash flow analysis techniques 141. and expectations of stakeholders and prioritize and quantify those needs into project requirements 145. The project charter names the project manager and gives that person the authority to assign organizational resources to the project 138. The PMIS in the Develop Project Management Plan process includes a subsystem called the configuration management system 143. The project charter (which is an output of the Develop the Project Charter process) is the written acknowledgment that the project exists. The purpose of the project scope statement is to document the project objectives. Stakeholder analysis is a tool and technique of Scope Definition used to determine and document the needs. Preliminary project scope statement describes the objectives of the project and the high level requirements needed to satisfy stakeholder expectations 142. Net present value (NPV) assumes reinvestment is made at the cost of capital 139.Cost Baseline will include the Contingency Reserve Cost Budget will include the Management Reserve 131. and requirements so that they can be used to direct the project . Quality is defined as the degree to which the project fulfills requirement 132. Quality MUST BE PLANNED IN AND NOT INSPECTED IN 133. wants. deliverables. Cost of Nonconformance is greater than the cost of conformance 136. which is a subsystem of the configuration management system 144. IRR assumes reinvestment at the IRR rate and is the discount rate when NPV is equal to zero 140. Most projects will fit one of the six needs and demands o Market demand o Business need o Customer request o Technological advance o Legal requirement o Social need 137. The Project Manager ultimately has the responsibility for the Product of the Project and 134.
and checklist analysis is a tool and technique of the Risk Identification process 155. 157. functionality and specific conditions that must be met in order to satisfy the project. The product scope description can be used as an input to the Scope Definition process when the project charter and/or preliminary project scope statement are missing 152. and poor morale 149. product breakdown. systems engineering. deliverables. The scope statement further elaborates the project objectives.team‘s work and as a basis for future project decisions 146. Failure costs. Benchmarking compares previous similar activities to the current project activities to provide a standard to measure performance against. Failure costs include both internal and external costs. According to the PMBOK Guide. Alternatives identification is a tool and technique of the Scope Definition process that includes brainstorming and lateral thinking techniques 148. contract. scrapping. This results in rework. remember that the key to DOE is that it equips you with a statistical framework that allows you to change the variables that have the greatest effect on overall project outcomes at once instead of changing one variable at a time. . and constraints and assumptions defined in the preliminary scope statement. or specification describe the criteria for requirements. and downtime. Quality checklists are an output of the Quality Planning process. standard. For the exam. 154. Product analysis (TT Scope Definition) includes techniques such as value engineering. and functional analysis 151. is also known as the cost of poor quality. schedule delays. Cost-benefit analysis considers trade-offs in the Quality Planning process 156. Internal failure costs are costs associated with not meeting the customer‘s expectations while you still had control over the product. not objectives 150. value analysis. rework. The lowest level of any WBS is called the work package level 153. Poor scope definition might lead to cost increases. systems analysis. requirements. It serves as a basis for future project decisions 147.
an SOW. the risk management plan should include the following elements: o Methodology o Roles and responsibilities o Budgeting o Timing o Risk categories o Definitions of risk probability and impact o Probability and impact matrix o Revised stakeholder tolerances o Reporting formats o Tracking 162. The quality baseline is used to document the quality objectives of the project and is used as a basis for future Quality processes 159. The output of the Risk Identification process is the risk register. The risk register contains the following elements: o List of identified risks o List of potential responses o Root causes of risks o Updated risk categories 163. . and a milestone schedule for the WBS components 160. monitored. and controlled throughout the life of the project. Design of experiments is a tool and technique of the Quality Planning process that provides statistical analysis for changing key product or process elements all at once (not one at a time) to optimize the process 161. 166. According to the PMBOK Guide. Risk urgency assessment is a tool and technique of Qualitative Risk Analysis process 164. The WBS dictionary should be documented with the code of account identifier. The information-gathering techniques in the Risk Identification process are o brainstorming. the responsible organization. Qualitative Risk Analysis is a fast and easy method of determining probability and impact 165. The risk management plan details how risk management processes will be implemented. The process improvement plan is a subsidiary plan of the project management plan and targets inefficiencies in a process or activity. Responses to risks are documented in the risk register as part of the Risk Response Planning process 167.158. The risk management plan does not include responses to risks or triggers.
o root cause identification. o evaluation criteria. This is a strategy that can be used for either positive or negative risks. invitation for bid (IFB). Monte Carlo analysis is a simulation technique & not a Modeling technique 170. Understand the difference between bid and/or quotation and proposal for the exam. time period of services. A contract statement of work (SOW) contains the details of the procurement item in clear. and o SWOT analysis. The three outputs of the Plan Contracting process are o procurement documents (request for proposal (RFP).and o contract statement of work updates. Quantitative Risk Analysis analyzes the probability of risks and their consequences using a numerical rating 169. Tornado diagrams are often used to display sensitivity analysis data 171. When the question describes sensitivity analysis. The simplest form of ―Risk Analysis‖ is ―Sensitivity Analysis‖ 172. Following options are diagramming techniques of the Risk Identification process o Ishikawa diagram o Process flowchart o Influence diagram 173.o the Delphi technique. request for quotation (RFQ)). 168. which is a tool and technique of the Quantitative Risk Analysis process. It includes the following elements: o The project objectives o A description of the work of the project and any post project operational support needed o Concise specifications of the product or services required o The project schedule. concise terms. Passive acceptance is when the team has decided to take no action and make no plans for the risk. 176. request for information (RFI). o interviewing. Proposals are used when there are considerations other than price 177. 174. The PMBOK Guide divides contracts into three categories: o Fixed price or lump sum (biggest risk is borne by the seller & good when original scope is well defined) o Cost reimbursable (biggest risk is borne by the buyer) o Time and materials (T&M) 175. and work location . Bids or quotations are used when price is the only deciding factor among bidders.
and so on. According to the PMBOK Guide. someone who has input to the work or decisions o I = Inform. Standard forms can be nondisclosure agreements. According to the PMBOK Guide. Risk Response Planning. Risk Identification. Plan Purchases and Acquisitions. Standard forms are a tool and technique of the Plan Contracting process. 180. and the project schedule can directly influence this process 184. the RAM (Responsibility Assignment Matrix) relates the OBS to the WBS to assure that every component of the work of the project is assigned to an individual. and Activity Duration Estimating 187. someone who must be informed of the decisions or results 181. remember that resource availability isn‘t determined until the Executing stage and becomes an input to the Activity Resource Estimating process 186. Activity Resource Estimating. standardized contracts. The RAM and RACI charts are tools and techniques of Human Resource Planning process 182. using templates and checklists is one way to ensure that you don‘t miss any key responsibilities when planning the project and will help reduce the amount of time spent on project planning 179. Resource availability is an output of the Acquire Project Team and Select Seller processes 185. Activity Definition. the one who is responsible for producing the deliverable or work package and approves or signs off on the work o C = Consult. Schedule Development has 10 tools and techniques: o Schedule network analysis (produces the project schedule) o Critical path method () o Schedule compression o What-if scenario analysis o Resource leveling o Critical chain method o Project management software . Plan Purchases and Acquisitions can directly influence the project schedule. Remember that you cannot perform Schedule Development until you have completed all the following processes of project Planning: Scope Planning. Create WBS. For the exam. 183.178. The letters in the acronym RACI (sample portion of a type of RAM) are the designations are o R = Responsible for performing the work o A = Accountable. Activity Sequencing. Scope Definition.
o Extrinsic motivators are material rewards and might include bonuses. generally shows resource assignments. indicates a greater risk. the use of a company car. probable project durations 191. training opportunities. 199. Cost aggregation (TT of Cost Budgeting) is the process of tallying the schedule activity cost estimates at the work package level and then totaling the work package levels to higher level WBS component levels 194. Conversely. 192. The higher the standard deviation is for an activity. Cost baselines are displayed as an S curve. whereas critical chain manages buffer activity durations and resources 193. The introduction of a new team member will start the formation and development of the team all over again with the forming stage . 196. Motivation can be extrinsic or intrinsic. Parametric estimating multiplies a known element—such as the quantity of materials needed—by the time it takes to install or complete one unit of materials. Funding limit reconciliation (TT of Cost Budgeting) involves reconciling the amount of funds spent with the amount of funds budgeted for the project 195. a greater spread between the two. the higher the risk. determines float times. stock options. and so on o Intrinsic motivators are specific to the individual. and details the activity sequences and durations. which results in a higher number. Since standard deviation measures the difference between the pessimistic and the optimistic times. Monte Carlo is a simulation technique that shows the probability of all the possible project completion dates 190. Resource leveling can cause the original critical path to change. extra time off. The primary output of Cost Estimating is activity cost estimates 197.o Applying calendars o Adjusting leads and lags o Schedule model 188. CPM manages the total float of schedule networks paths. gift certificates. a low standard deviation means less risk 189. Monte Carlo analysis can be used in the Schedule Development process to determine multiple. The project schedule determines the start and ending dates of activities. Some people are just naturally driven to achieve—it‘s part of their nature 200. The result is a total estimate for the activity 198.
and o Documenting changes to verify that requirements are met. and subordinates. You are preparing project performance appraisals and have decided you‘d like each team member to get feedback regarding their performance from several sources. Select Sellers is the receipt of bids and proposals and the selection of a vendor 204. Schedule Control. o It also includes the change management system and o documents the process for requesting. are a way to check proposed pricing 205. Understand for the exam that configuration management involves o identifying the physical characteristics of the product. o and managing the change . o controlling changes to those characteristics. Activities associated with configuration change management in the Integrated Change Control process o Configuration identification o Configuration status accounting and o Configuration verification and auditing 210. and determining whether change requests should be approved or denied. This is called 360-degree feedback and is part of the project performance appraisals tool and technique of the Manage Project Team process. superiors. service. Fait accompli is a tactic used during contract negotiations where one party convinces the other that the particular issue is no longer relevant or cannot be changed 206. and Cost Control are all concerned with three issues: o influencing the things that cause change. 203. 208. The process analysis technique (TT of Perform Quality Assurance process) includes root cause analysis to analyze a problem and solution and to create preventive actions 207. 209. Integrated Change Control. Request Seller Responses obtains bids and proposals from vendors. tracking. o determining that change is needed or has happened. including peers. also called should cost estimates.201. or result of the project (or its individual components). Teams in the norming stage of Develop Project Team exhibit affection and familiarity with one another and make joint decisions 202. Independent estimates (TT of Select Sellers).
Change control systems do not approve or deny the changes—that‘s the responsibility of the configuration control board (CCB) 213. Workarounds deal with negative risk events as they occur. . Change control systems are documented procedures that describe o How to submit change requests. including Scope Change Control. Changes to noncritical path tasks will not likely impact the schedule. but changes to critical path tasks will always impact the schedule 221. Cost Control. 219. o track the change approval status. ―Approved‖ corrective action is an output of the Integrated Change Control process. You can remember the difference between Scope Verification and Perform Quality Control this way: o Scope Verification = accepting work results o Perform Quality Control = checking for correct work results (assuring that the quality requirements are met) 223. o They track the status of the change requests. Risk Monitoring and Control. 220. and o define the level of authority needed to approve changes. EVT (earned value techniques) compares what you‘ve received or produced to what you‘ve spent. Workarounds are unplanned responses. 216. Their authority is defined and outlined by the organization 214. 215. Remember that Integrated Change Control is where all change requests are processed and either approved or denied. o document the management impacts of change. Cost variances (both positive and negative) are calculated using a performance measurement analysis tool (specifically earned value techniques) 218. ―Recommended‖ corrective action is an output of several of the change control processes. Schedule variances will sometimes—but not always—impact the schedule. Projects come to an end for several reasons: o They‘re completed successfully. Budget updates might require cost rebaselining 222. and Perform Quality Control. The configuration control board (CCB) has the authority to approve or deny change requests. Schedule Control. 212. Also note that corrective action is an output of the Monitoring and Controlling processes and an input to the Executing processes 217.211.
Close Project and Contract Closure are the processes in the Closing process group and are performed in that order 234. 233. Four formal types of project endings exist that you might need to know for the exam: o Addition o Starvation o Integration o Extinction 225. 228. Contract Closure o Product verification (work was correct and satisfactory) o Formal acceptance and closure 232. Contract documentation is an input to both the Close Project and Contract Closure processes 227. Scope Verification o Verified work results 229. WBS element changes are scope changes. Perform Quality Control o Assured quality requirements were met 230. o They evolve into ongoing operations and no longer exist as projects. Note PMI defines ―Scope Statement‖ as the basis for making future project decisions and for confirming or developing common understanding of project scope among project stakeholders. This is an input to . whereas product documentation is verified and accepted during the Scope Verification process.o They‘re canceled or killed prior to completion. For the exam. the Scope Verification process is where the level of detail concerning the amount of work completed gets documented. Schedule revisions are often required as a result of scope changes. remember that product verification performed during the Closing processes determines whether all of the work of the project was completed correctly according to the contract terms and satisfactorily according to stakeholder expectations. Close Project o Product verification (work was correct and satisfactory) o Collecting project documents o Disseminating final acceptance notice o Documenting lessons learned o Archiving project records 231. 226. The work performance information is reviewed to determine the status of project activities and make certain the project goals and objectives are met. 224. One more note: when projects end prematurely.
243. 238. Appropriate for each stage of the product development life cycle 241. Decision Tree is a diagram that describes a decision under consideration and the implications of choosing one of the alternatives 242. or the lack of it. According to the PMBOK Guide. Hammocks are summary-level activities or aggregate activities shown as a summary activity on a project schedule network diagram. 9 ‗bilities‘ (A MAP FOR US) Maintainability: The ability of a unit to be restored within a specified time to its performance capability under the environmental operating conditions within a specified. the Charter is an excellent source to start to identify the Project Risks 244.the Close Project process 235. The Primary Objective of establishing a Quality Assurance Process is ―For Quality Improvement‖ 240. average period of time Usability: is the ability of a product to perform its intended function for the specified user under the prescribed conditions Reliability: is the degree to which a unit of equipment performs its intended function under specific conditions for specified period of time Availability: is the probability of the product being capable of performing a . The Project Charter provides the o high level requirements. Contract Negotiation has ―5‘ Sequential steps (Note Agreement is AFTER Closure) o Protocol o Probing o Scratch Bargaining o Closure and o Agreement 239. o stakeholders and o the measures of success. the procurement audit examines the procurement process from Procurement Planning through Contract Administration 236. ―Quality Function Deployment Process‖ identifies what the customer‘s needs are (Spoken/unspoken words) and translates those needs into technical requirements. Integrity means adhering to an ethical standard 237. o constraints. o assumptions. Based on this information.
its Fixed Price Contract but if they are not then its T & M 253. Activity Resource Estimating involves determining what physical resources (People. Punitive Damages are the damages intended to punish the wrong doer 255. Inputs to Performance Reporting are o Work Performance Information o Performance Measurements o Forecasted Completion o QC Measurement o Project Plan o Approved Change Requests and o Deliverables 260. Residual Risk are those that ―Remain‖ after Risk Responses have been taken 259. Delhi technique is a ―Consensus Technique‖ 258. Equipment. ―Utility Theory‖ considers the pains or tolerance level a stakeholder has to risk 256. Contract Management Plan is an OUTPUT to ―Select Seller Process‖ 254. A ―Product Description‖ should define the relationship between the product that is being created and the business need 249. There are three key components to a Risk o Risk Event (The Event) o Probability of the Event o Impact or Effects of the Event (Amount at Stake) 257. If Changes are well defined. Interpersonal communication takes three forms o Verbal o Non-verbal and o Written . etc) and what quantities should be used and when they would be needed to perform project activities 246.required function when called upon 245. Physical limitations are an attribute of ―Mandatory Dependencies‖ 247. A Project Phase is ―Marked by the completion of one or more deliverables‖ 248. Staff assignments and resource availability are the outputs of ―Acquire the Project Team‖ Process 251. Contingency Plans can be best described as ―Planned responses to Risk Events‖ 250. Complex and large projects would be more effectively managed in ―Strong‖ and ‗Projectized‖ Structure 252.
A Control Account is a management control point that can be placed at selected management points of the WBS above the Work Package Level 270. To convey information between two or more parties. 55% body language 262. It is used for planning unknown work content that does not have detailed schedule activities 263. Comparative (Benefit measurement Rating) Models o Decision Tree o Criteria Profiling o Weighted Factor o Q-Sorting o Delphi Technique 265. Constrained (Mathematical Decision Models) o Logical Framework Analysis o Linear Program Programming 266. the communication process must have a medium. 268. The ―Control Points‖ in the WBS used for isolated assignment to work centers are referred to as the ―Control Account Plan‖ 267. Control account Plan (CAP) is a management control point where the integration of scope.261. A ‗Planning Package‖ is a WBS component below the control account but above the work package. 38% vocal tones and 3. The three most common media are o Visual o Auditory and o Tactile 271. Cost Estimates include All Resources to be charged to the Project 269. There are two types of ―Decision Models‖ that can be used for Project Selection during the initiation Process o Comparative (Benefit measurement Rating) Models o Constrained (Mathematical Decision Models) 264. budget and schedule take place and where the measurement of performance takes place. These CAPS are placed at the selected management points in the WBS. 7% words . Four steps of performing RCA (Root Cause Analysis) are o Data Collection o Casual Factor Charting o Root Cause Identification o Recommendation Generating and Implementation 272. the total message impact from the sender is 1. When distributing information. 2. Scatter Diagrams are used to investigate the possible relationship between two variables that both relate to the same ―EVENT‖ .
Information seekers. like lines of code required by the time it takes to develop one line of code. Encouragers. ―To Complete Performance Indicator‖ (TCPI) determines the cost performance efficiency required to complete the project within the original budget (BAC) or revised budget (EAC). ―Eustress‖ is a stress that will motivate and contribute to an increase in performance 285. Its the TT of Contract Administration Process 279. Project performance is impacted by Four Basic Cultures o World o National o Business and o Leadership 275. related control functions and automation tools used by the PM to manage contract documentation and records. they are called ―Ethnocentric‖ 276. The result is the total estimate for the activity 286. Withdrawer. Recognizer. Devil‘s advocate. Quantitative based durations (Parametric technique) multiply a known element. Parametric (Top – Down) uses historical data and statistical relationships to determine costs 280. Risk is the notion of dealing with ―Uncertainty‖ o Knows at the extreme end of the Uncertainty Spectrum will definitely affect you. Clarifiers. To calculate TCPI. Blocker. although you have no control over them o Knows-Unknowns are items that will affect you although you are not able to predict how or how much they will effect you o Unknown – Unknowns are items or situations whose existence we cannot imagine (Who knows?) 278. It is an operation definition that describes ―what‖ something is and ―how‖ it will be measured in very specific terms . Harmonizers. TCPI > 1 is NOT good. 283. Constructive team roles include Initiators. Information givers. BCR (Benefit Cost Ratio) compares the benefits to the costs of the project where the Benefits are the same as Revenues or often referred to as the ―Payback period‖ 274.273. take the value of the work remaining over the value of funds remaining 284. Summarizers and Gate Keepers 281. When one considers their Culture to be superior. Topic Jumper and Dominator 282. Quality Metrics are the Outputs of Quality Planning. A Records Management Systems is a specific set of processes. Use of personal space during social interaction is known as ―Proxemics‖ 277. Destructive team roles include Aggressor.
287. Decision Trees are considered Quantitative while Influence diagram are considered Qualitative. 290. It is also known as the "most pessimistic cost 297. Parametric Modeling applies to only Project with Similar characteristics 296. Influence diagram shows the dependencies among the variables more clearly than the decision tree 291. Trend analysis involves examining project results over time to determine if performance is improving Earned Value Analysis PV (Present Value) = BCWS (Budgeted Cost of Work Schedule) EV (Earned Value) = BCWP (Budgeted Cost of Work Performed) AC (Actual Cost) = ACWP (Actual Cost of Work Performed) CV = EV – AC SV = EV – PV CPI = EV / AC SPI = EV / PV ETC = BAC – EV [Future Variances are Atypical or Not Consistent or Di similar] . Performance Reporting is an INPUT to all ―Control‖ Process (Except Quality Control) 289. sub-assemblies and basic parts 292. Variance analysis involves comparing actual project results to planned or expected results 298. A ―Bill of Material‖ (BOM) describes the product in terms of its assemblies. Straight-line depreciation is a method that divides an asset‘s cost and its expected salvage value by its expected utilization period 288. Straight-line depreciation is the simplest method of depreciating an asset and is frequently utilized on a project to determine its economic feasibility. Contingency Plan document outlines the actions to be taken if an identified risk event should occur 294. Variable sampling evaluates a characteristic measured on a numerical scale Attribute sampling tests for defective or non defective 295. Allowing ―Automatic Approval‖ of changes is a function of the Change Control System and NOT Configuration Management 293. The point of total assumption (PTA) is a price determined by a fixed price plus incentive fee contract (FPIF) above which the seller bears all the loss of a cost overrun. Variable and attribute sampling are forms of acceptance sampling.
= √ σ² + σ² + σ² SIGMA 1 = 68.ETC = (BAC – EV) / CPI [Future Variances are Typical or Consistent or similar] EAC EAC EAC EAC = = = = BAC / CPI [simplest formula: typical or no variances] AC + ETC [Initial Estimates are flawed] AC + BAC – EV [Future variances are Atypical or Not Consistent or Di similar] AC + BAC – EV / CPI [Future Variances are Typical or Consistent or similar] VAC = BAC – EAC % COMPLETE = EV / BAC x 100 % SPENT = AC / BAC x 100 CV% = CV / EV x 100 SV% = SV / PV x 100 Float or Slack LS .O)/6 ] squared = Std.ES and LF – EF MEAN -> Average MODE -> The ―most found‖ number RANGE -> Largest . = [(P . OF TASK = P – O / 6 TASK VAR.99 Channels of Communication (N x (N – 1)) / 2 Project Selection PV = F V / (1+r)ⁿ (or) FV = PV x (1+r)ⁿ Cash Flow = Cash Inflow – Cash Outflow Discounted Cash Flow = CF x Discount Factor ARR = S Cash Flow / No.46 3 = 99. of 2 middle Nos PERT = O + 4ML + P / 6 STD.73 6 = 99.Smallest Measure. DEV. Dev ^ 2 CP STD.26 2 = 95. DEV. of Years ROI = (ARR / Investment) * 100 % Bigger is better BCR = Benefits / Cost . MEDIUM -> No in the middle or avg.
0 is good because it indicates the efficiency to complete is less than planned. Value = Probability % x Consequence $ Class of Estimates Definitive +5% Capital Cost +10-15% Appropriation +15-25% Feasibility +25-35% Order of Magnitude > +35% (-50 . How efficient must the project team be to complete the remaining work with the remaining money? ( BAC . cost) Or PV or Revenue / PV of Cost Net Present Value (NPV) = Net Present Value Bigger is better Internal Rate of Return (IRR) Bigger is better Payback Period Less is better Net Investment / Avg. .AC ) Cost of Quality (CoQ) = ( ( Review Efforts + Test Efforts + Training Efforts + Rework Efforts + Efforts of Prevention) / Total efforts) x 100 % Took free tests available on the internet.com.Benefit Cost Ratio (BCR) Bigger is better ((BCR or Benefit / Cost) Revenue or Payback VS. You can check PMZilla. Annual cash flow Exp.75%) Contract Incentives Savings = Target Cost – Actual Cost Bonus = Savings x Percentage Contract Cost = Bonus + Fees Total Cost = Actual Cost + Contract Cost Expected Monetary Value Probability * Impact Point of Total Assumption (PTA) ((Ceiling Price . Finally I read the PMBOK for the third time and enrolled for 4 full length exams on pmstudy.com for links to these websites.EV ) / ( BAC .Target Price) / buyer's Share Ratio) + Target Cost To Complete Performance Index [TCPI] Values for the TCPI index of less then 1.
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