PIPELINE ENGINEERING

FLUID FLOW
Mechanical Energy Balance
⎛V 2 ⎞ ⎟ g∆z + vdp +∆ ⎜ ⎜ 2 ⎟ = Wo − ⎝ ⎠

∑F

(1-1)

potential energy change

expansion work

Kinetic energy Work added/ Sum of friction change subtracted by losses compressors or pumps/expanders

Note that the balance is per unit mass. In differential form

gdz + vdp + VdV = δWo − δF
Rewrite as follows

(1-2)

dp = − ρ ( g ⋅ dz − V ⋅ dV − δF + δWo )
Divide by dL (L is the length of pipe)

(1-3)

dV δW dz δF dp = − ρg ⋅ + ρV ⋅ +ρ −ρ o dL δL dL δL dL Tot
or:

(1-4)

dp ⎞ dp ⎞ dp ⎞ dp ⎞ + = + ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ dL ⎠ Tot dL ⎠ elev dL ⎠ accel dL ⎠ frict (

(1-5)

δWo is usually ignored, as the equation applies to a section of pipe) δL

The above equation is an alternative way of writing the mechanical energy balance. It is not a different equation. The differential form of the potential energy change is

dL

dZ
φ
g dZ = g sin φ dL (1-6)

Friction losses: We use the Fanning or Darcy-Weisbach equation (Often called Darcy equation)

δF =

2V 2 f dL D

(1-7)

an equation that applies for single phase fluids, only (two phase fluids are treated separately). The friction factor, in turn, is obtained from the Moody Diagram below.

Figure 1-1: Moody Diagram

Friction factor equations. (Much needed in the era of computers and excel) Laminar Flow f = 16 Re (1-8)

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Copyright: Miguel Bagajewicz.
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Turbulent Flow
smooth pipes: a=0. Iron or steel pipes a=0.16

f =

0.046 Re a

(1-9)

Turbulent Flow

⎛ ε 1 2.51 ⎞ ⎟ = −2 log10 ⎜ + f ⎝ 3.7 D Re f ⎠

(Colebrook eqn)

(1-10)

Equivalent length of valves and fittings: Pressure drop for valves and fittings is accounted for as equivalent length of pipe. Typical values can be obtained from the following Table.

Table 1-1: Equivalent lengths for various fittings.

Fitting 45O elbows 90O elbows, std radius 90O elbows, medium radius 90O elbows, long sweep 90O square elbows 180O close return bends 180O medium radius return bends Tee (used as elbow, entering run) Tee (used as elbow, entering branch) Gate Valve (open ) Globe Valve (open ) Angle Valve (open)

Le D 15 32 26 20 60 75 50 60 90 7 300 170

Pressure Drop Calculations
Piping is known. Need pressure drop. (Pump or compressor is not present.)

Incompressible Flow a) Isothermal (ρ is constant)
dp dV dF ⎞ ⎛ dZ = -ρ ⎜ g +V + ⎟ dL Tot dL dL ⎠ ⎝ dL

(1-11)

for a fixed φ

V constant ⇒

dV = 0

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Natural Gas Basic Engineering 4 Copyright: Miguel Bagajewicz. What is the pressure drop? Can the Bernoulli equation assuming incompressible flow be used for gases? The next figure illustrates it. No reproduction allowed without consent .⎛δL⎞ δ F = 2V 2 ⋅ f ⋅ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ D ⎠ (1-12) ⎡ ⎤ L ∆p = − ρ ⎢ g ⋅ ∆Z + 2V 2 ⋅ f ⋅ + F⎥ D ⎣ ⎦ b) Nonisothermal It will not have a big error if you use ρ(Taverage). v(Taverage) ∑ (1-13) Exercise 1-1: Consider the flow of liquid water (@ 20oC) through a 200 m. with an elevation change of 5 m. 3” pipe.

if pout − pin ≤ 0. No reproduction allowed without consent .3 using the assumption of incompressibility is OK.Figure 1-2: Error in Bernoulli equation In conclusion. pin Compressible Flow (Gases) a) Relatively small change in T (known) Natural Gas Basic Engineering 5 Copyright: Miguel Bagajewicz.2 − 0.

where A V = Velocity (m/sec) v = Specific volume (m3/Kg) G = Mass flow (Kg/sec) A = Cross sectional area (m2) Then. (1-15) (1-14) g 1 dF ⎛ G ⎞ dV ⎛ G ⎞ dL dz + dp + ⎜ ⎟ = .2 = -2f ⎜ ⎟ 2 v v v ⎝ A⎠ v ⎝ A⎠ D Now put in integral form dp ⎛ G ⎞ g 2+ +⎜ ⎟ v ⎝ A⎠ v 2 (1-16) ∫ dz ∫ 2 ∫ dV ⎛ G⎞ 1 = −2 ⋅ ⎜ ⎟ ⋅ ⋅ f dL ⎝ A⎠ D V 2 ∫ (1-17) Assume Tav = Tin +Tout 2 (1-18) p p ⎤ 2⎡ pav = ⎢ pin + pout − in out ⎥ which comes from pav = pin + pout ⎦ 3⎣ ∫ out in p p dp p dp ∫ out (1-19) in f av = f(Tin .Pout ) 2 (1-20) The integral form will now be Natural Gas Basic Engineering 6 Copyright: Miguel Bagajewicz. No reproduction allowed without consent .2 2 v v v v but V = v G .For small pressure drop (something you can check after you are done) can use Bernoulli and fanning equation as flows ⎛V 2 ⎞ gdz + vdp + d ⎜ ⎟ = -dF ⎝ 2 ⎠ Then g 1 V dF dz + dp + 2 dV = .Pin )+ f(Tout .

where M: Molecular weight. C i i (1-29) With these values the Z factor comes from the following chart: Natural Gas Basic Engineering 7 Copyright: Miguel Bagajewicz. p pr = av (1-26) . ρ g ⋅ ∆z + 2 av ρ av 2 pav (p 2 out L ⎛ G ⎞ ⎛V ⎞ ⎛G⎞ − p ) + ⎜ ⎟ ln ⎜ out ⎟ = −2 ⎜ ⎟ f av D ⎝ A ⎠ ⎝ Vin ⎠ ⎝ A⎠ 2 in 2 2 (1-23) but. . pC T Tr = av (1-27) TC.i . This rule states that the reduced pressure and temperature of the gas is obtained using the average pressure and temperature (as above calculated) and a pseudo critical pressure and temperature. Vout ⎛ Zout ⋅ Tout ⎞ pin =⎜ ⎟⋅ Vin ⎝ Zin ⋅ Tin ⎠ pout Then (1-24) ρ g ⋅ ∆z + 2 av ρ av 2 pav (p 2 out L ⎛ G ⎞ ⎛ Z ⋅T p ⎞ ⎛G⎞ − p ) + ⎜ ⎟ ln ⎜ ⋅ out out in ⎟ = −2 ⎜ ⎟ f av D ⎝ A ⎠ ⎝ Z in ⋅ Tin pout ⎠ ⎝ A⎠ 2 in 2 2 (1-25) To calculate Zav Kay’s rule is used.i (1-28) T = ∑ yiTC . No reproduction allowed without consent . Then ρ av = av . In turn the critical pressure and temperatures are obtained as molar averages of the respective components critical values. pC = ∑ yi pC . which leads to: Z av R Tav M ∫ dp M = v Z av RTav ∫ p ⋅ dp = 2 ⋅ Z ρ M 2 2 2 2 pout − pin = av ( pout − pin ( ) ) 2 RT p av av av (1-22) Therefore.ρ2 av ⋅ g ⋅ ∆z + ∫ out in dp ⎛ G ⎞ ⎛ Vout ⎞ L ⎛ G⎞ + ⎜ ⎟ ln⎜ ⎟ = −2 ⋅ ⎜ ⎟ ⋅ f av ⋅ ⎝ A⎠ v ⎝ A ⎠ ⎝ Vin ⎠ D 2 2 (1-21) Now use p⋅v = Z ⋅ R⋅T p M .

No reproduction allowed without consent . First neglect the acceleration term because it is usually small compared to the others.Figure 1-3: Natural Gas Compressibility Chart Equation (1-25) can be further simplified. to obtain: Natural Gas Basic Engineering 8 Copyright: Miguel Bagajewicz.

if ∆z =0. Therefore: G Z s RTs where the M 2 ⎡ 2 ⎤ M pav 2 p p g ⋅ ∆z ⎥ 5 2 − − in out 2 2 ⎢ 2 Z av RTav π R Z s Ts ⎢ ⎥D Q2 = 2 32 Mps ⎢ 2 Z avTav L ⎥ f av ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ( ) (1-32) Now. With this.2 ρ av g ⋅ ∆z + ρ av 2 pav (p 2 out L ⎛G⎞ 2 − pin + 2 ⎜ ⎟ f av = 0 D ⎝ A⎠ ) 2 (1-30) Form this equation we can get G. Then we propose the following algorithm: (1) (1) a) Assume pout and calculate pav b) Calculate K (i ) = (i ) (i ) (i ) Tav f av 64 Mps2 Z av π 2 R Z s2 Ts2 D5 2 pin − K (i ) Q 2 (i +1 ) b) Use formula to get a new value pout = Natural Gas Basic Engineering 9 Copyright: Miguel Bagajewicz. as follows: 2 ⎡ ⎤ M 2 pav g ⋅ ∆z ⎥ 2 2 ⎢ − M p p ( ) Z RT π D ⎢ in out ⎥ − av av G2 = 32 f av L ⎢ 2 Z av RTav Z av RTav ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 2 5 (1-31) But the volumetric flow at standard conditions is given by ps Q = subscript s stands for standard conditions. we get Q2 = 2 2 π 2 R Z s2 Ts2 ⎡ ( pin − pout ) ⎤ D 5 ⎢ ⎥ 32 Mps2 ⎢ 2Z avTav L ⎥ f av ⎣ ⎦ (1-33) which can be rearranged as follows: 2 2 pin − pout = K Q2 (1-34) where K = 64 Mps2 Z avTav f av L and is known to be W × L. π 2 R Z s2 Ts2 D5 To calculate pressure drop we recognize that average pressures are a function of pout . which is unknown. No reproduction allowed without consent . we have W = 64 Mps2 Z avTav f av . a product of a resistant factor W π 2 R Z s2 Ts2 D 5 times the length L.

Table 1-2: Different forms of compressible flow equations Natural Gas Basic Engineering 10 Copyright: Miguel Bagajewicz.pout ≤ε (i) pout Depending on the choice of friction term expression. They are summarized in the following table. No reproduction allowed without consent .d) Continue until (i+1) (i) pout . several formulas have been reported for equation (1-34).

We also assume Re~5 106 and ε/D =0.855 W= 2. T.855/D4. The gas reaches the other end at ground temperature. Gas distribution Home Study Course) .Table 1-2 (continued): Different forms of compressible flow equations Exercise 1-2: Natural gas (84. No reproduction allowed without consent . 1991. ethane: 1.G. where s is the gas gravity (=Mgas/Mair)=0. 2 2 As a first approximation. The gas to have the following molar fractions: Methane: 98%. (5 oC).01. Institute of Gas Technology Education Program.000 std m3/hr at 49 atm and 38oC) is sent from a gas refinery to a city. Farwalther.552 × 10-4Tin×s0.. R.2%.75%.586 (Wilson G.65 for natural gas). Ellington and J. through a 16” pipeline. propane: 0.05%. Tin is in oR and D in inches) What is the pressure drop? Natural Gas Basic Engineering 11 Copyright: Miguel Bagajewicz. and water: 0. we recommend using the Panhandle A equation: pin − pout = K Q1. The distance is 170 Km.

T ) DdL ⎟= G ⎠ (1-37) Integrate and solve for hout (use Tav in the heat transfer equation) hout = hin + U (To − Tav ) π DL G ⎡V 2 − V 2 ⎤ − ⎢ out in ⎥ − g ( z2 − z1 ) 2 ⎣ ⎦ (1-38) But Vout = v out ⋅ RTav G G = Z av ⋅ p out M A A (1-39) Natural Gas Basic Engineering 12 Copyright: Miguel Bagajewicz. But the heat δ q is given by interactions with the ambient surroundings: πD dL δ q = U (To − T ) G (1-36) where U is the heat transfer coefficient. To is the outside pipe temperature. Since we will treat these separately.Work added: δ wo . No reproduction allowed without consent .Kinetic energy change: VdV . π DdL = dA (see next figure) and G is the flowrate.Rate of work done on the fluid element by pressure forces: d(vp) .Heat transfer: δ q . this term is usually set to zero for pipes. This is given per unit mass flowing (Kcal/h)/(m3/h) .Potential energy change: g dz . Figure 1-4: Area element Then.Heat Transfer Effects To account for temperature changes due to heat transfer.Internal energy changes: du . This term is due to pumps and compressors. we use total energy balance gdz + d (vp) +VdV + du = δ q + δ wo (1-35) where the following is identified: . (ignoring δwo because there are no pumps) to get: ⎛V 2 gdz + dh+ d ⎜ ⎝ 2 ⎞ U (To .

one obtains: wo = ⎛V 2 ⎞ W = ∆h + ∆ ⎜ ⎟ G ⎝ 2 ⎠ (1-42) In this expression. the Bernoulli equation gives ⎡ ⎛ V 2 ⎞⎤ W = G ⎢ ∫ vdp + ∆ ⎜ (1-44) ⎟ ⎥ ≈ G ∫ vdp ⎝ 2 ⎠⎦ ⎣ where the acceleration term has been neglected. there isn’t much temperature change in pumps). Indeed. it is negative. the density is constant. we have wo given in Joules/Kg.Finally. W is positive. For pumps. ∆h is much harder to obtain. We use total energy with δq = 0 and dz =0 dh = δ wo dV 2 2 (1-41) Integrating. However. W in Joules/sec and h in Joules/Kg. ∆h is known for liquids because enthalpy does not vary much with pressure. pout (1) b) Use mechanical energy balance to obtain pout (1) c) Use total energy balance to obtain hout (1) d) get temperature Tout e) Go to b) and continue until convergence SCENARIO II One has a turbine or Compressor/pump and needs Wo. while for turbines.hout ) (1-40) The procedure suggested is then: a) Assume Tout. However. Thus. so one obtains: Natural Gas Basic Engineering 13 Copyright: Miguel Bagajewicz. for gases. the work of the compressor/pump is given by: ⎡ ⎛ V 2 ⎞⎤ W = G ⎢ ∆h + ∆ ⎜ ⎟⎥ ⎝ 2 ⎠⎦ ⎣ (1-43) For compressors. to obtain the outlet temperature. one would need to obtain it form the enthalpy and pressure in the outlet Tout = Tout ( pout . In addition. Therefore we go back to the Mechanical Energy equation for pumps/compressors. No reproduction allowed without consent .

is n −1 ⎡ ⎤ n ⎛ ⎞ p ⎡ n ⎤ Z in + Z out 1 ⎢ ⎥ out W =G⎢ RTin ⎜ ⎟ − 1⎥ ⎥ ⎢ n p 1 2 + η ⎣ ⎦ a ⎝ in ⎠ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ (1-47) The efficiency factor is usually between 60 to 80% and normally given by the manufacturer. Natural Gas Basic Engineering 14 Copyright: Miguel Bagajewicz. Thus. one needs to obtain an expression of volume knowing that the evolution is isentropic (or nearly isentropic). substituting and rearranging. which includes the efficiency. Normally.W= G ∆p ρ (1-45) For compressors. One expression for such factor is: n −1 ⎡ ⎤ ⎛ pout ⎞ n ⎢ Tin ⎜ − 1⎥ ⎢⎝ pin ⎟ ⎥ ⎠ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ηa = Tout − Tin (1-48) Finally. pvn = constant (n=Cp/Cv for ideal gases n>Cp/Cv for real gases). Substituting v = p s n 1 ⎛ 1⎞ ⋅ vs ⋅ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ρ⎠ 1 n integrate to get n −1 ⎡ ⎤ n ⎛ ⎞ ⎡ n ⎤ ⎢ pout ⎥ W =G⎢ p v 1 − ⎟ in in ⎜ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ n + 1⎦ ⎝ pin ⎠ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ (1-46) The above expression does not include the compressibility factor. manufacturers recommend not exceeding 300 oF at the outlet. A better expression. on e obtains: Tout ⎡ pout ⎤ =⎢ ⎥ Tin ⎣ pin ⎦ n −1 n = [CR ] n −1 n (1-50) where CR is the compression ratio. the outlet temperature is obtained from n n pin vin = pout vout (1-49) Using the gas law to obtain vin / vout in terms of temperatures and pressures. No reproduction allowed without consent .

Take first derivative and obtain the desired result that CR1=CR2 Exercise 1-5: Obtain the set of compressors needed to compress the gas of exercise 1-2 properly. Natural Gas Basic Engineering 15 Copyright: Miguel Bagajewicz.Write the power expression for each one assuming the gas is cooled down to its inlet temperature after compression.2 to 6. and after-coolers need to be added to control the temperature. is available originally at 2 atm. Extra compressors should be added if the CR >6. Calculate the compression work needed to reach delivery pressure (49 atm) using one compressor. Calculate the outlet temperature and determine the duty needed to cool the gas down to the corresponding inlet conditions. that is. Exercise 1-4: Consider two compressors.Add both expressions to obtain the total work as a function of the intermediate pressure (the rest should not be a variable) . the practice is to use the same CR for all.Exercise 1-3: The natural gas of exercise 1-2. Is it acceptable to use one compressor? We now discuss the compression ratio. . If more than one compressor is to be used. No reproduction allowed without consent . limiting the temperature and using the right CR. This is limited in compressors to the range 1. .

the former is common in crude pipelines.Two Phase Flow Two phase flow has several regimes. No reproduction allowed without consent . which are depicted in the next figure: Dispersed Annular Stratified Froth Wavy Slug Plug Bubble Figure 1-5: Two phase flow regimes The two extreme cases are: Bubble: Vapor and Liquid in Equilibrium (Benzene 40%. Toluene 60%) Dispersed: Liquid and gas (air and benzene). especially light crudes. Natural Gas Basic Engineering 16 Copyright: Miguel Bagajewicz. The latter is common in gas pipelines.

the parameters are given 3 1147 µ 1/ L by λ = 0. No reproduction allowed without consent .) 2 5-15 To predict the flow patterns.5 15 (But less than vapor vel. one needs to use the Baker Plot (next Figure) for horizontal pipes (there is a similar one for vertical pipes).5 <0.(ft/sec) > 200 > 20 0. Gl = ⎜ L ⎟ λ .One important thing to recognize is that except for the extreme cases. In turn.463 ρ L ρ g (with densities given in lb/ft3) ψ = (with the surface tension 2/3 σ ρL given in dyn/cm and the viscosity in cp) We note that: λ and ψ depend on the fluid property only 1) 2) Gl depends on the ratio of flows (Known beforehand. Not a design parameter) Natural Gas Basic Engineering 17 Copyright: Miguel Bagajewicz. (W in lb/h. Typical velocities are shown in the next table: Table 1-3: Typical velocities of two phase flows REGIME Dispersed Annular Stratified Slug Plug Bubble LIQUID VEL(ft/sec) VAPOR VEL. Figure 1-6: Two phase flow regimes transitions ⎛W ⎞ ⎛W ⎞ In this diagram. we have Gg = ⎜ g ⎟ . respectively.5-2 Close to vapor <0. A in in2) which are the ⎜ Wg ⎟ ⎝ A ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ superficial velocity of the vapor and the liquid.5-10 3-50 <4 0. the phases travel at different velocities.

by a factor ∆pTwoPhase = φ 2 ∆pVaporPhase (1-51) .8 -0. In turn. From this diagram. 1) λψ ρ g 2) 1 λ 1 ρg ⇒ ⇒ Gl λψ ρ g Gg λ 1 ρg ⇒ Abscissa decreases ⇒ Ordinate increases Thus trajectories are always "up" and "to the left". Thus a bubbly flow may become. The following table In turn.75 0. which will be explored later. the pressure drop due to gravity. the correction factor is given by φ = aX b . where X = gives some typical values of the corresponding constants: ∆pLiquidPhase ∆pVaporPhase Table 1-4: Constants for Lockart and Martinelli’s correlation a b Bubble Slug Stratified (horizontal) Plug Annular 14.3) 4) Gg depends on the vapor/gas superficial velocity. PRESSURE DROP Lockart and Martinelli (1949) developed one of the first correlations. and so on. is given by dp ⎞ = ⎡ε g ρ g + (1 − ε g ) ρl ⎤ ⎟ ⎦ g sin θ dL ⎠ gravity ⎣ (1-52) where ε g is the (void) fraction of gas. No reproduction allowed without consent . we notice that following change of regimes in a pipe. depending on the starting position in the plot. As the pressure drop is large.343-0.2 1190 15400 27.86 0.3125 D(in) 0. an annular may become wavy or dispersed.021 D(in) We notice that there are several more modern correlations.82 1 0. plug. then the density of the vapor is lower. Natural Gas Basic Engineering 18 Copyright: Miguel Bagajewicz. It can be modified changing the diameter Transition boundaries are not at all that sharp. It is based on multiplying the pressure drop obtained by considering the vapor phase occupying the whole pipe. slug or annular. We omit the pressure drop due to acceleration.3 4.

Figure 1-8: Generic Hydrate P-T diagram Natural Gas Basic Engineering 19 Copyright: Miguel Bagajewicz. No reproduction allowed without consent . One typical example is given in the figure below: Cage of water molecules CH4 molecule in the center Figure 1-7: Methane Hydrate The next figure shows the Pressure-Temperature diagram of water-hydrocarbon systems. Curve 1-1 represents the curve for vapor pressure of the hydrocarbon.Hydrate Formation Hydrates are crystalline structures between water and hydrocarbons.

These inhibitors are salts. alcohols. pressure change (not a choice in pipelines) and the introduction of inhibitors.The next figure shows some specific cases of hydrocarbons: Figure 1-9: Hydrate P-T diagram for various hydrocarbons Clearly. No reproduction allowed without consent . It is therefore important to keep in mind that these conditions need to be avoided. The next figure shows the depression of hydrate formation temperature observed for various hydrates. ammonia and MEA. Figure 1-10: Hydrate temperature formation depression Natural Gas Basic Engineering 20 Copyright: Miguel Bagajewicz. favorable thermodynamic conditions for hydrate formation can be encountered. These hydrates can be prevented from forming through heating. The most widely used is methanol. in high pressure pipelines. glycols.

65x 60000 40000 20000 0 0 10000 20000 30000 40000 Figure 1-12: Compressor cost (k$) vs. All cost figures are updated to 2005 dollars using Marshal & Swift cost indexes. Pipeline per mile cost distribution for different pipe diameters and compressor installed cost for different horsepower requirement are plotted in the following figure.2x + 100 Figure 1-11: Pipe average cost (k$/mile) vs. Natural Gas Basic Engineering 21 Copyright: Miguel Bagajewicz. horsepower Fixed Capital Investment were calculated by adding the installed cost of a pipe length (assumed 5000 miles) and the cost of all required recompression stations.Pipeline Costs Historical pipeline and compressors installed cost data were obtained from the Oil & Gas Journal special report on Pipeline Economics. 2001. September 3. No reproduction allowed without consent . The Fixed Capital Investments obtained are then divided by the pipe length to obtain a per mile cost profile for different flow rates. The curve in the next figure shows that this cost profile takes a logarithmic shape. 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 y = 43. ID 100000 80000 y = 1.

8 1 1.001 B$ 0.4% for pipes.001659x + 0.004 B$ 0.000100 B$0.000050 B$0. No reproduction allowed without consent . Compressor fuel requirement is estimated at 8.005 B$ 0.2 1.5 per million Btu.001108 BSCFD Figure 1-13: Pipeline fixed cost (b$/mile) vs.000 0 0.4 0. capacity (BSCFD) A linear correlation gives the following form: FCI ( B$ / mile) = 0.2 0.6 y = 0. Similar linear approximation to that of the FCI is assumed. with an hourly wage of $21. Direct supervisory and clerical labor is assumed to be 20% of operating labor.004 B$ 0.000 Btu / BHP-HR.002 B$ 0. Operating cost per pipeline mile versus capacity is plotted in the next figure: B$0.000000 0 0.B$ 0.001 B$ 0.003 B$ 0.001659 * Capacity ( BSCFD) + 0.6 0.5 1 1.003 B$ 0. capacity This estimate should be reasonable with about 40% accuracy.005 B$ 0. Linear regression was used to estimate the operating cost Natural Gas Basic Engineering 22 Copyright: Miguel Bagajewicz. and fuel cost at $2.5 Figure 1-14: Pipeline per mile annual operating cost vs.001108 Operating costs for pipelines were estimated as follows.000150 B$0.4 1.002 B$ 0.000250 B$0.000200 y = 7E-05x + 4E-05 B$0. Maintenance cost is assumed to be 7% of the FCI for compressors and 3% for pipes while insurance is 1% for compressors and 0. an average of 5 operators is assumed to be the requirement for each compression station.

This allows the gas to cool down faster and therefore increase the delivery pressure.Calculate the cost. a) No looping. The results of a simulation are shown in the next figure: Figure 1-15: Results from Looping 23 Copyright: Miguel Bagajewicz.Vary the pipeline maximum pressure (1200 psia) to some lower and higher value. and a soil temperature of 10 oC. the location of a loop does not change the final delivery pressure.00004 Exercise 1-9: Consider the pipeline of Exercise 1-8: . then the location of a loop has an influence. ignoring capacities less than 100 MMSCFD. b) Looping the first 25 Km. Consider the following example: A 100 Km length (20” OD) pipeline is used to send 289 MMSFD at an inlet pressure of 1.00007 * Capacity ( BSCFD) + 0. Three alternatives were studied for this pipeline. Thus. If temperature is close to ambient temperature. This practice increases the pipeline flow capacity without altering the final pressure. This gave a general correlation of the following form: Oper.200 psia and a temperature of 45 oC.Cost ( B$ / mile / year ) = 0. No reproduction allowed without consent Natural Gas Basic Engineering . However. it is recommended to loop in the upstream region. for example. The pipe roughness is 750 µ inches. where the gas is hotter.dependence of the capacity. . when temperature changes substantially. and c) Looping the last 25 Km. Can you say that 1200 psia is the right pressure? Pipeline Looping Pipeline looping is the practice of designing pipelines with segments run in parallel. Adjust the diameter accordingly and calculate the number of recompression stations. in these cases.

CO2: 0. hexane: 0.34%. Change the pipe diameter and the length to verify the statements.16%.01%.055%. n-butane: 0. Assume a 15”.11%. Natural Gas Basic Engineering 24 Copyright: Miguel Bagajewicz. i-butane: 0. It corresponds to a gas with the following composition: Methane: 93. Ethane: 3.Exercise 1-10: Verify the results of figure 1-15 using the simulator. Exercise 1-11: Generate the answers for the above example using the simulator. heptane: 0.05%. nonane: 0. No reproduction allowed without consent . Propane: 0.09%. even if the operation is isothermal. Figure 1-16: P-T diagram of example gas and retrograde condensation Interestingly.47 %. if the pressure at the other end is low enough. This means that the pressure drop regime inside the pipe might change and one has to be careful in performing the simulations. Retrograde condensation One very common phenomenon in pipelines is retrograde condensation.585%.52%. ipentane 0. then it is clear that there will be liquid formation in this pipeline. N2: 1. If the external temperature is 5 oC (U=1 BTU/hr-ft2oF). pentane: 0. Consider the P-T plot of the next figure. then the liquid might vaporize again.03%.04%. 200 Km pipeline starts at 60 atm and 15 oC. octane: 0.0545.

the time value of money is neglected and that the facilities are designed to sustain the flows. For example. Figure 1-17 shows one such exercise performed for three different diameters and parametric at different maximum operating pressures (MOP) and compression ratios.Pipeline Optimization Process J-Curve Analysis Conventional Pipeline design methods. No reproduction allowed without consent . Typical assumptions are that there is no volume buildup in the pipe. Efficient operating ranges that are flat are preferred Figure 1-17: J-Curves for various diameters Exercise 1-12: Explain why J-curves go through a minimum. which rely mostly on hand calculations or at best on simple spreadsheet suggest that the compressor size and the pipe diameter be varied and the cost of service ($/(m3*Km) for the first year be plotted as a function of flowrate. Natural Gas Basic Engineering 25 Copyright: Miguel Bagajewicz.

Thus. CNG. then storage facilities for inventory holding (salt caverns. abandoned reservoirs. Aim at minimizing total work only. underground caverns. If this ratio is too small.5 for reciprocating compressors. - Heating and Cooling: Clearly. Not only the new loop has to be designed. etc. In addition. Expansions: If capacity expansions are considered. in more complex situations.25 to 1. storage tanks) are more convenient than more powerful compressors and larger diameters. this hypothesis needs verification. money needs to be spent to install and run the coolers.500 Kw. one is faced with the decision of designing for future capacity and underutilize the pipeline for some time or design for current or more short term capacity and use loops to expand later. the question remains where these holding sites should be located. Maximum operating pressure: This choice has already been considered in constructing the J-Curves. Thus one needs to establish Route: In most cases this is defined by a variety of other factors and given to the designer. Pipe Size: This choice has already been considered in the J-Curve selection but needs to be revisited anyway in view of the influence of the other factors. However.Assume two compression stations will be used. Load Factor: This factor is the ratio between the average daily volume delivered divided by the peak volume.35 and smaller than 1. but its timing and capacity be selected. Pipeline Initial Capacity: Most pipelines are constructed taking into account the fact that demand at the receiving end(s) will increase through time. Natural Gas Basic Engineering 26 Copyright: Miguel Bagajewicz. Compressor Station Spacing: While an earlier exercise suggests that when multiple compressors are used it is best to keep the compression ratio equal.Optimization Parameters J-Curves are a simplistic first approach but one that can provide a first approximation to the right diameter and compressors. The issue to resolve is when these are substituted by inventory holding sites. . No reproduction allowed without consent . one is faced with multiple delivery points with different delivery pressures. Reciprocating compressors are chosen when the power requirement is smaller than 5. Thus the trade-off needs to be resolved. or large LNG or high pressure. Compression ratios recommended for centrifugal compressors are generally in the range of 1. cooling leads to significant savings because pressure drop is reduced. - - Exercise 1-13: Consider the pipeline of Exercise 1-8: . However. etc if available.Determine (by inspection and using a simulator what is the best compression ratio for each compressor. then they need to take place through looping.

93 323 60 550 10 609 120 613 122 630 235 638 470 650 890 .000 m3/d 18.407.367 kPa and 35oC in the first station (Km 0). No reproduction allowed without consent .832.400 m3/d 6.1% npentane) is supplied at the two points indicated in the diagram at 1.Will new compressors be needed/beneficial? Natural Gas Basic Engineering 27 Copyright: Miguel Bagajewicz. Use cost data provided above.722.7 W/(m oC).595. The gas elevation profiles are provided in the following table: Km Elevation (m) 0 42 115 7 143 14.200 134.840 m3/d 2. Do not use a pressure above 5. b) Compressors at the supply station.400 m3/d m3/d .240 m3/d 336. and 1520 kPa and 30oC in the second (Km 143).600 m3/d 384. c) cooling required.Exercise 1-14: Consider the shown in the following figure Supply: 5.9% methane.000 m3/d 115 143 638 550 609 613 630 Km 650 323 64.600 Kpa.617. . . Assume a ground temperature of 25oC and a ground conductivity of 0.000 m3/d Km 0 Supply: 10.. 5% Ethane.The piping is in the ground and is not insulated.000 m3/d 3. 2% propane. 1% n-butane and 0.148.The gas ((1.Determine using simulations a) Piping diameter.200 m3/d 2.

No reproduction allowed without consent .OPTIMAL DESIGN Natural Gas Basic Engineering 28 Copyright: Miguel Bagajewicz.

No reproduction allowed without consent .Natural Gas Basic Engineering 29 Copyright: Miguel Bagajewicz.

Natural Gas Basic Engineering 30 Copyright: Miguel Bagajewicz. No reproduction allowed without consent .

Natural Gas Basic Engineering 31 Copyright: Miguel Bagajewicz. No reproduction allowed without consent .

Natural Gas Basic Engineering 32 Copyright: Miguel Bagajewicz. No reproduction allowed without consent .

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