Reading list for the philosophy of quantum mechanics

(Revised David Wallace, October 2006) This is a fairly thorough reading list on philosophy of QM; it contains more material on each topic than is practical for a weekly tutorial, but it may serve as a basis for constructing tutorial reading lists, as a source for further reading or revision, or as a starting point for anyone considering writing a thesis on one of these topics.

General Texts Formalism of quantum mechanics The measurement problem Nonlocality: the EPR argument and the Bell inequality Dynamical-collapse theories Hidden-variable theories The Copenhagen interpretation The Everett interpretation Decoherence and consistent histories Other interpretations Uncertainty relations Suggested tutorial topics

General texts Introductory
D. Albert, Quantum Mechanics and Experience, (Harvard University Press, 1994) A. Rae, Quantum Mechanics: Illusion or Reality? (Cambridge, 2004) E. Squires, Conscious Mind in the Physical World, (Adam Hilger, 1990)

Slightly more advanced
J.S. Bell, Speakable and unspeakable in quantum mechanics, (Cambridge, 1987) R.I.G. Hughes, The Structure and Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics, (Harvard University Press, 1989) M. Redhead, Incompleteness, Nonlocality and Realism, (Clarendon Press, 1989) D. Home, Conceptual Foundations of Quantum Physics, (Plenum,1997) D. Wallace, “Philosophy of Quantum Mechanics” (available on Weblearn)

1997).E. 1958). still relevant and readable. Ballentine.Formalism of quantum mechanics A handout to accompany the Intermediate Philosophy of Physics lecture course is available on Weblearn. A Modern Approach to Quantum Mechanics (McGraw-Hill. Halmos. 4th edition (Clarendon Press. Clifton. Finite-Dimensional Vector Spaces (Springer. . A bit dry. beware of the author’s strong opinions about the right interpretation! For a really systematic reference (albeit one rather short on physical insight) see the first few chapters of: R. Hannabuss.G. The Structure and Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics (Harvard. K. Quantum Mechanics (Prentice Hall. Townsend. Quantum Mechanics (Wiley. which are not distinguished from the mathematics! C. J.Verlag. The Principles of Quantum Mechanics.I.M. Some physics textbooks which present the formalism at a suitable level are: P. Quantum Theory: Concepts and Methods (Kluwer. but more technically careful than some. For formal details of the mathematics used.pitt. Isham. An Introduction to Quantum Theory (Clarendon Press. Dirac. A classic. Beware of Ballentine’s strong views on the ‘true’ interpretation of QM. 1993). available online at http://philsci-archive.S. A. Wiley. Cohen-Tannoudji et al.A. 1958). Peres. Lectures on Quantum Theory: mathematical and structural foundations (Imperial College Press. Mathematically more careful (but more challenging) presentations may be found in L. 1977). try: P. 1989) or R. Hughes. shorn of any physical interpretation. S. 1990).) C. 1995). Aimed at undergraduate mathematicians. 2003. “Introductory Notes on the Mathematics Needed for Quantum Theory”. Unfortunately rather hard to find in Oxford libraries. Again. Gasiorowicz. Quantum Physics (3rd edition).J.

Sections 1-3.S.Bell. Tome 42 (1981). Colloque C2. Chapter 4 (pp. 1989) Chapter 2 (pp. J. Incompleteness. Bell. Speakable and Unspeakable in Quantum Mechanics (Cambridge. sorry!) E Squires. 1990).Bell. Journal de Physique. 1987). 44-70). Chapter 3 (pp. nonlocality and realism: a prolegomenon to the philosophy of quantum mechanics. 1997). . Home.G. R. S. 1988). Penrose and D. C2 41-61.S. 1987). The measurement problem Introductory accounts Conscious Mind in the Physical World (Adam Hilger 1990). suppl. pp. Reprinted in J. Sciama ( pp. An Introduction to Hilbert Space (Cambridge. and from the section “Schrodinger’s Cat” to the end (page numbers vary between editions. 1992). Penrose. 611-637. au numero 3. Incompleteness. More advanced discussions D. Saunders. up to the section “Objectivity and Measurability of Quantum States”. (Clarendon. Young. R. Albert. The Emperor’s New Mind (Vintage. Isham. in Quantum Gravity 2. “Quantum Mechanics for Cosmologists”. 117-139. 80-92). Conceptual Foundations of Quantum Physics: an overview from modern perspectives (Plenum. C. Redhead.ox. 1981). Nonlocality and Realism. 139-158. 73-79) and part of chapter 5 (pp.L. pp. Bell “Bertlmann’s socks and the nature of reality”. chapter 11. S. 177-203.htm of measurement?”. pp.N. Redhead. pp. (Clarendon Press. 1987). M. 71-81). Speakable and Unspeakable in Quantum Mechanics (Cambridge. Quantum Mechanics and Experience (Harvard University Press. Chapter 2. Reprinted in J.S. “What is the problem http://users. available at Nonlocality: the EPR argument and the Bell inequality Core Reading M.) (Oxford. chapter 6. J.

41-83. I. “Interpreting Spontaneous Collapse Theories”. H. Zurek (eds.).125-161). G. 4. pp. “Bell’s Theorem: What it takes”. Quantum non-locality and relativity: metaphysical intimations of modern physics. Rob Clifton (ed.2. (Clarendon. Incompleteness. Ghirardi.M. in Perspectives on Quantum Reality: non-relativistic. 1996). A careful classification of exactly what the Bell result does and does not show. The Structure and Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics (Harvard. “Can Quantum-Mechanical Description of Reality be Considered Complete?”. Rosen. Podolsky and N. 7 (pp.1. Reprinted in J.6. pp. 6. Bohr. esp.6. 82-118). Lewis. D. Physical Review 47 (1935). and B. Zalta (ed. Available online via TDNet. http://plato.). H.189-222). Dynamical-collapse theories Core Reading G.) (Kluwer.Albert.3.pitt. sections 6.1) and its implications for causality (ch. T. Reprinted in J. J. B. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 43 (1992).). 696-702.stanford. Zurek (eds. Chapter 4 (pp. Available online via TDNet. A. (search for “Lewis”) . Einstein. nonlocality and realism: a prolegomenon to the philosophy of quantum mechanics. especially chapters 1 (pp.rutgers.5) and for Lorentz covariance (ch. A. N.pdf P. “Collapse Theories”. Redhead.6-28).7). N. Quantum Theory and Measurement ( pp. Wheeler and W. 1994).5. Available online from http://philsci-archive. pp. Physical Review 48 (1936). Hughes. 4.7. 1983). 1987). 1989). 5 (pp. sections 4. Original sources A. 6. Butterfield. Available online via TDNet. 777-80. 145-51. A detailed account of Bell's theorem (ch. field-theoretic. Wheeler and W. Loewer. “Tails of Schrodinger’s Cat”. 8. Edward N. Quantum Theory and Measurement (Princeton. pp. Further Reading J. 1983). Maudlin. “Can Quantum-Mechanical Description of Reality be Considered Complete?”. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Spring 2002 Edition). (Blackwell. 2004. Available online at http://philosophy. relativistic.

(Two viewpoints on the possibility of Lorentz-covariant collapse theories. 435-66. T. 189-222). above. J. 1997) pp. Available online via TDNet. Available online via TDNet. Physical Review D 34 (1986). Physics Reports 379 (2003). Albert. in Schrodinger: Century of a Polymath (Cambridge. Available online via TDNet. 1987). state of play. Quantum Mechanics and Experience (Harvard University Press. Ghirardi. Rimini and T. “Testing the limits of quantum mechanics: Motivation. (Plenum. A.S. Ghirardi.Further Reading J. 1994). “Are there quantum jumps?”. 97-118. Myrvold. Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter 14. Hidden-variable theories Core Reading D.S. pp. A.Maudlin. Bell. “Dynamical Reduction Models”. “On peaceful co-existence: is the collapse postulate incompatible with relativity?”. Original sources G. (Blackwell. R415–R451. Quantum non-locality and relativity: metaphysical intimations of modern physics.) Many further references on the “counting anomaly” may be found in the paper by Lewis. Physical Review A 39 (1989). 1987). Weber. Bassi and G. Sections 1-3 and 5. 1992). C. pp. “Unified Dynamics for Micro and Macro Systems”. Available online via TDNet. pp. 201-212. Reprinted in J. 134-179). Chapter 7 (pp. “Combining stochastic dynamical state-vector reduction with spontaneous localisation”. pp. including an overview of Pearle’s modification of the GRW program. prospects”. Speakable and Unspeakable in Quantum Mechanics (Cambridge.Bell. Reference A. Rather more technical detail about the GRW theory and its successors. Home. Conceptual Foundations of Quantum Physics: an overview from modern perspectives. 470-91. W. Leggett. (2002). (An alternative presentation of the GRW collapse theory) D. pp. 257. Pearle. P. Chapter 7 (pp. 2277-2289. Studies in the History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 33 (2002). .

1987). Bell. and D. C. 'Bell's other theorem and its connection with nonlocality.D.S. Wallace. A. pp. pp. Peres. Speakable and Unspeakable in Quantum Mechanics (Cambridge. (World Scientific Publishing Company.arxiv.. 611-637. ( Kluwer Academic Publishers. the rather powerful case against the theory in the third reference is made by one of its strongest advocates…) . 1987).Bell. Brown. S. 1996). Bell. R. Reprinted in J. pp. M. Speakable and Unspeakable in Quantum Mechanics (Cambridge. Available online at http://uk. Section 4. Dürr. (Clarendon. R. (Two careful discussions of the Kochen-Specker paradox and its implications) On the pilot-wave theory in particular: J.517-540. Goldstein. 1992) pp.. S. “On the impossible pilot wave”. and Stachel.). Incompleteness. in various ways. H Brown et al. S. "Bohmian Mechanics and the Meaning of the Wave Function. Horne. Chapter 5 (pp. with the ontology of the pilotwave theory and the apparent irrelevance of the corpuscles. A. 1981). Oddly. 117-139. in Quantum Gravity 2. 1997). Further Reading On hidden variables and impossibility proofs in general: H. Experimental Metaphysics -.S. Isham. Part II. Studies in the History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 36 (2005). 1987).arxiv. Quantum theory: concepts and methods (Kluwer. A philosophical analysis of the differing interpretations of the Bell-Kochen-Specker theorem. F. (Another presentation of the theory).org/abs/quant-ph/0403094 S.. Available online at http://uk. 119-138). pp. in J. “Quantum Mechanics for Cosmologists”.Bell. 1993). 104-116. and N. 103-112.S. M. 989-99. van der Merwe. Volume One. “Solving the measurement problem: de Broglie-Bohm loses out to Everett”. J. “Are all particles real?”.). Selleri and G. eds. “Cause and Effect in the Pilot Wave Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics”. Tarozzi (eds. Part I' in Bell's Theorem and the Foundations of Modern Physics. (These three papers are all concerned.Quantum Mechanical Studies for Abner Shimony. Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science 193.." in Cohen.T. Foundations of Physics 35 (2005). Foundations of Physics 12 (1982). Bohmian mechanics and Quantum Theory: An Appraisal (Kluwer Academic Publishers. Reprinted in J. H. Sciama (ed. Zanghì. pp. Cushing et al (eds. Penrose and D. nonlocality and realism: a prolegomenon to the philosophy of quantum J. 201-212. Available online via TDNet. Redhead. Brown.) (Oxford. pp. Goldstein et al.

J. Physical Review 85 (1952). Peres. “Quantum Theory Needs No `Interpretation’”. 1993).). Bub. The Ghost in the Atom (Cambridge. “Bohm’s causal interpretation of quantum mechanics”. 27B. Historical discussion of the travails of the pilot-wave theory.T. Conceptual Foundations of Quantum Physics: an overview from modern perspectives. pp. 1996). in in J. 38-54. in J. “Bohm’s Theory versus Dynamical Reduction”. Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics. Original source Bohm. D. J. (University of Chicago Press. Quantum Mechanics: Historical Contingency and the Copenhagen Hegemony. in P. Bohmian mechanics and Quantum Theory: An Appraisal (Kluwer Academic Publishers. 90-122). pp. 1997).).R Brown (ed. 189-211). Rather more technical detail about the pilot-wave theory. Cushing et al (eds. Cushing et al (eds. The Quantum Theory of Motion: an account of the de Broglie-Bohm causal interpretation of quantum mechanics (Cambridge. 1986). with much useful background. C.1 (7.). Interpreting the Quantum World (Cambridge. 1997) pp.T. (Plenum.J. 70-82. Cushing et al (eds. Holland. 166-193. “A suggested interpretation of quantum theory in terms of ‘hidden’ variables. 24-41) & possibly also chapters 5-6 (pp. 'Antidote or Theory?'. Cushing. J. 1996). Available online via TDNet. See also the letters to the editor in Physics Today 53(9) and .). section 7. formal results). The Copenhagen Interpretation Core Reading Peierls. chapter 7 (pp. Cushing. 1994) chapter 3 (pp. Available online via TDNet. Bohmian mechanics and Quantum Theory: An Appraisal (Kluwer Academic Publishers. esp.W.. pp.T. Physics Today 53(3) (2000). References and anthologies P.T. 229 (1996). 1996).2 focusses on much more technical. G. Fuchs and A. Bohmian mechanics and Quantum Theory: An Appraisal (Kluwer Academic Publishers. A book review of two recent-ish discussions of the Bohm theory.Davies and J. Michael Dickson. Home. pp.C. 70-71. Ghirardi. 353-377. D. Comparison of the pilot-wave theory with dynamical collapse theories of GRW type. R.

“Everett and Structure”. “Comment on Lockwood”. An expansion of Fuchs and Peres’ discussion above. Available online via TDNet. 1 (pp. A. Saunders.arxiv. S. Logical Analysis of Quantum Mechanics. 1999). Available online via TDNet. The quantum mechanics of minds and worlds (Oxford University Press. “Complementarity and Scientific Rationality”. Saunders. The Everett interpretation Core Reading D.373-404. Further Reading Peres. . 9-49). Studies in the History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 34. Online at http://xxx. actually thought. D. Zurek. 111-119). A. D. Deutsch. A careful exposition of what Bohr.Fuchs and Peres’ reply (both available online at http://www. in particular. Saunders provides a reconstruction of Bohr’s thought more sympathetic than Cushing’ unpublished (2003). Wheeler and W. pp. Quantum Mechanics and Experience (Harvard University Press. Foundations of Physics (forthcoming). Wallace. 222-8. What is essentially a precis of . pp.ox. Online at http://users. 87-105 (2003). Scheibe.pdf or via TDNet. Quantum Theory: Concepts and Methods ( Further Reading J. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 47 (1996). (Pergamon Press. E. pp. Synthese 114 (1998). available at http://users. Original Sources An extensive collection of historical sources on the Copenhagen interpretation can be found in J. 1992). 1970). pp. 1983). S.html). Quantum Mechanics.pdf. First part of chapter 6 (pp. and Probability”.aip. Wallace. D. Barrett. 1993). Quantum Theory and Measurement (Princeton. “Time. “Quantum Probability from Subjective Uncertainty: improving on Deutsch’s proof of the probability rule”. H. especially chapter 3 (and possibly chapter 6).uk/~lina0174/cushing.

S. More detailed presentations of Saunders’ approach to the Everett interpretation. 1745-1762.pdf Rather critical review of Barrett’s book. Papineau. 195-213. An argument that the probability problem is actually no worse in the Everett interpretation than in single-universe interpretations. S.ox. 125-142. Saunders. D. Edward N. in R. Elitzur. .arxiv. “What is probability?”.).).ox. “Many minds are no worse than one”. A clear exegesis of Everett’s original paper and a variety of comments on later versions of the interpretation. Available online via TDNet. http://plato. 233-41. Mind 110 (2001).ac. can be found in Barrett. Albert and B. Synthese 114 (1998). (See also the many commentaries in the same issue). S. M. 3. S. Available online via TDNet. in A. Another version of the Many Minds theory. and the Quantum: the compound “I” (Oxford. Quantum Mechanics and Decoherence”.edu/archives/spr2003/entries/qm-everett/ . British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 47 (1996). online at http://xxx. “Epistemology Quantized: Circumstances in which we should come to believe in the Everett interpretation”.uk/~mert0130/papers/epist. Saunders. pp. pp. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 47 (1996). pp. A. Saunders. “Against Many-Worlds Interpretations”. 2005). Available online at http://users. Saunders. Kent. pp. Quantum Mechanics (Springer-Verlag. pp. D. Critical survey of Everett-type interpretations from a physicist’s perspective.stanford. 1996). This is a 1997 update of Kent’s 1990 paper of the same name in International Journal of Modern Physics A5 . 405-44. Lockwood. Available online at http://xxxx.arXiv. 159-88. Lockwood. 1039-43. M. "Everett's Relative-State Formulation of Quantum Mechanics". Brain. with some added sections which precis other bits of the Available online at philsciarchive. available online at http://users. Jeffrey. S. Zalta (ed.). “The quantum mechanics of minds and worlds”. emphasising considerations from the philosophy of mind. Dolev and N. Mind. “Time.pitt-edu (search for Saunders). 1989). “’Many Minds’ Interpretations of Quantum Mechanics”. Perspectives on Quantum Reality ( Loewer. “Relativism”. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Spring 2003 Edition). Quo Vadis. Clifton (ed. Kolenda (eds. pp. Lockwood’s version of the Everett interpretation. Synthese 77 (1988). Wallace. “Interpreting the Many Worlds Interpretation”.

“Decoherence and the transition from quantum to classical”. Gell-Mann. 1175-82. pp. pp. de Witt and N. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Winter 2003 Edition).).org/abs/quant-ph/9906015 . Bacciagaluppi. 136-166. Barnum et al.arxiv. The Many-Worlds Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics (Princeton.arxiv. Zurek.). Proceedings of the Royal Society of London A455 (1999).org/abs/gr-qc/9407040 W. 415-439. A. Bub. Halliwell. “A contemporary view of quantum mechanics: quantum mechanics and the classical approximation.More detail about the probability problem in the Everett interpretation. 1997). 212-236. "The Role of Decoherence in Quantum Mechanics". Annals of the New York Academy of Science 755 (1995). “Everettian Rationality: defending Deutsch’s approach to probability in the Everett interpretation”. 454-462. Decoherence and consistent histories Core Reading G. Everett III. Graham (eds. pp. Reprinted in de Witt and Graham (below) and in J. D. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London A456 (2000). Original sources H. 3129-3137. Zurek. Wheeler and W. pp.” Chapter 11 of The quark and the jaguar: adventures in the simple and the complex (Abacus. (An exegesis of the above two papers can be found in D. pp. chapter 8. . M. pp. 1973). H. Interpreting the Quantum World (Cambridge. . available at http://plato. Available online at http://arxiv. Rather critical discussion of the decoherence-based approaches. 1995). Available online via TDNet. 1983). Available online at http://uk. Review of Modern Physics 29 (1957). online at http://arxiv. B. “Quantum Theory of Probability and Decisions”. J. Zalta (ed. Studies in the History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 34 (2003). Quantum Theory and Measurement (Princeton. Wallace. “Relative state formulation of quantum mechanics”. Deutsch. Further Reading J. pp. 726-740. Available online at http://uk. available online via TDNet.stanford. “Quantum Probability from Decision Theory?”. Edward N. “A review of the decoherent histories approach to quantum mechanics”.

Putnam.M. “Consistent Histories and Bohmian Mechanics”. Joos et al. 1979). 715-775. especially chapter 27 (pp. pp. Zurek.T. R. Omnes. “Is logic empirical?”. 343-352. 216-41. Another attempt to use consistent histories to solve the measurement problem. in J. 1793-1820. covering a wide range of developments in environment-induced decoherence. Entropy and the Physics of Information: Santa Fe Institute Studies in the Science of Complexity vol. Zurek. An exhaustive survey. Griffiths. H. einselection. Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science 5 (1969). A conceptually motivated account of environment-induced decoherence and its role in the interpretation of quantum mechanics. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London A356 (1998). Hartle. 2nd edition (Springer. Consistent Quantum Theory (Cambridge. and the existential interpretation (the rough guide)”. p. pp. together with the author’s interpretational gloss on it. “Decoherence. Matter and Method: Philosophical Papers vol. Review paper. and the quantum origins of the classical”. Influential criticism of the idea of using consistent histories as a solution to the measurement problem (the “Bohmian mechanics” part is incidental. B.). The Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics (Princeton. in Complexity. 1991). “Quantum mechanics in the light of quantum cosmology”.org/abs/quant-ph/9805065.) R. Putnam. pp. einselection. Decoherence and the Appearance of a Classical World in Quantum Theory. 1996). 425-458. “Decoherence. A. 2003). 2002). W. Mathematics. 36-370). Other interpretations Quantum logic H. W. Available online at http://uk. 1 (Cambridge. Cushing et al (eds. 1994). H. VIII (Addison-Wesley. Reviews of Modern Physics 75 (2003). Kent. Gell-Mann and J. Full technical review of the consistent-histories formalism. Reprinted in H. Bohmian mechanics and Quantum Theory: An Appraisal (Kluwer Academic Publishers. References E. . More technical account of Gell-Mann and Hartle’s almost-but-not-quite-Everett interpretation. pp.arxiv. especially final chapter.

Incompleteness. Wigner. “Quantum logic is alive ^ (it is true v it is false)” . H. Edward N. Reprinted in E. 1998). Philosophy of Science 70 (2003). 1983). 284-302. Hilgevoord. Critical assessment of the Fuchs proposal. Zalta (ed.M. Vermaas (ed. M. II”.). 1989) ch 1. “Remarks on the Mind-Body Problem”. 1978). D. in I. H. M. American Journal of Physics. Redhead. nonlocality and realism: a prolegomenon to the philosophy of quantum mechanics. “A Philosopher Looks at Quantum Information Theory”. The modal interpretation of quantum mechanics (Kluwer. Dickson. 1987).arxiv. 1961). pp. Reprinted in M. Stapp. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Winter 2002 Edition). Quantum Theory and Measurement (Princeton. Redhead. E.stanford. Dieks and P. 752-775. 66 (1998).Good (ed. Nonlocality and Realism. Consciousness-based collapse theories E. Fuchs proposes a variant of the Copenhagen interpretation motivated by quantum information theory. Hagar.J. pp 396-402. Philosophy of Science 68 (2001). 2nd ed. 153-167). A. Modal interpretations Dickson. 45-68. Wheeler and W. available at http://plato. Truth and Other Enigmas (Duckworth. . (Clarendon Press.). Dummett. Uncertainty relations M. Critique of Putnam. Dummett. Symmetries and Reflections (Indiana University Press 1967). 2004). P. Fuchs. Mind. Zurek. D. 171-84 and in J. Information-theoretic interpretations C. matter and quantum mechanics.) The Scientist Speaks (Heinemann. J. 1976). pp. in which the quantum state represents only our subjective knowledge about the results of measurements. available at http://uk. in H. Incompleteness. pp. pp. “The uncertainty relation for energy and time. Lewis (ed. (Clarendon. Supplement: proceedings of the 2000 Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association Part I: Contributed Papers. S274-S287. "Modal Interpretations of Quantum Mechanics". A. A. “Is logic empirical?”. Michael.) Contemporary British Philosophy (Allen and Unwin. Chapter 7 (pp. “Quantum Foundations in the light of Quantum Information”. (Springer.

and how successful is it as a resolution of the measurement problem?” • • • . Sample essay title: “How satisfactory is the de Broglie-Bohm theory as a resolution of the measurement problem?” (You may wish to discuss technical issues with the de Broglie-Bohm theory specifically. and a selection of the further reading. Sample essay title: “What is the most satisfactory formulation of the Everett interpretation. and/or the general “hidden-variable” strategy for solving the measurement problem) Non-locality.Suggested tutorial topics (Aimed at those compiling tutorial reading lists) A tutorial reading list might (depending on your taste) consist of most of the core reading from one of these topics. and discuss its implications for the 1935 Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen incompleteness argument. Sample essay title: “Outline the Bell nonlocality theorem. Some possible topics might be: • the measurement problem (possibly combined with a particular interpretation – Copenhagen or dynamical collapse would be natural choices) Sample essay titles: “What is the measurement problem and how is it connected to the linearity of QM? How successful is the GRW theory at resolving the problem through the introduction of nonlinearity?” “What is the measurement problem? Are Fuchs and Peres right that there is no problem after all?” Hidden-variable theories.” The Everett interpretation (reading list would probably have to be drawn from a combination of the Everett list and the decoherence list).

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