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The Homophonic Forms of Musical Composition - Percy Goetschius

The Homophonic Forms of Musical Composition - Percy Goetschius

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The Homophonic Forms of Musical Composition - Percy Goetschius
The Homophonic Forms of Musical Composition - Percy Goetschius

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Percy Goetschius

The Hornophonic

Forms
of

Musical
Co mp os it ion

.

New York

G.Sch irm e r

.

THIRD EDITION THE JTOMOPHONIC FORMS OF MUSICAL COMPOSITION AN EXHAUSTIVE TREATISE ON THE STRUCTURE AND DEVELOPMENT OF MUSICAL FORMS. Mus. {Royal Wurttember^ Professor) AUTHOR OF "THE MATERIAL USED IN MUSICAL COMPOSITION" "TUB THEORY AND PRACTICE OF TONE-RELATIONS" "MODELS OF THE PRINCIPAL MUSICAL FORMS.. : SCHIRMER LIBRARY UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA DAVIS . NEW YORK G. FROM THE SIMPLE PHRASE TO THE SONG-FORM WITH FOR THB USB OF Ocncral ant> " TRIO " Special Students of flDusical Structure PERCY GOETSCHIUS." KTC. .. Doc.

.MT5S COPYRIGHT. BY G. NEW YORK. 1898. SCHIRMER 13710 PRINTING HOUSE.

To . 1b. Hx H. Beacb AS A CORDIAL TRIBUTE TO AN EMINENT WOMAN-COMPOSER OF AMERICA .

.

must be inspected. if not at least in great No student should hope to be composer without possessing with the extensive quite products and processes of acquaintance successful writers. into a means to an end. This book undertakes no more than the systematic enumeration and exhaustive explanation of all the formal designs and methods of structural treatment in the homophonic domain of musical The composition. . and stimulate the imagination to increased responsiveness and activity. as revealed in classical or standard writings. will induce correct habits of musical thought. he must endeavor to own . is made. student who aims to acquire the Science of composition. The examples given totally. will enrich the mind with a fund of resources. . cal II. for reference part. as a very This applies significant and distinctly essential part of his study. knowledge into successful practice. . But. for example : The Pianoforte Sonatas of BEETHOVEN. II and III. is expected to imitate these designs and methods. This will develop skill and facility. Therefore. entirely successful efficient as a and more Some reference especially to the works cited in Divisions I. and natural or acquired judgment. further than this. the student can appeal to no other authority than that of his own fancy. those to which constant or frequent of the works. HAYDN. the book lays no claim to furnishing In converting his theoreticlues to the subtle Art of composition. good taste. and to look for additional illustrations and confirmations in general musical literature. the pupil must regard the conscientious examination of these carefully selected quotations. for 2 hands) of BEETHOVEN and HAYDN The Bagatelles of BEETHOVEN . I. MOZART and SCHUBERT The Symphonies (arr.PREFACE.

prospective composer that the book will prove quite the general music. 117. 76. Boston. works of SCHUMANN (op. of equal importance to all musical artists.and of BRAHMS (op. as to the a knowledge of homophonic musical structo ture being. PERCY GOETSCHIUS. 116. III. . December. The Mazurkas. . 79. 118. 82. 99. The author hopes and expects as necessary and useful . 119) And some of the Songs of SCHUBERT and SCHUMANN. . 15. 1897. will the prescribed Exercises. Mus. The same thoroughness simply omit all general student. 68. undeniably. Doc.student.. 12. 10. 124). The " Songs without Words " of MENDELSSOHN. reproductive as well as productive. Mass. Nocturnes and Preludes of CHOPIN The Pfte. while studying and analyzing with the as the special student of composition.

Irregular harmonic bulk (15) . . THE HARMONIC EQJJIPMENT OF THE PHRASE-MELODY : .5 . (2) . I. . .7 .2 . Figuration of chords The Divisions of musical form . Syntax of phrase (n) .19 voiced styles (14) . .9 . 6 DIVISION CHAP. . THE PHRASE . Basis of chord-succession . two-. three-.23 Exercise 2.) INTRODUCTORY The requisites of musical composition The harmonic fundament : PAGl . 7) . 8 (6.16 . cadence .19 . II.2 . . Styles of accompaniment (13) Distinction of one-.4 .TABLE OF CONTENTS. . Ornamentation of chords . i . . (Figures in parentheses refer to paragraphs. 13 15 Means of indicating melodic joints (10) . Beginning and ending Perfect cadence (3) .8 . . . 10 Melodic aspect of phrase (8) Division of phrase-melody into members . CHAP.7 . . I. .12 (9) . and four- . . Relations between melodic members (12) 16 Exercise 1. Modification of perfect cadence (4) . . : Definition (i) . Harmonic aspect of phrase (5) Approach to the perf. .

Extensions at the end of phrase (24) Repetition of second half (25^) Repetition (*s*) f . . -33 -33 -33 : Exercise 3. . . 31 Interlude before repetition (20) . Complete changes in course (19^) . . . . 32 Conditions upon which " repetition" de. . 42 45 45 . pends (21) Series of repetitions (22) Object of repetitions (23) . (2 9 c) . . III.25 . Repetition of cadence-group (260) Repetition of two cadence-chords (26$) Reiteration of final tonic chord (26c) . . . . Concealing perfect cadence (18) Modifications of repetition (19) . Extensions in course.TABLE OF CONTENTS. . 46 48 52 " " Importance of expansion New cadence-member (29^) . 28 28 (19^) Change Change of register (19^) of style (19^) .29 . Sequence of early member (29$) Expansion of prominent tone or chord . . . THE DEVELOPMENT OR EXTENTHE PHRASE : SION OK PAGE Processes of composition (16) . . 26 26 26 Repetition of entire phrase (18) . . when and where . Means employed in developing phrase (17) . . 37 38 . . CHAP. . . : Embellishment of melody (19^) Change of harmony and modulation . . 54 . Extensions at the beginning of phrase Extensions in course of phrase (29) Repetition of early member (29^. . 34 36 or sequence of last member .30 .) : (28). 40 41 41 . 53 appropriate (30) Exercises G and 7 . Plagal extension (26^) of extensions at end Object (27) Exercises 4 and 5.

. . .86 . Repetition of entire period (41) Repetition of consequent-phrase (42) 72 . . 79 Si . . 78 . . Extensions at beginning of period (44) ' . . CHAP. . THE PERIOD-FORM . 73 75 Repetition of phrases (43) antecedent-phrase.62 . (45) Introduction to consequent-phrase (46) . . . . . Exercises 10 and 11. Xi . 55 (32) . .TABLE OF CONTENTS. 57 . 77 77 Introductory phrase . VI. IV. Opposite construction (39^) Contrasting construction (39^) Variety and Unity (40) Exercise 9. CHAP. Antecedent phrase Semicadences (36) (35) . or both . . . . . EXTENSIONS OF PERIOD-FORM . : Definition (34) . Extensions at end of period (47) Extension at end of antecedent-phrase (48) Extensions in course of period (49) Chain-phrase formation of either phrase (50) . 83 84 87 Natural location of extensions (53) Miscellaneous examples of period-extension Exercises 12 and 13. Irregular phrase-formation (33) Miscellaneous examples of phrase-extension .64 : Construction of consequent phrase (39) Parallel construction (39^) . . "Postlude" (52) . 87 . . . . . 82 Codetta (51) .62 . . .70 : CHAP. . .78 . V. 64 64 67 69 . . . . .62 . 59 61 Exercise 8. Character of antecedent phrase (37) 63 Consequent phrase (38) . "Prelude" . Chain-phrase (31) Melody-expansion .

similar (57) of dissimilar phrases (58) . Indefinite transitional grades. . THE TWO-PART SONG-FORM . . DIVISION 2. . . . GROUP-FORMATIONS ' : Distinction between " repetition " and " re- Period with consequent-group (54) .. . 115 . VIII.. THE SONG-FORMS OR PART-FORMS. 102 102 . : Cadence-conditions (63) Parallel construction (64) . Exercises 16 and 17. IX. 115 .in Quadruple period (68<5) . Period-group (59) Elision (60) Exercises 14 . : Definition (71) . . Essentially different cadences . . . . VII. . 92 Group Group of phrases." Part.. . . Period with antecedent-group (56) . -113 . and double period (65) . . . 115 (720. . form Details of First Part : . Comparative definition of "Phrase. .88 .91 .116 . . . Cadence (72(5) Modulation (72^) . 93 95 97 . 88 Sequential reproduction Essential modifications . THE DOUBLE PERIOD Definition (61) Inter-relations (62) .Xli TABLE OF CONTENTS. . . . . .) . .97 101 101 and IB.. . 114 CHAP. . Miscellaneous examples of double-period . CHAP. .. 88 " production (55): ." and Song-form (69) Absolute definition of " Part " (70) " " " . . between single .90 . . . CHAP. . . 104 106 107 no extensions . Contrasting construction (66) Extensions of double period (67) Addition of extraneous members (68a) . ..no .

PAGE Xlll Details of Second Part : form (73^).116 117 (74) . (840:) . primary design Coincidence of endings of two parts (75) Exercise 18.128 Exercise 20. 125 I2 5 Extensions : repetitions (79^) Extraneous adjuncts (79^) . X.123 Exercise 19. Proportion to length of form (79^) Large two-part form. XI. . repetition (8i) Influence upon Part II of tripartite 130 form (Sic) . . . THE FULLY DEVELOPED TWOCHAP.TABLE OF CONTEXTS.. . . . 133 135 Incipient grade of three-part song-form . Details of structure (84^) . Two-part song-form. . . .. . .) . 117 120 121 . . as type of Sonatinaform (80) . .. . Genuine species Exercise 21. . . . this 135 classification (foot- 138 139 Exercise 22. Ruling " THE THREE-PART SONG-FORM between " "recurrence" . . 116 Character (73^) . different formal designs (77) . Irregular species (83^) . Cadence (73<") . . .130 131 131 The three-part period (82) (830. . PART SONG-FORM : Definition (78) . Demonstration of note) Resemblance between three-part period and incipient three-part song-form (84^ . Diminutive two-part song-form (76) Perplexing external resemblance between .. : principle of all tripartite forms (8ia) 129 Distinction and . 125 126 . CHAP. .

CHAP. rhythm (97^) .150 .173 . 149 . : . 172 .154 157 re-transition (9oc) Details of Part III (91) : . . . Extraneous members Exercises 28. . .162 . . . Dynamic design (950) Other expression-marks (95^) Contrast (96) Style time (97^) .. . 175 Emotional elements (97^) . General modulatory design (94^). 24. . troduction. 177 .XIV TABLE OF CONTEXTS. . 140 141 Derived from fragments of Part (8y<5) . 170 I Modulation transient (94^) .. THE ORDINARY COMPLETE THREEPART SONG-FORM : design (86a). .174 . codetta or coda. in. . 152 On The other chords (90$) . . . . length (S6) Details of Part II Thematic conditions : Definition (85) Details of Part I . . . Tempo (97<). 144 144 146 147 . 25. . . XIII. .. XII.172 . .171 . . 164 CHAP. .170 7I Complete Two (94^) general rules (94^) . ADDITIONAL DETAILS OF THE SONG-FORMS : Irregular cadence-conditions : Imperfect cadence at end of section (93^) Perfect cadence in course of section (g^b) Influence of thematic idea upon formal design ( 166 168 9 y) : . . Cadence of Part II On dominant (900:) : . Tonality of Part II (88) Structural design of Part II (890) Sectional form of Part II (89^) . . .173 . . . : PAGE 139 140 Total agreement with Part I (87^) I . mode (97^). interlude (92). Opposite construction (Syc) General formative agreement (87^) New melodic contents (87^) .

. .. CHAP. recurrence of portion. . THE EVOLUTION OF THE FIVEPART SONG-FORM : Repetition of the divisions (105^) Second Part not to be repeated alone (105^) Exercise 32.. XIV. . .. .TABLE OF CONTENTS. XV.. . 31. . . . Exercise 26. Derivation of coda and codetta (98^) Location of codetta (98*-) . PAGE XV 178 Coda and ( codetta distinction between (98) and Object design of coda and codetta : 9 8) .183 I briefly represented at beginning of . Large phrase-group (104) . literal. .183 .. 30. ..188 190 191 new mamember .. . recurrence containing terial (io2c) 4. ... . Corroboration (103) . Stage Stage 3.. XVI. CHAP. 181 Part Part I ( 99 3) . . 188 Stage recurrence (iO2a) . Augrnjjjnted two-part Song-form (100) 186 Exercise 28. or unessentially modified : . 193 195 'Exercises 29. 196 197 .188 2. Part III ( 99 c) Exercise 27. . recurrence containing from Part II (1020?) .. . 181 complete form (99^) Part III a slightly contracted version of . . FULLY DEVELOPED THREE-PART SONG-FORM : Definition (101) Four stages of progressive development Stage i.. . . CHAP. THE INCOMPLETE THREE-PART SONG-FORM : Definition (99) Distinction between incipient grade and in- .178 . extended (102^) . 179 1-80 . .

PAGE Modified repetition of second division Stage i. . Part IV a transposed and altered recurrence of Part II (io6c) 200 . . . incipient stage Distinct 2nd Part (i 1 20) . .. 202 (107) Old-fashioned rondeau (loSa) 203 Seven-part form (108^) 203 Exercise 33. . transposed recurrence of Part II .. .. . Group of Parts. Details of principal song (n8a. CHAP. . V .201 Part IV new 201 Stage 5. . 208 DIVISION COMPOUND SONG-FORMS.). 212 (1190. design (119^) . . 6) Transition (ii8c) Details of subordinate song or " Trio" Character (119) Time . . Stage 4. . 214 . . IRREGULAR PART-FORMS .. . . . Group (in) . key (119^) . Repetition of 2nd Part alone (ii2<5) Sequential or transposed reproduction Parts (113) . . .XVI TABLE OF CONTENTS. of Parts. XVII. . . Part IV a reconstructed version of Part II (io6</) .198 Stage 3. . : .. . 213 Tempo (119^). 3. SONG-FORM WITH "TRio": Definition (117) . Definition (109) Transposed 3rd Part (no) . . . . . Definition (116) . (io6) . 207 207 207 208 of . repetition of Parts II and III with unessential changes (io6#) : . .. ... . XVIII. . Extended (115) Exercise 34. 198 Stage 2.210 ONE CHAP. developed (114) . . . : 204 205 206 .. (io6<?) Treatment of Part .

: 224 224 mood .. . 223 222 222 Definition of Lyric class (1260) Definition of Etude-class (126^) . TRIO ": EXTENSION OF " SONG WITH . 230 230 . . . . Definition of Dance-class (i26c) Distinctions approximate (i26d) .. . etc. 227 228 228 . secular text (13 1</) .218 i Exercise 35. 223 223 .. . . 219 219 220 DIVISION Classification (126) 4. PAGE XVli Re-transition (119^) D.. CHAP. . " Trio" and da capo (123) Repetition of two "Trios" (124) with Song-form of song-forms (125) Exercise 36. of music . 215 Coda ... . . ..217 . Notation (128^) Form (i2S/~) Accompaniment (128^) .217 Trio" (122) . capo (120) (121) . Group .225 225 226 Instrumental duo (129) Song without words. 223 CHAP. (1300) Ballade (130^) . . .. 229 .. . . . . (131^). . 229 Design (131^) .TABLE OF CONTENTS. "Part-Songs" (131*2) Sacred Text (131^). . . XX. . . ...i . Miscellaneous examples Relation of five-part form to "song with . Vocal compass (i28c) (i28ct) . Sources of information (127) . . . 215 .... Setting THE LYRIC CLASS (128*5) Song. XIX. . . Details: text (1280) . . . ensemble .. . . .. CONVENTIONAL STYLES OF COMPOSITION.. with \vords.

232 (133^) . .TABLE OF CONTENTS. CHAP. Modern dances (135) . Conclusion : criticism (137) . . . capriccio. . THE DANCE-CLASS Old dance-species (134) . . THE ETUDE-CLASS ' Etude or study (132) . . etc. m 232 CHAP. Scherzo (133^) formative elements design (133^) . . . March (136) . XXI. : . Toccata. (133(1) . : PAGE . XXII. . 2 2 ^ ^ . .

G. "The " Material used in Musical Composition *. it will not. dition. a . . the present author demands no more preparatory harmonic and contrapuntal knowledge than will have been acquired by the faithful and exhaustive study of * Latest (4th) ed. Schirmer. to point out every possible means of arousing and stimulating this imaginative faculty. On the contrary. requirement. be a subject of consideration in . finally. consequently. an active and fertile : The . therefore be. and may be acquired by any ordinarily intelligent student.INTRODUCTORY. and strong and well-balanced intellect the attribute of emotional life-breathing passion. 1895. principal details of Tone-relation Therefore. evidently and one of the chief aims of the following pages will extent this treatise upon Composition. 4thly. . The first-named condition. Of these four. skilful technical manipulation of the tone-material and its resources. the last-mentioned cannot be acquired it must imagination . the second conno the less important faculty of DisImagination (with can be cultivated and developed to a large crimination). the mastery of the (Harmony) is expected of the student before he undertakes the study of composition proper. . to an extent proportionate to his application and patience. rather than is to through its exercise as an independent object of study. be innately present in the disposition of the individual and. and cannot. four most important requisites of successful musical composition are istly. Though not the most significant. is very largely indeed a matter of study. 3rdly. New York. Adopting the view that much facility (probably the greatest and best) be acquired through the application of this fundamental knowledge to the construction of musical designs. ample comprehension and command of the relations and associations of tone 2ndly. it is the most indispensable the first and fundamental.

.e. or any other The Theory and standard treatise upon Harmony. is arbitrarily of made. which latter resolves SCALE of conjunct tones. either of feasible in one or another. including. there are three of fundamental rank. not for the information of the beginner. This sweeping option (of leading the respective parts upward or downward a whole step or a half-step) discloses one of the most ULAR (not necessarily rise to " wrong") when less the choice more or comprehensive and inexhaustible sources of harmonic and melodic motion. who would learn nothing of value from such a summary review. erected upon the Tonic. The nature of every a Chord is determined by the key. But at the same time it is so vague and regular or irregular. is the CHORD i. Conservatory. The movement from one chord is into another. as it does.. seductive. The broadest principles of Harmony are herewith recapitulated . Boston. The source and material basis of all music. such as will facilitate his choice and use of the material in the execution of the given musical designs 1. or voices). seems to be dictated largely (if not vitality the choice between a WHOLE-STEP PROGRESSION simple mainly) by harmonic and a HALF-STEP PROGRESSION. arranged in contiguous intervals of the (major or minor] third. every conceivable chord-progression. Dominant and Seconddominant (or Subdominant) of the chosen key. of whatsoever : character and style it maybe. it as a rule for the New Engl. Mass. which design. Of these chord-structures. which is invariably of the respective tone-lines (parts describe or delineate the figures of the musical These chord-changes are REGULAR when the distinction of whole-step or of half-step progression is not determined by option. itself into of musical operations. u or Practice of Tone-relations" * (with the supplementary exercise indicated in its preface). that the * student should not adopt 1894. whereby all generated. constituting the Platform 2. but by the strict harmonic conditions of the key they are IRREG. THE HARMONIC FUNDAMENT. giving frequent changes key. but in order to afford the advanced student of Harmony a bird's-eye view of the entire domain of Tone-association. a structure of from three to five tones.2 INTRODUCTORY. or all.

The following random successions illustrate the point in question only to those : 1. because. WAGNER. Some of these chord-successions can be accounted for in no other way than as a purely optional choice of wholeor half-step part-progression. He must regard it rather (e. both chords belong to the same key. determination of his harmonic conduct. *3) And this succession (in common with all chromatics) is irregular. *4) From the " Gotterdammerung". and must accept it chiefly as a proof that there can never be an excuse for harmonic monotony or apathy. that the free exercise of this option can be conceded as a restilt who have first become firmly grounded in all the of principles regular harmonic progression. of some thematic or formal design) than as a cause . . It is obvious. because not in conformity with the rules of diatonic chord-movement.INTRODUCTORY. ^y=A Ill Vi II *2) *i) Up separate to this point all the chord-successions are regular. in each case.. because a mixture of keys takes place. J /2 step. furthermore. *2) These two successions are irregular. etc. g. and are connected according to the natural law of chord-progression. *4) ij i=s=^=^FiE W m~ 1tig i^k-^^Ti feH: r *T f *.

they are appear primary (see often ornamented with those other scale-tones which lie immediately nucleus of the phrase . and is transformed from the character of rugged or stolid simplicity . Ex. RUBINSTEIN. 10. may be demonstrated as 3. i . and frequently do. 27). Andante. while they in their above or below the individual chord-tones (as Neighboring-notes) sometimes so richly. HAYDN. i * - r^/ij ^ij J ==== '/ *s > *5) This unique cluster of half-step movements passing-notes upon a regular chord-basis. that a very simple and otherwise perhaps monotonous measure assumes a more unique and elaborate shape. tones in large type) : For illustration (chord- i.* into one of greater grace or deeper passion. The tones which form a chord constitute the harmonic may. condition Ex. but. -4~ g-b-d.INTRODUCTORY.

f-a-c c-e-g d-f-a-c c-e-g. JL .INTRODUCTORY. the chord-tones (possibly in connection with their auxiliary neighbors) are not always presented in one simultaneous bulk. but frequently so separated (dispersed or "broken") as to produce an animated rhythmic and melodic effect. CHOPIN. extend into other. i. and to 4. < 2. higher or lower. Waltz. Furthermore. : MENDELSSOHN. Thus Allegro. 2. registers than the common and convenient tone-locality corresponding to the compass of the human voices. 3.

The matter under treatment in the present volume is that of the first of these classes : THE HOMOPHONIC FORMS. by greater logical continuity and closer affinity between ^the component members of the design. Fugue OF TWO OR MORE INDIVIDUAL MELODIES. THE POLYPHONIC FORMS embracing the Invention. majority the homophonic and polyphonic principles of treatment. : the draughting of the processes to be pursued in this act design. and the modes of manipulating the natural material these it is the province of a treatise upon The " Musical Form " to expound. THE HOMOPHONIC FORMS smaller designs. BEETHOVEN. and the element of SINGLE MELODY. THE DIVISIONS OF MUSICAL FORM. and characterized by the CONSTANT ASSOCIATION and Canon. THE HIGHER OR COMPLEX FORMS the union of and characterized of by larger designs. constitute the MATERIAL out of by which the composer develops his artistic creation. . The classes : entire range of musical forms is divided into three grand embracing the majority of Istly. and also . 2ndly. embracing the Srdly. . .INTRODUCTORY. and characterized by the predomination of the simpler styles of harmony. These fundamental varieties of tone-combination. supplemented a large number of inferior distinctions which will be pointed out in their proper place and order. the execution of the details. and a number of the larger ones.

When the tempo is slow (Adagio Larghetto). it is evident (apparent) measure will be an incomplete one. Ex. number of measures (3. 5. or when the measures are of a smaller denomination. and it must be dis- tinctly understood that such an incomplete measure is merely preliminary and is never to be counted as first measure. with the dominant (see Ex. is the first full measure !) fractions are in reality a borrowed portion of the final measure. 5. or. 1 . See Ex. and will be deducted from the latter. the causes and purposes of which will be seen in due time (par. in exceptional cases. or with some other harmony of preliminary effect. 6. no matter how little it may lack of being an entire measure. larger or smaller. Any other. 33). No. 10 (beginning upon first accent). in rapid tempi.) must constitute an irregular design. The simple Phrase begins with the tonic chord.THE HOMOPHONIC FORMS. and. or the measures large (6/8 9/8 12/8). The first measure in a Phrase. extending (when regular) throughfour ordinary measures in ordinary moderate tempo. (This must be borne constantly in mind in counting the measures in all given references. 7b. the Phrase may contain eight measures. 6. i). 9. as a rule. 2 a. In case that the it first begins upon any unaccented beat. 7. Ex. 14. or comThe preliminary beats or position of any design. etc. inversely. or fraction of a beat. DIVISION ONE. CHAPTER I. THE PHRASE. The Phrase is the structural basis of all musical forms. Ex. the Phrase may extend through only two measures. Ex. THE PHRASE-FORMS. 12 (beginning on last beat of preliminary . It is a series of chords in uninterrupted succession. The first tone of the Phrase-melody may appear upon any beat or fraction of the measure.

Thus. first THE PEHFKCT CADENCE. measure 4. it series of Phrases. . by holding over the preceding dominant harmony (or parts of it) in any of the manifold Suspension-forms. 41. beginning. Ex. . Unacc. 66. 22. < | in the skeleton of a Accented beginning. 2 (beginning one beat and a half before Ex. Ex. if a simple Phrase. 4. Of the perfect cadence there is only one harmonic form. 2. Cad. 6 (beginning on secondary accent of Ex. . . Ex. i Ex. No. Cad. No. nevertheless. i. No. i.8 measure). No. subject in projecting the final Adagio. i. 5 (beginning four preliminary measure) beats before first accent) Ex. of some melodic line. on an accented beat. But this unalterable beyond its proper cadence-accent. No. 36). No. however. optional). 23. m 4.7. and their employment determined. No. 14.Cadences are distinguished. \vith its root in both outer parts. . A 3. (b) The Phrase closes with a independent of associates. . 14. or pause. but without affecting the fundamental rhythmic pulse. closes with the so-called PERFECT CADENCE semi-cadence (explained in par. . namely: the Tonic triad. 13. 45. 4-measure Phrase 2. and preceded by a fundamental form of the Dominant harmony (whose rhythmic location and extent is. otherwise with a i cadene is an interruption of the harmonic and (particularly) the melodic a check. Thus : to a rhythmic modification. a point of repose. tonic chord a beat or more harmonic form which consists is. Ex. : (P <A* ^ (^ Perf.. which marks the conclusion current. Ex. Par. Cadence or the final one of a . Perf. accent). 13. i Ex. by the force and extent of this interruption. No.

63. 5. : In the 3/4. This unaccented impression of the Dominant must always be preserved. As a rule. this belated cadence-tonic Allegro moderate. it appears wise to use AS FEW CHORDS AS POSSIBLE (better only one chord for an entire measure. or beyond the last full beat in 2/4. and certain other styles For example is characteristic. but their number and choice cannot be reduced to any rule. in order the comparative rhythmic superiority (accent) of the cadence-tonic. 5. the cadence-tonic may be to sustain the The thus deferred to any extent (even beyond the cadence-measure). or to diminish the power of the cadence. Viewed in its HARMONIC aspect. Cadence on the second 8th-note. of composition.Par. with more than one accent to a measure). Polonaise. *i) The V at the accent of this cadence-measure is merely a Suspension of Dominant which appears in the comparatively unaccented third measure. THE PERFECT CADENCE. the Phrase will contain number of different chords between the initial Tonic and the perfect Cadence. fy> ^~^ . BEETHOVEN. generally objectionable for it to appear upon any pulse beyond the (in case it is but final it is accent compound time. object of the rhythmic modification is. and other simple measures. a certain .I V I See also Ex. In general. in 2/4 time.. to avoid abruptness.

because the purest and strongest melodies arise from the simplest and quietest harmonic source. 6.10 HARMONIC ASPECT I'HKASK. 62. necessary to observe the principle of variety with regard to chord-durations in a Phrase. SCHUMANN. (b) Different chord to each beat (rapid tempo). The following example illustrates the two extremes of harmonic repose and harmonic activity in the chord-design of a Phrase Still. 64. 89. The pupil should scan a large number of the Phrases given in this book (and such others as he may encounter in examining classical music literature). 6. the number and choice of chords upon which the Phrase 91. 83.) One chord only. 94.. See Exs. 73. 61. i. from beginning up to Cadence. 76. Par. as with regard to the tonedurations in the rhythmic structure of a melody. is based. than a different one for each beat). The part of the Phrase where the harmonic arrangement appears to assume a certain degree of regularity (neither by accident . 74. and closely observe the harmonic structure. and others. it is just as : (a.e. 96.

: may be raised Any rhythm. IV II f. | It . furthermore. IIj I 2 V . time often as chord of The basstone most naturally chosen to precede this penultimate Dominant. rt n ' r rJ nri Subd. and this is preof the scale. J r\ TIEE I Ton.Par.values optional. (in final cadence-basstone is Bass) by the is Dominant note accented. Time. 6.' ji S J^T J . Dora. but for perfectly natural reasons). Ton. Dora. but because of its conconjunct melodic progression being generally The location. is its lower neighbor. . not only because of its tonal importance as Subdominant of the scale. is II nor tradition. or For illustration (as Altered tone). . extent of (Dominant) first is optional. as has been The former but the rhythmic location and the penultimate basstone the usually appears twice. be either the legitimate 4th scale-step. the approach to The ceded seen. at least the tonic (I 2 ). the cadence. the Tonic note. APPROACH TO THE CADENCE. Maestoso. * -JB-* * Bass part. extent. Also: =p=*= Snbd. acter of this antepenultimate basstone is also optional venient proximity.* t " * ! WAGNER. and harmonic charpreferable to disjunct. and it may. most com- mon form.

both neighbors precede the Dominant basstone. chosen to precede the latter.) a .12 APPROACH TO THE CADENCE. order. as antepenultimate basstone 6th scale-step. in either Thus (Bass part alone) : (C major. either as legitimate Or. 8. . or lowered. Sometimes the upper neighbor of the Dominant is Par.

as a rule exactly in the middle of the Phrase. flower and fruit are the product out of soil. No. 35. 46. Allegretto. namely those of thematic relation. a Ex. at most. THE CHORDS. but even necessary. BEETHOVEN. and 7. dividing the latter into . e. is primarily a Product. THE MUSICAL SOURCE is is THE HARMONY. i. literature abound in proofs of direct eduction of melody out of the chord. there is at least one melodic interruption. 74. all as it is more popularly called). to design a Phrase largely from the : standpoint of nature to violations of the Melody alone. a. rare cases. or contrast. Ex. 34. 9. without running the risk of any serious harmonic laws which must. 3. 2 . different accompanying harmonies). i. however. e. 6. i. 7. its Melody (the "Air" or "Tune". No. (Some writers call these spaces between the members "Quarter-cadences". there is no perceptible break in the Phrase- melody in other words. AND THE MELODY THE PRODUCT OUT OF THIS SOURCE. at least as beginner. i Ex. be almost a second the student.. the student will do wisely. it is not only possible.Par. MENDELSSOHN. bear in mind motives outof just as leaf. the Phrase consists of one single member. At the same time. yo -*- 4 measures. 2 Ex. The pages of our strongest classical . Hence. and evolve his melodic this consciousness. to a very large (if not altogether). the principles of -which its must never be neglected or ignored. . But the author would reiterate his belief that melody. Revie-w paragraphs 5. The Melody is the Phrase. agreement. a vague subdivision into Figures may be traced. root and branch. each other. it is plain that the choice of shape will be dictated by other conditions altogether. MELODIC ASPECT OF PHRASE. and extent the other structural and technical factors subserve the melody. Ex. for the entire purpose and signification of the Phrase is concentrated in its principal melodic line. but differing from these " Cadences" in being so transient as to subdivide the melodic line only. to the rules of rational chord-succession. inasmuch as the melodic extract from one and the same chord or chord-series may assume a multitude of different shapes (precisely as one and the same melody may generally be constrained into agreement with . and others. In . by this time. No. No. in which. and other structural considerations. Examine the harmonic origin of the melodic motives in Ex. Therefore.) This element of " Phrase-syntax" is obviously the most important one in liomophonic phrase-construction. Usually. Allegro. 2. without severing the harmonic continuity of the Phrase.. 9.

3. : i. 60. 4 beats. Moderate. meas.MELODIC MEMBERS. | 2 measures. also Ex. 9. : 2 beats. 2. Ex. the synthetic process of compounding figures and members into a complete Phrase) the principle of regularity naturally prevails but there are occa. Moderate. | 1 meas. meas. First half of Phrase subdivided 2. 6 beats. | 5 beats. In this process of division (or. meas. 47. as follows MENDELSSOHN. . 74. Allegretto. of Phrase subdivided. also Ex. Thus or in the center of both halves. 1-4. . 12. MENDELSSOHN. 1-4. 1-4. Ex. | 1 meas. Andante. 2 meas. 4- 1 measure. Par. 1 meas. meas. meas. 66. Ex. Allegro. | 1 meas. i. 2 measures. 70. 10). meas. HAYDN. 72. 4 beats. Additional interruptions are most likely to occur exactly in the center of either the first half. For HAYDN. Ex. 1-4. Second half of Phrase subdivided. | 2 incus. MENDELSSOHN. Also Ex. Both halves 1-4. sional cases of irregular metrical association. also Ex. 1 meas. 61. 29. or (rarely) second half of the Phrase . 15. two equal members illustration Allegro. . : (the pupil may first glance over par. 1-4 Ex. V I. more properly.

and the follow. which the characteristic repetition of the first tone unmistakably marks the beginning of each following member Ex. and 3. and must impart a cadential (closing. it is not always possible to define with accuracy the various degrees of This is "Cadence" cadential interruption corresponding respectively to the space between Figures. Ex. division than in a any other.Par. often possible. members i and 2 Ex. No. 13. the recurrence of any sujjiciently striking melodic or word. No. 2ndly. is demonstrated by the ^ at the beginning of measure 4 in Ex. in fact. 2. 10. No. ing. concluding) Ex. 13. 12. Further : . That this rule cannot hold good for every heavy note. 13. or even between Phrases themselves. 3. 2 rhythmic figure. The means of marking (or of locating) the "spaces" between the members of a Phrase-melody. No. No. 2. thus giving it compara- tively longer duration than its associates. The only danger of error. i Ex. 13. is that of Repetition or Sequence. Ex. and Example 14. members i and 3. and by the first note in Ex. I. No. MELODIC MEMBERS. 2. in : See Ex. are numerous. however slight. No. Ex. members 14. are : reliable methods of marking the limits of a melodic Istly. 14. like those of punctuation. in this method of analysis. 18. the performer may (to a certain degree) place an arbitrary construction upon the syntax of the Phrase. and thus confounding the smaller particles of the Phrase (the Figures. 3 neither of which marks The heavy tone must stand in the the end of a melodic member. No. and. is that of accepting too many "spaces". Example 13. 1 15 O. is a " Cadence "). or. impression. i. No. to dwell upon the final tone. are necessarily subtile. See par. . 2 and 4. the trait \vhich is more convincingly indicative of melodic Srdly. and. i. 2. members i and 3. between Members. 3. as in Example 13. simply because the distinctions between the inferior grades of (in the sense that every interruption. but often so vague that the student will frequently have to depend more upon different analyses of the same melody are instinct than upon rule . or subdivisions of the Members) with the Members themselves. 17.n. therefore. No. and Example 14. . The most member. to introduce a Rest (sufficiently emphatic not to be confounded with mere staccato) this is seen in Example 12. proper place.

1 1 . each individual possibility is a suggestion to the alert student.i6 MELODIC MEMBERS. as above shown. The association of two or more figures (separated by very or a sen- slight interruptions) generally constitutes the MOTIVE. and examine the given examples with regard only to such of their divisions and subdivisions as are plainly definable. MENDELSSOHN. The uninterrupted association of two or more tones (in melodic succession) constitutes responding to the single the FIGURE. The association of two or more members (separated. limit to the possibilities. it has already been seen. still. The smallest musical particle letter in is the single TONE. ^-corresponding to the words. small PHRASE-MEMBER and large. *i) These possible variations in the analyses of Phrase-syntax need give the student no concern. . that the Phrase-members may be either similar or dissimilar in length. 12. Review the first few lines of paragraphs 8 and 10. stimulus to his imagination. some attention must be paid to the melodic and metric relations between the members and while there will appear to be no system.1 the composition of a Phrase-melody. " The ber into its figures. the metric relation. in and 14. corresponding approximately to the spaces between the words of a printed sentence) generally constitutes the complete PHRASE or sentence. in tence. Par. usual (but not invariable) subdivision of the melodic memand the consequent distinction between these factors. by quarter-cadences ". 12. 13. and consequently becomes a definite As concerns Examples 12. lower ones for Figures) : Presto. ^-cor- orthography. is shown by the double system of slurs in the following illustrations (upper slurs for i. Members. nor any .

IS MELODIC MEMBERS. 71. meas. No. 1-3. 1-3. 1-3. steps) . similarity. : Andante. actual thematic agreement modified. 14. Ex. 27. Ex. meas. 17 2. 1-4. 2) have In Examples 12 and 13. been observed. 35. meas. 30. I HAYDN. 1-2 . | * =_ * primary form. 13. See also Ex. i. No. Total thematic agreement (Repetition) is illustrated in the There following i. while in Example 14 there is striking rhythmic diversity. 3-5. Vivace. No. i. B. similarity of rhythmic character prevails. ' HAYDN. 46. MENDELSSOHN. 1-3. i. Ex. meas. A : i. Ex. comparison. See also Ex. . is probably a slight preference in favor of regularity and in all of these respects. Ex. higher or lower. meas. No. with regard to their melodic (or thematic) And both similarity (Ex. Frequently.Par. Ex. Vivace. as follows : is cleverly disguised. 34. Comparative thematic agreement (by Sequence) prevails in the Sequence is the reproduction of a melodic following (N. or i. 52. No. No. or member figure upon other. 3. meas. Presto. 3) and difference (Ex. meas. 37.

12. 13). Allegro. 17. 18. 4. MKLODIC MEMBERS. . but this. 79. Allegro. and 5-6. 5. Exemplify the principal forms of phrase-syntax (Exs. See also Ex. Allegretto. No. 12. employ the different varieties of duple and triple time impartially. a very fe-w of two and between the major and minor modes in successive examples. BRAHMS 3S a. Andante. not to be written down. principally four measures eight measures. 7). contracted and sbifted. 3. After carefully and repeatedly reviewing all the conditions of Phrase-construction given in the preceding paragraphs. according to the following directions : EXERCISE and design. and employ the various grades of tempo (from Adagio to Allegro). and thematic relation (Exs. 30.i8 2. HAYDN. 6. meas. Par. 23. | 3 CIIOPIN. Ex. 19). the pupil may venture to apply them in the invention of original examples of Phrase-melody. embellished. meas. form. 12. 5. Invent a number of instrumental Phrase-melodies of diversified character length. THE MELODY ALONE constitutes the object of first exercise. MENDELSSOHN. The harmonic basis must be borne in is mind constantly (par. n. prim. i. Alternate regularly in 1.

THE HARMONIC EQUIPMENT OF THE PHRASE-MELODY. These will be dictated. given melody having been acquired in the course of "harmonic" study. CHAPTER II. it only remains to add a few directions here in reference to the various styles of harmonic accompaniment. or is the melody appears as SOLITARY PART. IL Allegro moderate. or where it is to appear in impressive isolation. by the character and tempo of the melody but they may be chosen according to the particular effect . 20. most naturally. or perhaps during the entire Phrase . 14a HARMONIC EQJJIPMENT OF THE PHRASE. desired. or tonesimply doubled in one or more octaves.Par. the harmonic accompaniment is apt to be omitted altogether. harmonic source with In those cases where the melody in itself exhibits its sufficient distinctness. The general principles governing the harmonization of a 1 3. line (unison). For example : i. . during one or more members.

*. No. Thus : i. 6 (also 4 and meas. doubled in 8ves Vivace. 14b CHOPIH. Ex. (^ '^"K a. HAYDN. Allegro. . 3 and 4). meas. 84. 81. * iH I 4:^ * -. I BEETHOVEN. 52 . 1-2 . Lento. which either assumes a coordinate melodic character (Nos. rTT* r (2 C rp=h-' f ^FT* ^- ufbf^rj* =rg^=g5E ) parts. 5) . 38. P?*(2 ^1 equal parts. Ex. Allegretto. Par. Ex. as figural part. ) See also Ex. 94.2O HARMONIC EQUIPMENT OF THE PHRASE.) 3.. i . (one part. i r 21. MENDELSSOHN. or becomes. the arpeggiated representative of the entire chord-basis (Nos. the Phrase-melody is supported by ONE ADDITIONAL or tone-line. . i and 2). PART (b) Or. 3. Ex.

as in the vocal style (though dictated by the rules of r//0r</-structure) Or one of the tone-lines may be a figural part. : Adagio. (fiitural part ) See also Ex. 97. and especially suitable for the HOMOPHONIC forms. TIIK PHRASE. 77. No. SCHUMANN. and observe how the parts are related in 22. 62). 5-4-fm :it=:::* f 2. II . For illustration which is . more common and appropriate in instrumental (or keyboard) music. 69. the 3. again. the parts may be similarly melodious. Andante. 32. a choice . 22.Par. f ' Lfh: g^^^^db etc. MOZART. 4 and 5 Ex. 68. 78. 21 Allegretto. HARMONIC EQUIPMENT OF 4. 3 . In this harmonic style the device of duplication in thirds or sixths is both convenient and effective (see particularly Ex. and. for this reason.voiced style must be regarded as generally preferable and most commendable.64. (c) The addition of two accompanying tone-lines (3-voiCK STYLE) secures a complete harmonic effect without bulkiness. Here. Ex. 14c. Nos. MENDELSSOHN.

It will be most appropriate for melodies of a comparatively serious and stately character. Allegro. to which may be added the following varied specimens : treatment fo- I I *.J "ft . 3. 27). 26. 14d. but less tone-lines desirable for graceful or rapid melodies. i^== ^4 -^ z=l : ^_ | = f~ f fej. 49. 23. 56. although one or more of the four may be a figural part. - _ ff p^i^= Iu9-/ * aJ^SES p i =F-^-. in thirds. Par. (d) The 4-voiCE STYLE is often necessary for greater harmonic breadth and fullness. will be found in Examples fa and 3. Andante con moto. (Duplication of principal mel. 75. J J (Imitation of vocal style. I '"f^i'J ^~< jqj^rT^ 5. MENDELSSOHN.HARMONIC EQUIPMENT OF THE PHRASE.-f ~^~r I ^.-^-J. ***J-L> See also Ex. 28.) 1 A ._Andante. and Illustrations of this style in the second half of Example of its 5 . 66. J_ f m * etc. 59. It usually resembles the vocal (or choral) style very closely (Ex. 58.

Ex. By simply duplicating one or more of these fundamental (or single chord-intervals) in upper or lower octaveregisters. powerful or pompous effects achieved... That is to say. or even at single points. 2. 74. the volume of harmony may be increased or decreased during certain members or figures. HARMONIC EQUIPMENT OF THE PHRASE. BEETH. the harmonic volume may be increased to any desired extent. and lowermost. 15. 1 51.Par. But the principle of "coherent tone-lines" (the most vital in music) must never be violated at least two lines (the uppermost. Such voluminous harmonies are seldom sustained very long and it tone-lines . or Melody proper. . 72. or Bass) must always .) it z's neither necessary nor 'wise to adhere rigidly to any number of tone-lines. (only excepting in strict vocal writing. is very important to observe that. No. ( See also Ex. i. rich. 54. 25. in general. for the sake of dynamic and harmonic variety. Andante. 36. 96. 5. 27. BEETH. and copious. . Allegro.

8. MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES OF THE SIMPLE 4-MEASURE PHRASE. meas. 414). 3. meas. plainly appear to be transient duplications. Agitato. 14. 61 . meas. first four measures of Nos. 6. 10. No. 1-4. meas. or omissions. last four measures. Nos. 67 . 1-4. meas. (Mo/art. meas. MEXDELSS. No. For illustrations of this species of harmonic accompaniment. 1-4. 44. the pupil is referred to the pages of standard literature. Mendelssohn. 5-9. 2. 9. Ex. 4. Ex. Ex. Ex 74. Brahms).62. Ex. Ex. 20. 1-4. 47 . Beethoven. 95. 76. 5. 10. first four measures of Nos. which he is urged to examine with See Ex. 24. 1-4. 413. 1-4. No. 3 . Ex. and the following: i. 14. 78. Maestoso. 4. MENDELSSOHN. meas. meas. Comp. meas. should. No. of a portion of the original bulk. 5-8. 1-4. special reference to this point. 28. BRAHMS. I. 22. Miillerin ". 66. Ex. Par 15. 1-4. be conducted with strict regard to melodic law and usually one inner part also. See also Ex. which do not disturb the effect of the fundamental lines (" Material of Mus. Chopin. n. Ex. therefore. 92. No. : SCHUBERT. Ex. . 2 and 3. 96. 83 . No.". 6. 73. par. 41. Schumann.24 HARMONIC EQJLJIPMENT OF THE 1MIHASE. " Songs without Words". Ex. 2. " Winterreise ". Songs " Die schone meas. 38. 5-8. These quantitative fluctuations in harmonic volume . No. and also those explained in par. meas. Ex. 91 . 14. 20. 4. 40. Ex. Also Ex. 23.

worse still. to change the harmony at the CHAPTER III. howReview paragraphs 5. Trio. it is the result of evolution and logical deduction. at least for a time. analogously. Phrase-melody in then to an inner No. EXERCISE 2. harmonize as many successive melody-tones as convenient with the same chord taking care. and. He is warned not to overstep the purpose of the Exercise. ever. Composition is not an aggregation (merely the collecting and associating of a quantity of kindred. the first accent of all measures which. Ex. As a very general rule. 28. THE DEVELOPMENT OR EXTENSION OF THE PHRASE. 3. an . the first accent in a compound measure. last seven it to place the now and measures. The process of conception comes first. Avoid the faulty habit of harmonizing each individual melody-tone with a separate chord that is. THE BETTER. the pupil part. . 6 and FEWER CHORDS.. THE 7. represent the heavier units. or to the lowermost one. to assign 22. Ex. or. the pupil is expected to adopt the pianoforte-style. Musical composition involves two distinct mental prothat of Conception and that of Manipulation. or all. without regard to structural design. urged See Ex. in the regular alternations of heavy and light pulses throughout the Phrase. Duo. upon this latter process imaginative and conceptive depends most largely the success of the product. String-quartet. i. THE DEVELOPMENT OR EXTENSION OF THE PHRASE. Q. which in this case is limited to the simple regular PHRASE. of the Phrase-meuulu-* i. stronger accents.Par.). The process of manipulation is maintained more or less steadily the rest 1 cesses : of the way. . e. Though it is by far the most common habit is the uppermost part. 25 Add invented as Exercise the harmonic accompaniment to some. 91. even though it be in such close interaction with the faculties that the limits cannot always be defined in the writer's consciousness. etc. 1G. and dominates during the creation of the thematic germ. heterogeneous musical fragments. logical arrangement. and avoid overloading the phrase. or unity) . the Motive or Phrase. though he is at liberty to write occasionally for any other instrument or ensemble with which he may be familiar (Organ. Very positive preference must be given to the 3-voice style.

unfolding of one phase after another out of the thematic germ. Tonic chord must be retained . for that would overstep the limits of the present purpose. This is more or less desirable. SEOJJENCE (i. it is customary 1 8. The final . When the \vhole Phrase is to be repeated. Of this fact.20 PHRASE-REPETITION. and thus partly conceal the Cadence. so as to " bridge over" the space between the end of the Phrase and the beginning of its repetition. . by continuing the rhythmic pulse in some form or other. Extension at the Beginning.. It is not to be an " Evasion" of the perfect Cadence. which is the development of the resources embraced within a single germinal Phrase. any other conception will prove an effectual obstacle to his aspirations in the classical avenues of serious and enduring musical composition. (though not absolutely necessary) to fill out the measuie allotted to the perfect Cadence. e. smooth harmonic progressions (through . (1) bodily. and therefore the harmonic form and the cadential effect of the latter must be preserved. a certain interval-distance higher or lower). The "Phrase" having been conceived. but it may be embellished the chord-third. namely (2) (3) (4) The The The The Repetition of the entire Phrase Extension at the End. upon a cor- sion principal means employed in the Development or Extenof a Phrase (or thematic germ of any kind) are those of REPETITION. respondingly narrow scale of structural design. then. the next step. for 1 is its Y. until the growth is consummated. according to the width of the intervening space. i. and Their application may be classified in a fourfold : manner. Par. PHRASE-REPETITION. or even the chord-fifth. 18. the pupil should encourage the most absolute conviction. for the Root in Soprano. or (rarely) in Bass. This is not yet to be effectu: ated by the addition of other Phrases. the reproduction of a figure or The member EXPANSION. And may be substituted the Tonic The rhythmic pulse should be maintained within the tones of harmony still. and Extension in the Course of the Phrase. . enlargement or development.

instead of the root (a). 1-8. 28. i. No. 27. No. op. repeated literally. Sonata.) unimportant not affecting any characteristic or essential element to introduce unessential alterations. as at the end. 4. see Exs. 2. SCHUMANN. without any those involved by concealing the 'perchanges whatever. For other illustrations of cadence-bridging. preserved by the cessation (rests) in the lower parts. meas. 50. Andante. Finale. 9. 21 and 25^. *i) Correct perfect Cadence. Ex. meas. Prel. second. Also BEETHOVEN. 28. Sonata. 9-16 (slightly embellished). . e. other chords) may be ventured. Ex. meas. excepting 1 Q. development. 66. meas. No. 78. No. 73. 40. 89. For example : 25. No. 26. The cadential impression is. op. See par. omitted because of the coming repetition. 8. No. however. and third Phrases (repetition-marks). (See par. No. " unessential" is meant the By during repetition. " Album-Blatter ". Ex 92. 124. 15. meas. *2) Concealed form of perfect Cadence : compare with final measure. The rhythmic pulse is actually more rapid during . first movement. 12. Ex. meas. meas. not until the tonic effect is established). first. 8. 7. Pfte. 8.Par. anywhere else in the Phrase this measure (i6th-notes) than and the uppermost part has the chord-fifth (e) fora time. PHRASE-REPETITION. No. No. But it is far more usual and desirable. CHOPIN. fect Cadence. 15. meas. i. 4. 17 frst eight measures of each. meas. as conducive to thematic or variations. Pfte. 25.. if made in so cautious a manner as not to cancel the cadential impression (i. Ex. 1-8. Ex. The Phrase may be See Ex. 28. 2. op. 27. op. 46. 8. Ex. 19.

: m j " __^.PHRASE. s1 (modified repetition. Par.) ^ -i- t! M .REPETITION. 19b. of the Phrase.__i r-fc n3F mm 26. These unessential modifications of the repetition : may be classified as follows (a) Unessential embellishment of the Melody Andante.

51. Ex. 62. 17-24.Par. meas. e. 1-8.. perhaps. also. e. CHOPIN. Mazurka meas. meas. Part II. To this class of modifications would belong. at the final Cadence. Ex.. op. Nocturne 17. FOLK-SOXG. See CHOPIN. also last nine measures. String-quartet. either bodily (i. (c) Shifting the Phrase-melody upward or downward to a different register. 18. or different part. i. transformed from major to minor. 89. . PHRASE-REPETITION tition. 14-6 from the end. 19c. first movement. or vice versa) returning. a repetition in the opposite mode of the same keynote (i. meas. or in sections Allegro. 9-18. See also Ex. to the original . : *-jL 28. mode 20. BEETHOVEN. 1-8. meas. 6. meas. the entire Phrase). No. No.) . 45-52.

29. | * r r r BEETHOVEN. No. Bagatelle. (d) Changes in character and Allegro. (Pianoforte). 1 & S_. style of accompaniment : -0- 4=5=t=T -0-09\- * * 29. "Tenor" 31. into "Alto and Soprano" registers. because the space as to render it unnecessary. *i) The melody is shifted bodily upward one and two octaves. i. op. 1-8. and 106-113. No. Sonata. *=1 Repetition | EE EESE . 30. BEETHOVEN. BEETHOVEN. from No. first . 6. J ntt=-==r. See also Exs. meas. meas. Par. op. :*= =t: -*-I " is so narrow " *i) Here the Cadence is not concealed. See also Ex. (Violin).ji^ -p- ?*^l f~ ' ^= movement. i. 70-77. 30.3 PHRASE-REPETITION. MENDELSSOHN. 19d. Pfte. 33. 54.

19e. 51. radical changes in the course of the Phrase-melody (not. 4. See also Ex. See par. .Par. -^ L^JZJZ "' i f 1-<S>-Z 3E^ *i) This Cadence is not concealed. however. because there is no space left at all. *2) The second member of the Phrase is entirely changed but the Cadence is preserved. 1 . PHRASE-REPETITION. . No. (e) More complete and or destroying general resemblance) i. affecting the beginning. ^-fT-Hl^-N-gyP ^ ^--N^-g=pJ ? 2. ^ f _. last eight measures. or the end. Allegretto. before the repetition. : Andante. i. -*9- if: **+* 3O.

3-12. *2) Compare this repetition with Example 10. without trans- A of "repetition" into that of "recur- repetition b. but fa sections. See par. and extraneous. of one or more (superfluous) measures kept so inferior in character and contents as to appear unessential . (measure (Ex. a (practically) imt:*ediatc reproduction. 20 2O. not entire. See also without MENDELSSOHN. 46. Songs Words". Nothing more than such a forming the structural rence ". it illustrates the change of register (19^). measure.) (superfluous measure. 81 a and . -^ i ^~ r r ? -=9t *i) This measure is kept subordinate by reduction to one part. the 8-measure Phrase given in continued and repeated as follows : 31. or transitional but it must be passage. the bridging-over of the perfect Cadence. No. 7 ) (Cad. In rare cases. trait is intervene between a Phrase and distinctly unessential interlude could its "repetition".) *1) 10. 10. is extended into a brief Interlude.) k-~ (Repetition.32 PHRASE-REPETITION. is Example For illustration. Par. and by thfe suppression of the accompaniment.) ^-5^ BEETHOVEN. before repetition.) (Interlude. " meas.

somewhat or even more. as new member. finally. of Phrase-repetition. like a series of simple Variations (e. give additional emphasis to the Phrase or member. 23. 33 Reverting to par. contributes. to obtain greater simplicity and repose of elementary character than \vould result from a succession of constantly The repetition will. an apparent repetition. All five modes may be applied successively to one and the same Phrase (22) or single repetition may be applied to each of . repetitions may occur in succession. 33. Bagatelles. contents more clearly And. See notes and context to Ex. possibly in a certain systematic pro. for Harpsichord . 2 thwarted by a real change of cadence. because genuine repetition. and add a repetition to each. The distinction between apparent repetition and actual repetition (depending upon whether the Cadences are essentially different or not) is of the utmost importance. op. 18 (which review). that the Phrase may be said to have been "repeated". gression. which proves ultimately to have been .) each repetition being differently modified. therefore. the Chaconnes of HANDEL. whether variated or not. Any essential alteration of the harmonic aim (the Cadence-chords) would resolve an otherwise apparent "repetition" into two separate Phrases. with independent direction and aim. . Select a EXERCISE number of 3. 6. illustrating the five principal varieties of modification given in paragraph 19.. the Phrase is of . etc. it must be disunderstood that no essential change of the harmonic form of tinctly This the Cadence is permissible in the case of entire repetitions. 31-46. to the progressive enlargement or evolution of the design. op. the Ciaccona for solo violin. 5. changing Phrases or members. 23. Two. by BACH . its be most desirable or complex nature when . 22. The OBJECT general. upon which the assumption of The Cadence is the " aim" of the Phrase and it is only when the original harmonic aim is retained. never constitutes any change or actual advance in the formal design of the composition whereas. See BEETHOVEN. 1 . No. 118. 46. PHRASE-REPETITION. g. and to . BRAHMS. No. second tempo (Phrase with 5 repetitions). 2. is the inviolable condition of the cadence-harmony preservation " " repetition depends. meas.p ar . a somewhat abstruse and or when interesting or of unusual length to the desire for important enough tempt (and justify) a second hearing. is : and of repetition in To To define establish unity of thematic design by direct corroboration . . the thirty-two C-minor Variations of BEETHOVEN. the Phrases invented in Exercise or invent new ones.

25a.34 THE EXTENSIONS AT THE END OF A PHRASE. THE EXTENSIONS AT THE END OF A PHRASE. . or has been felt. and often consisting in a different form of harmony altogether. with those given in paragraph 18. illustration Andante. possibly more or less complete " Evasion " of the perfect Cadence. By substituting the . Or by In any case. For i. The sisting. a not affected by the prospective evasion. The evasion is then effected : substituting an Inversion for the fundamental form of the Tonic chord (i. 3rd or 5th in Bass) . 33. 25. i) substituting any other chord. istly. even of another key. By VI for the I (Ex. as a rule. as lie beyond the Cadence. five different Phrases. which contains the original Tonic note in sufficient prominence to preserve the cadential impression. 2. but usually modified. with that variety of modification which appears to be respectively most appropriate. To the first class (inside) belong : (a) The repetition of the second half of the Phrase exact. of such as lie -within the Cadence.. 18). as the latter does not begin until the Tonic element of the Cadence is due. of such 24. e. . The difference between "concealing" and "evading" the Cadence will become amply apparent upon carefully comparing the details enumerated in these last few lines. extensions at the end are of a two-fold nature. : 32. conand 2ndly. in being a more pronounced deviation from the latter. upon its proper beat. . No. an act which differs from the simple concealment of the Cadence (shown in par. the rhythmic pulse is sustained in one or more of the parts and the melody and harmony are so conducted as to lead smoothly into the desired repetition. Par. The approach to the Cadence is usually This involves.

*4) 9 rn=2 w= -is . :dz =3=+t?=3 Cadence. -n>- I .- ct3 ^ MOZART. =t= -g f Cad. THE EXTENSIONS AT THE END OF A PHRASE. MENDELSSOHN. Andante. *2) esten- flTf \j "*" Z2\Jt ^ytf t|=?~ 1 * f = = ^ F=^5=^ = Of 3.*. a^ C? ^ ?*3 P" Andante. 25a. [ if *-J i j w i f ^ .Par. __-jf_^jf . 5*3 35 . 1) : i-' =FF Extension 2. ^ " ' 2- : t*=t evad. evaded Cad.

or a is necessary. It even affects the approach to the Cadence. 33. Song. sometimes called cepted Cadence". n. It answers sufficiently well for the expected Cadence. Par. because. member (b) The repetition. " Haiden-Roslein ". the end. b. : more quarter of the Phrase. meas. -~- V 33. The repetition covers a little more than half the Phrase. Songs ". Bagatelle. but usually twice in succession. *2) This peculiar evasion of the expected Cadence will be best understood by comparing it with the correct form. is not to be included Andante. *i) The expected Cadence is evaded in this case by placing the chordthird in the Bass. 9-3 BEETHOVEN. and observe the modification in the treatment of second Phrase-half. i. the original (expected) Cadence in the extension. and the second time with the correct perfect Cadence. No.THE EXTENSIONS AT THE END OF A PHRASE. and the chord-fifth (leading downward to the Root) in Soprano. of the last of the Phrase possibly a single repetition. b I V I V . d. f) actually contains the Tonic-note. *3) In this example. four measures later. there are two repetitions of the second half of Phrase. but the cadential relation is preserved by clinging to the key-note (e) in the Soprano. " See also without Words from No. 5-10. when repeated. op. meas. the first time with the same form of evaded Cadence. . last nine and one-half measures. Compare with correct form. " Inter*4) Also a peculiar mode of Cadence-evasion. For example . This generally refers to the trifle last and the evasion of the Cadence in this case. as the accented chord (the IV. 25b. reaching back abruptly to the beginning of the 2nd measure. or (more rarely) the sequence. SCHUBERT. MENDELSSOHN. two measures later.

not. on the first beat. The numbers after Mendelssohn's name invariably refer to his " Songs without Words". and chord-third in Bass see Ex. For be sustained. and possibly modified. 2ndly. This will usually . are included in the evaded Cadence. MENDELSSOHN. Andante. three notes in Soprano. *3) The perfect Cadence is completely evaded by turning back abruptly one in a modified melodic *2) measure. The perfect Cadence is evaded by substituting the VI for the I. may example :: i. where.Par. The extension consists in repeating this third measure twice. or is to be included in the extension. 26. No. each time and rhythmic form (the harmony remaining the same). EfeV . a Tonic chord occurs in the very form suit. *2) 37 = Extension. i. The reproduction of the last member. The rhythmic pulse may. No. or beyond. the Cadence) of the entire Cadence-group (of chords). to *i) The expected lead smoothly into the first tone (b) of the member to be reproduced. because the Cadence. as it stands. to sustain the rhythmic pulse. and the second time with altered harmonization. meas. which then follows. 32. able for evasion (chord-fifth in Soprano. embrace the last three or four chords. which immediately follow. ^ S 84. 35. The Repetition be necessary or even practicable. the first time exactly. and serve: istly. 26. To belong : the second class (outside of. THE EXTENSIONS AT THE END OF A PHRASE. inand no evasion of the latter will clusive of the original Cadence (a) usually at least twice. occurs twice. 4).

Par. Vivace.THE EXTENSIONS AT THE END OF A PHRASE. . 26b. -fi-f-t HAYDN.

Par. Extension. Cadence. I Allegretto. *2) j^fa E^ -* MENDELSSOHN. VV IVVIVV 2. No. 26b. Extension. ^5: ^^ Cad. 39 MENDELSSOHN. r~ -P*~ T = = =1 =J~M^ * ^j *-f=^=f 3=^=n =^=j = ^*: l^zfa^^l' B^=^ ^^ ' 1 i ~ i* I I |. THE EXTENSIONS AT THE END OF A PHRASE. 42. -(- 1 1 1 !_4 1 1 I V I V IV IV 1 1 1 - .

as this extension usually represents the last oscilla- swinging harmony. the "dying out" of which will depend upon the peculiar circumstances embodied in the Phrase. example : Moderate. 26c. first three measures. See also: MENDELSSOHN. Two Par. The extent (number) of these reiterations can hardly be de(c) The reiteration of the final and in optional termined by tions of the rule. No. . ^ p=t* 36. as continuation of the accompaniment.4 *i) *2) THE EXTENSIONS AT THE END OF A PHKASE. *3) The Cadence is concealed by the quicker rhythm in the Soprano (borrowed from the Bass of the first measure). and Four sound parenthetical. repetitions of the two Cadence-chords. 16. *i^i=Splrz=S33 EX * 1 ^ r i i"-^ F i r^" 1 ^ F tt Cad. As a rule. For upon first accent of the measure. because the melody pauses meanwhile upon its Cadencetone. extent. The first and third repetitions are slightly altered in form. "Songs without Words". in Instinct will be the best guide. including the Soprano. Tonic chord. the Cadence-tonic. to an optional rhythmic and melodic form. and last four measures. The second and fourth repetitions are an exact reproduction of the Cadence. fall the must this case. exact repetitions of the last three (Cadence-) chords.

Cad. the major Cadence substituted for the original minor. No. beginning: 2 "7. 37. and are for this reason generally permissible. and one additional chords. No. of course. and extended by a somewhat elaborate plagal ending. last eight measures. a two-measure Phrase. Sonata. 37. Pfte. op. . to develop their portion of the resources of the Phrase. r). OBJECT of extensions at the end of a Phrase is. 27. is i). 27. or in both A outer parts. 44. Nocturne n (op. THE EXTENSIONS AT THE END OF A PHRASE. Furthermore. final Tonic-chord. Nocturne 7 (op. measures 191 to 220: (an 8-measure phrase). For illustration : Adagio. I I I J ^ ||' | | ! _J- | See CHOPIN. . must determine the propriety and extent of their use. :fe MENDELSSOHN. See 29 b. to prevent the movement of harmony and rhythm from breaking off too abruptly and the degree of momentum which the sentence may have acquired. Finale : (Rondo). The . V-I). l_Extension. repeated. 53. during the plagal extension. last five measures. dur(d) ing the prolongation of the final Tonic note in Soprano. announcement of the perfect-Cadence plagal cadence. of more or less elaborate character.Par. These various extensions are often applied successively to one and the same Phrase see BEETHOVEN. they also serve. No. H.

. EXERCISE 4. the latter. Hence. 3. in one or more simple annunciations of the key-note (or Tonic harmony). 38. \vhich may anticipate the announcement of the melody proper. 26. without definite melodic form. however. either with or without changes of harmony. to keep such an introductory extension so inferior and unessential in character. The necessary inferiority will be ensured the figure of the accompaniment. or possibly both Tonic and Dominant tones. to the modes of treatment described in par. meas. according c. 2 and 3) Or. or chords. u ii ' ' r r r . that it will not be mistaken sarily if either the element of definite melodic or definite harmonic progression be absent. in a brief one-part "Cadenza". leading into . extension of the Phrase at its beginning will necesassume the nature of an introduction. first figure of the melody.. 25^ and 25^. The chief difficulty is. (see Ex.42 THE EXTENSIONS AT THE BEGINNING OF A PHRASE. or new ones. i . An for the real beginning of the Phrase. with extensions at the end.II nt rod Phrase. of the introduction its is largely optional. Par. It may. a. . the best form of introduction is that which is limited to 28. during the introductory passage. or obscure. e. some form of harmony and melody which suggests (or prepares for) the initial member of the Phrase. 38. b t and d. A number EXERCISE The same. 5.. i. but it will rarely exceed half the length of Andante. For example : MENDELSSOHN. I Phrase. also consist in an anticipation of the . according to the modes of treatment described in par. and leads smoothly into it. The length i. without accompaniment Or. 31. THE EXTENSIONS AT THE BEGINNING OF A PHRASE. of former Phrases.

V 4.. OP. 51. I Allegro.Par.-. 28. 5. * Phraae. m HAYDN.. In trod.. THE EXTENSIONS AT THE BEGINNING OF A PHRASE.-. mm * * * -J j. lutrod I 43 Phrase. /-V 1 f\ ' H * ir w "t Gb f.. CHOPIN..3 _ ---_ ^ It g-h -f-fHf j_-^ 1 -* B * * * * * ff if . Phrase. - . Allegro. MENDELSSOHN. lutrod.

Allegro. 28 3P2F . THE EXTENSIONS AT THE BEGINNING OF A PHRASE. Par.44 6.

unless they are recog" -which nizable as 'extensions merely add to the sum of beats and measures ivit/iout entirely destroying the outlines of the original (regular) Phrase. joint ". For illustration Allegro. if sufficiently marked in character. THE EXTENSIONS 4. It is manifest that all extensions of a Phrase will simply create confusion and lead to a misapprehension of the writer's intention. as they conduce more directly than those at the end or at the beginning. most important 45 THE EXTENSIONS 2Q. or extension of any kind (and of almost any extent). larly extensions. anterior to the Cadence-member. in the course of a Phrase. IN IN THE COURSE OF A PHRASE. reason. the Phrase may be figuratively speakpried apart to admit of the insertion of a repetition. can be safely undertaken only in those phrases which contain strongly marked members or figures. 39. sequence. to the coherent development and growth of the thematic substance of the Phrase as a whole. with -well-defined extremities. They consist : (a) In one or more repetitions (exact or variated) of any welldefined member of the Phrase.Par. and. for this inflated And. . : HAYDN. or " as fixed basis of the " irreguregular design cancelling the impression of a this more misleading class of result. 29. These represent probably the class of Phrase-extensions. THE COURSE OF A PHRASE. the foregoing member will be readily recognized as the origin of At any such well-defined " ing the interpolated reproduction.

leaving a regular 4-measure design. . ti />//<>. This class of repeated Phrase-members must not be confounded with the illustrations of symmetrical phrase-formation given in Ex. Par. There they are essential. inasmuch as they constitute extra measures. also. (b) In one or more sequences (exact or modified) of any wellFor example defined member of the Phrase. 29b. 13. i J^S *-: i * ~V-. but not necessarily so. No.-i 1 IN THE COURSE OF A PHRASE. f--*f .^. This is sometimes the case. a perfectly coherent 2-measure Phrase (the original design) will remain. -r-H^-t- _. _. t i . If these two extensions *3) A sequence of the second figure.-4-4- ' 1 r I I h r^ rr i i *^ . HAYDN.46 THE EXTENSIONS rExtension. i r r -fi I rH \-f^r. be cut out. 1^5 i ==> IHZ ) tt "* ~ f *-= -- HAYDN. while here they are unessential. in slightly modified form.~f^T~\ lif' i^^- 40. in alternating upper and lower registers. HAYDN.^ i ^. *4) A sion. 2. and Ex. 40. -+ + -j- -* *i) Repetition of first member (first half) of Phrase. * 1} * ^-T : * * rK_g : j- -. f r-fcFE: . 17. beyond the 4-measure design. 1 n . : I.*2) This extension consists in a three-fold repetition of the first figure. Extension. and contribute to the 4-measure design . as in Ex. This extenmight be eliminated. - curiously modified version of the first Phrase-member.

THE EXTENSIONS IX THE COURSE OF A PHRASE. j HAYDN.Par. I . . Extension. icf: . Allegro. 47 a. MENDELSSOHN. 29b.^L y 4 j.

or of any im- portant (prominent) melody-tone three tones). (c) In the expansion of any prominent chord . The number of sequences or repetitions thus introduced in the course of a Phrase depends upon circumstances. recurring in shifted measure). 39. or. notes *3) and *4)). more than three successive sequences are considered weak may still. it is likely that the interlined extensions will involve alterations of the original melodic design. A A A sequence of the second measure (figure) of the Phrase. series of four (and even many more) sebe found in works of eminent rank especially when . the last one (the third version of . and. Par. they will be so naturally interwoven with the texture of the Phrase as to affect. *5) Two form. sequence of the second Phrase-member (or figure) in slightly modi- form. This. sequences of the first member (five beats in length. consisting of smaller figures or members. must be modified. and even direct (appar- somewhat more But see the remark following 290. without risk of monotony. better still. . This special example of chord-expansion as extension (see par. in the As quences a general rule. 29c. therefore. and carefully avoid Monotony on the one hand and Irregularity or Unevenness on the other. *3) *4) sequence of the first member.48 *i) *2) fied THE EXTENSIONS IN THE COURSE OF A PHRASE. in the course of a simple Phrase. is by no means necessary. As already intimated (Ex. becomes the prototype of the more The conduct . tions. *6) Two sequences of the second member(three beats) in modified rhythmic ently) its current. or melodic figure (of two or to the This is probably most frequently and most extensively applied Tonic | chord (IJ which almost always appears directly before the two Perfect-cadence chords. the event of hierrvber) More than one single exact repetition is hardly permissible two repetitions. 6). however. Smaller members or figures are usually reproduced a greater number of times than larger ones and sequences may. usually on a strong accent " in or less elaborate " Cadenza Concerto-movements. Sequence of the second member. and can scarcely be determined by rule. The student must appeal to his instinct and sense of proportion and balance. . these extensions are often so adjusted to the line of development. that the members of the original 4-measure Phrase may be discovered in coherent form without them. be multiplied oftener than repeti.

foreign link. organic) agreement . But the expansion may also be applied to the Dominant chord which precedes the final Tonic as first of the two Perfect-cadence point. 4. either returning to the I 3 or passing into the V of the Cadence. and not create the impression of a The rhythm may be treated with great freedom. And in the furthermore applicable to any other chord. while chords. at least. 49 of the upper parts (especially that of the melody proper) during the prolongation of the chord. if they be of sufficient value and prominence to it is warrant the expansion. Phrase. For illustration : Moderate. 41. i. No.Par e!)c. Frequently the basstone alone of the I a is prolonged as organthe upper tone-lines sway about in optional harmonic succession. MENDELSSOHN. . In this case the I should appear on a strong accent. THE EXTENSION'S IN THE COURSE OF A PHRASE. or chords. is largely optional but it is obvious that it should be in strict thematic (or. with the rest of the Phrase.

-v> 1"*" H i ^p i ^-^ i l i i i-r a -* 1 E b - -Urr-f^-*-?- \-f-f-f^r{-* ^-*-J * H--^ *. Par. /} ndante. expanded. expanded. J2. 42. MENDELSSOHN. Allegro. r- f' f.50 THE EXTKXStONS IN THE COURSE OF A PHRASE.a a 1-*--41- * 3 -* S ^ * 2 r r^ t tH h* 9 1 ^^^ 4 t r~^ "* ' r "3 i I r !*-^- 3rt*~ti^i * * ~*f- -1 s *~ ?c= J-T i V 3.^-* i f" | *-r"T_^ t""i~t" tfcC *" 1~ *- l *6) I2 expauded. 19.SSOHN. -A . *5) *- f f" _r . . MBNDBI.f-2 <-*. ' No. XNo. V 4.

X lltgro. :. *2) It is left to the student to discover how ingeniously this long expansion of the Dominant-note in bass (as Is) is interwoven.J^T**- 5- Larghet o. B. ^. *9) Op. *10) 7.Par. Sym. No. 27 i. 3.. 27 2. (Expanded form. CHOPIN. CHOPIN. TIIK EXTENSIONS IN THE COURSE OF A PHRASE. lit I f \ ' Introd. Op. (Original fonu.Jt H^^r* -r*. *\ Segue. with the thematic structure of the 4-measure Phrase. BRAHMS. 29c.)fi=J^ |^E^^ E^ 6.fcf A^fcy.B N. f .) *i) The expansion of the Tonic J chord enlarges the Phrase from its original four measures to five. . in the upper parts.) N. Lento.

first and second Phrases (ditto).. but these same chord-progressions expanded or magnified into broader dimensions. See also MENDELSSOHN. *5) This exquisite example of BRAHMS (op. last eleven measures (particularly meas. 57-63). meas. 11-12. See also: CHOPIN. embracing only I. 17-24 (beginning. 2. Xc. No. expansion entire art-growth. and is followed by two repetitions of the Cadence- *7) the Cadence is due. No. as usual. op. 28. 59. 3 and 4. No. to count at the first complete measure). 31. *9) five At *8) the final Cadence-chord is reiterated. I.i) contains several of the above-mentioned extensions at first. approximately. expansion of the Cadence Dominant chord. An illustration of this is found in Example 5. and so on. Par. meas. Sonata. note*3). long expansion of the Cadence *4) ber. I suggested above. until the broadest material from one stage on into another development of the original The larger (i. V. first. with richly modified melodic repetitions (three measures). See also Example 10. 9-6 from the end). Prel. The expansion of this melody-tone extends the 4-measure Phrase to measures. BKETH. 28. N. At *6) an expansion of the Tonic f. No. At continuing the rhythmic pulse member in soprano). it is concealed by in the inner part (imitating the Cadence- member. longer) forms which are to follow the Phrase. which serves to coun- A Dominant chord. 5. of " scarcely possible to overestimate the significance Expansion" as a factor of composition. V. 49-65 2. 79. Pfte. The principle of It is lies.e. meas. See Ex. No. in a certain broad sense. 33. B. Trio of Scherzo. 12. No. 33. will be found to be not altogether the results of addition. the very chords I. V.. CHOPIN. not a idea has been consummated. which might be the simple beats in a 4/4 measure. second. last ten measures. . . is to no more than limited where the harmonic basis of eight measures and three chord-elements. CHOPIN. Pfte. last 19 m. and third Phrases (expansion of final melody-tone).52 *3) THE EXTENSIONS An IN THE COURSE OF A PHRASE. IV. the primary succession I. 42. IV. multiplication of the chords contained in the smaller design. Prel. Thus. 7 (expanded II meas. design in . meas. op. I. "Songs without Words". *io) The melody-tone a is expanded from a half-measure to a whole one. A remarkable illustration of chord-expansion will be found in BEETHOVEN. could become the four succesor they might be expanded into four sive measures of a Phrase successive sections (at least in a general sense) of a still larger . and also Ex. a sequence of the first Phrase-mem: terbalance the foregoing expansion. Also Ex.. op. No. which the harmonic basis of the four measures is. Example Ja. op. Bagat. but also of deduction and evolution . 57. Sonata Bj^-minor. 62. at the very root of the which carries along the germinal thought and enlarges the raw harmonic and higher stage. last five-and-one-half measures.

in the course of the Phrase. 5. and in Exercise 2. Ami in For illustration : I 9 ' \ I \ 42. (d) In the substitution of a original one. or the addition of a involved by foregoing extensions. I | IV. and thematically homogeneous. THE EXTENSIONS 74. it evident that. i. . or lead quite away from the original (or expected) approach to the Cadence. when After such extensions. "to use as few chords as possible". 53 and Example (the last the eight measures of I | which contain no other chord-progressions than V I | | V. as may diverge widely from the original thematic line. nevertheless. Its extent necessary will depend upon where the ultimate cadential impression is required. must.Par. it is often to invent an entirely new Cadence-member. the advice given in par. 29d. IN THE COURSE OF A PHRASE. I || V V | j V. V. while new. be strictly coherent. irrespective of the aggregate It is number of measures. I|| This emphasizes the importance of four approximated). new Cadence-member for the new Cadence-member.

i i ^ A. *2) The two half-notes are expanded quarter-notes (half-measure expanded to whole measure). These two measures are an expansion of the chord c . undertaken at the very beginning of a composition (i. *3) The perfect Cadence is due on this beat (see two measures later) it is evaded by a " new Cadence-member ". IN THE COURSE OF A PHRASE. It Sequence of the foregoing measure. L ft ^ r| *. The three following measures are a repetition and expansion of the first melodic figure in measure 3. *7) A curious place is filled suppression of the Cadence-tonic in the highest part.g . It is "new". THE EXTENSIONS Andante. *s) The digression begins with this rj. JL irl?=fi: i^E .. by the keynote in Bass. Par. to terminate the current Phrase. *4). 5-6). The " new Cadence-member " see note *i) . A. P Original form || Repeated ^-*. inasmuch as it differs almost entirely from the original Cadencemember (in meas. Ca(l. Its extension of a Phrase during its course. but because cannot be called a new no actual Cadence has preceded it.*-^-f-JL. as above rarely. *6) . which enharmonically represents the original d\). JL *- segue AJ. 30. . with the first Phrase or upon the first appear- 3O. if ever. however. e. of which it is an anticipatory expansion.e . The is shown. not only because of its brevity. *4) The " Phrase ".b the Soprano is thematically related to the c at the beginning of the 5th measure.54 a.

it The impression of a Cadence must be scrupulously avoided. be written out in regular form. section of the form. beset with dangers for the beginner. is. IRREGULAR PHRASE-FORMATION. But. particularly the repetitions and sequences (par. No. 2). inasmuch as the successive members assume the character of continuous small It can scarcely be links. Extensions in the course. are sometimes multiplied in such a manner and to such a degree as to give rise to an irregular design. transitional It is passages and Phrases. 29 a and b) of small motives and figures. 2gc and d. which tend persistently during many measures toward a . and then extended. as would separate the " chain " of thematic links into a " group" of distinct Phrases. in uninterrupted career. The extensions in the course of the Phrase. with extensions at the beginning (par. desired point. therefore. repetition of a Phrase. The Phrases are CHAPTER IV. of peculiar value in the construction of as will be seen in due time. EXERCISE Former Phrases. 31 . ones. for it is the type of formlessness. " and regarded as a legitimate design. according to 29 a and b. and then extended (about as in Ex.Par. 55 It is often very appropriately applied to the ance of a Phrase). in a chain of arbitrary form and extent. MELODY-EXPANSION. . 6. or new in the course. according to par. THE CHAIN-PHRASE. if coherently developed. 28). it is justifiable. And EXERCISE first to 7. as a means of modifying the second version and it may be introduced in any of the later phrases of a (see 19) . In the latter case the Phrase is first to be written out (at least the Melody) in its original regular form. 42. 31. and is often extremely effecand also in transitional tive in the service of necessary climaxes sections. for which the term Chain-phrase" may most appropriately be adopted. THE CHAIN-PHRASE.

Op. repeated. 31. Agitato. etc. And For a certain reasonable limit must. be observed. =F->==qF^=*-*^.THE CHAIN-PHRASE. of course. Allegro TtVitCf . 2. Phrase. Par. gO^ 43. 78. . HP" * I~ v BEETHOVEN. : illustration i. and extended.

meas. 21-10 from the end. BEETHOVEN. out of the second half of the Phrase. 57 fe^^^E^^=^3^=^E^=^=pF^~ ^ : *2) ere - - seen segue MENDELSSOHN. See also Ex. by means of repetition and tone-expansion. op. 7. No. and preceded by a similar Chain-phrase of sixteen measures). 56. 34-19 from the end. 2. No. -^n-r=B=33E=?= g* * * //**> i-**i * n I -1 I u_ The thirteen *i) The original 4-measure Phrase extends to this beat. (op. Finale. 57-94 from the double-bar (thirty-eight measures long. SCHUBERT. op. Sonata No. at first in groups of three. 3>. 16-27.Par. meas. Sonata. meas. 3. may be utilized as a thematic germ. last 22 measures. No. 28 to meas. and so interlocked as to avoid a cadential impression at any point in the course of the Chain-phrase. 32. or fourteen measures which follow are all forged. *3) This *4) MELODY EXPANSION. This example embraces no less than twenty measures (including the original Phrase and its repetition). and finally in progressive ascending succession. end of meas. meas. last ten measures. No. and are reproduced sequentially. 85. 35-20 from the end. MELODY-EXPANSION. A simple brief Phrase. 71-94. Pfte. *2) The "links" third notes of the second measure corresponds exactly to the original second measure. No. chiefly out of the figure contained in its third measure. 10. 17. like so many " links ". of the Chain-phrase are here derived from the second and measure of the original Phrase. into a melodic thread of considerable length. meas. meas. Ex. No. or Phrase-member. 45. 28. Pfte. BEETHOVEN. all developed out of a brief 4-measure Phrase. first movement. Pfte. 14. 23. BRAHMS. No. See also: MENDELSSOHN. first movement. 24-12 from the end. 35. first thirteen measures. meas. 119. 9-19. No. "Songs without Words". and be developed. 164) first movement. 3. 31. op. meas. Sonata. This .

etc. 3. than for special exercise by the student. Andante. at this point. It is cited here more by : way of illus- trating a resource of great future value. Par.MELODY-EXPANSION. nor the necessity of avoiding slight cadence-impressions in the course of the entire It is most commonly. . though by no means expansion. see par. 44. y4 ndtinte. exclusively. where the gradual enlargement of a foregoing thematic member accords well with the gradual relaxation of the rhythmic and harmonic momentum. I Origioal form. encountered in the closing sections (Codettas. " it does not involve the sequence ". No. 51) of larger forms. as a rule. 32. i Expanded form. process differs from that employed for the Chain-phrase. 32. 4* u i i "' I l i I I J I ^wrrrpSS .^ i a i T MENDELSOHN. For example i. in that.

and the general surroundings. 33. 5. The extracts given will all be easily found. the entire harmonic equipment (which is of very great importance). carefully. . " c " to " a " must not be overlooked. MENDKI SSOHN No. 33.Par. and to IRREGULAR PHRASE FORMATION. but they " a ". *2) These three tones are apparently a gratuitous insertion. near the end. hequeiice of a. relate. 59 -*sn /. IRREGULAR PHRASE-FORMATION. I | Expanded form. /J ndante. 7. It is sufficiently obvious that the modes of extension and development explained in par. as a kind of sequential anticipation. to the figure marked The relation of *3) Third Symphony. andante movement. figure figure *i) The pupil is to refer to each " Song without Words" indicated by number. 4. *J ' ^^ tr- Original form. Vivace. BRAHMS. sequencf of 1. *3) J expected examine. near the end of the number. 2432 are liable to impart an irregular metric design to the original regular 4-measure Phrase (as regards the aggregate number of measures). J Original form.

7. Par. 33. ^^ fcm 40. Repetition. a HAYDN.. a length of 3. 3. namely and examples of this kind are by no means rare. 5.. SCHUBERT. results either from reaching the Cadence a measure too soon. also possible that the original conception of a : Phrase may assume an 9 measures . 6. : i.. No.FOR MAT ION. - -t- Cart. Largo. Allegretto. Andante. evad. 5-meamire Phrase. *5) 6. MOZART. *6) . 3-measure Phrase. 4- 4- 45. and then simply omitting the following (legitimate Cadence-) measure. i 6-measure Phrase. 6-nieasure Phrase. *4) ~" Allegro.6o But it is IRREGULAR PHI? ASK. in order to relieve the Cadence of unnecesthis accounts for the majority of 3-measure and 7sary weight measure Phrases Or the irregularity results from an unequal association of melodic members. *2) Sequence. TJ . 3-measure Plirase. 5. *3) 4. J *1) MENDELSSOHN. For illustration The irregularity . irregular dimension. . Adagio. S-measure Phrase.

"Winterreise". as the resulfof a modified repetition of the first measure. Largo. i. last movement. Phrase aggregates only seven measures. consisting of three members of two measures each. Sonata. SCHtfBERT. The 3-measure Phrase is quite frequently merely a magnified example of the triple-weaxurc. 15-22 of the same " " and see " Song without Words Song without Words ". first three measures No. BEETHOVEN. (Phrase repeated BEETHOVEN. in this case. first seven . No.Par. op. *4) The 5-measure dimension might be accounted for. No. MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES OF PHRASE-EXTENSION. 2. 27. first six measures. *5) A6-measure Phrase. 31. No. No. . *3) This 5-measure Phrase results from the union of one 2-measure with one 3-measure member. measures. Sonata. first five measures of Nos. Sonata. and extended). 39. 2. 28. *7) J. BEETHOVEN. SCHUBERT. ure Phrase). 13-19. op. note *i). Symphony No. 20. 6. Finale. last twelve measures (2-measure Phrase). 9. that this second measure is essential. Finale. 6l Allegretto. e. 18. 16. Compare Note *i). No. Sonata. and when this is the case it is most common and most intelligible in a s/o-i' rapid tempo. and followed by a sequence. 29-43 Pfte.-e Phrases. <l Winterreise ". See also BEETHOVEN. i. 28. in which there is no doubt about the unessential nature of the extra measures. \ 12 ffrfj-r^^i *i) This measure? in is _ Jj^_f^: somewhat unusual specimen of a Phrase of three large tempo. second movement. It appears probable. first three measures. Pfte. See BEETHOVEN. meas. simply because the *7) This Cadence-tonic falls prematurely (in the seventh measure) and is not held throughout the eighth measure. op. BEETHOVEN. 7. No. SCHUBERT. 2. 26. "Songs without Words ". . meas. first six measures.. and generally appears in groups of at least two or mo. 9. compare with Ex. Sonata. *2) 3-measure Phrase in more animated rhythm. See " God Save the King ". See also BEETHOVEN. MEXDELSSOHX. each beat corresponding to an entire measure. last eighteen measures (4-measPfte. op. Pfte. Pfte. 7-measure Phrase. 15. twenty-srven measures from the first repeat (ritmo di tre battute). 19. Compare with meas. Adagio. first three measures. *6) Two members of three measures each. No. op. first five measures. op. Pfte. Sonata. regarding the second measure as superfluous. MENDELSSOHN. however. IRREGULAR PHRASE-FORMATION.

62 THE PERIOD-FORM. 3). Pfte. op. last fifteen measures. Sonata. 36. when 35. BEETHOVEN. called Such comparatively SEMICADENCES. Former Phrases of 4-measures. Sonata. Largo. effect) which is not the perfect Cadence . 14.). as a rule But it does not end with the perfect Cadence like the simple . Par. HAYDN. because such a Cadence would completely finish the Phrase. op. " No. EXERCISE 8. meas. 2. lighter interruptions are 36. Adagio. 101. regular.) (See The Cadence of the Antecedent Phrase must. 17-26 (Phrase re- peated and extended). Pfte. Pfte. The harmonic form of the Semicadence may be best cadential defined negatively. Finale. 17 ( " ). Period consists in the union of TWO PHRASES. " ures. begins with the Tonic chord. CHAPTER 34. last fifteen measures. as " any chord-association (with " (see par. 10. 26. be made in such a manner as only partially to check the harmonic and melodic current. Pfte. first eight-and-one-quarter measNo. Finale. op. " No. meas. extending consequently. each half several times repeated). The V. not only impracticable but unnecessary. BEETHOVEN. Phrase. through eight ordinary measures in ordinary moderate tempo. Sonata. last eighteen measures. therefore. 14 (Cotta ed. called the ANTECEDENT Phrase. op. par. Sonata. But see par. with a repetition expanded into Chainphrase form. in coherent (un- broken) succession. 3. and render the addition of a companion-phrase. The first of the two Phrases. " No. BEETHOVEN. Finale. THE PERIOD-FORM. A few experiments in the process of Melody-expansion and in Irregular Phrase-formation may also be made. i. 32^-48 (4-measure Phrase. 2b.

It is its upon antithesis a Question. 48. 2). Or. rarely upon the i I of the Subdominant key. 60). i . upon the triad VI. Or it may fall upon a Subdominant chord (IV or II). dependent for completion its and . \vhile necessarily conforming to the directions given in paragraphs 5. more rarely. order of preference : Upon Upon Upon Upon More No. 68) first Cadence of each. of the Relative key . will naturally be influenced to a certain extent by the altered condition of the Cadence and. ^ ' V . 47. the choice . upon some Dominant chord. 48. the I of the the I or Dominant key . counterbalance. 3 and 4. the Relative of the I (see and 3 Ex. at the prescribed accent. 46. The harmonic and melodic character of an Antecedent Phrase. (Ex. .) . 2 . Nos. THE PERIOD-FORM. Ex. on root does not appear in either outer part in such as to suggest the perfect Cadence (especially when the prominence Tonic is preceded by a Dominant chord) .Par. as a rule. 47. awaiting Answer. usually as concord. . Or the Antecedent Phrase may modulate. in the following Ex. It is more or less definitely determined the aim toward which the current of the Phrase that the less decisive nature of a semi- at least certain cadence imparts a corresponding unfinished (conditional or interrogative) character to the Antecedent Phrase. No. Nos. and Ex. so as to end upon some chord (usually the I) of a next-related key. but occasionally in one of its discord-forms this Cadence-dominant may be approached through any convenient chord (see Ex.^Ex. the I of the Dominant-relative key the I (rarely the V) of the Subdominant-relative key . 63 The most common and Phrase is natural Semicadence for an Antecedent obtained by resting. 37. But the Semicadence may condition that its also fall upon a Tonic chord. though this is rarely the case (Ex. 46. and 3). 46. 2 . note *i). of Semicadence-chord should be beforehand. 37. as will tend. 59) As regards the location and rhythmic treatment of the Semicadence. Ex. and renders it dependent upon its following companion a thesis. No. see par. i and 3 Ex. 8-12. Nos.

In this form. For illustration : . also apply. must essentially differ from each that it is other. obviously. In some cases the parallelism is established by constructing the Consequent Phrase as sequence (partial or entire) of the Antecedent. Viewed in its metric aspect. exactly similar in length to its Antecedent . reasonably adjustable chord and it ends with the perfect Cadence. to the simple Period-form. which. broader sense. It is begins with any chord. Usually. Par. and often only a general resemblance exists.64 THE PARALLEL CONSTRUCTION.~. the Consequent Phrase is. 8) between the phrase-members has developed into a " semicadence". though in a Examples 12 and 13. This is the primary and most natural variety of the Period-designs. beginning and in the measure) its cadence usually correspond (as to their location to beginning and cadence of the Antecedent Phrase. The called the second of the two Phrases in the Period-form Phrase. when and both its regular. whereby the "figures" have grown into "members". CONSEQUENT scribed in paragraphs 3. The Period-form may (and doubtless should) be regarded as a magnified Phrase. 39a. or which is to the preceding semicadencekey. the Consequent Phrase close must. the similarity between Antecedent and Consequent is less pronounced. and the perfect Cadence of the Consequent. in order to constitute the Period-relation. and the "quarter-cadence" (par. 6. in the manner de. 38. the metric conditions illustrated in in paragraph 12. in its aspect. 4. . Compare paragraph 21. the melodic structure of the Consequent Phrase : (a) THE PARALLEL CONSTRUCTION. and possibly govern. the Semicadence of the Antecedent. however. The following distinctions influence. Viewed MELODIC though absolute corroboration is not obligatory. namely. and the "members" into complete "Phrases". the melody of the Consequent-phrase more or less exactly corresponds to that of the Antecedent sometimes so closely prevented from being actual Phrase-repetition (the form " is out of which the " parallel Period evolved) only by the necessary distinction in the formation of the two Cadences. preserve relationship with its Antecedent. From and emphasized this point of view. of course. 39.

46. *2) 3 I 3. Perfect Cad. THE PARALLEL CONSTRUCTION. Allegretto.Par. ."/'a. AblT . *-r BEETHOVEN.

The rhythmic pulse is continued. l&lj * *--1 . 18. 3 --* * i -^ ^ T -C -4- Comeqneot ^ Antecedent Plirase. :Wa. it is not even necessary to remain any longer within the This is illustrated by the notes in small type which semicadence-chord. is owing chiefly to the momentum of th^ accompanying figuration a factor which *i) The Semicadence the first never ceases its motion during any transient cadence. ja T I- r^r |v rests upon the Dominant concord. After this latter condition has been fulfilled.J-J-4 ^fc.seqnent Phrase. r =c^ Semi cad *4> - - - ~ f ri t^=H . and usually impels itself even beyond the final perfect Cadence. to connect the Phrases as closely as is compatible with a perfectly unmistakable cadence-impression. FOLK-SONG.66 THE PARALLEL CONSTRUCTION.-*> n. T^r Con. even in the absence of a figural part. The necessity of thus " bridging over" the cadence-space between the two Phrases. . and is projected into the second beat. which see). occupy the last fractions of the 2nd beat. exactly in conformity with the principles which govern the "concealed cadence" (par. Par. which falls upon beat of the Cadence-measure. U - . Cad. But it is generally desirable.

Par. 39b.

THE OPPOSITE CONSTRUCTION.

67

*2) The Consequent Phrase is a literal reproduction of the Antecedent, only excepting the very last chord, which, being the Tonic, constitutes a perfect cadence, and establishes the indispensable condition of opposition to the Antecedent Phrase. See again par. 21. *3) This Period begins upon the Subdominant harmony, in consequence

of occurring in the course of a larger composition. *4) The Semicadence also rests upon the Subdominant, and, therefore, leads over very smoothly into the Consequent Phrase, which is identical with

the Antecedent (excepting changes in register and rhythm) up to the penultimate chord.
*5) The Semicadence rests upon the Dominant harmony, and the rhythm completely checked, as is most customary and appropriate in music of such a simple character. For further examples of the Period of preponderantly " see Without No.
is

parallel construction,

MENDELSSOHN,

Songs
;

Words,"

28,

meas. 5-12, and meas. 13-20 (imperfect Cadence) No. 29, meas. 5-12; No. 35, meas. 6-13; No. 22, meas. 10-17 (imperfect Cadence). Ex. 49 (of this book), first four measures; Ex. 55; Ex. 72, first eight measures; Ex. 73, meas. 1-8; Ex. 75, meas. 1-8; Ex. 84, meas. 1-8 Ex. 85, meas. 1-8.
;

Furthermore, BEETHOVEN, Rondo, op.

51,

No.

i,

meas. 1-8;

BEETHOVEN, Pfte. Sonata, op. 27, No. i, Finale, meas. 1-8; BEETHOVEN, Pfte. Sonata, op. 10, No. 3, Menuetto, meas. 1-16 BRAHMS, Symphony I, last movement (Allegro), meas. 1-8. SCHUMANN, Jugend-Album, op. 68, No. 23 ("Reiterstiick"),
;

<

first

8 measures; prevented from being a "repeated Phrase " by very last tone only.

(b)

THE OPPOSITE CONSTRUCTION.

In this variety of the Period-form, the melody of the Consequent Phrase pursues largely or entirely the direction opposite to the melodic progressions of the Antecedent.
It can scarcely be claimed that this is a natural or spontaneous mode of construction, for it is based upon a process which is largely mechanical, and may result, when applied too strictly, in constrained and unmelodious tone-

lines.

But it represents the same resource of thematic development as the " in the " Imitation in Contrary motion Polyphonic forms, and is of value to the student because of its suggestiveness. In Homophonic composition its occurrence is rare.

Occasionally the delineation of the Antecedent Phrase is almost, or quite, literally thus inverted in the Consequent but usually only the general melodic drift, or a few of the more striking members,
;

reappear in the opposite direction.

For example

:

68
i.

THE OPPOSITE CONSTRUCTION.
Allegro.

Par.

39K

Semi-cad.

\/

*
47.
I

I/

I

r

^

|

| g

n~r
2.

y-^g^F
Setni-cad.

FF^MT
\/

Moderate.

*3)

"p

1

12

V

Consequent.

HAYDN.

MENDELSSOHN, No.

27.

sequent.

J

'^,

3rd,

rests upon the I of the Dominant key (with major the " modulatory Stride"). The Consequent Phrase-melody is (intentionally) the literal contrary direction of the Antecedent melody, from

*i)
i.

The Semicadence

e.,

beginning to end.

Par. 39c.

THE CONTRASTING CONSTRUCTION.
is

cadence, viz.

by far the best and most common of all the forms of the Semithe V, preceded by the accented I in | inversion. The latter (the I 2 ) precedes the actual Cadence-chord (V) as embellishment (" appog" " the bridging over giatura"), and fulfils chiefly the important purpose of
*2) This
:

cadence-space (Ex. 46, note *i) ). Antecedent melody is maintained *3> The opposite direction of the through about one-half of the Consequent Phrase, only excepting the preliminary tones.

Here the general drift of the Antecedent (more especially of the accompanying harmonies) is reversed in the Consequent. This is also the case See also Ex. 54. in MENDELSSOHN, No. 45, first eight measures. See also HUMMEL, Pfte. Sonata, op. 13, Adagio, first eight measures and
*4)
:
;

Finale,

first

eight measures.

(c)

THE CONTRASTING CONSTRUCTION.

This variety of the Period-form is characterized by the absence of such parallel traits (in the same, or in the opposite, direction) as The principle of "contrast" prevails, those explained above.

though not necessarily to the utter exclusion of parallel figures. As has already been intimated, these three distinctions are to be accepted and applied more in a general sense, than in strict detail. The Consequent Phrase of a Period may reveal traces of all three varieties of construction,
without belonging distinctly to either class; and probably the majority of Periods will be defined as "contrasting" construction, merely because sufficient evidence of parallel or opposite construction is wanting.

The "contrast" is generally limited to the melody (i. e.,the THEMATIC element), and is rarely extended to the style, rhythm and general character (i. e., the FORMATIVE elements). Hence the rule, for comparatively small forms, that while
thematic contrast
is

formative
T.

relation
Moderate,

permissible and necessary to a certain degree, must be preserved. For illustration
:

^Ante cedent.

SCHUBERT.

7o
2.

VARIETY AND UNITY.
Vivace.

Par.

40.

*
Antecedent.

'-a
I.

IV

I

ft
I.

u

t
i.

fe-

Consequent.

HAYDN.

3.

Andantino.

H--segue

i
Coiise-

T
CHOPIN. Op.

38.

-

quent.

obtains

rests upon the Dominant of the relative key, and cadential effect through the purely artificial pause (^), which marks the otherwise vague point of rest. There is not a single point of

*i

The Semicadence
its

melodic resemblance between the two Phrases. And the Consequent begins (unlike the Antecedent )upon a preliminary beat. *2) Semicadence rests upon the Tonic triad, but with its Fifth in Soprano. The contrast between the two Phrases is here unusually marked. The contrast is distinct, *3) Tonic Semicadence, with Third in Soprano.

though traces of parallelism exist. Ex. 52 Ex. 53, See also Ex. 44, No. 2 (probably a 4-measure Period) meas. 1-8; Ex. 60, meas. 1-8; Ex. 61, meas. 1-8; Ex. 71, each Part; Ex. 89, meas. 1-8. MENDELSSOHN, "Songs without Words", No. 9, meas. 3 (2d half )~7 No. 48, meas. 1-4. BEETHOVEN, Symphony IV, Adagio, meas. 2-9.
;

:

;

VARIETY AND UNITY.

4O. Among
demands
Unity,
of

the most vital and ever urgent conditions and perfect artistic creation are those of Variety and

Though the convariety in unity, and unity in variety. dition of unity appeals first in order to our consciousness, that of variety is of at least equal (ultimately of even greater) importance ;

Par.

40.

VARIETY AND UNITY.
asserts
its

Jl

and each

claims with equal emphasis.

These two

opposing forces are therefore incessantly at work in every creative process, and the skill of the master is displayed in so directing them that the most just balance is preserved between them.

The condition of UNITY dictates all the methods by which fundamental regularity, concentration, agreement and corroboration are obtained these methods are The metrical arrangement of equal beats in equal measures and sums of measures The adherence to a central tonality The usual agreement of component members (Exs. 17 and 18; par. 38, 39 and b]
;
:

;

;

;

All repetitions, sequences and imitations (par. 19). The condition of VARIETY dictates all the methods by which this fundamental regularity is divested of its monotony and
fatiguing effect, and by which a judicious degree of grace contrast may be gained these methods are
; :

and

The modification
and shorter tones
;

of the rhythmic measure

by use of longer

The modulatory movements around the The alterations of register (par. 19^),
dynamic
effect,

tonal center; of style (19^),
;

of

within the same regular harmonic limits

itself (as distinguished from exact repetition) All unessential modifications (Ex. 19; Exs. 26-30), which sustain interest without jeopardizing the condition of unity, by too effectually disguising the necessary thematic and formative agree;

The sequence

ment.
" Variety impossibility of formulating accurate rules for obtaining this in mind borne is is to be It manifest. by the Unity" simply clearly

The

in

student, and will thus exert a
habits.

moulding influence upon

his musical views

and

EXERCISE

9.

Invent a number of Periods, of diversified character and design, chiefly 8 measures in length. Alternate regularly between the major and the minor modes employ the different varieties of duple and triple time, and the different grades of tempo (from Adagio to Presto). Exemplify the various forms
;

of construction (parallel, opposite, contrasting).

Cadence.

Work toward the Cadence during Make both Semicadence and
all

each Phrase, and from Cadence
perfect

to

Cadence
all

sufficiently distinct;

avoid, as beginner, vague forms of

cadences;

concealing or bridging-

no matter what the style or tempo is. 1 . b. CHAPTER VI. prominent and continuous melodic Soprano) always. let there be a strong. corresponding to the modes of manipulation described in paragraph 19^. line in some part or other (chiefly in In other words. over of the Semicadence must he effected with trict consideration of a perfectly definite cadential impression. "cantilena") should always be conspicuously the dominating purpose. perfect Cadence.THE REPETITION OF THE ENTIRE PERIOD-FORM. and should be sketched against the Melody alone before the inner parts are added. I. See also the N. . B. Alegro. 4 The modes As usual. which may its be applied to the entire Period bodily. which should be as smooth and melodious as possible. the principal factor is that of repetition. c. 41. Next in importance to this is the leading of the Bass part. applied to the of extension explained in Chapter III are Period in the same general manner as to the Phrase. Endeavor to preserve distinct melodic character. or to either or both of Phrases separately. though on a correspondingly broader scale. without any other changes than those involved by concealing or bridging-over the See pars. THE DEVELOPMENT OR EXTENSION OF THE PERIOD-FORM. For illustration : 49. THE REPETITION OF THE ENTIRE PERIOD-FORM. before repetition. 18 and 21. during the repetition. on page 52. The Period may be repeated literally. e which review. Par. But here again it is far more usual and desirable to introduce unessential modifications. d. the "tune" ("air".

Impromptu. 2. 9. before the repetition Consequent. No. No. Pfte. Prel. op. op. op. 13.. THE REPETITION OF THE CoNSEOJJENT PHRASE. Pfte. *2) The modifications during the repetition consist in shifting the melody down an octave. || 73 Repetition. than the Antecedent. first twenty-four measures (two repetitions). *i) Neither Semicadence nor perfect Cadence requires any bridging" is reduced " over. Symphony IV. SCHUBERT. as in Ex. 21. 2. meas. must conform precisely to the conditions. " Songs without "\Vords ". 31. meas. 1-16. Adagio. . BEETHOVEX. 28. 3 (2nd half)-n. in this instance. 17-32. No.Par. repeated). 28. likely to be the Consequent This corresponds to the repetition of the is much more second half of a Phrase. Prel. and a change in orchestration see later). 5-20. 2-17. Sonata. 23-7 from the end. ~l generally The treatment of the of the perfect Cadence. meas. 29. THE REPETITION OF THE CONSEQUENT PHRASE. one measure of interlude between Period and its repetition. meas. be. Adagio. CHOPIN. 28. 27. two Phrases of the Period-form is to be repeated alone. defined in paragraph 250. The repetition may the latter (par. meas. See also: MENDELSSOHN. No. No. In case either of the it 42. meas. 90. first thirty-two measures (large i6-measure Period. 19. No. 19). meas. 4 (2nd half)-2i. Sonata. because the space by the beginning of each Phrase three beats in advance of the primary accent. as usual. exact or modified. Scherzo. op. op. 42. and altering the style of the accompaniment. (also in the dynamic change from// to/.

Par. 14. e. entire. See also: MENDELSSOHN. due at this accent. 42. 2. " Songs without Words". but must not be completely evaded. 28. in order to obtain an earlier and stronger cadence-impression. .. BEETHOVEN. Consequent. is concealed by passing on chromatically in Soprano into the chord-Third. No. t lie Cadence may be bridged over. i. *2) Compare is melodic figure this measure with measure 7. 17-28 from first double-bar. 20. CHOPIN. 24 (2nd half)~3o. and observe how the very same here manipulated. meas.74 TIIK REPETITION OF TIIK COXSHQJLTKXT PHRASE. Prel. Pfte. meas. For illustration : SO. Adag:o niolto. I *i) The perfect Cadence. 3. No. Sonata. No. op. 19. and the space is bridged over by continuing the chromatic succession directly into the first tone of the (repeated) Consequent. op. first twelve (13) measures (slightly expanded cadence). No. explained in 18 and 21. by any essential change of harmony. which review.

paragraph must conform. i. THE REPETITION OF THE ANTECEDENT PHRASE. 43. OR OF BOTH ANTECEDENT AND CONSEQUENT.. here again. to For example : i . 43. THE REPETITION OF THE ANTECEDENT PHRASE. 75 3.Par. already stated. each Phrase separately appear in connection with the latter. e. repeated. As The treatment the rules given in of the Cadences 21. Repetition of . the repeated Antecedent is of far more It is most likely to rare occurrence than the repeated Consequent. Moderate.

Otherwise agrees with its repetition. *2) first one. THE REPETITION OF THE ANTECEDENT PHRASE. for that reason. i I ^==^-r-^ rrr IT*=*IE *-4 * r-JV *5) Repetition of Consequent. *4) The Antecedent and its repetition close with precisely the same Semicadence (on the Tonic chord). ^ rr -ss* 1 !-^-^ ^r MKNDELSSOHN. Accompaniment simile I Consequent. here. It belongs partly. four measures *3) The Melody is considerably changed. Par. It will be observed that this example begins with a Dominant chord that is because it occurs in the course of a larger . . later. explained in paragraphs 54-55. corresponds exactly to the measures back. to the " Group "-forms. form. No. *i) The Semicadence. though not essentially so. Presto. four The perfect Cadence is slightly modified (concealed) it by placing the chord-third in Soprano. during this repetition. 21. JLJ *4) . The same is true of the preceding illustration. 43.76 a.

*6)6) The harmonic alterations during the repetition (a persistent inclina- tion into the without Words". No. THE EXTENSIONS AT THE BEGINNING OF EITHER PHRASE. But in serving. repetition of the Consequent Phrase (par. u (Cotta ed. " Minore first ment. nevertheless. and. or both Antecedent (par. The repetitions must be variated by means of unessential modifications. 15. repetition of the Antecedent Phrase. here again. 31. 15. 4. But the style is. 7. 77 its *5) The Consequent Phrase contains eight measures (twice the length of Antecedent). to a moderate degree. which review. more strikingly. preliminary passage might Introductory for. and. it is inseparably connected with its Period by ending . with the passage at the beginning 29. than the introduction to a single Phrase. EXTENSIONS AT THE BEGINNING OF EITHER PHRASE. 20. In each of the last three of these the be called an " Phrase" This is of MENDELSSOHN'S " Songs without Words". as it an introduction to the entire Period. BEETHOVEN. 44. 10.Par. 18. to preserve the original harmonic form of the Cadences. 29-8 from " of third movethe end. 9. op. 32. 31). meas. See also: CHOPIN. the case. twelve measures. however. care being taken. 21. owing to chain-phrase extension (par. may. or new ones. properly. in No. OR OF BOTH PHRASES. 42). first movement. thirty-eight measures from the end).). to the whole piece. with complete repetition (according to par. String-quartet. Pfte. MOZART. and Consequent Phrases repetitions must. An extension at the beginning is. Mazurkas Nos. Nos. EXERCISE 41). with The 11. it can be somewhat at the same time. and No. naturally. nounced. Sonata. as examples. 44. 43). more pro- . and refers. Subdominant keys) are noteworthy. No. as explained in paragraph 28. 46. 17. See the original (" Songs 21. 3. and No. with The same. kept so subordinate that no doubts can arise as to the actual beginning of the Periodmelody. 2. it appears to fulfil a more independent mission than that of an extension at the beginning of the first Period only. 12. EXERCISE The same. more likely to be applied to the Antecedent Phrase than to the Consequent. Former Periods. longer. No. moreover. it will assume the character of an Introduction. 13. on account of its length and importance. As usual. No. No. be unessentially modified. upon the Dominant harmony. 34. a trifle more individual in character and.

28 (first and 41. l^ry^g^-J^F-^^E: ^^Q= Iiitrod. 6 seven measures).78 EXTENSIONS AT THE BEGINNING OF EITHER PHRASE. the Preludes to " Songs without 4. tion to the Consequent will sound most plausible when corresponding in thematic character and style to an introduction to its Ante- and it must be so skilfully handled as not to interfere with the impression intended to be conveyed by the original (unextended) Period. 21 (first eight measures). No. because of the attendant danger of destroying the Such an introducnecessary continuity between the two Phrases. thematic and organic relation with the following Period is cancelled. It is " to the tion Consequent Phrase of course possible to interline a brief " introducalso. No. 46. in the strict sense of the term. Words " No. For example cedent Phrase . it ceases to be an ". 42. directly and smoothly into the first Period. Mazurkas Nos. meter and tempo) may be imparted to the The moment Prelude. nan troppo. 19 (comp. i). but they lead. 46. 27 defy exact classification. is Entire independence 3. from which only a Dominant Semicadence separates them. Song No. VOICE. 3. and thus separated from the following " Introduction Period. 16 and No. illustrated in 9. No. When such an introductory passage is conducted into a complete Tonic Cadence. like an Introduction. Par. but examples of this kind are -very rare. 46. in the independence of their character they suggest the Prelude-class. and becomes a " Prelude". 45. and complete independence of character (in everything excepting tonality. in consequence of the separatthe necessity of preserving close ing effect of the perfect Cadence. Comparatively close organic relation with the following Period exists in " the Preludes to Songs without Words" No. The opening (4) measures of No. See also: CHOPIN. . : Vivace. 35. *1) S2. No. though these are severed from the first Period by a double-bar. this distinction arises. HtSE ^ Antecedent Phrase. and even in Nos.

One peculiarly instructive illustragraphs 25. 47. design of the 5. THE EXTENSIONS AT THE END OF EITHER PHRASE. segne 2EE -+-*- --V . OR OF BOTH PHRASES. 79 ^ V ID trod. V I *i) The vocal melody of this example (" Winterreise ".Par. beyond the possibility of misconception. They conform exactly to those explained in parawhich review. extensions at the end are much more likely to be Cadence of the Consequent Phrase than to that of the Antecedent. applied to the tion will suffice Minuetto. No. SCHUBERT. The S3. : 4T. THE EXTENSIONS AT THE END OF EITHER PHRASE. 2) fixes the " Period". 26.

meas. ^ S g >^ S expanded (Ex. Concerto. compare carefully with meas. 31. 25-10 from the end.) HAVDN. meas. 16-4 from the end (cited in Ex. See also: MENDELSSOHN. Pfte. v=* ^-0 ^ *i) Correct perfect Cadence.41. Ex. note *4)). fL^. i-n (4-measure Period. more properly. *3) This. "Songs without Words". repeated. meas. Par. No. *2) It is . Also No. " form of the " (or. suppressed) on Intercepted perfect Cadence (comp. CHOPIN. n). meas. 32. i-io. 42).j ?=t r K -. 23. e minor (op. 47 -j-iTr Consequent. constitute a "new Cadencemember " (see par. and extended at its end).z~f--r =*=-*^^^4&= t f=M I. and the seven measures which follow. Ex. 38. 2ox/. expanded to two measures. No. 32-2). 1-9 from the first double-bar.8o THE EXTENSIONS AT THE END OF EITHER PHRASE. 13-22 (quaint repetition of 2nd half of Consequent Phrase). 27. omitted account of the extension to follow. Romance. meas. No.

(See the Note following par. . : Allegretto Cad. or expan- which constitute the Semicadence (which it must confirm. danger It can scarcely be any more than a brief repetition. THE EXTENSIONS AT THE END OF EITHER PHRASE. *2) This Cadence is incomplete.Par. an "expansion" of the Cadencetone in the melody.) This example. 930. owing to the involves of severing the continuity of the two Phrases. a comparatively rare occurrence. An it be. from the third movement of the first Symphony of BRAHMS. 54. and not destroy). j w k*~9-&*hz^tacn* i i i n fct i P-fr^-g g *i) Or. or of the entire semicadence-member and it will generally be balanced by a similar manipulation of For example the final cadence (of the Consequent) also. more accurately (in both cases). sion. as intimated. of the chords . because the new section which follows is to be entered without interruption. extension at the end of the Antecedent Phrase will 48. 48. 1L' i f- i^i i -* BKAHMS. is a unique illustration of "opposite construction" (39^).

10. meas. 6-13 (two 3-measure meas. 30-39 (extension at end of Antecedent only}. 19. 30). "Winterreise". i 3. and all Also op. and. 117. No. EXTENSIONS IN THE COURSE. See also: BRAHMS. 16-5 from the end. Par. i-io. No. 6. 20. Mazurka No. Phrases. 11-20. No. These Periods are all at the Cadences. 49. at This mode of enlargement is applied most frequently. 14-21). meas. extended in the same way. " Songs without Words " No.}. of parallel construction. op. 5-18 (5-measure Phrases). meas. tir 55. 22. No. See also: MENDELSSOHN. No. most extensively. tempo (piu mofo cd espress. 37. second 1120. meas. which repar. to the Consequent Phrase (see The details are enumerated in paragraph 29. meas.82 EXTENSIONS IN THE COURSE. and meas. 118. 9-24 (repeated Consequent). last fifteen measures (extension at end of each Phrase). followed by modified repetition. i. . 21-30. " Winterreise ". same work. "Winterreise". events. i-io. SCHUBERT. For illustration all : 49- Adagio. meas. meas. CHOPIN. view. 14.

and. i. meas. for the obvious purpose of rendering the following extension perfectly distinct. measures six and eight of Consequent Phrase). "Songs without Words". 28. and a Consequent containing courseand third measures) the perfect Cadence is twice evaded . "Songs without Words". . Prelude. n. in this case. op. before final Phrase of the Song). 11-24 ( a 4-measure Antecedent) and No. member " of tvo measures closes the Period. *2) Modified repetition of second half of the Antecedent Phrase. meas. extensions in the course of either Phrase are not here again. this is far most likely to be the case with the Consequent Phrase. from the end (in extensions (in its first a 4-measure Antecedent. \ . CHOPIN.Par. a "new cadence- 5O. As "chain-phrase" formation. But (rare) this may even : occur in the Antecedent. See MENDELSSOHN. as usual. No. 22^-41 (ending with an imperfect Cadence. Such unlikely. 38. No. as the following example shows 56. to result in explained in paragraph 31. meas. EXTENSIONS IN THE COURSE. 10. 1-25. *i) The Semicadence is not bridged over. See also: MENDELSSOHN. *3) A somewhat disguised sequence of the first half of the Consequent Phrase. 50. 22*^-9 . No. meas. finally.

. op. meas. Its thematic evolution is indicated by the lettered brackets. analogous to paragraphs 26^. THE CODETTA. and 47. BEETHOVEN. 51. extensions explained in paragraphs 24. furtherbut it differs from the 5 1 .. No. ending with this emphatic semicadence. f "/ p f *=^ Consequent. and becomes by that means detached from its Phrase or Period. e. the To the class of extensions at CODETTA (i. is thirteen measures long. For in the majority of cases it follows after the complete perfect Cadence has been made. little Coda) .84 THE CODETTA. 29^-12 from the end.=^= i r -<2- r- PI *i) The Antecedent. The Consequent which follows is an example of the 5-measure Phrase. though not strictly. more. (It is most nearly. Sonata. d). 7. c. in being more independent of the Phrase or Period to -which it is added. i. 49. 26. the end belongs. *2) Pfte. 25. finale. 2) ==pgi-. Par.

Par.

51.

THE CODETTA.
this

it need not be thematically related to the Cadence-member, but may derive its Melody from any member of its Phrase or Period; or it may even consist of an entirely new, though strictly kindred (organically related), melodic motive. Review also paragraph 32. Its harmonic basis may be a reiteration, in almost any metric form, of the Dominant and Tonic chords of the Cadence

For

reason

Melody of

the

;

Or
point
;

it

may

be an optional
incline

line of chords,

upon

the Tonic organ-

Or

it

may

towards the Subdominant chords and keys,

as broader exposition of the Plagal ending (26d). probably the most common.

The

latter is

of the Codetta, as applied to any of the foregoing while forms, optional, should not as a rule exceed two measures; but it may be, and usually is, repeated, and even extended.
It
is

The length

very rarely added to anything smaller than the Period-

Jortii.

For

illustration, to the
is

Period given in Example 50, the

fol-

lowing Codetta

added

:

Cad.

Codetta.

Rep.

BEETHOVEN.

57.

<

*i)

This

is

the Cadence-measure, bridged over as

shown

in

paragraph

18.

*2) The following two measures cannot be called an "extension of the foregoing Phrase, or Cadence-member", for they are melodically independent Hence the independent term Codetta (appendix), to indicate of the latter.

the independent addition.
*3) In the original, (BEETHOVEN, Pfte. Sonata, op. 10, No. i, end of Adagio?) six more measures follow, as additional repetition and extension of but they are necessitated simply by the proportions of the entire this Codetta Movement, and are therefore omitted here.
;

Furthermore, to Ex. 41, No.

3, is

added the following

:

86
Cad.

THE CODETTA.
Codetta.

Par.

52.

Rep.

58.

MRNDBLSSOHK.

-&-'

" " to the end, from the large 2-measure Phrase *i) The form tapers which precedes, through the i-measure Codetta, its repetition, and the half-measure extension, down to the single Tonic chord, which fades away as
resonance diminishes, without regard to measure. And the " ritard. adds emphasis to the purpose of gradual relaxation. See also: MENDELSSOHN, " Songs without Words", No. i, last six measures (Codetta to preceding seven measures, with which it is to be compared); No. 13, last four measures (with preceding eight measures); No. 20, last five measures (with preceding twelve measures: Phrase repeated and extended); No. 27, last four measures; No. 40, last six measures. CHOPIN, Prelude, op. 28, No. 21, last fourteen measures (two Codettas). And Ex. 70, note *4).
its
1 '

Codetta is the counterpart of the Introduction or Phrase and, just as the latter may deteriorate, by Introductory from its into a " Prelude ", so the Codetta may Period, separation
;

52. The

become by
still

a

" Postlude"

cedes

more complete separation from the sentence which preit, and by greater difference of style. Compare paragraph 45. The Postlude is more common in larger forms, than in the Period. It is most likely to occur when the form began with a Prelude, and will, in that case, usually correspond exactly to the
latter.

41,

See MENDELSSOHN, " Songs without Words", Nos. beginning and ending of each.

4, 9, 16, 23, 28, 35,

Par.

53.

THE CODETTA.

87

53. From all the foregoing it is evident that the processes of Phrase- or Period-extension are employed preponderantly in the second half, i. e., in the later course, towards, or at, the end of the sentence.
The first obligation of the composer is to state the leading musical thought clearly, simply, without confusing modifications. The variation, elaboration, and, most especially, the development
and enlargement of
briefly,

this leading

thought will follow, earlier or

later, in fulfilment of the

conditions of variety in unity.

Review,
end
is

A

paragraphs 30, 42, 47. peculiarly significant reason for extensions at the very

touched upon in paragraph 27, and Example 58, note *i).

MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES OF PERIOD-EXTENSION.
CHOPIN. Prelude, op. 28, No. i (Antecedent Phrase, eight measures; Codetta I, two measures Consequent Phrase, chain-form, sixteen measures and repeated; Codetta II, one measure, repeated three times; expanded Tonic
;

at end).

SCHUBERT. "Die schone Miillerin ", No. 8, entire (^-measure Prelude; two 6-measure Phrases, Consequent extended 2-measure Codetta). BEETHOVEN. Pfte. Sonata, op. 10, No. i, Finale, meas. 17-28. BEETHOVEN. Pfte. Sonata, op. 81, Finale, meas. 37-52 (repetition of whole
;

Period); also the following measures, 53-81, up to the double-bar (repetition, extension, and Codetta). BEETHOVEN. Pfte. Sonata, op. 31, No. 3, first movement, meas. 46-68 {repetition with intermediate Interlude; Codetta).

BRAHMS. BRAHMS.

Op. Op.

116,

116,

No. i (Capriccio), meas. 1-19 (repeated and extended). No. 2 (Intermezzo), meas. 1-18 (extended and re-

peated, with instructive modifications; see also the last t-wenty-one measures). BRAHMS. Op. 116, No. 5, First Part (extension at end).

CHOPIN. CHOPIN. CHOPIN.

Mazurka No. Mazurka No. Mazurka No.

meas. 49-64 (quaint repetition). meas. 1-20 (Introduction and repetition). 20, meas. 1-24 (Introduction and extensions); also
3,

17,

meas. 41-56 (repetition).

EXERCISE
Former Periods, or new
(par. 44, 45, 46).

12.

ones, with Introduction or Introductory Phrase
at

The same, with extensions
47, 48)-

end of either Phrase, or of both Phrases
its

(par.

Here, again, it will be wise to write out the Period first in {unextended) form, and to elaborate it during its repetition.

primary

88

THE PERIOD WITH CONSEQJJENT-GROUP.

Par.

55.

EXERCISE
The same, with
(par. 49, 50).

13.

extensions in the course of either Phrase or both Phrases

The same, with Codetta
These extensions may,

(par. 51, 52).
finally, all

be introduced into one and the same elaborate Period (illustrating the entire material of paragraphs 44, 47, 49, 51, in one example). Write out each Period first in its unextended form.

CHAPTER

VII.

GROUP-FORMATIONS.

THE PERIOD WITH CONSEOJJENT-GROUP.
54.
The term "Consequent-group"
lias

been adopted by

the author as a substitute for " Consequent-repetition ", in application to those forms in which the reproduction of the Consequent

phrase
epithet intents

is

modified to such an extent, or in such a manner, that the "Repetition" is not strictly permissible. It is to all
it

and purposes a reproduction of the second Phrase of the
is

Period, but
repetition.

The term

not a simple (or even unessentially modified) indicates that the two phrases thus obtained

constitute a double version of
tents as to be virtually one

and the same Consequent

such unquestionably uniform con" Double(a

Consequent

").
details of the apparently subtle distinction

55.
such a
follows
:

The

between
are
as

"reproduction"

and a genuine
in the

"repetition",

ist,

any essential difference
(of the

harmonic formation of the

versions of the Consequent Phrase) would antagonize the principle of "repetition", as defined in par. 21

two Cadences

two

(which carefully review).
Andante
espressivo,

For

illustration

:

S9.

Antecedent Phrase.

For Accompaniment, see

Original.)

i

Par.

55.

THE PERIOD WITH CONSEQUENT-GROUP.
1st Torsion

89
of

*1>

2nd version of
\j
'
I

Coiise-

J.

i

I.

g=g=g^=*:
quent Phrase.

rrn
H
MENDELSSOHN.
No.
25.

>r

-*

I2

expanded

(Cad. -expansion.)

. Cadences. a "reproduction". Sonata. The latter are examples of Consequent and Antecedent repetition. if not exactly. Semi c:ul. the "repetition" from the reproduction "." importance of this distinction. But Tonic. 28-43 (second for the above distinction. where it is the obligatory condition which distinguishes the " parallel Period " from the " "repeated Phrase". Cadence of the Consequent Phrase is made upon the Relative minor. eo. note *2).THE PERIOD WITH CONSEQJJENT-GROUP. Ex. Andante. which is a Consequent-^-row/. on account of thematic connection with following Phrase). even if the melodic design is "sequence" remain exactly. or nearly. *2) The similarity between the two versions of the Consequent Phrase is so great that it appears at first glance to be simply Phrase-repetition.? uU ?- Pliraae. MOZART. 70. the same. instead of G major. Compare these examples carefully with the illustrations given in Ex. or. Pfte. Prestissimo. * F . 11-23 from the end (final Cadence modified by chord-Fifth in Bass. but never a "repetition" A in the strict sense here necessarily maintained. as defined by the formation of two successive cadences. M ~\? J J 4 j -^r^ J iT / Hg-=? . 55. of the essential difference of cadences. 62. is also shown in paragraph 39^. . No. 14. (For Accompaniment. 51 Ex. should not be called a repetition. note *2) with especial reference to the condition of the . because the cadences are essentially. See also Ex. " Songs without Words ". For example J : J-*U J Antecedent -?-. 8 (Cotta ed. because . 59). the same and are not to be confounded with the above (Ex. as sequence. G major. *i) This first (e Par. 2ndly. but a " Group of The Consequents. a reproduction of the Consequent Phrase upon other scale-steps. not a repeated Consequent. No.). meas. 50. see Original) *1) m 1st version of Consequent Phrase. because the final Cadence is to be made upon the original Tonic. It is closer scrutiny of the two essentially different Cadences reveals the necessity version of Consequent extended at end). in a word. See also: MENDELSSOHN. meas.) and thus the idea of "repetition" is already frustrated.

five measures. Consequent-Phrase first version. carefully. No. second version. See CHOPIN. nevertheless. Prelude. all For illustration of paragraph 19. the form is"Period with Consequent-group". m *2> iS^dEi -^ -|*. consequently. : Lento. ^^^?* ^JL^OL=L *i) Pfte. .Par. compare. THE PERIOD WITH CONSEQJJENT-GROUP. the term Consequent-group should be substituted for Consequent-repetition in those cases where the reproduction embraces more elaborate modifications (of what is. first twelve measures. four measures). No. 24. tion. op. op. 3rdly. and with a "reversed" Cadence-member. Finale. 28. 2. unmis- takably the same Phrase-contents) than would be supposable or permissible in an ordinary "repetition". *2) The third of these three Phrases is mainly a sequence of the second one. V 9! BEETHOVEN. 55. first nineteen measures (IntroducAntecedent-Phrase four measures. 2nd version of Consequent Phrase. I. Sonata. with modified repetition two measures . partial sequence.

|! 2nd version of Consequent. analyzed in Ex.THE PERIOD WITH ANTECEDENT-GKOUP. although it diverges from the latter more and more. " Winterreise". four measures. largely expanded. No. last twenty-one measures (Antecedent Phrase four measures. first Consequent. exactly the same processes. Codetta. six measNo. No. 33. the Antecedent Phrase of also be reproduced in this group-form. measures. *i) *i) There can be no doubt of the identity of this Phrase as second version of the preceding Consequent Phrase. No. And MEXDELSSOHN. One illustration will A llegretto. meas. 2). five measures). and ends with a totally different Cadence. two measures first Consequent. lt version of Antecedent. paragraphs 53. 2. 42. ten measures. 56. 19-6 from the end. meas. 31. two measures. No. Par. second Consequent. n. 43. four ures). 56. *2) See also the twelve measures which follow. suffice again. But the Antecedent-group : " is far less common than the Consequent- group. 15. 17. second Consequent. second Consequent. . . 14^-5 from the end (Antecedent. in its course. op. five measures). first Consequent four measures. "Songs without Words". last twenty-three-and-one-half measures (Antecedent. SCHUBERT. in the Original (CHOPIN. Codetta. 2nd 62. partly sequential. a Period " By may See. No. eight measures. Mazurka No. i.

measures (first Antecedent-Phrase. and. HAYDN. I SUABIAN FOLK-SONG. CHOPIN.). four measures. second Antecedent. *3) This measure is a quaint and characteristic expansion of the (strictly speaking. second Antecedent.. last thirty measures (first Antecedent. four measures. consequently. THE PERIOD WITH ANTECEDENT-GROUP. a genuine repetition of the Consequent takes place. Symphony in B[? measures. Consequent. 2. 5 "7. sequence. are Codetta). Consequent. Menuetto. 119. first twelve CHOPIN. This accounts for the irregular (5-measure) formation. because (besides entire coincidence of melody) the Cadence in measure thirteen is only a concealed form of that in the final measure. unaccented} first beat. 3. first Antecedent. first twelve measures. four measures. No. It is an Antecedent-^rflw/. Mazurka. n ~ '&__?____ ^m f= : -j^-rfl^-^-W " *i) The second version is a sequence" of the first. op. (Peters ed. first sixteen measures (Introduction. 12) Finale. four measures. THE PHRASE-GROUP. Sonata. 93 V Repetition of Consequent. See also: BEETHOVEN. The in number). No. . 36. op. only two measures. first twelve measures. 14 HAYDN. i. first fourteen second Antecedent. 'in Phrase-group is a series of Phrases (at least three coherent succession. No. repeated). No. but sequence. Prelude. Compare 55. No. BRAHMS. a poising of the voice upon the "up-beat" before the rhythmic movement starts into life. four measures Consequent. Pfte. No. 5. a long Chain-Phrase to end). without essential change. Consequent. four measures) ures of the same Prelude are similarly constructed (the last seven measures . 28. 2ncily. four measures extended to six . four the remaining twenty-three measmeasures. op. Sonata. Pfte. 57. *2) Here. and of similar or kindred . on the contrary. (Cotta ed.Par. not a "repetition ".

but either too similar to. On more than three Phrases the other hand. the Group may embrace as many as can be added without sacrificing " formlessness ". because two such. and antithesis (see par.94 character and style . coherency. The Group of Phrases' is simply rule. "Group of Members" which the constitutes The following example Phrases : illustrates Group of similar . THE PHRASE-GROUP. 37. 74). last clause). or else too inde- pendent each other. viz. 57. as in Ex. and 63*2). can occur only at to this (This is in accurate keeping with the rules given in paragraph 31 for the " Chain-Phrase. in one or another of its many possi- ble phases. The Group will never contain less than three Phrases. to exhibit the distinctive condition of the Period-form. 1 " 1 but they do not concern the beginner. if coherent (not separated. Par. 36.. sufficient cadential force to the end of the Group. the opposition of a mutually dependent thesis of. or extending to an absurd extreme of Each of the Phrases should close with a light scmicadcnce (compare pars. a larger growth of that the Chain-Phrase). will invariably represent the /'tfrzW-relation. strict A perfect Tonic cadence (in its complete There are some rare exceptions any key) of Phrase. which review.

) *4) Comparison of this example with the foregoing. 60 and 61 the same stance.62 all four Phrases are similarly reducible to the original two. the melodic members being almost identical. nevertheless. and in Ex. it is true. But in the above example (63). Group ". must be preserved and. two primary Phrases on account of the the thematic individuality of the several members of Group . no complete perfect cadence should occur until the end is reached. of independent (or dissimilar) Phrases. : it&H 64. 58. but at least general resemblance. series to The Group is the other hand. for also *2) The Bass makes simply in consists of instance. three Phrases (like the above) but the number is reducible to the original two of the Period-relation. For example . single Phrase-Group 59. such a reduction to two Phrases is not tenable. THE PHRASE-GROUP. and bring the " Group " to an end. 33. this irregular leap upward from the Leading-tone (a). Ex. MENDELSSOHN. than one (Consequent) Phrase. reveals the characteristic difference between the "Period with Consequent. . . as before. conforms to the conditions of the perfect Cadence fully enough to check the harmonic and melodic current. 93. No. order to evade the complete Tonic cadence. in subIn Exs. 95 *3) *4) fe *i) The the first similarity between these three Phrases is strikingly exhibited in half of each. reasoning applies. The reduction of the will not be possible. (Par. because the entire sentence is simply three different versions of one primary phrase. and close organic relation. on probably more common. because the second and third are no more. on the contrary.or Antecedent" and the ". together.Par. *3) This final Cadence is unusually brief. 58. but it.

26. No. 4-9 (three 2-measure Phrases). though perfect organic cohesion is maintained (chiefly through the uniform *i) It is . -- MOZART 3& and be thus demonstrated evident that this series. cannot be reduced to tivo Phrases " Period" of some as an extended kind. last measures (four Phrases. 2. Nos. No. for each of the three Phrases is an independent melodic factor of the collective sentence. 4 extended four measures at end. Phrase No. Codetta). 16. 3. meas. 58. " Songs without Words ". accompaniment) See also the following general illustrations of the Phrase-group (both similar and dissimilar) MENDELSSOHN.96 THE PHRASE-GROUP. Par. Phrase No. meas. 28^-11 : . 13. No. rneas. twenty-three No. 20. 28-17 from the end. again. No. i and 2 similar almost repetition.

16-28.). two measures. not of good conbut rather of "Formlessness". op. 32. 41. measures.. Trio. THE ELISION. Phrase 5. and it is possible that this break may be present in some and absent in other of the Members. 3 extended.. No.Par. Third movement. are a modified reproduction of the first Group. I (three Phrases. first twelve measures. QQm When the Cadence of a Phrase or Period corresponds beginning of the following Phrase harmonically so accurately to the or Period that end and beginning are practically identical. BRAHMS. though almost exclusively applied to the perfect possible at semi- . first twenty-six measures. To what length the Group of Phrases may possibly extend. Pfte. in the following fourteen GRIEG. two measures Phrase 2. Mazurka. 164). meas. SCHUBERT. 2 the folio-wing tiventv measures are a modified repetia repetition of No. especially when the Periods are small (four measures). Menuetto. Finale. First movement. partly similar. No. Sonata. No. 8 (C minor). Sonata. 118. Phrase 4. as being the type. op. usually. similar. up to the end. No. it is possible to suppress the entire Cadence-measure. 15-5 from the end (three Phrases. 97 . Pfte. three measures). of large Phrases with a slight semicadence in their center. 4 (op. 122. Such Period-groups will present the appearance.). 6. (each Period expanded. Pfte. first twenty measures (five similar Phrases. from the end (Phrase i. meas. . No. No. This same idea is also applied (though far more rarely) to the Period. 26). of which similar Groups may be formed. Lyric Pieces. No. in any case. 28. sistent "Form '. . No. HAYDN. rep. " Songs without Words ". 1 59. 3. the last one extended). 28. op. But the pupil must carefully shun such And he must look upon the idea of the difficult experiments for a time. This suppression or "Elision" of the Cadence Cadence. 7 (op. op. 4 a sequence of 3) the following . CHOPIN. Symphony 5 (Peters ed. entire measures). THE ELISION. 5-29 (six Phrases). i) the following eighteen measures are a Group of four tion of this Group Phrases (i and 2 regular. two measures Phrase 3. Prelude. No. the second one extended at end). See SCHUBERT. CHOPIN. meas. 2 (three Phrases. four measures. 60. first twenty-two measures (five Phrases. No. No. 33. first thirty measures MENDELSSOHN. 3. meas. . Sonata. of unequal length. No. and mod. two measures. 12. Phrases 4 and 5 repeated and extended). abbrev. and hasten on into the next Phrase without the pause or check for which Cadences are is expressly made (par. 40-53 (three similar Phrases. may be seen by reference to paragraph 104. Group repeated. Prelude. Group-form with distrust. No. 9 (three similar and regular 4-measure Phrases). each expanded).

and dangerous artifice. Andante. a. which is sometimes very But it must be distinctly understood that it is a comparatively rare effective. firstly. Par. or to obtain an exhilarating.93 cadences THE ELISION. secondly. when the approach to the Cadence has been so indicative or suggestive of the latter that its absence will be sufficiently compensated for. urging effect. 60. also. . It may be effected. Or. 93#. HAYDN. /4 llegretto. The object of the elision is either to avoid an unnecessary and stagnating pause. when the beginning of the succeeding Phrase is striking enough to remove any misconception of the form (see par. =dzt:=ti! 65. first and last clause). the expediency of which should be carefully tested each case. For illustration: in I.

contrary to appearances. MENDELSSOHN. without the in this instance undesirable delay which a full exposition of the cadence would cause. 70. Adagio. 4 and 5 (compare with measure 19 from the end. In other words. is 9. but which is suppressed (omitted). and which he proceeds to repeat immediately. MOZART. 41. THE ELISION. bar 5 from the end. but. n also last movement (Rondo). No. "? V *- *&=*=&=*=* 1 *i) These small notes represent the perfect Cadence which is due and expected at this point. bar $ from the end. op. No. " evaded " form *2) The first chord in the fourth measure represents the of the (expected) cadence. " Songs without Words" No. For example : Allegro 66. care must be taken not to confound the Elision with those forms of concealed or evaded cadence. Son. 4. The latter immediately asserts itself so completely (through abrupt change of style and abrupt transition from f to/") that the actual cadence is "cut out" entirely. On the other hand. n. 2. bar 3 from the end. Pfte. BEETHOVEN. between measures 7 and 8. which it is the author's intention to repeat. 2. 3. Pfte. 31. does not suppress the latter. where the same abrupt leap into the new style of the following Phrase takes place within the Cadence-measure. Son. No. causing the elision of the entire Cadence-measure. *3) "Songs without Words. between meas. the "extension" See also Ex. this is the fourth measure of the first phrase. it corresponds exactly to the beginning of the first melodic member of the Phrase. 60. between meas. cited in Ex.) 99 MENDELSSOHN. and the sum of measures in the two Phrases is only seven. . near the end. but. where the Elision does not appear). simultaneously. Note *4). 10 and n. instead of eight. (Cotta edition). and." No. measures 13-19 (repeated Phrase with Elision). No. No.Par. at the same time. 42. Repetition (extended. the first measure of the following one. No.

EXERCISE Former Periods. op. No. for a time. "end" and "beginning" are interlocked. 5 from the end. But. No. make emphatic .. of bridging over the space between one Phrase and the next. which review). not upon the first one consequently. though the Of all the possible ways latter is directly characteristic of the coming Phrase. 12-21. this is only the preliminary measure of the 2nd Phrase. 26. here. all Cadences sufficiently The same. also. *i) Notwithstanding the abrupt and misleading change of character at the beginning of this cadence-measure. No. meas. the Cadence-space (par. rather too distinct than too vague. and. i. 3. . the new Phrase (and its subsequent reproduction. The " change" must be regarded as occurring upon the second i6th-note. tin's must be conceded to be the most consistent and admirable . (between measures 12 and 13). " Songs without Words". and has its quota of 4 measures without the bridging". any elaborate modes of evading or concealing the Cadences. also) begins upon the second i6th-note of the cadence" measure. with material which anticipates the coming Phrase. 28. 2. . with Consequent-group. such as may too completely disguise their purpose. or new varieties of structure explained in par. Still avoid. 18). 14. meas. n from the end. 60. 2 meas. See also MENDELSSOHN. 56). is a still more delusive illustration of the absence of an Elision where one is apt to be suspected BEETHOVEN. Review the directions given in Exercise 9. there is no Elision. it is no more than one of the innumerable modes of bridging over" according to par. Par. 2<t (third clause. Son.100 THK ELISION. here again. with Antecedent-group Work from Cadence to Cadence . though thematically consistent with what " follows. meas. ones. Pfte. in each of the three (par. for the coming Phrase contains its four measures without this one.e. 55. but there is no Elision. comp. later. and impair firm outlines of form. no Elision.

of both similar and dissimilar thematic contents. though almost unavoidably somewhat heavier than an ordinary light semicadence. and just as closely dependent one upon the other. creased b\ the repetition (exact or modified) of any of the Phrases.. A semicadence upon any form of any other chord.Par. or because. so conceived and distributed that the Period-relation is apparent between Phrases i and 2. The two Periods of a legitimate Double. IOI Write a number of Phrase-groups. consequently (when regular). and perhaps even harmonically. And. 57 and 58. at the end of the 2nd Phrase) must be in the nature of a Semicadence. naturally. if itself a heavy. the following general rules must be A semicadence is harmonically " heaviest" when made upon some observed Dominant Triad. four Phrases. : . or upon the dissonant forms of Dominant (or other) harmony. be lighter than the one in the center of the whole. Therefore. is "lighter". 62. or upon the Tonic Triad of a related key. according to par. Each group must be limited to three though this number may be optionally in- CHAPTER VIII. 6 1 . are distinctions which increase in importance as the forms enlarge. These intermediate points of repose will. stronger or heavier than those at the termination of the ist and 3rd Phrases. 62. at present. The Double period consists in the union of TWO PERIODS. but chords which. while they invite repose. best in connection with repetition of Phrase or Period. on a broader scale. The various degrees of rhythmic and harmonic weight which it is possible to impart to a semicadence-chord. will be rhythmically. either because it presses forward too vigorously of itself. The Double period must be conceived simply as an expanded growth of the single Period. and also. EXERCISE 15. THE DOUBLE PERIOD. And make a few experiments with the Elision. the Cadence in the center (i. The latter. as these are strong chords. between these two pairs. still suggest inevitable onward movement. THE DOUBLE PERIOD. the Phrases of which assume such a breadth (length) that they almost necessarily separate slightly in their respective centers. between Phrases 3 and 4.period form are just as coherent. though still only a Semicadence (inasmuch as it corresponds to the semicadence of the simple Period). for this reason. e. fundamental Phrases. and embraces. as the Antecedent and Consequent Phrases of the simple Period forms are.

exactly according to the degree of interruption desired (see par. in any case. although. consonant or dissonant. 64 stagnating chord. with a more (c) At .) first Phrase a light semicadence. final forms. in choice of chord. and thus destroy the continuity of the whole. rhythmically more or less brief. The At Cadence-conditions of the regular Double period are. e. (d) At the end of the 4th Phrase (in the regular. the entire 3rd Phrase corresponds exactly . though a little more likely to incline toward the Subdominant harmonies and again. the length of time spent in pausing. perhaps corresponding to the first one.102 THE DOUBLE PERIOD. 63. 390. to the table given in par. a Tonic chord of the Relative. or. it gives immediate birth to an active counteracting agency. the latter being lighter than the former or possibly some other chord in one of its lighter . more rarely. The The than during the parallelism need not. the end of the 3rd Phrase a light semicadence again. Further: a semicadence is rhythmically heavy or light in exact proportion to the duration of the chord. clause). : then. but probably with more rhythmic stress. or nearly to the generally. 36 (to which strict attention must be given). Finally: the rhythmic distinction is far the more important of the two.. i. however. Period. and the consequent length or brevity of the "bridging" which follows. conmost of Tonic the chord. as follows (a. or some other next- related key. corresponding generally. See par. complete Double period) the Tonic perfect Cadence. effect. be maintained any farther first melodic member of the 2nd Period. with Third or sisting perhaps frequently Fifth (instead of Root) in one of the outer parts or the Dominant chord. 64. emphatic modulatory manifestation. approached \vith a more elaborate and emphatic moduBut it must never be so heavy as to lose its semicadence lation. the end of the . than in the single It is most apt to be a Tonic chord of the Dominant Key. And. Par. necessary cohesion between the two Periods is most Period melodically effectively preserved by constructing the 2nd PARALLEL with the i st. 2<5. longer duration. (b) At the end of the 2nd Phrase a heavier semicadence.

in parallel construction : . This latter analysis the tempo were (i. . in cases of extreme parallelism. 3 which see. with the syntax of Ex. PKICIOH OT- * *-W i 5 * :l>i-_ 67. nearly to the end. No. _ i . 01. I0 3 ist Phrase. . Phrase 2. Period (of 8-measure Phrases and parallel construction) with a semicadence in the middle of each half. y Plii-iiscS (like 1). coinciding. rv. Large. n 'i I *-*-]-* * i. 'ntiaitte. e. 13. . on a larger scale.. is made upon the Dominant harmony with the chord-fifth in the Soprano.Par. like that which precedes it in the 4th measure. But it is rhythmicaUy stronger here than in the 4th measure. even the 4th Phrase follows the thematic design of the 2nd Phrase. with no other than the purely unessential modification in the gth measure. SJEiaSpJZ: L r F . I. and. The following example illustrates the Double period as an "expansion of the single Period ". -w^ Phrf>e t. THE DOUBLE PERIOD. n S! i f "* -~- ^ =T af _ f _k: \/ PKKIOD 2. *2) The parallelism of construction extends up to this point. *3) There is no reasonable doubt of this being the Double-period form but. Phrase 2 should contrast with phrase i. the measures being small and the tempo somewhat active. it creates the impression of a Large single.-t-T- '-.. ^zpizz^TZi: ^_g_^j:^= ^-F^:g-j*_-ctg~S-" ^^^^ ^-3=^ ~P^ I *i) This cadence.single Period) would certainly be correct if allegro or presto .

extended at No. Rondo. No. op. first end). see: meas. 28. Par. 25. i. The following examples. No. . first 10 measures (probably Single. on genuine Double periods. 65. 48. 10. are so innumerable. of the contrary. are beyond a doubt parallel construction : 68. 13. 10. " Song without Words " No. For examples See par. No. that it will often be impossible to define accurately the denomination of certain examples of this kind found in musical literature and even so slight a thing as a deviation in the tempo or " phrasing" of the performer may influence. namely in . BEETHOVEN. semicadence in the center of the first half. i. 77. . op. No. Of one thing the student may rest assured. despite the rapid tempo). 12. first 8 measures (probably Single). 7-22 (a noticeable MENDELSSOHN. of doubtful form. Pfte. into the perfectly unmistakable Double period with its four legitimate cadences. 51. Son. first 16 measures (probably Single) op. the structural impression and analysis. No. 32. 65. 22. 3. first 16 measures (probably Double). i). measures 3-11 (probably Double). Adagio. No. first 9 measures (exactly the same). measures 4-14 (probably Single. but none whatever in the second half. Allegretto. extended at end). perhaps positively alter. CHOPIN. : proportion as the distinction becomes thus more minute and questionable. first 8 measures (probably Single).104 THE DOUBLE PERIOD. No. i. between Single and Double period. No. 8. measures (probably Double. 8 measures (probably Single). 8. 10. first 16 measures (probably Single). No. Preludes. Phrase 2. first 17 like Ex. 19. and leas -wise to insist upon un absolute definition. Meniietto. and par. No. 14. it becomes of less and less moment to defne it. op. The transitional grades and progressive shades of distinction from the perfectly unmistakable Single-period form with no intermediate interruptions. No. op.

). 7 (Cotta ed. 117. almost Single period repeated). 37. 49. cannot be called heavier than the one in the The con4th measure. No. 2 (op. first 17 measures. Op. 23 (Phrase 4 extended to 5 measures Codetta. Son. Phrases. j* f <ttE=ft-*-^s*=$p F L If' ' i I tf-rfrr^ ^^. CHOPIN. 20 measures (each Consequent extended) compare last 31 measures of . first 16 measures. it serves its purpose sufficiently well. No. MENDELSSOHN. 28. 9. Son. No. No. BRAHMS. 2). i. Pfte. 17. 19. first 16 measures. Son. Finale. first 17 measures. 6. 10 (Phrase 3 sequence of Phrase i. but compare with Ex. almost to the cadence. No. Finale. *i) This cadence. No. . 5. 8-meas. Phrase 4 like 2. No. 116. beginning after or with an Elision) No. first 18 measures.THE DOUBLE PERIOD. " Songs without Words ". Op. Codetta 3 measures). i (op. No. Pfte. 7. (second half) 1038. Pfte. first eight measures. struction of the 2nd Period is here again extremely parallel. . No. 22. Op.) No. excepting Cadence. Op. 13 (Cotta ed. "Trio" (5-sharp signature). 15 (Cotta). See also: BEETHOVEN. same work-. Son. No.). SCHUBERT. 18. No. 116. io(B? major). 14 (Phrase 2 extended to 6 measures. 6 meas. op. 119. Son. I0 5 2. first 16 measures Pfte. and observe that the parallel Double period differs from the repeated Period in the differentiation of its 2nd and 4th cadences. and extremely sion) . Son. i. . i). No. . CHOPIN. first 16 measures. Finale. No. No. No. first op. first 18 measures. parallel. Nocturne No. l 1 1 I j- 1) Phrase 3 (like 1). Adagio. Preludes. first 16 measures (regular. Scherzo. first 18 measures (cadence-extenNocturne 5 (op. PERIOD . Pfte. measures 22 No. 15. 2nd movement. first 18 measures (the 2nd cadence expanded). "// Adagio". 6 measures. Nos. Pfte. slight cadence-extension) No. first 40 measures (very large. 2. op. BEETHOVEN. 117. first 22 measures (Introd. measures . first 16 measures. 53). 7. 15. . 2 and 4 extended at end to 12 measures). 24. Op. Son. 14 (Cotta). No. it is true. No. No. No. nevertheless. MOZART. 30. No. Pfte. 118. first 15 measures (4th Phrase short) . Phrase 4 only 3 measures. first 18 measures.

66. 62). fully likely period from sheer symmetry of design. extended to 8 meas" Phraseures). Op. 4 measures. it is much more difficult to preserve the cohesion of the two Periods (demanded in par. of 5-measure Phrases). . second tempo (4. to a "repeated Period". THE DOUKLK PK1UOI). with interruption in the center of each half (see par. The CONTRASTING in the Double-period form. . but the title group" is more consistent with its character. 74). independent Periods (as in the : Two-Part Song-form see par. . And CHOPIN. 62. 5 measures Phrase 3. four measures Phrase 4. . measures 1-20. already cited as example of the Group of 4 Phrases. 66. measures 21-j. and to prevent the impression of t-wo separate. the Contrasting Double period may represent a Large contrasting Single period. No. second clause). No.io6 1-16. by avoiding too complete a Cadence at the end of the 2nd Phrase. . or to a "Group of 3 Phrases. Still. Phrase 2. last 23 measures. 4. by clear evidence of repetition. Op. construction (39^) of the 2nd Period. 13. This might be called a Contrasting Double period. 18 (Phrase I. 2. possible cases where the 4 Phrases are reducible. No. whether Phrase 3 is like Phrase i or not only excepting." But the continuity of the Double-period form must be assured. 69. 119. of course. 119. far is more unusual and confusing than the parallel construction because. Prelude op. For illustration : A ndante. See again MENDELSSOHN.sharp signature) first 16 measures. Furthermore. when the 3rd Phrase does not melodically confirm the ist one.o. Par. measures 41-60 (each a regular parallel Double period. No. "Songs without Words". if such be careare to be a Double sustained. similar. "four Phrases" in coherent succession. 28.

67. ! _ h . THE EXTENSIONS OF THE DOUBLE PERIOD.Par.

3) first 40 measures (Phrase 4 extended to 8 measures repetition elaborate). op. first 32 measures (contrasting construction each Period exactly repeated. will A almost certainly present the appearance of two separate Periods. one measure). par. Pfte. 31. No. This process of extension can scarcely be applied to any other than the Double period of parallel construction. 6 (op. Finale. Mazurka No. that it cannot be destroyed by anything the same section). Mazurka No. No. Pfte. No. measures 1-31 (2nd Period repeated and extended). op. Son. Par. Son. . 6Tc. 3 (op. and become a Two-Part Song-form. of which an example will be found in MOZART. if interrupted in the center for the sake of repeating its first Period. But Grow^-formation would be so difficult to prove at the end of a contrasting Double period. first . and evidently without completely disturbing the . measures 1-26 (ditto. 2. continuity of the whole). No. contracted two measures at end but otherwise : . of the two This is a somewhat misleading device. Pfte. Nocturne No. No. Andante. i CHOPIN. or Group-formation of the final Consequent.). in 'which identity 1 of design is so fully assured by the correspondence of Phrase 3 to Phrase 1. But see CHOPIN. measures 51 to 80 (quaintly modified repetition. imaginable even in a Double period of contrasting construction. 37. Mazurka 13. Son. that the entire sentence would almost certainly be called a "Phrase-group". Son. : (c) The enlargement of the Double period to 5 or more Phrases by repetition of the last Phrase. The modified repetition of either. Adagio. 9. 106. (a) The modified repetition of the entire Double period. Introd. Finale. Pfte. (b) Periods. variated). For illustration : . Double period. 29. . n (Cotta ed. 42). from sheer expediency. preserving all salient traits). first 36 measures (Introd. first 32 measures (rep. .IOS THE EXTENSIONS OF THE DOUBLE PERIOD. See also SCHUBERT. or each. especially when applied to the first Period (comp. See also BEETHOVEN. 147). that follows (in The repetition of the last Phrase is. of course. 4 measures) 44 measures (Phrase 4 each time extended to 10 measures repetition modified) CHOPIN.

. ~ _f_ ^ jji^=q^n = i (etc. (second version). PEUIOD 2 Plir. THE EXTENSIONS OK THE DOUBLE PERIOD. I Mi T Phrase 4.ise3 (likel. . '' . (tirst version). S See Original. o. 1 7O. IC>9 HE PKKIOD Phrase 1.Par.) > -r J rTT - %?- Phrase a.) -f 2 - *- -^ rase 4. A ndante cantabile.

Codetta.IIO THE EXTENSIONS OF THE DOUBLE PERIOD. i. CHOPIN. 68a. 15. No. jrr J~ =p . op. Par. Nocturne.

39. 22 measures (Consequent-group at end).Par. 2. 6 (Phrase 3. eight measures. as in Ex. 117. 50. And adopt different styles. Employ different varieties of duple and triple time. Ouverture a . . 70. 8 (C minor). Phrase 4 reproduced Group-formation.68b. 8 measures). may also be applied to the Double period. op. enlarged by Group-formation of 2nd Period). Antecedent-group in each Period). construction parallel. first 46 measures. Preludes. BACH. 3 (Phrase i of each Period repeated) Op. ably Double-period form. ist movement. No. Pfte. to regard this as a form of 4 or 5 four-measure Periods. Pfte. 6 (op. 36. but unmistakof i measure. 2). Polonaise No. unextended) number tempo from Adagio to Presto. No. THE EXTENSIONS OF THE DOUBLE PERIOD. Son. Op. 1 16. of Parallel construction (par. 28. first op. la maniere fra^aise. measures 17-42 . each Consequent extended). Son. No. 5 (op. EXERCISE Write a 16. Use both the major and the minor modes. measures 17-48 (quasi repeated Double period) CHOPIN. Group-formation). " Echo ". imitating (even . (extended. first 29 measures (seven Phrases. eight measures . CHOPIN. consisting of 2-measure Phrases). (b) The device of transforming the (Large) Single period into Double period. CHOPIN. Phrase 2. 13. SCHUBERT. Adagio. first 15 measures (2-measure Phrases. 13. . . See MENDELSSOHN. No. first 38 measures. 4 measures 2-measure Phrases. Phrase 4. repeated) No. 3. No. No. . 4 (Phrase 2. first 14 measures (Introd. Prelude. 62. if large enough. CHOPIN. No. first 20 measures it is not only possible. No. first 28 meas- CHOPIN. Codetta). four measures. 143). ures (Introd. No. No. 119. BRAHMS. Mazurka 31 (op. 5 (Introd. each Consequent extended). 5. . first 27 . No. cadence imperfect. last clause). (parallel. 2. and the different grades of of regular (i. 3 (Introd. Mazurka 28 (op. but perhaps necessary. 16 (extended 13 measures at end). measures 1-18 (4th Phrase Pfte. 61-64). measures 1-22 (Phrase 2 Phrase 4 also extended). a little doubtful whether Single or Double-period form Group-formation Codetta No. No.e. 119. measures 1-18 (2nd short) cadence expanded). measures 1-24 (parallel. Double periods. best in alternate examples. Op. op. which. five measures extended to nine). 3). Codetta). 28.. i. 41. ures. No. by occasioning a semicadence in the center of each half (par. five measNo. parallel construction. may thus assume the design of a a "QUADRUPLE PERIOD". six measures. measures. Phrase eight measures. first 20 measures. 2 measures. No. 10 (B[? major). 53). No. SCHUBERT. Son. Ill 32. "Song without Words" No.

6&z. and from Cadence to Cadence. 670. or 17. A few illustrations of the Contrasting Double period may be attempted . and par. extended in the manner indi- b. necessary) the style of certain given illustrations. 68b. c. new ones. Avoid vague forms of Cadence. . 66). but employ freely the varieties of concealed and evaded Cadence already learned and mastered. best. as a rule. EXERCISE The examples cated in par.112 THE EXTENSIONS OF THE DOUBLE PERIOD. See the N. if Par. closely or literally. of Exercise 16. Work towards the Cadence during each Phrase. on page 52. as Large Single period with intermediate interruptions (par. B. or of any other familiar or favorite composition.

THE SONG-FORMS. cadence). The cohesion of the members is observed to relax. to number of 2. i. DIVISION TWO. a strong Tonic Cadence. e. of the form. the The SONG-FORM is a coherent series of such " Parts". four or a coherent series of such " Phrases ". generally from 2 to 8 measures closing with a Cadence (perfect Cadence or Semi. as follows : (a) The PHRASE: is an uninterrupted series of "Chords". with the complete (c) : Tonic perfect Cadence. 69c. the Chords and melodic is little or no separation (at most. . larger. length. *So but just . with . of the seveial sections of the design. THE SONG-F'ORMS. to the more (possibly only one . 3 or more. and of more variety and contrast between the individual members.. Hence: Motives) there Between the "Members" of the Phrase (i.Par. as a rule. other hand.e. of such a length as can be reasonably sustained without palpable interruption. as a rule. called in analogy to the rocal forms from which they are derived as common in instrumental as in vocal composition. never more than can be held without effort in close relation and connection with each other) terminating. on the . a Quarter-cadence). and coherent melodic "Members". or increase in length. INTRODUCTORY. in proportion to the growth.* OR PART-FORMS. the greater the necessity of more emphatic points of repose. OR PART-FORMS. Division of structural evolution. (b) The PART : is number of two. l>ut between the " Phrases " of a Part there stands a Semicaderice. three. ending. 6Q. the greater the dimension.. and. simply because. The distinctive elements of comparative definition of the various members and form which enter into the composition of is this second.

According to par. there are two such Parts usually. between larger Parts. And between Par. THE TWO-PART SONG-FORM. excepting when occupying an intermeSee Ex. 69^ will admit. but sundered. the " Parts" of a Song-form there stands. of sufficiently opulent character. plete Furthermore The melodic and rhythmic elements of a Phrase must be very closely re: lated . the " Part" will contain at least two and may contain as many more as the limitation dictated in par. 69^. but not of sufficient culminatthis musical ing force to dispel the natural expectation of a following. is possible. a comTonic Cadence. and is an example. are still kindred. 78. amples of so small a Part. the form. which may more consummate and confirm purpose. a rule. as already hinted. and especially ivJicn repeated. represents the elements. In the Two-part Song-form. each of the designs explained in from the repeated Phrase up to the the first Division of this book. . The Phrases of a Part are The Parts of a Song-form organically related. extending comparatively up to a cadence of sufficient force to check both the harmonic and melodic currents. of corresponding general character and design. 71. or. the name " Part " series of Phrases. that one single Phrase. In a word. 71. bipartite . is given to any unbroken succession. . And it is perfectly proper to speak of them of the Single Part. though not but effectnecessarily. as the "One-Part" forms. CHAPTER IX. therefore. as it is also called. might constitute an entire Part. But it is not probable and ex- (a) It when . section. in certain outward respects. Ex. in section as to set it temporarily apart fully . and often quite independent of each other. 74 and diate position. as a rule. kindred. are rare. ually disconnected from each other by a cadential interruption.114 THE TWO-PART SONG-FORM. enlarged Double period. but somewhat independent. (b) Phrases As . and so to complete the musical purpose of that 7O.

of the Relative key. the Dom- inant from minor. in a Song-form beginning in major (2) The Tonic . text. . perhaps. will be made. in of a Repeated Phrase keeping with the principle enunciated in par. 37. and p. and very commonly is. Or may be tfie Tonic of some other Next-related key. repeated. But. or the Relative from major. i. and. recollecting that in a 2-Part form the First Part is an "Antecedent". *See the Author's " Material used in Mus. these. regular or extended . most commonly a Period.. But see par. e. THE TWO-PART SONG-FORM. within this general modulatory design. as the . may con- a Period. " Mediant "* keys. are explained which brief reference may be made. The thought. to be avoided here. the Subdominant key itself. 72c. pos" Modulatory Stride". regular or extended. should depend chiefly upon the following Part (or Parts. (rare) . upon some Tonic harmony. as stated in par. elaboration and corroboration. and in strongest rhythmic location. while it must be sufficiently impressive. which. because the increase in dimension magnifies the simpler CAor</-relations into ^^/-associations. as already stated. as a very general rule. interesting. the Relative of the Dominant more rarely. if there be more than two) for its development. and pregnant to excite attention and give gratification by itself. or a Group of Phrases. 69^. p. Tonic of the Dominant key. more necessary here than in smaller forms. (c) The general modulatory current of the First Part will be determined by the choice of Cadence. as given above further.SL. 155. First Part of a Song-form is the " statement" of the leading musical the motive. there exists the opportunity for transient modulations. The First Part may be.Par. in par. It is. most rarely. . in this connection. 93.* or one of the sibly some Remotely-related key. the Relative of the Subdominant key. Of sist FIRST PART. 53 (which review). in its It may be (in strongest form. in a Song-form beginning in minor (3) (4) The Tonic it of the Original key itself. Review. simply magnified in dimension. 149. a Double period. instead of the opposite. the order of preference) : (1) The . 72^. the IICJ 7 2. and regular in structure. or subject. to (5) Other Cadence-conditions. Composition ". (b) The Cadence of the First Part. par.

) at the end of the final Phrase. pars. I starts out. that ushers in a new " Subject " or new " Song-form " " Trio " in the " (like the Minuet. at least. The end of the First " Part " is sufficiently marked by the complete cadential break. demanded in par. almost certainly be the longer of the two. on a smaller scale. It is precisely such a distinct alteration of style. the Second Part must maintain fairly close its First Part not. as already stated.e. 119. 94. (c) The Second Part ends with in the original Cadence. 69. On the other hand. ?2/>. . but close formative connection (in character and respect of general harmonic character. as its First Part. the Second Part may be repeated. agreement with relations (i. Part II is its "Consequent". such as distinguishes. 73a. 73c. See also par. the Second Part will sible and common. and a certain amount of individuality is quite change essential. the Second Part will be found. or. the complete Tonic perfect probably emphasized by a Codetta. 117. See par. (See and In its modulatory design. in respect of melodic design). rhythmic technical style). in opposition to the of Part II upon Tonic basis upon which Part In other words. servile thematic . while CADENTIAL SEPARATION is necessary.Il6 THE TWO-FAHT ROXG-FORM. to incline toward the lower (i. but the condition of coherency and consistency. by an extension c. no radical of CHARACTER should be perceptible in passing out of the First Part into the Second. is probably most prone to assume the same form. in the 2-Part Song-form.. The SECOND PART. par. This is very frequently effected by basing the the first member Dominant harmony. by any means. a certain impression of consistent opposition between the two Parts should be created. though many digressions from this condition of symmetry are posIn case of differentiation. just as the First Part favors the higher . or the Subordinate Theme" in the Rondo and Sonata. in the most perfect models of the 2-Part form.e. e. (i. the thematic (melodic) conduct may be as independent as is desired. the Period-relation. therefore.. Subdominant) keys. uniformity of style and general character. should prevail throughout all the component Parts of a Song-form. Like Part I.Allegro forms).. Par.. second clause and avoid overloading the First Part with harmonic and modulatory color. Dominant) direction. or length. As Part I is an "Antecedent". 793 key . (b) In character. the very last clause.

Part r^F^n. TWO-PART SONG-FORM. MAJOH. so complete " that it resolves the " One-Part form into a " Tivo- Double-period Part " Song-form. Examine enumerated in testing the minutest traits as they the following illustrations of this Primary design scrupulously. the Primary design of the 2-Part Song-form is that in which each Part is in the ordinary Period-form. in which the continuity insisted upon in par. with or without repetition. (See pars. PRIMARY DKSIGN. I. especially that of contrasting construction. 74. (harm. 66. TWO-PART SONG-FORM.) Hence. 72 and 73 : Moderate. The out of which it is type of the primary 2-Part Song-form (the design evolved) is the Double period. g=j> -->-I !/ I V *3) SICILIAN HYMN. 62 is disturbed by a cadential break in the center. and 62. V 71. by STARK . PRIMARY DESIGN. T4. may be borne upon by the conditions paragraphs 71.Par.

last clause. is clearly illustrated here by the rhythmic form of this first measure. 73^) mani- fests itself. PRIMARY DESIGN. of such weight and emphasis as totally to sever all purely external connection between the two Periods. of the Here the Subdominant inclination Second Part (par. *2) . (Compare par. 72. while the rhythmic figure of the very first measure of the Song-form becomes the rhythmic type of Part I. represent here two Parts. 73^. *2) This Par. while Part I began upon a Tonic basis. consequently. the first trvo "measures" constitute the rhythmic germ of the ttvo This is consistent Musical Form. which.) *3) The Second Part starts out from the Dominant. Thus. is a complete Tonic Cadence in the Dominant key. that of the second measure characterizes the greater portion of Part II. *4) The "consistent opposition" of the Parts. Andante sostenuto. An unusually brief (light) Semicadence. which corresponds to that of the second measure in Part I. mentioned in par. E Part II. 74. 63^.n8 *i) TWO-PART SONG-FORM. and *5) " Parts ".

2. 93) " Waldscenen ". first 16 measures for an obvious reason) (two complete repetitions. Symphony No. Sym- phony No. n. 7 . especially so in Var. Son. MENDELSSOHN. what vague.).. 54.). first 16 measures. TWO-PART SONG-FORM. the Theme. Var. Son. first 10 measures. Andante. the middle Cadence is altered to a different of Phrases. Larghetto. 9. n (Cotta ed. trait of the many examples in musical literature. 7. 6 and 13. 82. Pfte. 6 (Peters SCHUMANN. *i) *2) In its A BEETHOVEN. 18 measures (Codetta of 2 measures). op. See also: CHOPIN. 4 (Cotta ed. to a two-measure Sequence In Part II. the second one very much altered) Pfte. 16 and 17 approach the form of a Group In Var. 10. key. 4. first 18 measures. 3. Symphony No. first ed. Son. 57 (Appassionata). No. 2. No. HAYDN. first 32 measures (each Part repeated).). they nearly all preserve the 2-Part design. thematic (melodic) aspect and style. 5. Movement (Part I repeated repeated with modification.) first 32 measures (each Part repeated). op. being Major. Pfte. Largo (final Cadence on Dominant. . 72^ (2). -A very common. 8 and 16. No. the Dominant (Semi-) Cadence is used. 99. 5 (Cotta ed. Presto. Andante. Son. In Var.Par. 50 (Peters ed. PRIMARY DESIGN. op. BEETHOVEN. because the middle Cadence is not strong enough to divide the design into two Parts. and its Variations also. this Second Part closely resembles its First Part. 9 (Peters ed. op. Pfte. Pfte. . literally. Son. melodic relation between the Parts unusually close). (Cotta ed. 28. 2-Part Song-form. Theme (by PAISIELLO). No. " Bunte Blatter". first 32 measures {each Part repeated). No. the Cadence at the end of Part I is always bridged over. 15. Var. Andante. sometimes reduced to a Semicadence. 14. 75. exhibited in almost characteristic. 9 Variations in A major. present many instructive modifications in the treatment of the Cadences. Mazurka No. viz.). op. 7 (" Vogel als Prophet ") . Pfte. But "consistent opposition" is nevertheless obtained by enlarging the owe-measure Sequence of Part I. Finale.). I *3) complete Tonic Cadence in the Relative key. see par. i (Cadence of Part I somesee par. BEETHOVEN. " Variations serieuses ". and is therefore more vague than in the Theme. Son. Second Part repeated. No. which. i. See also the individual *3) Theme of the while Variations.). 12 and 14 all approach the Doubleperiod form. "Trio" of 3rd Part II 75.

120

TWO-PART SONG-FORM, PRIMARY DESIGN.

Par. 75.

consists in the similarity bct^veen the respective endings of the Parts.

two

Sometimes the resemblance

is

literal (as in

Ex. 73)

;

sometimes

the endings differ only in key (in case Part I does not close in the in some cases there is as Part II must] original key, only a general resemblance the coincidence embraces the entire occasionally and again, on the contrary, it is very last Phrase of each Part
; ; ;

brief.

This point of resemblance between the endings of the Parts must not be confounded with that essential condition of parallelism which prevails at the beginning of each Period in the Double-period form (par. 64), for their respec-

upon the formal conception are precisely opposite. The agreebeginning confirms and supports the coherency of the members while the agreement of the endings, on the contrary, serves to emphasize their separation, inasmuch as the central cadence thus assumes a form and weight similar to that of the final cadence, and closes its Part as completely as the latter does the entire sentence.
tive influences

ment

at the

;

N. B.

Very

particular care

must be taken

to limit

any such

re-

this strictly to the ending of the Parts, and to repress the tempting inclination to introduce, in the course of the Second

semblance as

any member which exactly corroborates the beginning of the First Part ! Such a feature would transform the imagined 2-Part form into some variety of the Three-Part design. See par. Si.
Part,

For example

:

73.
-a

t
F~fai
l

*Part
II.

EL

^

>_

|a___a_gi:F j=g=z=|:

THE DIMINUTIVE TWO-PART SONG-FORM.

121

E

=f

Cadence
*2)

*i) This is the comparatively rare termination of in the original key; see par. 72^ (3).

Part

I

with a perfect

song).

The Theme of 8 Variations in Bh> by BEETHOVEN (a popular German The parallel endings are indicated by the brackets. See also the indi-

vidual Variations, and observe to what extent this structural feature is preserved in some of them. See also: BEETHOVEN, 9 Variations in C minor (March by DRESSLER), Theme, and all the Variations (resemblance covers the entire last Phrase, but
involves transposition).

MOZART,

G minor Symphony,

Finale,

first

16 measures.

EXERCISE

18.

A. Write two examples of the 2-Part Song-form, Primary design, in Major; with scrupulous regard to the details of structure and cadence given
in par. 72

of duple time for one, and triple time for the other; and choose radically different style and tempo for each. REVIEW THE DIRECTIONS GIVEN IN EXERCISE 9.

and 73. Use some variety

B. Write two examples of the same form and design in Minor, observing
the above directions; in one instance introducing the similarity of ending, explained in par. 75, and carefully guarding against the error pointed out in
all

the final clause.

THE DIMINUTIVE TWO-PART SONG-FORM.
it is possible that a Part one no more than may single Phrase, and, though such be found. rare, naturally examples may This may be true of either Part, or even, though still more As usual, it is least likely to occur in the Second rarely, of both.

T6. As
consist

already declared in par. 700,

of

Part (par. 730, last clause).

122

THE DIMINUTIVE TWO-PART SONG-FORM.

Par.

76.

separate

impart sufficient contents to a single Phrase, and to so positively from its companion as to establish its dignity and independence as an adequate "Part", the student will soon discover. Review
difficult it is to
it

How

par. 57, second clause, and par. 'job; and reflect to what extent, on the other hand, the continuity of Phrase-succession is maintained as One-Part form in some of the given illustrations of the extended Double period, the PhraseGroup, and the Quadruple period.

The

conditions are most favorable

when

the Phrase, thus

made

to represent an entire Part, is either of the large (S-measure) species, or broad in tempo and character when it has a very firm Cadence ; and when it is repeated. For illustration
;
:

A ndante.

74.

i
*

-&

^t^^=3==^=?~E ^5^ ^ T-r-i

Part

II.

Par.

77.

THE DIMINUTIVE TWO-PART SONG-FORM.

*i) This is an unusual example of the 2-Part form, each Part of which is only a 4-measure Phrase. But the breadth of character and contents, the comparatively moderate tempo, and the repetition of each Part, establish the form beyond question. (There is even a remote possibility of assuming the Periodform, instead of Phrase, in each Part; compare par. 10.) It is to be found in

8 measures (or 9, with the second ending); the following 12 (13) measures illustrate exactly the same variety of the Diminutive 2-Part Song-form, the repetition of Part II being written out,
the
first

BEETHOVEN'S Pfte. Son. op. 27, No. The illustration here given covers

i, first

movement, and must

be referred to.

on account of unessential modifications the 16 measures which follow are a recurrence of the above illustration, but -with the repetitions -written out and modified; these are succeeded by an Allegro-Theme (also 2-Part form, but " irregular," because the repetition of its Second Part is "dissolved" i.e. conducted, as Re-transition, away from its own key into that of the next
;

Theme)

;

varieties of modified repetition

then follows another recurrence of the first Theme, with still other a Codetta of 8 measures concludes the move;

ment. See also: BEETHOVEN, Pfte. Son. op. 26, second movement, "Trio" (Part I an 8-measure Phrase; Part II a Period). Pfte. Son. op. 79, Andante, first 8 measures (Part I a Period, Part II a repeated Phrase) same Sonata, Finale, first 16 measures (Part II a repeated Phrase). BEETHOVEN, 10 Variations in Bp (SALIERI), Theme (Part I a repeated Period, with peculiar transformation of the Dominant Semicadence into a complete Cadence effect, by one measure of extension in the 2d ending; Part II only a Phrase, but extended); sec also each Variation ( of Variation BEETHOVEN, Pfte. Son. op. 31, No. i, Rondo, 10, only the first 45 measures). first 32 measures (Part II a repeated Phrase; the entire Song-form repeated and variated). SCHUMANN, Jugend-Album, op. 68, No. 23 (Reiterstiick); each Part repeated literally, and then the entire Song-form repeated, with modifications;
;

a long

Coda follows. SCHUBERT Songs,
I is

"

Winterreise", No. 5 (" Der Lindenbaum
(Part
I

"),

measures

9-24 (Part

a repeated Phrase).

" CAREY, " God save the King

a 6-measure Phrase).

77.
drawn

Reverting to par. 65, which review, attention must here again be to the perplexing, but altogether natural and essential, points of exter-

nal resemblance between different denominations of formal design.

The

124

THE DIMINUTIVE TWO-PART SONG-FORMS.

Par.

77.

transitional stages from each one into the next higher, or larger, species are so imperceptibly graded, that positive definition becomes, at a certain stage, but also unnecessary. difficult and even impossible, Thus, it has already been seen (and in the student's subsequent personal

analysis of compositions, many further proofs will be encountered), that both the Period-form and the 2-Part Song-form may consist of two Phrases; that,

Phrase-Group (not Quadruple period) might be greater, in temporal dimension, than some specimens of the structurthat the external resemblance between ally higher graded 2-Part Song-form a Period in which each Phrase is repeated (Ex. 51), and a 2-Part Song-form in which each Part is a repeated Phrase (Ex. 74), is complete, save in respect of those few essential conditions upon which the distinction depends; that a contrasting Double period can often scarcely be distinguished from a 2-Part Song-form (see BEETHOVEN, 24 Variations in A, Theme) and so forth. The essential distinction between the " One-Part" forms and the " Two" forms is (or Three-) Part clearly stated in par. 73^, second olause, and hinges
;

by inference, the extended Period, the Double period, the to mention the unusual designs of the Period-Group and

;

among

mainly upon the idea of Separation (which is as possible among kindred, as foreign members). Hence it is, that the repetition of either Part serves to individualize it and separate it from its fellow; that a sufficiently pronounced difference in character, assumed perhaps abruptly, will have the same effect; and that, finally, simple emphasis of Cadence may suffice, even in case of very close similarity of melody and style, to sever the Parts unmistakably. See also par. 93.

EXERCISE

19.

A. Analyze the following (doubtful) examples, and endeavor to determine whether the form is Two-Part or One-Part, and, if the latter, exactly what species pars. 93 and 104 may be referred to for additional clues BEETHOVEN, Pfte. Son. op. 10, No. i, first 30 measures. Pfte. Son. op. " Trio" of Menuetto. Pfte. Son. op. 13, Finale, first 17 measures. 10, No. 3, Pfte. Son. op. 79, first 24 Pfte. Son. op. 31, No. i, first 30 measures. measures. MENDELSSOHN, Caprice, op. 16, No. i, Andante section. SCHUMANN, Songs, op. 24 (" Liederkreis "), No. 8. GRIEG, Lyric Pieces, op. 12, No. 2, measures 1-18.
;

:

B. Write two examples of the Diminutive 2-Part Song-form (par. 76), one in major and one In minor; one in Adagio, the other in Allegretto tempo one in duple, the other in triple time.
;

in favor of greater length and independence of the Second Part. while naturally adhering to the conditions defined in par. 12$ CHAPTER X. more distinctly individualizing and separating the two The conception from par. The " Variations" upon a 2-Part Theme. THE FULLY DEVELOPED TWO-PART SONG-FORM. however. or of a section of any kind). usually be more elaborate (longer. the Codetta or Coda. may be regarded as " of the entire " modified repetitions Song-form in a broader sense. will. The designation " Fully developed " may be construed as applying to all examples of the 2-Part Song-form in which each Part is at least a Period. or of the entire Song. generally Here. it is true. and may be larger. and encountered in some of the tition T9a. the Prelude. 73 a ^ c (which review). cited above. than the pupil should undertake to exemplify for the present. in the fully developed form. 72a. wider differentiation of the Parts. c of Part I will not differ in it any other respect will surely never (which review) than in that than Period-design.Par. till likelihood is (touched upon reached. 79b. which may be added (b) Besides this means of enlargement and development (to all the other ordinary varieties of extension in the course of a Phrase. and even necessity. be less 6. represented by the Introductory Phrase. Commonly. and to some degree extended. because of the dimensions of a and the consequent opportunity. or of each Part. But the structure of Part II. The EXTENSION quotations. and the Postlude. in par. T8. there are also those adjuncts of a more external nature. 77) misconception of the form precluded. of Parts. . THE FULLY DEVELOPED TWO-PART SONG-FORM. has already been indicated in the text. and with more extensions) than in the smaller varieties explained in the preceding chapter. of the Two-Part Song-form by repeof either Part. will be observed. \ .

In both of these cases the Introduction or Prelude takes a more active part in the plan of the whole. be longer. No. 75.126 THE FULLY DEVELOPED TWO-PART SONG-FORM. and it will be observed that they recur at the end. 44. 68a). to which reference may be made. the Introductory member of a 2. becomes sometimes a complete " Coda" even in the Two-Part Songform while in any still larger form this enlargement is all the . than that of a One-Part form. and are apt to assume greater length. only necessary to remember that these auxiliary memdesirable. 79c. as Codetta or Review pars. "Songs without Words". The details of the distinction between Codetta and Coda are given at length in par. (c) It is Par. bers become more and more and see MENDELSSOHN. will probably. the comparatively brief "Codetta" or Postlude added to a Period. . or Double period (pars. 51. Thus. the larger the form to which they are attached. . 98. though by no means certainly. more probable. 52. and perhaps more independent. 6. first 7 Postlude. 45. than " " to which reference has been in some of the other Songs without Words made. 23. furthermore. Illustration of the fully developed 2-Part Song-form : Allegro. And. first 6 measures.or 3-Part Song-form. measures No. although the formation and employment of the Codetta or Postlude must yet be restricted to the directions hitherto given.

BACH.Par. (The present author is responsible for the phrasing and marks of expression. THE FULLY DEVELOPED TWO-PART SONG-FORM. and again near the end. Part II is a Group of 3 Phrases. according to the rule. JOH. the inclination toward the Subdominant key in the center. with perfect Cadence in the Dominant key.^ ^ * -* -*- *i) Gavotte from the 6th French Suite.) Part I is a regular parallel Period. exhibiting the usual traits of established form: the outset upon the Dominant harmony. and the general similarity between the respective endings of the two Parts (more common. SEB. . *1) ( ^1h-j I P I f-I I 1 *>- n H: - * 8-- __^. 79c. by the way. in older than in modern music).

Son. CHOPIN. Well-tempered Clavichord. Andanic. No. " Trio" (here Part is the larger design of the two. II 3. first tempo (each Part a slightly expanded Period Song-form repeated. out cadence into the following section). . a Group of 3 Phrases. 3 (Cotta ed. I. follows). No. extended Double period. of the extent exhibited in the illustrations last cited. literally). 75. entire .). Theme. Mazurka No. Bagatelle. also the following 53 measures (Part I has a 4-measure Codetta. 25 (op. and also the Variations (each Part a Double period. 4 reproduced. repeated. Pfte. repeated). it is only one further .I2S LARGE TWO-PART FORM. No. ations in BEETHOVEN. after a striking evasion of the expected perfect Cadence (in measure 29) Codetta. 45 (op. with modifications). Andantino. . " Piu CHOPIN. but sufficient. op. 4). AS TYPE OF THE SONATINA-FORM. F major (SrssMAYR). (*/ time. entire Song-form repeated 104. and contracted. first 32 measures (an extraordinary example. 8 (EJ7 minor). very similar endings). 117. 4). by which means it sufficiently establishes its identity as a separate Part. to end). last Movement. and the II) next 32 measures are again in the 2-Part Song-form. Second Part a Double period). 33 Variations in C major. Nocturne No. Son. No. Mazurka No. but harmonized chiefly in the relative key. More elaborate and extended illustrations will be found in MENDELSSOHN. No. the 16 measures which follow are a 2-Part Song-form I is of HAYDN. MENDELSSOHN. 2. Cadence somewhat vague Coda 13^ measures. MOZART. entire . Primary design). SCHUBERT. No. Preludio No. Vol. 90. to which 2 others are added. 67. 8 (Cotta ed. 3% measures. (Part I an extended Double period possibly Single period Double period. first 32 measures (each Part repeated. " Songs without Words". or. first 36 measures (Part I a little longer than the ensuing 10 measures are a Codetta. first 48 measures (Part II repeated). From the fully-developed 2-Part Song. No. CHOPIN. THE LARGE TWO-PART FORM. Part II almost identical tvith Part I in its melody. Part II. 2). 8 Vari119. 72. No. . 33. a group of 4 regular Phrases. MENDELSSOHN. and led with1 '' . 120 (DIABELLI).form. entire section up to signature of 5 sharps (Part I. while Part II Period-form but the number of measures is equal). BRAHMS. a half-step higher. 8. 3. agitato' Cadence of Part I very vague. Part . BACH. op. under the circumstances the entire Song-form is sequentially reproduced. Impromptu. MENDELSSOHN. first 20 measures (design exactly like that of Ex. N<x__j entire. Part II. 32. Period with repeated Antecedent and extended Consequent.). Par. Pfte. 10 (op. No. AS TYPE OF SONATINA-FORM. a complete repetition. more probably. Etude in a minor.al extension. op. with 4 measures of Plaj. No. 3. entire (4-measure Prelude and Postlude). a Group of 4 Phrases. Pfte. repeated and extended. Son. Scherzo a capriccio in F$ minor. op. 80. Part II literally. op. being a Group of 3 Phrases. Part I. op. resembling Double period. No. Theme. Parti a Double period. 8O. No. SCHUBERT. 9. See also: BEETHOVEN.

" Sarabande " (Part I. Write two examples of the fully-developed 2-Part Song-form. No. Adagio (brief Coda). Adagio (a Coda of 15 or 16 measures is added). it is true. but can scarcely be assigned to any other class of forms than that of the " " (Part I. Write a third example. group of " Burlesca " Menuetto " " ". 10 measures. Intermezzo. Phrases) same Suite. . one of the Periods invented in Exercise 9 B. . as they are often to the Beginning. op. No. No. Preludio No. ". . 1 a. Son. the Return 3-Part (or. and either a Codetta or a Postlude. directions given in par. as the student is not yet sufficiently equipped for its successful manipulation. might be utilized. The ruling principle of all called. some former Period-form may be used. 75. Add a Codetta to each. THE THREE-PART SONG-FORM. DOMEXICO SCARLATTI (BOLow's revision. one of them in major and the other one in minor. Adagio. Son. and which the The demonstration of this 2-Part Song-form at present than to analyze the following exIt will be observed that each Part is allied to the Phraseamples. Codetta and Retransition 5 embryo Sonatina measures.SIa. group form. EXERCISE A. Part II. J. 129 step into that LARGE 2-PART FORM to out of which the Sonatina- probably owes its origin. the other in A llegro tempo one in duple. 3 (Cotta ed. BRAHMS. tripartite] first (or Forms is. 3. Pfte. 20. and the other in triple time. 76. For this work. Pfte. often more. Larghetto. See HAYDN. Pfte. He is to make no other use of the Large latter form emerges. the second one considerably larger than the first one. with free choice of all conditions. n (Cotta ed. and "Toccata". HUMMEL. Well-tempered Clavichord. Vol. CHAPTER 8 XI. 2). Son. THE THREE-PART SONG-FORM. or to the principal) thematic section. 2 {Cotta ed. BACH. 15 (G major). this example is very diminutive. No. Observe the . Gigue (with brief Coda). but with either an Introductory Phrase or a Prelude. No. 78.). II.). Suite I. i (op. Peters ed. the entire secon-d half of each part. . usually with a Codetta and that the parallel structure of the endings (cited in par.). Son. Higher form must be reserved for a later volume. one in Andante. 73) generally extends over . Part II similar) it approaches the "Large Double period" with Codetta to each Period. S. Pfte.Par. Ex.). extended Double period. Again.

but this initial member is connected with all that follows during 4 measures. sufficient to define a genuine Departure. but an interthan that of parallelism . which either is. Part II was found to be a coordinate companion to Part I. . again. " continuation " of the musical sentence parallelism of design. which intervenes between Part I (the definite STATEMENT) and Part III (the RECURRENCE of the Statement). 81c. Here. make this plain. The same is the case in Ex. as and keeping the perfect cadence of the original key in view. it is not coordinate with But I. and does not constitute that " " Return " " upon which the genuine and positive Departure degree of there is repetition. on the contrary. In the 2-Part forms. (b) This specific return to the beginning. so that the contents of measures 5. observed to recur in the 5th measure. or is not. of the first members (contained in measures i to 4) is again an immediate reproduction. 20. 76.. must not be confounded with those examples of apparently similar recurrence that have been seen in repetitions. in the 3-Part forms. more properly. . not separated by an intermediate Departure. etc. depends upon the degree of separation. In order to be an unmistakable and perfectly genuine RETURN". In Ex. it is depends. is uninterruptedly connected with the first Phrase. (c) The influence which this leading principle exerts upon the /conception of the Second Part. is obvious. in Ex. this recurrence of the first thematic member as a distinctive trait of the 3-Part forms. carrying on the development of the melodic purpose with preponderant . 67. etc. 77. can only succeed an equally genuine and positive DEPARTURE and this Departure is embodied in the correspondingly distinct Second Part. though there is much more reason for misconception here than in the smaller examples. will . Comparison of the above example (67) with Ex." See the last clause of par. 46 the recurrence. are an immediate repetition without any intervening digression or definite Departure. 25 the initial melodic member is parallel construction." with none of the elements of a " Departure. but this intervening section. while it is an entire Phrase (Phrase 2 of the parallel Double period)." question only simply decision. as distinctive condition of the 3-Part forms. where the interruption is complete. as final aim. where an intermediate passage between the first Phrase and its recurrence as " it is merely an Interlude. exactly as in the preceding 4 measures. because something really appears to intervene between the first melodic member and its recurrence in measures 8. and in the Period and Double period of For instance. 31. Par. it .13 THE THREE-PART SONG-FORM.. as shown in par. " whether the form or more and the a is One-Part. etc. in measures 5. And even in Ex. or. Part inate and the idea of opposition will be more likely to predomit is not a Jinal. Part II is not so much a continuation as it is a "digression".

Par. Period with Consequent repeated. . is justified by the resemblance of this form to the different variePeriods extended to the sum of three Phrases (i. 87 and 88. inasmuch as each of its design The designation "Period" instead of "Song-form". 63. Note *i). The embryo design.* It THREE-PART PERIOD Ex. The impossibility of such a reduction in the "Phrase-group" is " the very reason why the latter could not be spoken of as a " Period (Ex. upon the Dominant harbecause that is the most favorable point from which to regain mony. or lead back into. from analogy with par. the Tonic harmony with which the first Phrase (presumably) began. e. or in some next-related key and it is Ill . or Antecedent-group). THE THREE-PART PERIOD.. i. as a rule. ties of only a Phrase. 76. and for which the term seems most appropriate. 76. either in the original key. THE THREE-PART PERIOD. in each of which a reduction of the three Phrases to two is possible. 83a. nevertheless the preferable term. but The Third Phrase is I. For example : *The designation " Diminutive s-Part Song-form " might seem more appropriate than "3-Part Period". See pars. is note *4)). The Second Phrase currence of Phrase alone. or Consequent-group. the genuine 3-Part Period (as type of the corresponding Song-form) the First Phrase ends with a perfect cadence. though somewhat inconsistent. less exact reproduction or reis least tfi&jirst member should thematically Phrase III not repeated corroborate that of the first Phrases II and III are frequently repeated together. e. as a rule. 74 does to the three sections is bears the same proportion to the full 3-Part Song-form. 76. ends. 83a. But the latter is. Phrase II is not repeated alone. to prepare for the recurrence of Part I. the original melodic current. The feasibility of this diminutive indirectly demonstrated in par. \vhich embodies of the 3-Part Song-form is a diminutive all the essential conditions of the fully developed form.. 82. that full 2-Part Song-form. At a more or Phrase. which review. See Ex. Period with Antecedent repeated. for valid reasons. but strives (from the moment when its identity as "Departure" has been assured) to regain. 13! mediate section of the form. and does not tend to a point of rest. generally repeated.

*2) The cadence of Phrase II is made at this point. and like is so bridged over as to lead without the slightest check (almost now Phrase III. to which reference has been made.THE THREE-PART PERIOD. 74. an Introduction) into the initial motive of Phrase I. Lento. i. 83a. Phrase nrase I. . upon the Dominant harmony. Par. and to make it as completely a Part as is the case with the first Phrase in Ex. i^ ***= Phrase IL =r=^- cj^tr b g-g i I \ ^-^qq^5^^=^^F-IN ^--^f--i-^^ -LJ K ? ^ c^D r""^'***! ::: *i) The weight of this perfect cadence is sufficient to detach the Phrase positively from those which follow. This betrays the sole comparative inconsistency of the term 3-Part Period. P p . 76.

Nocturne No. varieties of the 3-Part Period afford perhaps greater justification of the denomination "Period. 9 (con- taining all SCHUMANN. op. (8-measure Phrases). 83b. 12 (Cotta ed. for convenience. 7. as expressly stated. No. 83^.). b) Other. No. and spun out. 6. No. 77. 4 (op. it is true. is retransitional of the cadence-measure the first measure of Phrase III is a somewhat disguised recurrence of the beginning. 33. and the rest of the Phrase is a correspondingly ingenious ornamentation of Phrase I). " II measures. and extended to 8 measures). op. all repetitions). running on "without end. No. See also: SCHUMANN. 9 measures). . The first ending of . the "Trio" of the 3rd movement Jugend-Album 2 " op. 2. *4) but in the second ending the perfect cadence Chain-phrase formation. (Phrase III modified and extended BEETHOVEN. A major only major (Phrase Codetta. . ( : Moderate. 5). 55. F .Par. each Phrase repeated even the Second one . 10. before the repetition of Phrases II and III together begins). No. like Phrase I. HAYDN. the repetitions). op. No." and. CHOPIN. and the remainder of the measure. measures 25 repeated Phrase III modified. Son. Phrase III a literal " da capo. No. may be called a Codetta. the Third Phrase is substantially the same as the First one. "Album-Blatter". 2) first 12 measures (a superb illustraPhrase II closes with decided cadence upon the Dominant of the relative " " bridging key. In all of these cases. Bagatelle. No. Phrase II a simple transposition of Phrase I into the Dominant key. CHOPIN. BEETHOVEN. '33 I) *3) is as Phrase III (which is a literal recurrence of Phrase conclusive as at first in is evaded. but the condition of the cadences does not conform to the For illustration rules given in par. 33. 2 and No. 2. No. . each Phrase repeated. 124. Pfte. i (all the repetitions) . into what. 4)." tion . . Pfte. first 20 measures (Phrase III is repeated alone. Presto. Mazurka No. Mazurka No. but unmistakably the same member. 9 (op. first 16 measures (all legitimate repetitions) Bagatelle. CHOPIN. 6. more irregular.'" but resemble the genuine 3-Part forms all the less. No. No. 68. 44 (Phrase I 16 (op. Son. op. the 8th. 4. 17. THE THREE-PART PERIOD.

Jugend-Album op. the conditions of the Group of Phrases. even the Second one. Write two examples of the regular 3-Part Period. Phrase III is clearly recognizable as a Recurrence of Phrase I. Phr. To this example. BRAHMS. And it must be remembered. Nocturne No." For instance.134 THK THREE-PART PERIOD. 7 (op. first 16 measures (closes with semicadence Phr. 83*1. alone. -chord. Dominant semicadencc. 8i/>. II by an Elision. irregularly. is exactly the same as that of Phrase I therefore it cadence This *2) furnishes no sufficient proof of the qualities which identify the " Second Phrase" of a tripartite form. SCHUMANN. In this case the designation PhraseGroup would be admissible. 83b. 4. 58. notwithstanding this default in its preparation. tempo and character for each and adhering strictly to the directions given in par." as emphasized in par. See also : closes with a SCHUMANN. all the legitimate repetitions occur). that it is only because the absence of these other conditions is more easily accounted for and excused in smaller designs. in itself. and therefore the as an unfailing proof of the identity of the forms under present consideration. " 38 . and its repetition. while corroborating the ruling principle of the 3-Part designs. *i) The First Phrase closes. CHOPIN. Par. chiefly because of its distinct rhythmic character. "Album-Blatter" op. . the Third Phrase (par. 27. choosing a different time. Phr. These more irregular examples all point to the fact that the similarity between Phrase III and Phrase I. I. 21. No. upon the Tonic of the original key ! This almost totally severs its connection with Phrase III. end with a full cad. and is interlocked with the beginning of Phr. 68. which consequently. . at the very end. that this structural trait becomes a perfectly valid factor of the tripartite design. to establish the legitimate " 3-Part form. EXERCISE A. given in par. i). though an almost exact reproduction of Phr. that such irregular and almost indefinable forms as those last cited can exist. Phrase I is reproduced as sequence . II closes with the same imperfect Tonic cadence seen in Example 77 Phr. The repetition of Phr. is not enough. But. appear to apply more exactly than do those of the 3-Part Period. Ill is beginning of Phr. an extended Recurrence of Phrase I). No. Phrase II is only " " 19. In the fully developed 3-Part forms there is far less likelihood of such confusing " Return to the beginning" may be accepted irregularities. 124." (Phrase I ends with a semicadencc . op. No. It is only when associated with other characteristic conditions. . 2 . II. the Ill is disguised. where quick comparison is possible. Ill considerably altered in its second half. this very likeness appears plainly in the parallel " Double period. 118. tion with. first 26 (28) measures. with an imperfect cadence (the chord-third in Soprano) but it is of ample weight to define the termination of its Phrase. a minor (Phrase I 2 measures long. I closes with an expansion of the penultimate cad. and even seriously disturbs the coherent connec. 83^). Winterzeit. and impulse into. one in major and one in minor. all repetitions). assumes rather the character of a Coda. I. extended). Each Phrase is repeated. and it will be observed that the same imperfect cadence recurs a peculiarity of certain Folk-melodies. 13 (instead of repetition. Phr. also. No. No. and doubtless even more accurate.

. cited above . THK INCIPIENT GRADE OF 84-a. this exercise. and III each still adhere to the diminutive form of the Phrase. In while Parts as soon us II TUP: 3-PART SONG-FORM. with a very definite Dominant cadence that strongly suggests. this design the First Part is at least u full Period. : in thus abbreviating the contents of the First Part. Part III may appear to be a recurrence of the second Phrase of Part I." TV'hole as a 3-Part its (b) In details. it becomes a full " Part. choice i 135 For may be made among the Phrases invented in Exercises and 2. 84b. with modified repetitions as prescribed in the legitimate design?. For example . The remainder of Part III will be dictated by the course of the " highway to the perfect cadence " (defined in paragraphs 6 and 7). THK INCIPIENT GRADE OF THE 3-PART SONG-FORM. The term " Song-form" must be adopted. the ruling condition of tripartite form be not sacrificed Under all circumstances Part III must. and leads into. though rarely. at its beginning. or perhaps in some other related key. If Part I be a Period of parallel construction. anything larger. 83^. is Part III also Recurrence of Part only a Phrase therefore it is not a complete /. and with a partial change in the formation of Phrase III (as compared with Phrase I). Write a third example. It is not necessary to specify just how much of Part III may or must be derived from the First Part but. : . or Relative key (if minor). any one of the three sections assumes the Period-form. Part II is only a Phrase (possibly extended). the Incipient 3-Part to the schedule given in par. distinctly confirm THE BEGINNING OF PART I. also add a Codetta. at least one full measure. because. or in the Dominant key (if major). should agree with the initial measure or member of Part I. of any variety. B. the first thematic member of the First Part. But if Part I be a period of conmust corroborate the first Phrase Part III then construction. namely : Song-form corresponds enlargement of Part I is a Period. and discrimination must be exercised. and (partly may entirely). (possibly. trasting or not resemble the second Phrase at all. inasmuch as the beginning of that Phrase will then correspond to the beginning of the whole.Par. only excepting the Part I." and it is no longer consistent to speak of the " Period. as a rule. that.) and with a complete Tonic cadence in the original key. or one complete melodic member.

Part I. ii r>T >5 4-x fe r ^c^c: ->H I | - . -p_i--f^ m I I -^ Part II.136 THE INCIPIENT GRADE OF THE ^-PAKT SONG-FORM. 84b. (Period). Grazioso. (Phrase). Par.

cad. op. See Ex. in the Dominant key. there is no danger of confounding the Incipient is 3. first 16 measures (Part III is an almost exact copy of the second Phrase of Part I. BEETHOVEN. but the construction of the latter is parallel). BEETHOVEN. 2.Par. and the two Phrases of Part I. of course. to be a recurrence of the second Phrase of Part I. In BEETHOVEN." With this idea established. anyway. *1) id: Part I is a parallel Period. B. Pfte. and the N. op. 2. 7. the resemblance But there is no doubt of Part III to the second Phrase of Part I is stronger. No. Bagatelle. Andante. THE INCIPIENT GRADE OF THE 3-PART SONG-FORM. very probably 2-Part Song-form. excepting the Cadence. 142. No. the recurrence of which is therefore quickly recognizable. Part III is extended to 7 measures. 33> No. No. 3. Here the derivation of Part III from the first Phrase of Part I but little indisputable. See BEETHOVEN. i. 2. and the cadence-measure is so bridged over as to lead very smoothly into the initial member. op. Son. op. Part III is the corroboration of the initial member. SCHUBERT. for the construction of the latter is chiefly contrasting. Part III appears. Pfte.fart form -with that variety of the 2-Part form in ivhich the Parts have onl\ a similar ending. 14. op. 2). See further: BEETHOVEN. Finale. immediately preceding it. No. finale. 73. Son. Sonata op. op. the first 19 measures. Part II ends with the usual Dominant cadence. excepting. in a disguised this is P- questionable example though by no means unrecognizable form). Pfte. Son. Largo. Further. BEETHOVEN. . but remains a "Phrase" in form. i. Bagatelle. but on closer examination it proves to be much more nearly identical with the first Phrase. first 16 measures (Part III corroborates the first Phrase of Part I. Pfte. 119. Adagio. 2. minore of the Menuetto . first 16 measures. first 16 measures (a very clear illustration). No. made four by repetition. Pfte. that it terminates with the regular perfect cadence. op. No. A still more is BEETHOVEN. 4. But even if it did resemble the 2nd Phrase more than the ist. Son. that the impression conveyed is that of a " Return to the initial member. It closes with a perf. 49. constituting a parallel Period. The Second Part is in reality only a 2-measure Phrase. 22. represent in total substance more than one Phrase. with *i) Pianof. open to difference of opinion. a very striking initial member. at first glance. Theme. Finale. first 16 measures (a misleading example. Impromptu. the " Return to the initial member" would be unmistakably defined. 84b. a Codetta of 4 measures follows). 3. 2. the same Sonata (op. I BEETHOVEN. Son. No.

84b. differs from the analysis hitherto adopted by other writers. It appears obvious. necessary between the SECTIONS divisions). 32. Finale. measures 21-40 (Parts II and III each extended to 6 measures) Pfte. Pfte. therefore. Andantino. No. 100 may be found another possible classification of these two. each of these is a full 3-Part Song-torm. is again.138 THE INCIPIENT GRADE OF MOZART. 15 (Cotta ed. Pfte. entire. this 2nd section. No. 24. but written out and variated. proof to the contrary may be found in BEETHOVEN. Parts II and III. op. therefore. Theme of last Movement. however. Finale. 2). Theme of first Movement. the evidence of a " Return to the beginning" is.). in all but one of which the resemblance of Part III to the first Phrase is very close. No. sufficiently striking . 8 (Cotta). 3. What Mozart's own conception of the "Idea" was. that their separation would violate its chief condition. i (op. first 20 measures HAYDN. on account of far more striking likeness of Part III to the second Phrase of Part I. first to define the tripartite design. first 16 measures (followed by repetition of Parts II and III). 18). several variations. (which contains all the repetitions). Pfte. The same is true of Nocturne 10 (op. examples. Nocturne No. is precisely the same size " Section " as the first section. Son. No. 12. to the exclusion of all but an allusion to the style of the second Phrase. HAYDN. 9. Pfte. Theme. Lyric Pieces op. from the great diversity of dimensions that the pupil has already observed to exist within one and the same structural design. i) measures 19-50. TIIK ^-i'AKT SONG-FOKM. who rank them among the Two-Part forms. GRIEG. see also the MOZART. GRIEG. Ballade op. Son. No.). Par. 78 (and the illustrations in the additional references) among the 3-Part forms. Schcrzando. No 12 (Cotta ed. Son. No. the first of which agrees with the first Part. Though this is not from that the only question upon which the present author holds a different opinion of other theorists. in the above Example (78). CHOPIN. Pfte. in the added Extension. this example. what might be regarded as the more questionable class of Incipient 3-Part Song-forms. and from the confusing similarity of size often attending entirely different forms.* *The classification of Ex. In every 3-Part Song-form a division into ftvo sections will be observed. they If it be contended that the single Phrase is not enough to represent a Second Part. 9 (Cotta). 2. 49. here Part III almost exactly resembles the second Phrase of Part I with an extension of 2 measures. The mere accident that. which are so inter-dependent in the "idea" of the tripartite form. . that dimension and proportion alone cannot be reliable criteria. the classification of the various designs must depend rather For this reason a distinction appears to be of a form (which are the more mechanical and the PARTS (which are the ideal divisions). while the 2nd section embraces both Parts II and III. first 24 measures. and all similar. Fantasie and Sonata in C minor (Cotta ed. first 16 measures. is not sufficient proof of the 2-Partform. Son. Finale. 18 measures (2-measure Prelude). in which Part II is . No. and represents. In par.). all the legitimate repetitions are made. Son. MOZART. 4 (Cotta ed. for " " identical in the idea are not the same unless are and Part they embody. one of the doubtful class. is however manifested in the succeeding variations. and upon the idea embodied in them. it is the only one to which a few words of defence are devoted. that. Son.

observing the directions given in par. in the other. in which the modified repetition of the Phrase that constitutes Part I. i. where Part III this repetition. In Ex. Bagatelle op. especially in No. or even Sonata-a/leffro. The details of the design are as follows : 85. than in the examples which are to follow. and Part III is a nearly or quite generally literal Recurrence of Part I. but just as genuine and unmistakable as in any full-fledged 3-Pa/t Song-form. In this species. is extended by repetition and Thus these other means to the length of no less than 16 measures. 72 . 71. the Second Part. reproduces EXERCISE 22. 71. is seen in such examples as BEETHOVEN. and in the 2-Part Song-forms exhibited in Exs. during years' teaching." The idea of all bipartite forms is solely that of thesis and antithesis the simple opposition of Question and Reply. I major and as parallel Period . with no more than the just reserva. construct Part contrasting Period. THE ORDINARY COMPLETE 3-PART SONG-FORM. The presence of this idea has led the present author to classify these examples among the 3-Part forms. 4 and 6 (both cited after Ex. one the other in minor. and still more so in Bagatelle op. 72. Nos. there is something more than this Statement. 139 (c) How easily the Incipient 3-Part Song-form may be evolved out of the 3-Part Period. in which. testifies to its convenience and to more absolute reliability than can be secured in many other. 6. 76 as illustrations of the 3-Part Period). 73. far more perplexing. In the first one. besides this same misleading trait of Parts I and III. and his experience. and there is the tliree-lo\& idea of 73. for that matter. the external assume while examples. 33. actually only 3-Part Periods. 78. 33. as CHAPTER XII. parallel or upon contrasting lines. parallel Period. it is true. of the readiness of the pupil to grasp and apply this distinction in the work of analysis. while only a Phrase. Departure and Recurrence on a smaller scale. 85. . tion indicated by the term "Incipient Grade". or Statement and Counter-statement. Part II also at least a Period . THE ORDINARY COMPLETE J-PART SONG-FORM. " only a Phrase. . is so seductively suggestive of the No. Part I is at least Period-form.Par. but nevertheless a perfectly distinct Departure. Double period. in Write two examples of the Incipient 3-Part Song-form. many phases of Form-evolution. or Rondo. and of broader dimensions the appearance Song-form. 84$. 74 and 75. be it upon This has been found thus far in the Period. though it corresponds in external appearance to Ex.

clear Statement. First Part of the tripartite form will not differ essential respect from the First Part of a bipartite design. and deterpossible beforehand. may be entirely independent of the latter. 87a. The distinction tends to lower the rank. or intended. by the style par. B. glance at MENDELSSOHN. 9. but by no means to the exclusion of striking individual qualities. Part I should be. See par. . any Therefore the details given in par. THE FIRST PART. melodic importance and structural independence of the Second Part. THE SECOND PART THEMATIC CONDITIONS. The must be carefully reviewed. as a rule. almost total agreement between Parts II and Con moto. Close FORMATIVE RELATION to its First Part (in regard to and general character) should be strictly maintained. J2a. X. "Song without Words" No.140 THEMATIC CONDITIONS OF PART II. or in part. the Second Part of a tripartite differs essentially design from Part II of a bipartite form. or the defect of topheaviness. Par. 10. Part I. 87. and c apply here. long First Part involves either the if The A necessity of extreme length of the whole Song-form. 8ic. especially of various Illustrations phases of thematic relation follow melodic design of Part I. which may be suggested entirely. and in 86a. and A then No. 3. extent of the entire Song-form. . On the contrary. a brief. Review But considerable freedom may be exercised in its melodic delineation. Phrase 1. Phrase 4. simple. makes this sufficiently plain. in proportion to the probable. mined length of Part I should be taken into consideration. As already stated. of similarity style and character is preserved. * ^ : V- -^ Phrase 2. or when : (a) First. I : N B. 73<.

Nos. note *2). 1-32. 13. Jugend-Album." the Second Part corresponds almost exactly to Part I. 39. THEMATIC CONDITIONS OF PART II. meas. *i) "Song without Words" No. see Original. reproduction. in SCHUMANN. 142. Part II derived from secondary First Part : members of the 8O. 72. Marcia funebre. the pupil must examine no more at present than Parts I and II. and 10.* See also No. and is extended by the reproduction of the last Phrase. No. 87b. 3 and 8. 51. The ist Phrase of an exact transposition of Phr. In SCHUBERT. Mazurka No. but transposed to the minor mode. 68. in variously transposed and somewhat modified form. every figure of Part II can be traced back to the First Part. 26. of Part I. *In using these references. "Trio. 12. See also Ex. 5 of Part I. 36. in which. Part II is (b) Secondly. again. but contains. Phrase 3 (Part II) is also derived from the latter. Son.Par. the 2nd Phrase (Part II) is borrowed similarly from Phr. op. Impromptu op. i of the First Part. . where the thematic derivation of Part II from Part I can easily be traced. Phrase for Phrase. a new and rhythmically The Second Part is simply a Sequence. Pfte. CHOPIN. or transposed characteristic member. and those which follow in this paragraph. 20. 2. Also Nos. and only those points of the latter which reveal its thematic relation to the First Part. and mainly the same in BEETHOVEN. " Song without Words " No. op. for a few measures. besides. In MENDELSSOHN. the melody of Part I is reproduced in Part II. 42.

72. of Part I is of course starts out in a different key). This is one of the " secrets" of the true spirit of classical tion is Form. in above. as in Ex. 72. *2) " " Song without Words No. No. 28 (Part II out. . See also MENDELSSOHN. "Song without Words" No. in the mind of the closely observant student. It will be observed that the second member of Part I becomes the first (and therefore typical) member of Part II. See the Original. 61. 71. . . op. op.I 42 THEMATIC CONDITIONS OF PART II. 5. *i) MENDELSSOHN. to the exclusion of the first figure. i (Part II Part) op. No. same as note *i). Here the deriva- cleverly disguised. and finally the entire first Phrase taken up twice in Part II. but not sufficiently to arouse doubt of the composer's intention (or perhaps partly unconscious conception). Part II. . with measure i 5 of the First of measure becomes the first half. See also " Song without Words " No. 29. in meas. in the preliminary half-measure. 25 (Part II utilizes at first melodic fragments of the first and 3rd measures of Part I. note *4). : . No. 3. 72. 21 (Part I is repeated Part II starts No. after a while this figure gradually reasserts itself. Parti. The thematic derivation of the Second Part from the First is indicated by the brackets. II). 3 (the second half like note *i) Part. 14. which review. etc. Par. 87b. with measure n of the repetition of Part I) based largely upon the last figure in the first Phrase of Part I) No.

member of the First Part). Mr n uef to (Part II derived from last figure. *2) This figure corresponds to measure 6 of the First Part. in opposite " direction (" contrary motion . 89. . 87b. also HAYDN. Symphony No. See also Ex. THEMATIC CONDITIONS OF PART II II.). 6 (Peters ed. 14. Symphony No. 82). 9 (Peters ed.Par. begins where (so to speak) Part I leaves off : 81.3 Sometimes Part A llegro.). Menuetto (Part II is built entirely upon the last mel. but with nothing else that the Part contained. see Ex. in the Codetta to Part I). *i) This agrees with the last member of Part I (as found in the lower parts).

i 44 SCHUBERT. 147). Parti. 4 (op. 122). 39^ opposite to that of the First Part. i. No. Par. II. Scherzo. Menuctto. especially . THEMATIC CONDITIONS OF PART Pfte. (c) Thirdly. r 3. Part II constructed more or less in the direction similar to par. 2. SCHUMANN. 87d. fciLa-^ L^ | . at the start : 82. Son. op. 6 (op. Pafillons. Son.

Par. II. < -y W r- +- r f tr tJT- ~Q=t- !=^ u~4" IP *1) ^ Part II. Part I.n. 1 \ ^1 etc. THEMATIC CONDITIONS OF PART A ndante. 87d. Part IIL -S1?!? l=ff . J * t- i-^-P*i -^4 7-=lH rite. '' * J T^^" * 2) ' \. bit:: JT * =i | m .* +- 83.

(e) Finally. No. 42). pendent in character and style. *3) This is the only place in Part II where real thematic agreement with the First Part can be detected. Son. No. i (op. " SCHUBERT. 55. . *2) The organic continuity of the Parts is upheld by similarity of general style. op. See also MENDELSSOHN. i) the repetition of Part I is written out and very slightly modified. Par. For illustration : Cheer/ally. 7e. 73$. Pffe. Trio" of 3rd Movement. and uniformity of accompaniment. Part II may diverge still more widely from Part and be not only thematically "new. " Songs without Words. 16. But see par. though the resemblance between this and the very first member is probably only accidental. 4. : . 37 i 40." Nos. .146 THEMATIC CONDITIONS OF PART II. *i) In the Original (Nocturne 15. 84." but even somewhat indeI.

" Nos. 88. 2. GRIEG. As regards the MODULATOR Y DESIGN of the Second Part.. 33. should. Part II is in which the diversity of character in carried to an extreme. and in no case. " Album-Blatter " op. classification of such irregular forms. Lyric Pieces. as demonstrated in the foregoing paragraphs. at the cadence. 124. 86. And still more in SCHUMANN. 88. on the other hand. 5 (Parts II and III repeated). 7. BEETHOVEN.. 35. are rare. '47 *i) Certain slight thematic coincidences exist between this Second Part and First Part." op. or superior in attractiveness. is closer than usual). and its SCHUMANN. " Songs without Words. 8 (in which. " Song without Words " No. No. 41. i. See. TONALITY OF PART it II. See MENDELSSOHN. however rich they may be in imaginative contents. and For the more reasonable Album-Blatter. 83 may appear scarcely its definable. in general. No. No. the outward connection between the Parts. notes. for . CHOPIN. op. 12. " Bagatelle op. though the difference between this stage and that of Ex. Mazurkas 11 24. can they be regarded as models of logical structure. up to the "Trio". 2. 4. 3. or as thoroughly genuine exponents of the tripartite Idea. Greater independence of Part II is found in MENDELSSOHN. 124.Par. TONALITY OF PART II. but the impression conveyed is that of a more pronounced change of character than is exhibited in the examples preceding. H2. e. The introduction of new material into Part II is most easily accounted for and justified when the latter is "sectional" in form. Examples of the 3-Part Song-form . glance at par. No. for instance. see Ex. avoid the Tonic line of the original key.

For more specific directions in reference to Modulation. i. 81.i 48 TONALITY OF PART II. 31. Symphony No. op. G major transiently. the member should diverge very soon into other chords or keys. the original key is regained. (or even unrelated) keys. the Second Part starts out exactly as the First Part began. : the impression of a Departure will depend as much upon a change of key as upon anything else and the idea of a Return is realized when . Part II. When. passes into G major.E major. F major. C major. No. " See Ex. Symphony No. interfere with the plan of derivation and relation illustrated in Ex. 25 (Part I. Part II begins in E minor. in order to distinguish This need not itself immediately from the beginning of Part I. A minor. the Second Part should at least begin with some other than the original Tonic harmony. see par. No. 29. Ej? minor). For example : Allegro. Part II. the BEETHOVEN. No. after a more or less marked absence. 33. as is the case in some rare examples. G A . and remains there nearly to the end) . Or the entire Second Part may disport itself in other related . minor) Nos. major. 40. "Trio" of the third Movement. 7 (Part I. up to the of 3rd Movement (Part II all on last chord). Son. As a rule. Or the Tonic harmonies may be touched in passing into other chords or keys. . 31. E minor. Pfte. 2. i (Part I. 94. E[> major. "Trio" of the third Movement. E|? minor. Songs without Words" No. But the Dominant (or Subdominant) harmony of the original key may be introduced into Part II and in some cases the Dominant . 42. furnishes the basis of see the entire Part from beginning to end . BEETHOVEN. 89 also MENDELSSOHN. "Trio" Dominant of the Relative key. Gj? major. 3. Par.

both unnecessary and impracticable to recommend any other law than that of sensible proportion. and MENDELSSOHN. II. D | X X (Dominant of original key." No. No. STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF PART II. as it will depend upon a variety of circumstances and conditions. See also SCHUMANN. 7 (" Traumerei 36. The principle symmetry is apt to prevail. that it assumes the character . "'. perhaps slightly extended. the Second Part is so brief (only Phraseform) and comparatively insignificant. must is . and therefore.. already left to the of approximate to be a Period also. " Songs without Words. op. . I 49 1 G major C major D major K uiiiiur.) 5> | X X major HAYDN.. 20. however.Par. Part II is somewhat likely stated. up to this ftj. and balance and this. it In regard to the FORM and LENGTH of the Second Part. 15. The keys through which the Second Part passes are indicated. 8Qa. 89a. *i) Part II is exactly identical with Part I. as if Part I is a Period. Sometimes. be judgment or intention of the composer. STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF PART Part II. which turns the melodic current from G into C. No.

28. 31 (Part II. especially in sequenIt is. 16. 68. Allegro movement (Part I. See MENDELSSOHN. 28 (Part I. No. 2nd Movement. it consists Song-form. Period. Phrases). . 61. . first 18 measures (Part II. only 3 measures). e. 34 measures and repeated Part II. mere interlude. unquestionably. first clauses. and the very last clause of par. the peculiar nature of longer the Chain-phrase and the Group of Phrases. more common to make the Second Part a little Part I. No. notwithstanding their independence. Finale (Rondo). the formation of design. 15. introduced for no other purpose than to create the impression of a Return. See par. BEETHOVEN. 49. some. 35 (Part II. 31. No. 7 measures. to preserve the impression that they are only the subdivisions of one broad Part. Part II.). 19 (Part I. No. Period . Part No. sequential Part II. No. 2. Pfte. first 18 measures . Absence and Return may all be comprehended within For illustration the single idea of Digression. between . 10. Mazurka 47 (op. : B-fcJ * ^" 86. only 2 measures). Part II." separated from each other by a complete cadence in the momentary key. 40 construction). Other examples of the small Second Part are cited in the footnote upon page 138. (Part I. a Group of Phrases).SECTIONAL FORM OF PART of a II. small Double period. Finale.. op. especially the larger. See MENDELSSOHN. Violin-Concerto. No. (BEETHOVEN. of two (or even more) " Sections. Son. 85 may be regarded as exemplary. Par 89b. Part possible. and often so distinctly . 58. a hasty (though genuine) Departure. Fantasie op. Period. group of 6 SECTIONAL FORM OF PART (b) In II. perhaps. only 10 measures). i. I. renders it of Departure. than And. CHOPIN. Part II in Ex. " Songs without Words " No. tial adapts them in every sense more fully to the of a Second Part than any other more and conditions purpose and structural Hence. first 20 measures etc. regular perfect succession. No. op. individualized that they would have to be regarded as complete " Parts " under ordinary circumstances but their location. No. (sequential construction). Period extended) . just as the three-fold condition I and its Recurrence. varieties of the j-Part the Second Part is SECTIONAL in form i. 2) first 28 measures. op.

=S: . SECTIONAL FORM OF PART Part II. Section 1.Par. Extension Extension . 89b. II.

as Retransition. No. 94." such as appears in CHOPIN. THE CADENCE OF THE SECOND PART. of the Cadence-member of Part II. Codetta of 4 measures. Section I. . .. large Per. HAYDN. and lead with a certain degree of emphasis into. design. in the very last clause of par. comparatively unusual. 89. plausible variety of this sectional form is obtained a to the body of the Second Part. Adagio. to which explanatory reference will be made in the next paragraph). op. 72. No. or 4 Phrases. as in the preceding quotation). the classification of which will be found in pars. 90a. The most be done without injuring the form. Codetta of 3 meas. Pfte. repeated. whose identity is unquestionable. Par. 2. regards the CADENCE of Part II.. prepare for. or independent extension. a 3rd Section follows. if carried to an undue extreme. this subdividing process (like that mentioned *i) Pfte. 17 (Cotta ed. also MENDELSSOHN. Pfte. Period. Per. Codetta This. together. The subdivision of the Second Part two independent sections is strongly marked but they nevertheless constitute. ext. follows. 14. into . Mentietto. 15 measures Part II. Still. Pfte. op. No. op. Symphony No. Son. 17 measures. Moment musical. 16 measures. i. Scherzo. if the Codetta-section be chiefly a confirmation. See also Ex. Son. 13.THE CADENCE OP' THE SECOND PART. the first member 9Oa. Retransition. a Retransition of 14 meas. it is evident that it must be made in such a manner as to foreshadow. op. 87) destroys the legitimacy of the tripartite " Group of Parts. 12 measures. No. 30 (Part I. n (Peters ed. Son. 20 measures period. . SCHUBERT. and gives rise to a Mazurka No.) Finale. repeated a 3rd section. only the one Part which represents the Digression. follows). 2. Son. Section i Group of 4 Section 2. meas. 6 (Part I. Group of 3 Section 2. See also MOZART. II. Part II. the interim between Parts I and III. Scherzo. See MENDELSSOHN.). so manipulated as not to interfere with the purpose of the latter to prepare for the Recurrence of the First Part (as Third Part). Part BEETHOVEN. at end. BEKTHOVRN. As . Double or 5 Phrases. first Subject (Part I. while by adding out of can nevertheless and somewhat place. 10 (Bj? major). 114. . 18 measures. 23-27. 115. Codetta of 2 measures. SCHUBERT. "Song without Words" No.

Par. or Dom. Son. "Song without into the 2. " Songs without Words. 2. I '53 of Part as it recurs at the beginning of Part III. or Phrases. Bagatelle No. Subject. Pfte. Largo. BEETHOVEN. Mazurka 19. regular Period. it is most likely to be made upon the Dominant Harmony of the original key (or the Tonic Harmony of the Dominant key}. "Trio" of the 3rd Movement. first Words " No. . as in Ex. because no other chord than this tends so urgently toward the tonic Harmony. as No. Or the Second Part is conducted Dominant a certain dis- tance (one or more measures. 3. Sometimes the Dominant idea (as Dom. No. 84 and Ex. op. 9. 18. in some form or other. Often quite a persistent extension of the Dominant Harmony is made. to stimulate expectation of Part III. Allegretto. chord. Part II. etc. 90a. 2nd clause. 87. BEETHOVEN. Ex. 78. op. 31. 33. 85. op. 2. key. with which Part I (and therefore Part III also) is supposed to begin.83." Nos. as shown in par. CHOPIN. THE CADENCE OF THE SECOND PART. Hence. i. MENDELSSOHN. 83*7. as in Ex.) before its end. Pfte. 11 ^ (Expansion of Dominant) . MENDELSSOHN. or in Dominant Organ- point) runs through the entire Second Part. Son.

is elabo- rated by transient alternation with other (most effectively with Subdominant) chords the Dominant is reached in due time. that. while the Dominant termination of Part II is unquestionably the simplest. 26-38 from beg. . 4. . the most common. of Part II. Nos. (b) But. On brief. . 23 32 38 20 {very brief diminished 7th) SCHUMANN. 76 MENDELSSOHN. by a relaxation of motion . " Songs without Words " No. "Songs without Words. call for special treatment of the cadence of the Second . 28. the appropriateness of which.} in ending Part II. See Ex." Nos. op." Nos. 90b. i CHOPIN. after so wide a digression in character and in key. . it sways a few times. but also in consequence of a possible irregularity in the beginning of Part I (and Part III) which may Part. measures 9-14 from the beginning of Part II No. where the effect is further heightened by a rest of nearly two measures' duration. chiefly because of their superior effectiveness. No. See MENDELSSOHN. and (ordinarily) the most appropriate. . 15. . and followed by a particularly well-defined announcement of the original initial member. Sometimes this expansion of the Dominant harmony . 10. 83 also in Ex. like a pendulum before coming to rest. (ritard. the student will realize. meas. Mazurkas. 86. differs so completely in character as to appear to be an Interlude or Retransition). No. Par. it could and the cadence not fulfil its important purpose. 32. " Songs without Words. generally at least twice. but instead of passing immediately over into the Tonic. MENDELSSOHN. the other hand.THE CADENCE OF THE SECOND PART. hearer's anticipation of Part III is furthermore confirmed as a very general rule. The and emphasized. the Dominant ending sometimes so so completely bridged over. . other harmonic forms are quite frequently employed . 27 (the expansion and elaboration of the Dom. -J ^5=FJ=j=^d== HAYDN. This is seen in Ex. is 8. back and forth. i. ii. but for its being in the proper measure.

usually be found to begin upon the Tonic six-four chord. of F. No. though noticeably G enough. the Second Part closes with an . Mazurka No. OOb. the IV. family. it contains the leading-tone of its key.. Mazurka No. 29 (the same). in convenient prepaof the Third Part. though in minor. but the transition is still far less abrupt than in many other cases). as Leading-tone) 16 (A|7 major. n emphatic extension of the chord upon the 3rd scale-step. 25. Part II ends upon the Tonic chord of its 3d step. in this case. wherefore Part III will. without impairing its legitimacy). II (preferably) in any either in their legitimate form. chord of F minor. Mazurka No. through \vhich the safe transition back into the Tonic beginning is sufficiently assured. Song without Words" k ' No. 39 (Parts beginning upon the Subdominant Harmony). . MENDELSSOHN. and consequently. etc. is CHOPIN. More abrupt forms of transition from the end of Part II into Part III are found in MENDELSSOHN. For example : *See the Author's " Material used in Mus. 155 I In Part begins upon the Dominant. and that. or of their altered or mixed forms (with lowered or IV 7 . but in the major form. in Bass. this merely adds to the effectiveness of the device. it is true. but. 42.e. and leads into Part III very smoothly. the Second Part ends upon the Tonic of A minor. effectively treated. as actual Dom. this cancels the Leading-tone of the i. e. raised 4th scale-step. 22 (Gj minor. naturally. II. substitute for the usual The most common Dominant ending is the 3rd scale-step of the This will less appear original key.. " Song without Words " No. which corresponds to the III of F. as major Triad coming Part. Part II closes with a very prolonged exposition of this same chord. No. Second-Dominant) Harmony. 6th scale-step. begins upon the Dom. I and III Another effective ration for the initial mode member 7 of closing Part II. consists in employing (or some form of the Subdominant i. 22 (F major. ** fdfin. These chords almost necessarily involve resolution into some inverted form of the Tonic Harmony." paragraph 6c.). paragraphs 90-93 Comp. though more abrupt. in any event. No. 46.Par. the Second Part ends upon one of the Second-Dominant* Harmonies (the altered II 7 ). B.** See MENDELSSOHN. the e. THE CADENCE OF THE SECOND PART. 45 (hinging upon the Leading-tone) No. peculiar when the student recalls that the chord III is a member of the Dominant harmonic the chord (or key) upon the Mediant. . . 24 is similar. No. . "Song without Words" No.

i. 43 (all similar). No. 48. *i) The Second Part and Any such tampering with the beginning of Part I (as Part III) involves. but not enough to obscure the effect of Recurrence. 1 10.THE CADENCE OK THE SECOND PART. No. chord. " See also MENDELSSOHN. 88. No. in exactly its original condi- tion.. the danger of impairing or destroying the principal landmark of the tripartite form. will be seen in par. 29. accented I chord of the Tonic. and Part III begins upon the 4th. -p closes upon the chord of the II 1 (with the raised 2nd lowered and then the 6th. 7 (Part II ends with an altered Subdom.=3E N 33 >/* 9t =P3= ^B^^^S^ -I ^^M^T^ jHT* / etc. . of course. scale-steps). Part II. No. Therefore. . Part III. 12. Par. A ndan/e. MENDELSSOHN. This latter differs slightly from the harmonic form of the beginning. To what such modification of the latter may lead. the distinctly recognizable Return to the beginning. e. Part III begins with the Tonic | chord). it must be very cautiously effected. 90b. " Song without Words No. if any modification at this point be ventured. with a view to preserving at least all the essential and characteristic elements of the initial member of Part I.

first Theme. by the body of Part II will usually have a complete Tonic cadence in whatever key it chances to have reached. . itself. and at such and effective. 31 BEETHOVEN. op. for instance. Songs without Words." No. 91 ' . is scarcely better). style and melody of the beginning. necessity of ingenuity amount For such a " returning section " the term RE-TRANSITION appears most fitting. in such a manner. 36 (the first measure of Part III is so disguised that full consciousness of the form is not aroused until the 2nd measure appears). as seems most adequate . 41 40. The Retransition then leads back. 4. are still distinct enough in their several purposes to give rise to three different courses of conceptive action. op. into the key. and an endless may be displayed in the effective formulation of the means employed in realizing this "return to the startingThe larger the form. " . There is no length. Songs without Words. These are (i) a Departure from the Kne of the principal Part. while their lines of demarcation may be almost imperceptible. Nocturne No. 88. This third phase all. 16. Principal Song. the greater the likelihood and point. (c) It must be borne in mind that a full-fledged Second Part comprehends three successive phases. THE RE-TRANSITION. Mazurka 46. 51. No. CHOPIN. It appears useless to undertake to give any more definite rules than this for the process for it is governed by ever-varying circumstances. first Theme. which. 37. No. but differently harmonized. No. No. See Ex. See also MENDELSSOHN. In case the Re-transition thus forms a separate section. THE RE-TRANSITION. seriously endangers the identity of the Third Part as "Return" (comp. just before the announcement of Part III upon the same chord (Tonic). as. . and MENDELSSOHN. is to lead it into the Tonic Harmony this. 2. (2) an optional period of Absence. in : the sectional form . during which considerable individuality may be developed. first clause). (Rondo in G. 51." Nos. 21 in each case the initial melodic member is retained in Part III." of devoting a separate section wholly to this purpose.Par. 90c. par. for it is may justly be regarded as the most significant of the ultimate aim of the entire Part. chord. 157 . The most irregular and confusing of all modes of terminating the Second Part. and (3) the Return to the original starting-point. i. . Rondo in C. from that point. first 12 measures (already referred to as 3-Part Period).

15*

THE RE-TRANSITION.

Par. 90c.

better source of information than standard musical literature, the student is therefore urged to make careful examination

and and

analysis of the
illustrations

given examples, references, and whatever other he can find. In all essential respects the Re-transition " Introduction," though partakes of the nature and purpose of the
infinitely richer in possibilities.

For example

:

89.

i&

&=

^^V+z^z^j *
^j^r

t53ES_=juI*if*=I h-*-?8 Hr

Par. 90c.

THE RE-TK AXSITIOX.
Section
2.

'59

,-^4

Cad.

Retransition.

~~

n

i,

-

l6o
to

THE RE-TRANSITION.

Par. 90c.

use the minor form of Tonic Harmony, in order to preserve, and even increase, the force of the original major form, when the latter heralds the beginning of the Third Part; this same significant trait will be found in many

other major examples, '' Songs without Words," Nos. i, 7, 19, 20, 31, 37. See also " Songs without Words," No. 16; Part II virtually ends in the
igth measure, with a Dominant semicadence ; a Re-transition of 2 measures No. 26; effective Re-trans, of follows, built upon the first melodic member.

4 measures before Part III. No. 34, measures 25-29. No. 37, Re-transition of 4 measures. No. 3; Part II is 16 measures long, ending with a firm cadence in the key of the original 3rd step; a Re-transition of 5 measures
follows.

Such a separate Re-transition is very likely indeed to accompany (i. e., follow) a Codetta to the Second Part, when that somewhat rare factor is employed (see last clause of par. 89). The
Re-transition, in this case, starts with the apparent intent of repeating' the Codetta, but sooner or later "dissolves" the original form of the latter, and digresses into such a course as defines its
re-transitional purpose.

See

MENDELSSOHN, " Song without Words" No.

30,

A

major; Part

II

terminates with a Tonic perf. cad. in E major in the 35th measure; the 4-measure Section which follows is an independent and regular Phrase, with

own unmistakable cadence it does not belong to the body of the Second Part, for that terminates with the utmost decision before this Phrase begins nor is it in the Third fart, for obvious reasons nor is it a Re-transition into the latter, because of its complete cadence; thus it proves to be an adjunct of Part II, in the capacity of a " Codetta." The measures which follow indicate for a time the intention of repetition, but then abandon this purpose and become a genuine, and exceedingly attractive and clever Re-transition. The same treatment is found in " Song without Words " No. 17, measures 14-17 (Part I closes in the 4th measure with a vague form of cadence, exits
;

;

;

plained in par. 93).

See also CHOPIN, Nocturne No.

17,

measures 21-28.

is

somewhat more

In the ordinary 3-Part Song-form, however, the Re-transition likely not to constitute such a distinct section,

grow out of some later member of the Second Part, perhaps so imperceptibly that it is not easy to point out the exact beat where the purpose of re-transition is evident. Here, the persistent bent of the harmony toward the original Dominant, and the equally
but to
characteristic

tendency of the melodic current to lead into and
;

regain the first tone and figure of the First Part, is possibly more noticeable than in the separate Re-transition and, in any case, this two-fold tendency (first toward the key and then toward the melody)

1'ar. 90c.

THE RE-TRANSITION.

161

regarded as inherent in all re-transitional passages. This In the following illustration, the is plainly shown in Ex. 89. bent of the Re-transition is concentrated upon the initial melodic
be

must

member

of Part III
Andante.

:

90.

B:

162

THE THIRD PART.

Par. 91.

THE THIRD PART.
In the ordinary complete 3-Part Song-form, here under consideration, the Third Part is a SIMPLE RECURRENCE OR
1
.

9

REPRODUCTION OF PART
If

I.

the First Part closes with a perfect cadence in the original
it

" da capo." But if the First Part cadences in some other key, or has any other imperfect form of cadence, then at least enough of the ending of Part III must differ from the original Statement to admit of its
cadencing properly, in the principal key.

key, then

may

reappear literally in Part Third, as conventional

And, furthermore, any purely unessential modifications
Part
I (affecting

of

the harmonization, or the register, or ornamenting the Melody) may be introduced in the Third Part, to heighten its But no more important changes than these are exhibited effect.
in the "

Simple Complete Form."
Poco sostenuto.
-2-'

For example

:

91.

-f

A. m

~~~ A3"*
\

-*

* B

tr

;

5

ri

~i

*

ft

ral agreement of Part (Phrase) III with Part (Phrase) I. THE THIRD PART. but the beginning of Part III . 45 (C major) the Recurrence is literal. i. 91.Par. 49. In MENDELSSOHN op. Tonic. In CHOPIN. 76 and Ex. thft lUe. Mazurka No. 163 /* Part III. and one measure is omitted. is illustrated. Ex. 89 is concluded (in the Original) by . Part III " da is not written out at all." In Ex. though a smaller species of the tripartite design. and "Song without Words" No. 72. 93*7. but simply indicated by the words capo. 77. See par. the register of the melody is *2) Part III is essentially the same as Part I changed. No. pp ^tzt^J^S^ =i==srrg *y I s==fe=B= -* [g -3 i I is *i) Part II closes on the original distinct enough.

as a rule. Lyric Pieces op. ist Movement. Mazurkas 16. 43. Theme. 1-25 after first double-bar. 29. Etude in AJ? (No. or a and logical connection with the body of the form is less close. Pfte. for the Codetta. "Trio" and II small Periods.6 . Principal Theme) a brief variation of Part I is made. however. should be. there is. Son. Op. also When POSTLUDE a PRELUDE is substituted for the Introduction. No. Principal Theme. Son. 92. i. The enlarged by 3-Part Song-form may be. Theme (Part I repeated) the same in BEETHOVEN. to which brief reference may be made. Pfte. 24) by reproducing Part I with very slight changes. 76. Son. literal Recurrence of Part I). 118. 68. and its relation to the latter " frame " to the is more like that of the independent picture. Son. Mcnuetto. distinct re-transitional interlude. 92. 4. 15. " Trio " of 3rd Movement. No. reproducing the first 4 measures of the melody an octave higher than at first. 117. Op. i. op. Nocturne 15. while all the rest is left precisely as it was. the single melody of Part I is transformed into a duet in Part III. Op. Part III is a little differently harmonized from its First Part. Pfte. Nos. No. i. 24 (Part II quite distinct. The a Coda. 38. More explicit explanation of the character. size. No. 2. 119. first tempo Part III is extended to Double period. Part III. "Song without Words" No. 22. a change in the last member. 2nd Movement. (Parts (6-8 Time). 2. Part III slightly expanded at end. compare with 3rd (last) tempo. EXTRANEOUS MEMBERS. In HAYDN. 6. slight changes are made. Intermezzo. In the conclusion of Ex. 4. while less significant than for it serves to emphais. barely less desirable . Pfte. In MENDELSSOHN. 7. in No. In BEETHOVEN. the addition of a CODETTA OR CODA. 118. 32. in addition to interesting variation in Part III. its architectural . 118. and. i. op. op. 6 (Cotta ed. Codetta). 3. 116. Op. "Song without Words" No. 44. 22 (long Second Part). 2. No. 3 in the Moscheles-Fetis method). No. the body of the Song-form. 40. 2.). In the is literal. No. 12. by reproduction. and repeated). Scherzo (Ex. and examine into the relation of the Introduction Nos. " " CHOPIN. the Recurrence is literal. 43 (Part II repeated. 84 is concluded in the Original (SCHUMANN. prefixing of an INTRODUCTION. I op. 22. Turn. (extended at end). Op. by mild contrast. to the entire composition. . again. to MENDELSSOHN. No. No. 26. No. 2. meas. No. Son. No. necessitated by the circumstance of Part I having closed with a cadence in the Dominant key the same in SCHUBERT. 12. F major Variations. op. purpose and formation of these factors is given in par. op. op. first 37 measures. and 32. No. No. 86) the reproduction In Pfte. 34. op. Par.164 EXTRANEOUS MEMBERS. GRIEG. Ex. 98. to which it stands " to a in the same relation as the " margin picture. 2. 83 (CHOPIN. BRAHMS. op. CHOPIN. i.

88. to this form . Part III a nearly literal da capo. in the original key. In No. 34 the brief introductory figure is utilized as Re-transition. as Part I add a Second Part according to the directions in par. in Period-form with extended Dominant cadence. Some other former (or new) minor Period as Part I to this add Second Part according to par. . 21 the Prelude does not recur at the end. again.. at the end. In MENDELSSOHN.Par. similar Prelude and Postlude). MENDELSSOHN. 29 there is one measure of Interlude between Part I and its repetition in No. it approaches the character of an Introduction. . In No. and. Some former minor Period with regular perf. 87^. . cadence. 92. error. . . invented in Exercise 9. 9 (a Codetta of 4 measures is added to its frame is very fitting) Part III. "Song without Words" No. III a literal other former major Period as Part I to this add a Second Part Part 87*:. . In No. in Periodcadence as in par. 35. both in the second Division (Parts II and III) and its reproduction. and 41 (in each. . 23. 23. Nos. and again. . 27 a similar recurrence of the substance of the Prelude appears between Parts II and III (quasi as Codetta or Re-transition). e. " Song without Words" No. oxw Part III a literal da capo. 8fa. Parts II and III) and its repetition. with cadence as prescribed in and add a Third Part as literal Recurrence of Part I (the words par. the substance of the Prelude reappears after 9 measures. as Interlude between Parts I and II then again 23 measures later. . ox>a " da " capo will suffice). of the . and again at the end. 46 the same (in each case borrowed from the Introduction). as final section of the Coda. in other respects also. da capo. D. in Phrase-group design. 28. EXTRANEOUS MEMBERS. . 90^. major Periods with perf. In No. C. cad. with a view to avoiding this tinuity. The insertion of INTERLUDES between the Parts is a more hazardous proceeding. as Interlude between the second Division of the form (i. 87^. EXERCISE A. as they tend to disrupt the structural conBut if carefully handled. 4 (both Prelude and Postlude almost identical here the simile of the picture with also No. Some according to par. before the Postlude appears). They must either conform strictly to the limitations imposed upon the Introduction (in par. with some form of cadence explained in par. they may be very effective. 3 the Prelude becomes the thematic basis of the entire elaborate Coda. add a Second Part according to the directions given in par. In No. 16. . in Period-form. Review a par. 28. to this. to the body of the form. or. as Part I. and agafn as Postlude. second and third clauses) or they must prove their extraneous nature by agreement with a Prelude. 165 Examine. Take one B. more accurately.

Part I as minor Period (regular or extended). few peculiar conditions of the CADENCE. entirely optional in Simple Complete 3-Part Song-form. There namely : (i) to mark the end of the frst of these two members distinctly. Introduction or Prelude. EXERCISE . 27." where one member ends and another the structure. in Phrase-group design. followed by brief Codetta. 23). 40. excepting change of last member. to indicate a point of more or less complete separation between two contiguous members of a "joint. in some related key. begins (par. B. a slightly modified Recur- D. with cad. optional form. A. Part I major. 9:ia. including former Codetta. Some former (or new) Period in major. 53. capo. Part III a slightly modified Recurrence of Part I. key. but sectional form. 87?. save the essential requirements of the all CHAPTER XIII. 91. AND THE DIRECTIONS GIVEN IN EXERCISE C. Part III EXERCISE 25. as Part I to this add a Second Part according to par. par. with optional cadence-form. A. as explained in par. Review par. Review par. . ox>r. to which attention must now be drawn. Part I major. i. 92. with cadence in some other than the orig. Double period. and with an additional brief Codetta. . but with Introduction . ADDITIONAL DETAILS OF THE SONG-FORMS. Part II optional melodic construction. par. . a slightly modified Recurrence with brief Codetta or Postlude. par. optional form. but with Retransition Part III Review par. (a) The purpose of a Cadence is. Par. 23. Part I minor. 30. but with brief Codetta Part II optional Part III a modified Recurrence. There are two modes of fulfilling this purpose. Minor. are a 93. rence.l66 IRREGULAR CADENCES. 88. IRREGULAR CADENCES. B. Part II optional form and structure. not yet explained. brief Re-transition. . 9. Part III a literal da Review par. 24. 89^.

The first mode is the simpler and more common. measure 10 (Cadence of Part I on a appearing in the 8th measure and being repeated in the loth moreover. . adequate to the degree of separation required. and 48. 15 at the beginning of measure 5 from the end. see This is illustrated in nearly all of the foregoing examples Ex. It consists in defining the beginning. and consists in using a strong Cadence-chord. while naturally less distinct and decisive . 10. measure 18. for where there been an ending. In Nos. imperfect Cadences (often so brief and indefinite as to be scarcely discoverable at first as Cadences) hitherto seen. but the identity of the Part is fixed by its repetition (see par. No. 12. 77. No. ultimately quite as effectual. These stand in marked contrast to the decision and frankness of the Cadence to Part I in Nos." is naturally most important in application to the arrangement of smaller members. the Semi-cadence at the end of Part First in the Songforms See MENDELSSOHN. 46. For other examples of an imperfect Cadence at the end of a complete member. smoother than the other. the beginning of Part II is unmistakable). 8. 38. 3. and. mode of "phrasing" explained 3rdly (Ex. In Nos. and making a pause in the audible rhythmic pulse. IRREGULAR CADENCES. Cad. 15). at the moment. at the same time. . 47. and those now to be examined. is nevertheless. Semicadence but evidently the end of Part I." but still sufficient. the This a beginning there must before have precisely the principle which prevails in in par. 30. last clause). when properly executed. chord It is rendered sufficient by 38. No. 35 and others.Par. however). " Song without Words" No. 41.93a. 10. 33. Dom. or whatever its that no doubt of being a is is it may be) new member can exist . . Part I ends with chord-Fifth in Soprano. and n. No. 17. but the following member nevertheless constitutes a Codetta (without being preceded by a compl. because what follows is sufficiently characteristic to be evidently the beginning of Part II) No. of the following member (Phrase. mark the beginning of the ne~jc 167 dis- (2) to member with equal tinctness. Part. according to rule). because its outset is sufficiently distinct : . the Tonic Cadence-chord has the Third in Soprano. 15. 27. because frequent complete stops (to define the "end" of every member) would entirely disrupt the design. and the end of any example from 25 to 37. The more unmistakable the outset of the following member is. The second mode. For example. measure 4 (reg. Part I ends with some imperfect form of Cadence (usually extended. the Cad. see MENDELSSOHN. Period. so distinctly this defines the form. 23. at least. it while sometimes desirable even between "Parts. similar to No. ! . 7. 39. This accounts for all the vague. perf. of Part I is unusually brief and " breathless. under the thematic circumstances. the less emphatic need the foregoing Cadence be.

from the end. Adagio (Part I ending with a Semicadence). Allegretto. 5. 32. No. No. Son. 93b. and No. Nocturne No. five meas. Theme of 24 Variations in SCHUBERT. 9 (op. 27. Part I musical. op. Part I SCHUBERT. The same trait is observable in No. ending (the Codetta Pfte. possible for a regular perfect Under such conditions to occur in the course it is Cadence of t lie As contradictory of e. No. . 28. Allegretto. 70 as this appears to be. without terminating it). Par.1 68 IRREGULAR CADENCES. . first 18 measures (probably a Two-Part Song-form. 60. follo\ved by a somewhat extended complete repetition Part I ends in meas. each. 2. i). from the end. No. (without opus-number). Son. Symphony No. Parti. Son. follows an Evasion of the Cadence). but repeated). BEETHOVEN. Prelude op. the strict rule given in par. Preludes op. No. BEETHOVEN. 92. CHOPIN. i (Peters ed.). op. six meas. . i. 3. No. especially near the beginning. 7. op. 6 of the contiguous members. Moderate. ending with Dom. in the 4th meas. Part I. Part I of . also the Praeludium of the Praeludium and Fugue in E minor" measures 22-23. i. (i. : i. 10 with Menuetto (Part I Pfte. (Part II begins in the middle of measure 15. and No. 16. 94. Symphony No. (b) Exactly the reverse of this peculiarity (that just explained being: a vague Cadence sufficing to separate independent members) is seen in those places where a complete Tonic Cadence fails to sever the connection between contiguous members. where such an unlooked-for First Part Cadence seems rather to serve the desirable purpose of establishing For example the tonality. To this category belong also all examples of the " Elision " (par. No. Pfte. it is not at all unusual. < . because the second one maintains so intimate a thematic relation that it necessarily still belongs to the section in question. Semicadence. No. to indicate the beginning of a new member. in which the "Cadence" disappears altogether by the overlapping See MENDELSSOHN. Praeludium op. HAYDN. 31. 22. See also CHOPIN. which review). 104. Menuetto. 33. BRAHMS. No. with an Elision of the expected " Cadence). 31. a Semicadence) BEETHOVEN. Part I. D Moment MENDELSSOHN. 35. from the end. n major.

extended Period. A . with perf. Cadence See the Original (Symphony in C. 62. 24.'o perfect Cadences in its course). *2) In this unique example the Part begins with a genuine perf. (group of 3 Phrases. IKKEGULAR CADENCES. See further. ! . Adagio (Part I a very broad Double period. No. Cad. Pfte. including a 5-meas. in unbroken thematic connection. in 2nd measure) No. . No. with Dominant perf. as a rule. 39 (perf. " glance at the beginning of the other Songs without Words." on the other hand. 42 (Part I. See also Ex. No. "Trio" of Minuet). Cad. "Songs without Words" No. ! 169 s Part II. Part I SCHUBERT. 27. repeated) BEETHOVEN. Cadence. 4th measure. and containing tr. Allegretto. 2. 93b. Mazurka No. 4.Par. 94. op. in the last two cases the unbroken thematic connection is established by parallel construction). with Tonic perf. i. in the center). at end of Antecedent Phrase). I - *i) This is a Tonic perf. 43 (Part I. the same. Son. CHOPIN. 44 (Part I. . teaches how. Son. parallel. op. because the latter obviously runs on. contrasting Double period. and yet it does not terminate the First Part. See also MENDELSSOHN. Cad. of the most unequivocal kind. the composer aims to avoid this misleading use of an untimely perf. ist Movement. Pfte. 31. Moment musical op. in the center). Part I (23 measures in length Prelude. r^zn ~H -3-? . No. Cad. Cad. "Trio" (5-flat signature) first 12 meas. 2. FOLK-SONG. to the 8th measure. No.

-c minor-G maj. (a. Cadence. C-Ab C Eb. No. par. and renders it at one time unable to prevent.) that overpowers the ordinary forcible agency of the Cadence.-ab *" repetition).170 This trait is MODULATION.** at least occasionally. The Material vised in Mus. related keys are (i) the Opposite mode of the : The Remotelysame tonic (for . A superb example of this quality of modulation will be found in SCHUBERT. 288. the student must be reminded key are very important and necessary indeed. 2. tonality. and. 267-269. C . etc.-c min. and its G maj. which is its chief purpose in form. No. 138. See MEXDELSSOHN. In addition to latory design of that changes of what was said in par. of course. paragr. **The same. in does meas. 282. This refers not only to complete. transient ones. " Song very common in repetitions. in all of the Parts (least. which heighten the color of the Phrases. from the end there is a strong perf. as evident repetition of the 2nd half). . n (at the beginning of the 5th meas. . because the 4 following measures are a repetition). Ma. Par. not mark end the of the Cad.) and to these may be added. 281. character. the "sepa" of ration members. because it belongs to the foregoing Phrase. Impromptu op. without Words" No. This evident predominance of the Idea over the technical Detail is an additional corroboration of the justice of the classification defended in the footnote on p. 289. 4 4 (the perf. e. modulations. \vithout cancelling the ruling effect of the principal. (4) all keys accessible through the coincidence of important pivotal tones. it is true. or lengthy. 90. or to its close neighborhood. Composition.. each case it is the unmistakable import of the thematic arrangement (in reference to melody. 94. 88 about the moduthe Second Part. C A. versa) (3) Mediant-keys C-E. Phrase of Coda. but the following member is not a Codetta. 3 (G major) measures 26 to 10 from the end (first instance. but particularly to transient digressions. or dominating. par. on condition of returning immediately (or soon) to the be limited to the of the original tonality. the keys touched in close succession are minor-G. First Part. (c) It is clear that both of the above irregularities of Cadence In are counteracted by the thematic conditions attending them.* but may extend to any Remotely-related ones.) need not even five Next-related keys. MODULATION. etc. in Part I). major C minor. rhythm. and vice versa) (2) the Stride (C and vice The major-f minor. 266.) These modulations (i. and again unable to effectuate." paragr. .

a temporary shifting of the modulatory axis (subject to the above restriction) may constitute one of the best modes of individualizing certain Divisions of the architectural for example. by the latter. and then turn back into For instance if aiming for four sharps. a Group of three Phrases. Humoreske. (c) are : Two very useful general rules of modulation in series (especially a (i. design. or flats or successively decreasing the same. care must be taken not to remain in any other key (whether related to the original key or not) long enough to create the impression of a central or primary tonality at that place. MODULATION. from C modulate into major. or still larger Division. or. . throughout which the key of . it is better to turn back (2) any into some intermediate key. any undue retention of some other key. not by key-note. op. This is illustrated in SCHUMANN. repeated Phrase in the key of "two " Part " six flats II. same direction e. quickly. or of replacing it by a foreign one. and then turn back to four. Any protracted absence from this axis. "Form" (1) Avoid a long series) of modulations successively increasing sharps. and be allowed to prevail as temporary axis of that and the extent of the new key. the principal key. Part I. Jive sharps. in more or less regular modulate BEYOND the desired key. some other key (probably related to the principal one) may be chosen upon entering a new Part. literal Recurrence of Part I). . and its distance from the section original key. 94c. The original tonality. 171 (b) In making more lengthy modulations.* After remote modulation. 88. See par. must be regarded as the AXIS. about which the entire structure revolves. more properly.Par. would have the effect of shifting the axis. some extraneous transition. and would thus tend to destroy the necessary centralization of the keys and chords. flats" prevails. or to pass on beyond it. the Second or Middle Part in the tripartite Hence. forms. than to remain upon the new key. : *It is well for the student to bear in best denned by movements are mind that the fundamental modulatory SIGNATURE. Part III. first Movement (3-Part Song-form with Coda. On the other hand. . in which the composition is written. \vill serve to determine the degree of independence and individuality of the section in question. if possible progression) in the . 20.

26. (a) While it is quite certain that no it definite is a dynamic design can be. No. sforzando. first 20 measures. Coda. "natural scale". less . At (toward the Dominant keys those whose signatures contain one sharp more or one flat less than the original signature). 71. to the analysis of which he As (d) The general modulatory design of an entire composition. exceptions. Ex. Part III. 3rd Movement (strangely meagre representation of the principal key. 2nd Allegretto (the same idea) Movement (unusual prevalence of principal key throughout entire Principal Theme). finale. 47. 95a. then a more or This plan is quite accurately followed in HAYDN. op. Ex. There is scarcely an example to be found in classic music. or a modulatory oscillation between various keys in optional direction and measure and finally. No. etc. to the^"in the course of Part III). For examples of peculiar modulatory design. Jy. not only in the whole. somewhere during the last sections. Both of these must be accepted Par. 3. and auxiliary tone-effects to which these distinctions may give rise rules for (crescendo. subject to many usual. in which this general modulatory line is not more or less completely and emphatically traced. Son.). also Ex. is as follows : the beginning. op. See also MENDELSSOHN. . passing into "one sharp". pianissimo. Scherzo (A|? . a sufficient pause in the original key to then a general tendency upward establish the principal tonality . (in C ding-March . ample digression. op. 75. Son. see MENDELSSOHN. Division. with all their attendant shades of force. 28(4 measures) where it is exhibited on a very small scale. piano. e. 3. given. 3 (Peters ed. an inclination toward the Subdominant keys (those whose signatures contain one sharp See par. the best source of information for the student on this classic or standard musical literature. Symphony No. 72. 61.). Symphony No. 90. largely "one flat"). extending approximately one-quarter or one-third of the entire distance : . 95. but in each independent . as general rules only. 91 contains no modulation whatever. " Wed" Part I begins with a distinct exposition of e minor) .172 THE DYNAMIC DESIGN. of E[?) Part I begins with exposition Pfte. diminuendo. Violin-Concerto. i. C major. forte. 2nd Movement (the same idea). all the fortissimo. . 27. The dynamic design refers to the use and disposition of the various grades of tone-power. 48 (Part I. equally certain . i Ex. point is should devote himself most assiduously. almost regardless of its size. 2nd clause. 2. "Song without Words " No. less or one flat more than the original). or should be. op. up BEETHOVEN. Pfte. THE DYNAMIC DESIGN..

40. It is so obvious that Symmetry is of less importance in musical form than Contrast. 97*. CONTRAST. . Compare par. also. 83. or a theatrical scene. last n measures. and as a means of accentuating the beginning of a new section by a sudden change from/ toforff. (i. 39. to be recognized as the attributes of SYMMETRY and CONTRAST and while variety and unity are originally of equal importance. 91 and 99. beg. Ex. in Ex. so that in proportion to the and magnitude of the design. 86. 96. (b) Hand in hand with these factors. and of emphasizing essential traits of the architectural design. And. MENDELSSOHN. a pp or ff. suggestion in the definite purpose of making a crescendo or diminuendo. 56. 73. 72. See Ex. those go accelerando sostenuto. etc. the dynamic 75 Ex. which acts as a stimulus upon the imagination. the without Words" No. 173 some such design nevertheless exists in every good composiwhether defined beforehand. and of all future quotations. The general effect of these dynamic distinctions is fully enough understood. meno or pih mosso. 56). 76. of Part III Ex. Ex. these same elements are more apt . see BEETHOVEN. CONTRAST. Ex. note *i). Attention is simply called to the change in power as a means of increasing the interest in a repetition (as seen in Ex. Ex. .). the need of the element of Contrast becomes more and more imperative. often almost inseparably. 86. /-SN "Song 4. traits of Exs. Ex. 65. 89. 76. the necessity for Symmetry decreases. note *i). note *2). that some composers deny its claims altogether. 88. measure 13. No. just as the effects of light and shade add vitality and distinctness of character to a picture. But any such extreme . furthermore. the significance of Unity and Variety was demonstrated. 83. shades of expression which refer to the rate of motion. which review.. in their bearing upon the smaller factors of creative structure. Ex. and labor to avoid all evidences of symmetrical structure in their works. much more powerfully than might be suspected before putting it to the test. As the dimensions increase. they gradually and steadily diverge. 90. first Movement. Observe. Ex. Son. a landscape. or from f to : /. Pfte. 2. 64. also measures 25-27. or in the course of conceptive action and it is necessary for the student to realize and correctly estimate the importance of these factors as a means of adding life to the musical image. .Par. 95. 3. In paragr. there is an element of that tion. Q. 74.ritardando. op.

for instance. is guarded. change Pfte. Contrast in Ex. the inference may be drawn that it is not nearly as necessary to preserve equality of size in successive Parts. to restrain all exaggerations of Contrast by constant and serious regard for the vital condition of Unity. peculiarity of | (or |) as a radical metrical difference. 83. to a certain extent. unless the Time. 60 Finale. and have been unavoidably involved in all the foregoing Exercises. in the 5th measure of Part too. etc. i. and. This law is clearly recognizable in all the given details of the Part-forms.. that is suffices here to that duple measure the more graceful species. No. depends upon certain general characteristics. STYLE. and that contrast in style and character will be more pronounced between consecutive Parts than between consecutive Phrases. and a rational degree of formative and logical agreement. Ex. The germs of those distinctions in Style which concern the harmonic (and. 23. how wisely the unity of the -whole 5. 53 Ex. But STYLE. the rhythmic) details of a musical sentence. Barcarolle. But observe. Triple rhythmic group (as of the March. of style No. 9T. Ex. Note the brilliant effect of the Coda in with its change in rhythmic style. No. 3. conception must be condemned. in at the evidences of IS MONOTONY. MENDELSSOHN. he must not forget that THE BANE OF ALL ART-CREATION Glance Observe. Par.174 STYLE. whence. . Unity. in the broader sense of the term. 14 and 15. 48. as it is in successive Measures . Son. II. in each case. at the same time. without Words" No. e. .. Also the interludes in No. : (a) Upon the choice of TIME | . i. are enumerated in par. It is more just to moderate this aim by merely avoiding the obtrusive evidences of Symmetry. to which the attention of the student must now be directed namely . Time The is characteristic effect of each of these it two fundamental observe classes so generally appreciated. 97a. " Song Ex. 2. be regarded . Hence it is that the student should now attention to the elements of variety begin to devote a part of his and contrast and while he . op. how welcome the i. and in the etc.). in a composition where uniformity becomes almost oppressive. 86. and triple measure the There are no other species. and of \ (or J) Time. respectively embodied or | the use of the Duple or Time in the | or of the Waltz. 2 (BEETHOVEN. must scrupulously observe moderation. more vigorous. ist Theme).

43. "Trio" (s-flat signature). rate of speed. "Songs without Words" Nos. major or minor. op. to confine his experiments in "rhythmic style" to those popular forms of which a certain (permanent) rhythmic figure is the ruling element. 3rd Movement (Menttetfo) Momens style. . be it understood) of a primary rhythmic figure * " Andantino " should be used with discrimination. Fantasie. be a deplorable limitation of the student's resources. etc. Of the " Songs without Words " cited above. any consistent connection. Symphony No. "Dictionary of Musical Terms. e. 94. the characteristic distinctions of which are doubtless sufficiently palpable to every musical sense. (d) available Upon at certain RHYTHMIC in peculiarities. 4. 8. up to Prestissimo. Allegro | it should be borne in mind that the given rate refers to the beat in the adopted Time-signature: in . 97d. through Largo. Andante* Allegretto. the respective typical rhythms of the Polonaise. 78. op. No. 21. 8. 1 75 TEMPO. 36. which. Allegro (b) Upon the choice of and Presto. will dictate close adherence to the adopted rhythmic figure throughout the section. The deep significance of this distinction will appear upon comparing MENDELSSOHN. have become composition chiefly characteristic of certain conventional varieties of for example. No. would. In indicating the tempo. 5. 10. The uncertainty which it Time prevails. the prevailing rhythmic figures fix the general character or Also SCHUBERT." . Unity.e. Mazurka. or the 4 Movements of Beethoven's Pfte. traces of the writer's intention of occasionally manipulations (in different : Divisions. (c) Upon the choice of PRINCIPAL MODE. one with another. see For the definition BAKER. " Song without Words" No. while any time and . 36. from Adagio. i. as in MENDELSSOHN. in each one of the 4 Movements. with No. Minuet. Nos. the March. 22. 14. and these again with No. 2. however. on the one hand. and even on to the end of the Song-form. 21. musicals. g. 2. e. but Contrast. observe how. with its equally just and persistent claims. for instance. STYLE. can be dispelled by employing the metronome-marks. etc. Larghetto. op. i.Par. because of a general misunderstanding or violation of this rule. must mean that the Sth-notes pass at an allegro-rate of speed in | the same rate would apply to the quarter-notes. the Bolero. 2.. however. i. 7. of this frequently misinterpreted term.N or 'or j = 6o. No. 23. No. must not be disregarded. in planning and executing the rhythmic design. and 23 bear more or less frequent and striking It were he abandoning the predominant rhythmic motive. Son. and ponder upon the resources of interest and variety suggested by the following . See BEETHOVEN.

A ndanfe con moto. Par. less striking it . BEETHOVEN.less irregular) be adhered to without and.. (It is somewhat akin to the processes described in par. Adagio. longer may incurring monotony inversely. 97d." but he is already entitled to such uses of it as his stimulated imagination may achieve. which a rhythmic figure is. the sooner should it be cxclianged for a simpler figure.176 i. <v>^ U All'gro. A 11. namely : in reference to rhythmic style. the more irregular a rhythmic figure is. r**i=p== =irr^ later : jT^r *=i=p^_*_ ^-^=q^ff==pt^=^ ^ ^ Maestoso. Allegro. (* later : later : The systematic demonstration of this fertile rhythmic process must be deferred until the pupil has undertaken the study of " Applied Counterpoint . The . Original form.) There is one general rule. 2._ Mazurka. later : Menuetto tempo. later: n . the (i. STYLE. e. must be respected. ** later : later : Allegretto. later : Original form. 34. ~2<y and 32. op.-gretto. A ttegro.

and only suggest. than other arts. THIS is NOT THE MISSION OF THE TONE-ART. op. the student must quite as fully realize what Music Music can tiro use and can reflect emotional states. afford that complex of resources out of which the scarcely definable (for convenience called EMOTIONAL) elements of musical thought are evolved. be theoretically classified. any one of a thousand similar material motions. while the tired little soul floats out into oblivion upon the unresolved | chord of the Sub-dominant. 1893." etc. STYLE. . namely: the error of supposing that ^Insic can definitely indicate any object. portray any incident. But it is not possible to foretell which emotional state will be aroused.) certain primary motions of the rhythmic material world. its ethereal and lofty calling.Par. including those given in par. in a " Slumber "-song constant or frequent fortissimi would be inappropriate. pages 124144 Music Review. save in an extremely general way. 12 (" Child falling asleep "). in which the extraordinary widening-out of the chord-forms suggests the distorted fancies of half-slumber. (translated in the " *See the Revue philosophique for Febr. 1894). see SCHUMANN.. And insisting upon its use in the of service of other than intrinsically musical ideas. and should not. 95 and 96. tell a storv. 15. especially the last 6 measures. For example. 177 (e) The well-nigh infinite combinations of the above distinc- tions. or transmit emotional conditions with e~ccn approximate distinctness. sometimes with greater power. and always with more searching keenness." For an exquisite example of appropriate musical suggestiveness." July and August. These resources cannot. and unquestionably mischievous. No. but with only just enough clearness to suggest." its movements. and the subtility of musical impressions is the very attribute which distinguishes the emotional magnetism of Music from all other emotional stimuli. \ fallacy he must be earnestly warned. except as an exposition of " Humor in Music. Music can also roughly delineate and imitate (by its melodic " " lines. He pupil need make no definite effort to apply these general should " bear them in mind " and ponder over them.* At the same : can do This imposes the undeniably binding duty upon the composer. Further. 07e. is a degradation time. express any idea clearly. and robs these impressions of all definiteness. has not learned the pcwer of the gentle Art of Tone ! The truths. it is the duty of the individual student to investigate them for himself and develop his taste and individual style according to what he may discover. of so choosing these accidental elements of suggestion as to avoid incongruity. He who can play or hear this passage without deep emotion. But against one very popular.

or The shortest cadence-extension is the reiteration (perhaps 4 times) of the single final Tonic chord. issue to Par. but an "appendix. it is affixed. and possibly extended as at (i) or (2). probably repeated and extended. and leave the follow peculiar to his own all the given the absorbing and assimilating processes mental organism. (2) The next larger extension consists in a repetition (perhaps 2 or 3 times) of the tivo cadence-chords (V-I). and see also par. it being remembered that a complete perf. not an extension of the given cadence. The primary purpose. and defining the CODA as a SERIES OK CODETTAS. 9Ra. cadence usually precedes the Coda or Codetta. generally repeated. The object and character of the Codetta are defined in which par. length. and "Codetta" signifying "a small Coda. The latter (a series of Codettas) is extremely unlikely to appear anywhere in the course of a composition. 3. The difference between these two terms is solely one "Coda" being the original designation for an indepen- dent ending." The distinction may be formulated with greater accuracy by calling every SINGLE addition at the end (even when repeated and extended) a CODETTA. with all the illustrations. carefully review. In the meantime he is to to the RULES rery letter. less regular ratio to the size of the body of the design to which (a. whereas a Codetta IIKIV l. of extent. (4) The next larger independent ending would be a Codetta of Jour measures. e.. (3) The next larger formation is somewhat apt to be a brief Codetta (i.<n/t/r</ /<> - any sufficiently definite member or Part.) . hence it is safe to say that the term Coda will be applied only to the ending of the %\ hole. even in the course of the design." independent of the latter). These proportions may be approximately graded. about two measures in length. (1) 2. 51. which corresponds to the " Extension of a Phrase-cadence. 27 and par. to mark the limit of the body of the design.178 CODA AND CODETTA. . 32. 98." remains the same through all the grades of dimension in which it is achieved and the or in of will a more or the increase Codetta dimension. as follows. CODA AND CODETTA.

to the Prelude. ." Nos. 2 measures. Nocturne No. 8. In the "Songs without Words. or "Period". with repetition. 3).). 24 the Coda is very long (44^ In No. last 15% measures 19 (4-meas.). be distinctly understood that this entire schedule is only an approximate theoretical table. Nos. and a final reiteration of the last An exact illustration of this tapering form (P- 56? No. BEETHOVEN. and then a Postlude corresponding meas. 3. 25. No. Mazurka measures (Coda of 5 sections: an 8-meas. the smaller grades are all expected But it must to follow. Codetta. see also op. and another of 2 measures (almost certainly repeated and extended). 33. section. repeated.). Codetta. and not necessarily practically binding. 3. Codetta. 6. CHOPIN. 4 and 7. or No. Nos. No. last 32 chord). No. 35 is found in CHOPIN. i. No. e. save as it illustrates an important and generally valid principle. No. the entire "Song" has no more than a brief Codetta. as a rule. in other words. i. 33. 4 times. etc. 2 measures. meas. 98b. 6. i. No. final chord through 3 measures). Nos.. 6 there is first a Codetta. and i for a large Phrase. (4-meas. still broader Coda would consist of an 8-measure (6) Codetta (possibly repeated). one measure. (last 17 meas. 27. repeated. " without Words " No. 2). last measures MENDELSSOHN. Bagatelle op. followed by another of 2 measures (repeated and extended). last 13% measures (4 measures. repeated. i and or for a large Period. 12 (last 12 measures). 2. for the "Phrase". not agreeing with the above schedule.. repeated. 42 (last 15 meas. 13. 2 4. etc. 5. 2 and i of this schedule will suffice. No. repeated. then a 4-meas. Song 30. repeated twice one measure) Bagatelle op. 19 (last No. for an entire 2-Part or 3-Part "Part" " . 10. in order to preserve the tapering form. CODA AND CODETTA. Phr. 7. the formation of the Coda is irregular. Double period. Tonic extension).. with repetition. 14 (last n meas. Codetta. In Nos. In No. 34 No." No. then a 2-meas. repeated. (b) It has already been stated that a Codetta. 33. '79 (5) The next larger formation might be such a 4-measure Codetta (repeated). Nos. 8 (op. n (last 8% 15% measures). then one measure. followed by one of 4 measures (probably repeated). MENDELSSOHN.Par. being somewhat independent of the body of the design. " Songs without Words. may also be independent in . and not by singling out any It special grade . 33. with repetition.). This series of Codettas \vould be termed a Coda. Nos." will be observed that the proportionate length is obtained by adding a higher (larger) grade.). 2 and i. 2-meas. last 28 measures (similar). Bagatelle op. Song-form. 2. No larger form of Coda would be appropriate in A the present grade of forms.

often 14. Far more natural and customary than this. whereas the smaller appendages The following examples are less likely to contain new motives. 9. No. Part I. transposed to the principal key. 32. 12. where. 103). 89$. 3 (Peters ed. however. according to the dimension of the body. u. may need just such corroboration (see par. and examples of a Codetta to the Second Part have already been seen (par. Also a similar example in minor. last 2 measures of HAYDN. in composition naturally in the same way that Part II followed its First Part. But the possibility of thus rounding off an earlier section of the form has been touched upon. 31.l8o its CODA AND CODETTA.). 48. In No. Symph. No. No. It will two different tonalities be observed that in this case the melodic member used will appear in at first in the key or harmony of the Second Part. and Part II. 37 first is . Par. This is more logical for the Coda will follow Part III most usual. 7. Symph. 4. No. A. the Coda is a contracted recapitulation of Parts II and III. 26. . it is a reflex of Part Second. Menuetto. in from the is each case derived or Codetta here the Coda I. 72. it may. 21. 25. and in op. Coda. if independent of Part I. 32). 6. Part I. expand into a Coda. 19. Part I. In Nos. with Coda. 8. 95). it contains more or less new melodic material. "Song without Words" No. 39. " Songs without Words Nos. Symphony No. and . Menuetto. 98). Phrase of Part by "Melody-expansion" (par. usually with repetiThis presupposes that the design of the entire tion and extension. 46 it than is . 29.) with such application of the irregular Cadence-conditions (par. 3.. An example in major. Song-form is somewhat broader than usual. Menuetto. In Nos. 15 it developed out of the end of Part III. In Nos. ff. MENDELSSOHN. (ordinary Complete 3-Part Song-form as in former chapter. will sufficiently illustrate the derivation and thematic character of thematic structure. This is a little more likely to be the case and with larger Codettas. the Coda : " MENDELSSOHN. is the addition of a brief Codetta to the First Part. the Song to contain at least one pp and one A Coda is to be added (par. disposition optional (par. 93) as may be appropriate with greater modulatory freedom (par. Menuetto. last clause). of course. 98c. 44. Codas. and with some dynamic design. 36. EXERCISE 26. 94) . 22 and 43. See Part I. Part I. . in the (c) The most appropriate place for a Codetta is at the end of the entire structure. 4 (MENDELSSOHN). if necessary.

may appear to be the Consequent Phrase or it may be combined out if of the essential members of both Phrases. par. Phr.Par. i. as a rule. 137. Part II is a full-fledged of which there can be no question. See par. the Third Part considerably shorter than Part /. is In the Incomplete (or abbreviated) form. C. however. on the contrary. instead of the whole. in order to fulfil the essential condition of the tripartite design. But is contrasting. An example in Presto tempo. the return to the beginning (par. the conditions explained in par.e. It is evident that this reproduced portion must. and a Coda to the A whole. difference between the a decidedly contracted recurrence of the First Part. Thus : . not even of quantity. include the very first member of Part I. 4th clause). no less than an entire Phrase of A . or if it consists of of dissimilar Phrases. in consequence of reproduc- 99. CHAPTER XIV. no more than the equivalent of Part I in the Incomplete " Part. 96. Sia." about the identity form. if of somewhat striking character. then the first of these Phrases must constitute the body of Part III. is (a) Part III If the First Part a Period of parallel construction. In the Incipient form. as Part III. THE INCOMPLETE 3-PART SONG-FORM. single measure. at least. Optional.. . 99a. apparently. THE INCOMPLETE J-PAKT SONG-FORM. of the latter. while Part III is Song-form is . 97^). l8l similar example in Adagio tempo (par. 84$. ing only a portion. may be sufficient to establish this distinction but. (but simple 3-Part form). and with a Coda. both Part III and Part II are so brief as to constitute together. Part I recurs. the construction of Part I a Group The "Incomplete" and the "Incipient" 3-Part discoverable in the extent (or form) of the Second Part. with a Codetta to Part I. with some regard to B.

182 THE INCOMPLETE 3-PART SONG-FORM.fsai : Par. 99a. -J--4 m . ==? \ BEETHOVEN. 94. For illustration A.

Par. No. 83. SCHUBERT. "Trio" of 3rd Movement. 1 ' 118. 5 (Peters ed. second tempo (4-sharp signature). repeated the first member of Part III is in the " contrary motion " of Part I Part III a Phrase. Part II is also Part III contains only six measures. No. No. 6 (op. of 8 measures. " un poco ineno Allegro. Scherzo (Part III about one-half contents of First Part.). No. 72. besides 3 other (intermediate) measures. : . 43. But. Theme op. 119. 2 (II and III repeated). Part III. Son. 91 (only one measure Such omitted). Theme. 72. sectional form Part III like 2nd half of Part I. No. .). op. 147). will suffice to establish the tripartite design. No. the SCHUMANN. MOZART. This may seem to place Ex. "Songs without Words" Nos. The First Part . Parts I and II . examples. 35. Op. (Part III corresponds exactly to 2nd half of Part I. 2. Andante. as. No. 116. i (Interlude betw. 9. Lyric Pieces. 51. BRAHMS. Son. Period. up to double-bar (both Part I and Part III close with a semicadence). though its Third Part is an indisputable contraction inform. but the construction of the latter is parallel. 82. HAYDN. The 5th measure is derived from the last measure of Part I. and a 6th measure is added for the sake of symmetry. 32. In No. 5. No. 94 in a somewhat doubtful position. Pfte. elaborate Coda). 3). first 44 measures. 4. op. 82 (" Waldscenen "). No. u. At first glance. No. in Phrase-form. No. Praeludium op. Son. for instance. 3. their thematic agreement with the first Phrase is complete. No. op. Part III contains the ist. Finale. CHOPIN. Pfte. 15. No. 2. 183 a full parallel Period. in . 21 measures. 2. No. beginning). first . *i) is 8 measures in length . the First Part is a Group of six Phrases. from Period to Phrase. MENDELSSOHN. 43. op. (b) In some cases the Third Part is only a slightly contracted version of Part I. 16 measures. 3 or 4 of these last measures may seem to be derived from the Co>isc(]nt'?it of Part I but. 99c. but including the beginning. 2nd and 6th of these Phrases. a very few of the I. Op. and extended). 118. See also CHOPIN. Op. 4. BEETHOVEN. 3 (op. followed by Codetta. No. the other hand. THE INCOMPLETE J-PART SONG. Principal Theme (model Second Part. i (Cotta ed. GRIEG. Nocturne No. each case Part III is just one-half the contents of the First Part apparently the 2nd half. 3. up to double-bar (Part I a reg. where Part III does not omit any essential portion of Part I. Pfte. op. 12. 19 (op. in Ex. but including . Mazurka No.FORM. 3. CHOPIN. unless this meagre indication (c) first On beats of Part . if fairly striking in character. "Agitato" Part III derived from second half of First Part. op. as already intimated. . MENDELSSOHN. but always including the beginning. Symphony No. rep. and followed by two Codettas of 8 and 9 measures). Nocturne No. while they correspond to the latter in register only. i) Part I. 20. should be classed among the Complete forms. See also MENDELSSOHN. first 40 measures (Part II an exact reproduction of Part I. but in a different key).

" be followed of a " Return to the beginning by enough consistent " material to fill the just measure of a full-fledged " Part (in the manner come form. Par. A ndante. 102$ and fully developed will not. entirely overFor illustration the impression of a T^zvo-Part design.184 TJIK INCOMPLETE 3'PART SONG-FORM. 99c. <:). par. to be seen in the 2nd and 3rd stages of the it : 95. of itself alone. .

"Trio" of 3rd Movement.) Andante (32 measures. Principal Theme. the latter Incipient 3-Part form. and therefore the form is probably only 2-Part. Two examples. Choose a different kind of Time. No. but the doubt is scarcely reasonable.Par. Almost precisely . 68. Andante (Introduction to Rondo). F-minor Pfte. grade of Tempo.//). it is ushered in the same conditions prevail in the same opus (7). English Suite No. Prelude. if appropriate. less than one-half of its First Part. BEETHOVEN. 28. i. form is surely 3-Part. Prelude 12. Variations.e of so vague that the form is obviously only 2-Part a capriccio (F$). but the the Second Part. Review the directions given in Exercise Add a Codetta or Coda. op. Scherzo EXERCISE 27. It contains. v. in meas. *i) There may be some doubt as to whether this last 4-measure sentence suffices to represent a definite Third Part. and an Introduction. No. Consequently. In BEETHOVEN. 7 Variations in F (P. of the Incomplete 3-Part Song-form. . 185 6. a Third Part is "intimated". on account of the individuality of In the following Prelude (No. firstly. HAYDN. the recurrence of the first member. No. In BACH. In MENDELSSOHN. In CHOPIN. 9. . the intimation of the Recurrence is also vague. 7. Sarabandc. the intimation is a fairly convincing intimation of a Third Part. but. THE INCOMPLETE 3'PART SONG-FORM. a Third Part can hardly be proven. emphatically one of the vital "angles" of the structural design. one in major and one in minor. secondly. 21. Vol. In HAYDN. 14. is . the former is probably 2-Part. there is Part very vague in the Principal Theme. Me. the peculiarly effective dynamic (cresc. Symphony No. Phrase conditions with which mark and. dynamic design and rhythmic style for each. II. Symphony No. MENDELSSOHN. op. 5 measures from the end. to be sure. 2-Part form. op. In SCHUMANN. the intimation of a Third the same is tru. each Part repeated). WINTER). 9 of Part II. MENDELSSOHN. Jug-end-Album. molfo z=*. 22). it is a complete 4-meas. op. the same in BACH. is barely more than an intimation. last clause. i. 7 (F major). No. Theme. but quite distinct in the F-major Division which follows. Well-tempered Clavichord. 6 (Peters ed. 8.

. unquestionably Two-Part. For illustration: m I u I _ ^^ Part ran II. though without reaching the lowest limits of the Three-Part form. in its later course. still larger ing Example (96) is only a bipartite design . then the followand such other. there is quite as evidently no essential change or enlargement of the Two-Part design (see Ex. fall the Second Part has been sufficiently " return " consequence. choice chances to finally. however. strictly form is "understood" through the act an inferior agent is only bipartite. every suspicion of the genuine tripartite form the vanishes. individualized. is scarcely less likely to involve some other. consisting unmistakably of three distinct Parts. because it is no longer a return to the beginning If the : form is If. first 2-PART FORM " seems most The form tripartite is clause. and par. in thus evidently returning. Par. the borrowed fragment I. in asserts itself. a disposition to but. more or less emphatically to the jirst member of Part I. specimens as may be found. 77. 1 OO. If "distinct evidence of a return to the beginning'11 is to be upheld as an inviolable condition of the genuine Three-Part Song-form. later (though equally characteristic) member of the is certain that the form has become richer than the ordinary Two-Part design. 100.1 86 THE AUGMENTED TWO-PART SONG-FORM. 114). later fragment of the First Part. of the ending of Part as is merely a corroboration ending of Part II. . 11. upon some it First Part. as seen in the preceding paragraph. again. The occasional inclination of a Second Part to revert. fragment thus borrowed from Part I is any otlicr than the first member. (Review par. whereby accepted as the representative of the expected one. 96. 65. must be classified among the "Group-forms" (par. because the vital distinction of the wanting. and. without causing any palpable check in the current of the latter. 73)If. but lacking this evidence of a return to the beginning.) For this intermediate design the term " AUGMENTED appropriate. excepting as its presence is to a certain degree of substitution which takes place. THE AUGMENTED TWO-PART SONG-FORM.

" Song without Words" No. THE AUGMENTED TWO-PART SONG-FORM. Part II contains a reproduction of all the First Part. one is tempted. 9. " See also BRAHMS. might be called a Group of (3) Parts. op. so the same reasons prevail for calling it an Augmented Two-Part form. to call this " 3-Part Song-form. 2. 32 a motive sets in (with strong dynamic " new Part ") which probably any emphasis and every other indication of a as a on examination a first would at one. No. BRAHMS." BRAHMS. 18. consisting in the last Phrases 8 measures of Part I). excepting its first Member (2 measures). the Second Part reverts to the ending of Part I without checking its course. *2) Part II is a full Period. 6 (Intermezzo) first 24 measures. Nocturne No. An excellent illustration is to be found in MENDELSSOHN. and not the initial one at all. 10. No. first 23 measures (excellent illustration). . therefore. of a return to the beginning. 28. 3). o/>. but. and without the " Introduction. the Second Part might seem complete without its formal design the addition therefore the latter is really an augmentation of the design. it proves to be the second member of Part I. 3 (op. 73 cannot be denied but there. Song (Part I 20 measures and repeated Part II 16 measures. because the first member of Part I omitted in Part III is much like an unessential Introduction. the third of which is an almost exact recurrence of Part I. and in meas. Under other circumstances. contracted. especially if broader in dimensions. The formal proportions are almost exactly the same as in Ex. up to this point. i. such an example as this. Principal . but the Phrase which follows is not sufficiently convincing . STARK). In meas. The Phrase which follows is not derived from the beginning but from the ending of Part I. op. 8-9 of the Second Part there are strong indications of a regular Dominant-ending. No. and therefore it is not a genuine Third Part. " Trio (signature of 5 sharps). than a TWO-PART FORM. Rhapsody. in substance. The confusing resemblance between this example and Ex. In CHOPIN.Par. and because every other essential condition points to three distinct Parts. 79. Mazurka No. . op. the design must be called Incomplete 3-Part Song-form. followed by an Augmentation." . considering the close affinity between this final Phrase and all the rest of the Song. 116. Pfte. . 100. equivalent in length and form to the First Part. accept genuine Third Part hearing. it appears most accurate to speak of it as an AUGMENTATION of what is actually no more. No.. *i) Old-German love-song (harmonized by L. or augmenting while here. in measures 30-32 the Second Part evinces all the symptoms of coming to an end. See also CHOPIN. Ballad.

of "beginning" as suffices to establish the tripartite design. fills out the remainder of its allotted length (usually at least equal to. or contains no other than such unessential modifications. (MENDELSSOHN. and then. which. and brief extensions. along lines of the approximately parallel with Andante. 1 conduct) of O2a. to constitute a coordinately interesting and essential section of the form.) (b) In STAGE First Part. As a certain fraction or of I section Part reproduces only no more than first or a the such Phrase. "Songs without Words. or. In this line of progressive development. 35. generally portion more commonly. all details Augmented Two-Part form. inde- pendent enough (in original First Part. after doing this. EXERCISE An example of the 28. or any other essential feature of the Part." Nos. the length of Part I) by an extension or expansion of this member.l88 THE FULLY DEVELOPED THREE-PART SONG-FORM. STAGE . a portion of the same. upon the treatment of the THIRD PART. i is (par. 45. as add to its attractiveness without affecting the form. 91 and its context either a literal recurrence of the First Part. the Third Part is an extended version of its a rule. 2. 102b. its First Part. may 1 1 . optional. Par. . 1 O thereafter be elaborated into a its later more or less its individual Part. after having fulfilled the necessary condition of the tripartite design by reproducing the first member of Part /. four stages may be distinguished. if not beyond. For illustration : 97. it literally . 22. THE FULLY DEVELOPED THREE-PART SONG-FORM. CHAPTER XV. 91) here Part III is represented by Ex. finally. 32. The complete development of the resources of the 3-Part Song-form depends.

THE FULLY DEVELOPED T1IKEE-PART SONG-FORM. followed by a somewhat independent Cadence-member.) Presto. Part III abandons the line of the First Part. No. see Original. of Part I is melody almost *2) i The principal (Peters ed. Pfte. on. Theme. and is retained 4 measures. and carries out an interesting extension of the melodic figure of its 4th measure. Prin. 9 (Cotta ed.2: *i) HAYDN. Andante. literally for From here : . to the lower part. *S^HSF= itBKtC -=E?pE r= 8 T T ! measures. Symphony No.).*!) t# . 189 Part II Part III. transferred. lOab. Son.Par. See also HAYDN. in Part III. The Third Part exceeds Part I in length by 2 measures.

42.)- 11 (Reproduction of new member). No. i) Prin. strictly kindred) members in the Third Part is unmistakable. 117. (c) STAGE 3 is characterized by the presence of more or less It emerges naturally radically new melodic material in Part III. MENDELSSOHN. . 62. Incomplete Form. No. BEETHOVEN. ^Ti___i_ i_L>_i_-i. because it is not always possible to determine just the "extension" of the initial portion of Part I digresses enough from its original object to become "new" in effect. Largo. No. 9 (Cotta ed. 46. Codetta. but the general parallelism is so perfect that the actual difference would not be suspected). op. Pfte. Theme (somewhat beyond the 2nd Stage). 2. 43. BRAHMS. is sometimes out of the 2nd Stage. perhaps passing beyond this 2nd Stage. A > T -irf-fjfT1r~ Part ^ V *1) (Extension of prin. in every instance. Part III very minutely with Part I). op. Allegretto. member. Pfte. the same Sonata. No. Cnpt-U ^fez^=r^-c^ = .SSOHV. (compare. Part III contains no more than the first i)^ measures of Part I. No. as in the : following 8. 118. Mazurka i. of course.." No. Prin. 18. op. op. MOZART. 102c. 31. But usually the evidence of really new (though. Nocturne 13 (op. "Songs without Words. *2) ' &*- MRNDKI. No. up to the Minore (Part III very elaborate. '' Par. op. i. Lyric Pieces. 72. 3rd Movement. a Codetta is added). Theme (similar). Nocturne 18 (op. " CHOPIN. 5. the rest of the way 15 measures not a single member agrees literally with the original Part. e.) "Trio" of Menuctto (peculiar example. Son. 7. exact. GRIEG. 3. No. 32 measures (also Part III decidedly shorter than I). etc. . 2).190 THE FULLY DEVELOPED THREE-PART SONG-FORM. 48. and scarcely distinguishable from the when far latter. Son.

Part II 16 measures. CHOPIN. Pfte. and not a passage which found its way into that Part more likely to be the case hence. 26. this device be adopted when Part II is partly "new" in construction (par. a 4-meas. This Quadruple Period. SCHUBERT. sufficiently homogeneous. 6 (op. Subordinate Theme (5-sharp signature). exhausted. 36." brief and Interludelike though it is. 191 *i) Up to this point. (Stage 4. Part III is a literal reproduction of the first Phrase of the First Part. after an imperfect Cad. SCHUMANN. and cannot be. that they can hardly be called a Coda (comp. Pfte. but is. Son. 47 (all 3rd Stage). I. THE FULLY DEVELOPED THREE-PART SONG-FORM. less genuine than the 3rd Stage. but the 4th Phrase is so distinct in style as to tempt the assumption of a " Second Part. Symphony No. op. 8. This 3rd Stage represents the most perfect. first Song. No. but only some characteristic portion. upon an imperfect . Trio of 3rd Movement Symphony No. as will be seen. 14. 50. besides its own member of the Second Part.Par. Menuetto. on the whole. some characteristic the Third Part contains. which is and then an entirely new. In no case will Part III include the whole of Part II. 3. quite commonly adopted. i. 6. 10. contains one further trait of structural coherency. Allegretto. op. 17 of which are BEETHOVEN. Andante. Part III very elaborate and called a followed by a Codetta. BRAHMS. (d) In STAGE 4.eas. 147). and beautiful variety of the genuine 3-Part Song-form and it is. more liable to . example might be of 3rd 118. 3) last 100 measures (comp. 10. op. The may portion thus borrowed from the (foregoing) Second Part be of any extent. Theme. op. SCHUBERT. 3 (Part I 24 meas. from Part is as is . Son. 40 (between the 2nd and 3rd Stages) Nos. i. rightful material.. Movement. "Trio . but its resources are not. Allegretto. op. 37. 2. 102d. I. 94. 3. but the following 16 measures are so intimately related to the preceding members. Op.) See also: MENDELSSOHN. 103. Mazurka 32 (op. Tonic cadence. and extended). member. from a single melodic member up to a . therefore. No. 25." 33 measures. Part I 16 measures. a trifle . but confirmed by reproduction. No. No. at the beginning). 2. 3. No. 76. first " " " Song. then the line of Part I is abandoned. on a f chord. In No. Pfte. first. especially by modern writers. extension of the first figure. 119. No. op. No. or an entire Period to Part II. 82 (" Waldscenen ") No." Nos. with Principal Song. No. the Third Part has a somewhat suspicious break in its i6th measure. see par. Capriccio. par. op. first Song. Momens musicals. first Song (codetta added). Prin. Part II 16 n. and in its place stands. Examples of it are very numerous. 87*?). 93*). richly developed.. Part III " new. *2) In connection with this reproduction of the new member. " Songs without Words. Son. Part III modified at beginning. No. but it must be something peculiar Phrase.

while likely to appear at first in some key to the modulatory design of the Second Part. recur during the course of the Third Part. For illustration : A ndantc. which review). it will. Otherwise it will only become a part before its final cadence. (from Part I).192 THE FULLY DEVELOPED THREE-PART SONG-FORM. Phr. e. . The borrowed member will almost invariably be subjected to a transposition for. U -^^1 HZ Conseq. Finally. Phr. poco raM Part III. I P dim. II. 102d. last two clauses. f J ' >^^ I c / dim. 99. in conforming . -d? Conseq. ^=Fo*4^**=*^ f= ^. 98^. tranquillo. i. I .^^OD tf^ = = > cresc. "V 3. of the Codetta or Coda (as seen in par.__j fJ-x. in order to affect the design. must. Part II. Part be transferred to the principal key. Par.. the member borrowed from Part III.

2 (very broad. it isolation avoid the necessary of any conspicuous passage or member. every member \vhich assumes a sufficiently or striking impressive individuality to attract more than passing should recur more or less exactly. According comes more imperative 1 to the law of Corroboration. 30 (meas. Part III further enriched by an additional member). 13-15 of Part III taken from II) No. 7. & Coda. SCHUMANN. CORROBORATION. In Prasludium op. to the Consequent Phrase of which it almost exactly corresponds. or I Parts and II. W. (it attention. in save in key. large Second Part) Andante . 33. 35. sooner or later. nor a mere extension of the foregoing member (as in Stage 2). with text of both it the capitulation. is Or. Etude No. BRAHMS. r rep. Principal Song. Scherzo. 2. all the conditions of which it fulfils. negatively expressed. This is an unusually striking example. No. 28 the coincidence between portions of Parts III and II is more general than detailed. 193 w.Par. 38 III derived from of Part are meas. MENDELSSOHN. (from Part JT) etc. 35. that the Third Part might be called a contracted recurrence." Compare carefully (par. No. O3. 103. 96. 13 (meas. there is a suspicion of the borrowed portion constituting the beginning of the Coda.) for the sake of thematic confirmation and structural balance. 5-6 of III borrowed from II). No. 68. MENDELSSOHN. " Songs without Words. 41 (similar to the . BEETHOVEN. Jugend. what follows to this point. the law of Unity demands its corroboration somewhere to or other \vithin reasonable limits. but is borrowed from the foregoing Second Part. 5. This rule is action of which must be counterbalanced involved by the law of Contrast (par. of Part II) No. In Nos. which review). the greater the need of hence. io2(f). 4. See also : MENDELSSOHN. so characteristic. 116. No. . No. 2 (" Moscheles-Fetis Method). 4. i (meas. does not much matter when or where. Praeludium op. nor is it new (as in Stage 3). 7. which bedimension in proportion to the increasing of the musical design. 10-19 15-22 of Part III borrowed from Part II). op. op. be it in quantity or quality. Part III pursues the line of the first Phrase of Part I is neither a continuation of Part I with unessential changes (as in Stage i). 10. No. No. No. CORROBOKATION. Corroboration . S." " new " above. No. these two equally important conditions of rational Form are mutually dependent. 2.. *i) Up closely. 6-8 (meas. . " Refact. Symphony No. The greater the Contrast. cantabile in B major. " CHOPIN.Album. See also op. the by that of Corroboration.

It is often the direct cause of the Third Part reverting to some characteristic motive of Part II (par. 4 (the independent BEETHOVEN. reappear later on in the same Retransition 5-6 of the 2nd Sub. . in well-balanced Form. Rondo in A minor (Cotta Th. MENDELSSOHN. 17. ist Sub. . Review par. II. Ex. No. MOZART. perhaps in the Coda. 98. 8itz. 42. when the latter is somewhat independent rigid) rule for the treatment of more general (though not any single member which. of the 2nd Subord.). Many other proofs might be adduced. " Songs without Words. 5-6. It justice of the tripartite designs . Th. 41. 23. No. par. 108. Th. reappears near the end of the Coda meas. in measures is meas. reappears near the end of the Coda the ascending arpeggios in measures 1-2. further on. and utilized if desirable. its Division reappear somewhere. . op. if appropriate. An example (major) of the 2nd Stage of the Fully Developed 3-Part Song-form (par. (in obedience to the demands of Contrast. . ed. " Shun the isolation in confirmation of the classic rule: of any significant or member. finally. in measures 8-9 are marked) of the Retransition after the 2nd Subord. Theme. 54. Th. of the of its Coda from Part First Part. 1 '' EXERCISE 29. Theme. 43.) rises above the level of its surroundings and becomes a salient feature And. Note *2). as fundamental structural law. at the end) No. . and of Reproduction.194 CORROBORATION. recurs in the following Prin. . 91. 38 (the independent rhythmic figure in measures 6 and 7 of Part II. . . 102^. wherein all the Themes the triplet treatment of the principal motive. 75). It demonstrates the logical see par. This very strongly emphasizes the principle of Repetition. i (Cotta ed.' striking . or striking. measures 4-5 the ascending chromatic run in fc-sextolets at the end of the same Retransition. 46. see Ex. are corroborated . see par. being new. Prelude. it resolves itself into a of such a member should. 5 of the ist Sub. 130 may be referred to.. 20) developed at the beginning of the ist Retransition meas. 5-10 of the 2nd Retransition are reflected at the end of the Coda. recurring as Postlude. 93 to 97. Par. 16-18 of the the ^-figure in meas." No. and Introduction. 51. reappearing in Part III). For illustrations of this law.. io2d] or of the derivation . Rondo in C. etc. Add Coda or Codetta. accounts for the occasional similarity between the ending of Parts I and II (par. of an equally convincing character. Par. 6-n of the Coda.

5 (quasi Double period) Nos. with little or no indication of any higher structural purpose or disposition. at inclination assert itself to approaching the design of the Song-forms. THE LARGE PHRASE-GROUP. or a broadly magnified Double or Quadruple period. 10. answering roughly for a First Part." by adding Phrase after Phrase. and in judicious for proportion. Pfte. '95 EXERCISE Two par. the stronger will the mold it into a general agreement with one of the regular designs. referred to. 8.form). is and a relaxation of the enough. 14. importance among the architectural purposes of inusical Form is undeniable. i ("Moscheles-Fetis" method). Review See par. new Part. 6. No. and utilized if desirable. 58. examples (minor and major) of the 3rd Stage (par. Notwithstanding the distrust which the Group-forms and the caution enjoined upon the beginner in their conception and employment (par. Peters). and utilized if desirable. 2. An example (all conditions optional) of the may be referred to. 4. least See CRAMER.) Finale (an introductory Period. HAYDN. followed by two Codettas).form. How which the term " Chain " might be more fitting than " Group. THE LARGE PHRASE-GROUP." may be tested in such Etudes of CRAMER. 103. then 15 Phrases in Chain-form. . 137.Par. 102^)- Par. Par. quasi 2-Part Song. 6 (Cotta ed. 4th Stage (par. when used easily possible it is positive rigid lines of the primary designs) in the proper place. 78 (quasi 2-Part Song-form). and thus to give to the otherwise almost inevitably incoherent series a more recognizable shape. positions. and without diverging from the original character to such an extent as to indicate a to obtain a long line of Phrases. EXERCISE 135 31. Etude No. Etude Nos. 104. and other similar com'' But. 133 may be. final clause). i. iO2c). Nos. 7 (quasi 3-Part Song. CHOPIN. the longer the "Chain" becomes. these are simply Phrase-Chains. 30. Son. examples as the Pfte. No. and their value (if for no other aim than that of variety. without pausing to sever the connection. 13 (original complete edition. their peculiar 1 O4. . arouse.

first tempo (quasi 3-Part Song-form. a brief thematic Phrase reappears several times. 5. No. . Vol.) The general I rule for these repetitions is as follows . 13. . quasi Double period. SIMPLE REPETITION OF THE PARTS. quasi Double period). or it !|| be unessentially modified. Coda). Vol. 4. 6. possibly with ist and 2nd ending). BACH. marks may will be used. or a sufficiently attractive. or both. 38. No. 103. 5 (quasi Double period. (a. extended). From these. op. but only in with Part III. The questions Whether to repeat or not ? Whether to repeat exactly : and. 2 CHAPTER XVI. 15. Prelude 6 (quasi 2-Part). 1O5. in various keys and styles). I. 119. I. 21 (quasi 2-Part) Vol. 2. i. GRIEG. a simple sentence will call for more elaborate alteration than a complex one. Vol. Furthermore. and the 2nd Division (consisting of Parts II and III thus together] likewise . 23. * BRAHMS. 116.196 SIMPLE REPETITION OK THE PARTS. applied to the Divisions. 2. : Part company In other words the ist Division (consisting of Part I) may be repeated. Op. and (2) upon the necessity of emphasizing or confirming a somewhat complex. THE EVOLUTION OF THE FIVE-PART SONG-FORM. See also par. the general principle will be inferred that the advisability of repetition depends: (i) upon the simple requirement of dimension or proporor not ? tion. Well-tempered Clavichord. The growth of the ordinary tripartite Song-form into a correspondingly legitimate form of FIVE PARTS is initiated by the simple condition of REPETITION. No. Lyric Pieces op. Part I (7 Phrases. "which review. Preludes i. 116. of these Division-repetitions may and the repetition may be exact (in which case repetition. with long and distinct Coda). II. Prelude 20 (quasi 3-Part) . Par. How little or how much unessential variation to introduce ? are touched upon in par. op. No. if the latter. 105a. of the 3-Part form. (Intermezzo) non troppo presto (6 Phrases. Prelude 10 (probably 2-Part Song. occur Either one alone. BRAHMS. : (See par. sentence. : may be repeated alone Part II should not be repeated alone. (simple Chain of Phrases). I.

118. ELABORATE REPRODUCTIONS OF SECOND DIVISION. 81. SCHUMANN. Scherzo. op. No. 31. 15 op. 12. may be applied here. concern the manipulation of simple . Song-form. Son. for any other evident reason. MENDELSSOHN. Nocturne 2 (op. 106. both " SOHN. No." Nos. 2. Lyric Pieces. MOZART. does not tend . 27. 7. No. 55. which II and III together) repeated. BRAHMS. Polonaise No. 37. in par. 43. distinctly irregular. 26. 37. Other. HAYDN. 12. 4. and 45 GRIEG. op. Divisions are repeated -with modifications. 197 (b) The rule against the repetition of the Second Part alone. 53. op. No. 9. 84) or when the repetition. No. 130. Pfte. 137. GRIEG. 5. second tempo (C major). Lyric Pieces. No. while quite strict. op. 3. No. No. 43. 94. with unessential variations. 94. 14 (Cotta ed. first 56 measures. op. 2)." Nos. 19. . op. 4. (1) of Part /. beginning with the form and leading up to the genuine 5-Part Song-form. 84.) EXERCISE 32. 46. followed by additional retransitional material (as in Ex. 5 (b minor). 3. 9. BEETHOVEN. 8 meas. (3) Both Divisions are literally repeated in BEETHOVEN. Nocturne 3. 23. 89. Pfte. Momens musicals " Trio" CHOPIN. Finale (Rondo) first 62 measures. Son.) . i. op. Son. " Songs without Words. or \vhen the repetition is 91) . first tempo. see MEXDELSSOHN. Son. 38. Parts See par. 85. in any sense. 3 (final extension added). first 48 measures. i) Principal Song. Songs without Words. 78 and Ex. O6. in MENDELSwithout Words" No. op. etc. ii (Cotta ed. if deemed desirable. (6) Finally. SCHUBERT. see Exs.). 6. "Songs without Words. Adagio. The tripartite entire line of development.) Andante. (5) Modified repetition of the second Division (Parts II and III) will be found in MENDELSSOHN. are shown . 16. No." No. 99. Momens musicals op. i). i. " Songs without Words. HAYDN. CHOPIN. n (op. does not. 8. No. 38. Pfte. 5 (op. both Mcnnetto and its "Trio". An example of the 3-Part 2. Son. Song Adagio. 118. No. No. 29. "Songs without Words" Nos. op. CHOPIN^. No. 2. No. SCHUBERT. (2) An exact repetition of Parts II and ///takes place in MENDELSSOHN*. MORE ELABORATE REPRODUCTIONS 1 OF THE SECOND DIVISION. No. Lyric Pieces. Nocturne 13. to sever the connection with Part III. No. 6. 12. Pfte." Nos. 21. 4. Nocturne 15 (op. No. op. first 48 measures. op. No. Son. Nocturne No. 48. 6. (Cotta ed. 7. Pfte. (4) For illustrations of the repetition of Part I -with unessential modifica" tions. No. is not infrequently disregarded when the Part is small (as in Ex. 44) first 78 measures (introd. See par.Par. For illustrations of exact rep. cases of the repetition of Part II alone. No. Mazurka No. each Division (Part I alone. BEETHOVEN. 2. . GRIEG. MENDELSSOHN. Pfte. 5. op.

and as "repetition effectuates no actual advance in structural design. As nothing beyond the idea of simple Repetition is herein embodied. or unessentially modified. as indicated in par. though not necessarily. into some closely related key. according to the method of treatment adopted IN REPRODUCING THE SECOND PART (a. the Part is transferred bodily. " form must be the term " 3-Part adhered (b) In Second Part STAGE 2. 105. Retransition. *1) : ' Part TL . already. a certain interval upward or downward usually. For illustration : Part Presto.198 ELABORATE REPRODUCTIONS OF SECOND . definable as follows. v~etc. Par.) The IST STAGE in the evolution of the 5-Part form is represented by the exact. " Five-Part " the term Song-form may be adopted." see par. consisting complete. Par. lOCb. possibly special. Here. because of the (presumably) complete cadence at the end of the Third Part. last clause. I. It but refers exclusively to the reproduction of Parts runs through five successive and clearly distin: guishable Stages. with or no further change. gor. whether modified (unessentially} or not. . 21. repetition of the second Division (irrespective of the treatment of Part I). 8 measures. or "Four"). DIVISION. the First Part JI and III. and illustrated in the fifth set of references given above. (Period. And the return to the original key can easily be accomplished during the usual. - There will be no difficulty in making the modulation into the new plane. This transposition of the Second Part may be partial. see~ Original.) 1OO. which the transposed version of Part II is to follow. to in this ist Stage. little In the latter case. a more significant alteration of the original is made (upon the reproduction of the latter as Part in its recurrence in a different key.

1 etc. * N v >* -yetc. (recurrence of 111 ). Extension IQO 7-:?-?- G Retransition. I GI Part III.. . Extension. *2) V A Minor. i see Original.Par. (transposed recurrence of Part II. (Group of 3 Phrases). see Original. complete). . MENDELSSOHN. 106b. Part IV. ELABORATE REPRODUCTIONS OF SECOND DIVISION. *3) Part V. EI Retransition.

Part IV sets out . 5 measures. and pursues the melodic line of the latter quite closely for but closes just as Part II did. here the same Retransition is again utilized. Par. the last 3 measures of which recur literally. See CHOPIN. affecting the second half (two measures) of Part IV. No. transposition not literal. whereupon a skip of four measures occurs. 99) No. and the method of regaining the original The Fourth Part ends upon E. 24. 72. the idea of "transposition" still prevails. more radical. 12 (" Abendmusik "). 3( Allegretto. Part abbreviated.2OO *i) *2) ELABORATE REPRODUCTIONS OF SECOND " DIVISION. the transposition is only partial. Part IV begins a step higher than the Second Part does. " RUBINSTEIN. alone. but constant. original melodic line is regained. at Note *4). IV may be a step higher than Part II the transposition that the Parts are of exactly similar length. 14. 106c. but constant. the transposition is not literal. SCHUMANN. In No. Song without Words" No. but affecting the entire Part. only excepting in measures 8 to 10 (chiefly during the " extension "). properly See MENDELSSOHN. Part II distinct and repeated Part III also repeated. until. and expands. are displayed. Le Bal. then the melodic line of Part IV may either be so conducted as to return at some point (gradually or abruptly. the for i)^ measures. If. leading abruptly back into the original melodic line of Part II. Part IV begins a fifth lower than Part II does. the transposition of Part II (as Part IV) is not to extend uniformly through the entire Part. of Part II however. at the . \ time). Part IV lies a 4th above the Second Part . Mazurka No. upon G. is not literal. which is a 3rd higher than the corresponding measures the change of key spreads slightly beyond the limit of the Part. 13 of Part IV. no. then digresses. the purpose modulatory line. and involves the first chord of Part V. (See par. 5. the original location. See MENDELSSOHN. MENDELSSOHN. . 34. (c) In the 3RD STAGE. to other. beginning of Part IV but the change of key gives rise. but it gradually keeping with the nature of the figure. The entire Second Part is transferred bodily downward a 3rd . then again abandoned then so guided as to close precisely as Part II did. 43. 44. 33 . in admirable than before. and adheres to this interval of transposition up to the gth measure. and In "Song without Words" No. Contredanse. "Song without Words" No. likely to be the case. Principal Song. op. or otherwise so manipulated as to lead into the key of Part V. and the transposition is literal. or as proves most convenient) to the original line of Part II as is somewhat more . Bnnte Blatter (op. naturally. *3) At this point. changes in the thematic structure of the Part." No. which sometimes assume significant proportions. for a longer or shorter period. "Song without Words" No.) . op. is reached. so in meas. a 3rd lower shifts upzvnrd. 14.

in meas. adds 3 "new" measures. then diverges. imitates the conduct of the Second Part for a while. a shorter and (d) In the 4TH STAGE in the evolution of the 5-Part Songform. 19. MENDELSSOHN. so that a more or less palpable resemblance between the This is two versions is preserved. 17. both ending with the same complete cadence. Nocturne 8 (op. then diverges. Part IV more emphatic Retransition. but soon diverges. Son. Part I repeated. imperfect cadence . closes in the 7th measure. Part IV begins exactly as Part II does. Part III contains only the first half of Part I. parillustrated in dynamic design. Finale. This intimation is almost vague Parts" a Coda. Praeludium op. extends and adds new material. 18). and then leads back to the beginning with CHOPIN. follows. No. or a different one). but modulates into a similar imperfect enough to justify No. 28. the (e) In STAGE 5. namely : A . the Fourth Part no longer adheres strictly to any portion of the melodic line of Part II (in the same key. is conducted along lines corresponding generally to the former contents and style of Part II. extending the given material in an independent manner. but is longer and more elaborate than the latter." ticularly. ELABORATE REPRODUCTIONS OF SECOND DIVISION. and resembles the latter most closely in its later course. finally. Part IV also starts out with an enharmonic change. and ends with the semicadence at that point. 35. then a 2nd below). reconstruction. however. lOGe. transposes. SCHUBERT. perhaps more accurately. Observe. omitting all the rest of Part II. Etude 17 (orig. a new title might be adopted. Part IV utilizes two measures of Part II. be . Arabesque (op. This last example might. indicative of its characteristic and inviolable derivation from the tripartite design. the fully developed. 27. Part III has exactly the same melody. thus inaugurating the transposed recurrence of Part IV.Par. with an enharmonic change. 4 meas. and leads into an intimation of the First Part (as Part V). "Song without Words" calling these two a small Period. CHOPIN. 2). Part IV is very much longer than Part II. Part I is " cadence. and consists of two similar Sections. but This is a completely "reconstructed" recurrence of the latter. as a natural consequence. compl. follows the melodic line of Part II quite closely for 8 measures (at first a 6th above. and. Part II admirably begins. Part I 9 measures. 2O1 for 4 measures. 10 (Br> major). 17. Form. See further. SCHUMANN. all and Part IV becomes a distinct palpable resemblance disappears. CRAMER. notwithstanding their For this. 95). of this composition (par. No. No. also. first 73 measures. closing with an imperfect cadence.. independent of the Second Part. and individual member of the form. a long Retrans. 5-Part coincidence of purpose. edition) Part IV is much longer than Part II. " Minore I. classed among those of the 4th Stage. 2 (D major). No. to considerable length. Prelude op. Pfte.

" Nos. exhibited in Part V. Humoreske (op. . and elaboration Part. for obvious reasons. 19 and 24. perhaps becoming longer Sia) progressive and more elaborate of the three versions (comp. 23). then adopts the whole of Part II. may be in par. on . 8 it is enriched by the addition of new material. 8.2O2 3-Part form with TREATMENT OF PART two FIVE. paratively independent version of the original in the Part ratio. Adagio of the Sonata (Cotta ed. it is equally consistent. In MENDELSSOHN. 34 and 23 it is extended a trifle at the end in No. . 16) No. III and V. 990:. the First " Statement " (par. 14). while the Fifth Part returns to the original form and reproduces Part I almost literally. 35. No. 48. Pfte. Part V reproduces a larger portion of the First Part than the Third Part does (which is unusually brief). und zart" same work. but without . CHOPIN. Part V is exactly like Part III. These two examples are both unusually broad in design. Parts I and V repeated. TREATMENT OF PART FIVE. 35)." especially in lengthy compositions. (n another volume. and d (and V . Le Bal(pp. 6. the other hand. 2. 15. i. 11 Fantasie and Sonata" in c minor. No. 8ia). Par. Hence it is possible that Parts I. " " middle different " second (or ") Parts. Contredanse. 4. No. 5. " Innig" . Son. and therefore it is likely to corroborate Part III. in No. Mazurkas. it is not necessary that it should correspond exactly All the various modes of treating the Third Part. enumerated of. " Einfach Nachtstucke (op. par. in Nos. " RUBINSTEIN. i. to abbreviate the third "return. No. c). 4. 18). MOZART. BEETHOVEN. may all differ in treatment. IO2#. disturbing its own continuity. 2. Kreisleriana (op. See SCHUMANN. the Fifth Part is an additional " rettirn the beginning (or da capo). par. In MENDELSSOHN. 2. (op." Nos. Nos. (op. b. 30 (long Coda). and then adds new material. "Departures" in par. 20). Praeludium. " Songs without Words. irrespective of the species of manipulation previously chosen for the Third Part. " to the second Division. 6. op. 16) No. Son. and approach a certain grade of the Higher Forms in connection with which they will again be cited. while essentially corresponding in contents. 48 it is a slightly variated recurrence. 2 " Piu lento" of Scherzo (Parts IV and V repeated). though less usual. 14 it is considerably changed and extended in No. Part III is an extended version of Part I. b. Kreisleriana . But to the latter. op. 13. 53) but. each representing a comc. the several stages of divergence from. or It is the type of the Form explained (par. In SCHUMANN. 124. 107. Pfte. . In all of the above cases of modified reproduction of 1 O"7. Adagio.

in par. and by some modern. these attenuated. does not appear at all. but kindred. the old-fashioned Rondeau often embraced three and even more different. 6 and 9. composers to the system of musical designs.Par. because. followed by as many recurrences of the First Part (" da capos "). Thus. 115. in connection with each ensuing This idea was quite frequently carried still farther. Son. AND y-PART FORM. pages 116." Illustrations be found in " Les Maitres du Clavecin" may (Litolff ed. nate Theme (3-sharp . Maitres du Clavecin" Vol. each in One-Part form. Partita II. AND THE 7-PART FORM. a THE OLD-FASHIONED RONDEAU. . RAMEAU. Vol. for reasons incidental to the Higher Form of which it is a portion. io6d and e. correspond in design to the most common the i a form that was in vogue in species of the "Rondeau. unlike the SCHUBERT example. and with every indication In SCHUBERT. consequently. V somewhat similar omission of Part V (the final da capo) occurs." and i8th and centuries. J. FRANCOIS COUPERIN. OLD-FASHIONED RONDEAU. "Departures" (or "Counter-themes"). 144 (three departures). older writers . that of multiplying the "Departures' the original Statement (Part I). plainly." BACH. the First Part is repeated with a characteristic change of ?tvle after Part III is closed. PH. of genuine purpose but upon approaching the end of Part II (IV) the purpose is abandoned. op. yth subsequently developed into the more elaborate modern " Rondo. Part . Vol. 158. "Return. p. Part IV differs from Part II. Rondeaus by J. pages 142. it has given rise to a form which. Pfte. compactness and true beauty of form. though here it is less convincing. 148. PH. (b) The fundamental idea that has been seen to result in the 1 ' 1 enlargement or growth of the tripartite design into one of five from Parts. Subordisignature). 10 (Bj> major). "Les tures). "Rondeau" (three departures).). 4th and 5th Stages of the Five-Part Song-form. with an eye to mere than to length. must be denominated the "SEVEN- PART SONG-FORM. These examples will be cited again. 126 (three deparSee J. In SCHUMANN. and. 82. II. RAMEAU. II. Nos. . it must be observed. 108b. concentration restlessly stability of musical architecture. a similar repetition of the second Division is started with the same change of style. is. by more. 1 O8a. Andante Movement. same publication. 2OJ No." and Fortunately for the purity. by analogy with the above. S. The explained in par. II. In its application by later.

Stage 2 (par. endeavor to SKETCH HIS WORK RAPIDLY. Reference may be made to par.. io6). EXERCISE 33. . after the main design is fixed. but must estimate them as very structural plan. 4 measures. are very rarely adopted. VI. 132. transposed. be made. THE IRREGULAR PART-FORMS. No. No. See SCHUMANN. it is wise to fill out as much of the details as possible with all necessary accuracy at leisure. io6e). 23). and abstain from their too frequent use. may be made. while being accepted and The pupil can not afford be -sanctioned. Application of par. e. 134. whose only logical justification is that of alternation. or 135. Same opus (23). . There are a few other varieties of these musical designs (consisting in the association or compounding of "Parts") which violate one or another of the essential conditions of the regular and must. io6c). B. An example may par. n. of Stage 3 (par. 2. O0. if desirable. Nachtstucke (op. See par. 95. may D. The pupil should. and as many da capos). SCHUMANN. Application of par. par. y-Part Song-form (i. unless his musical disposition be such as to render such a desirable process impracticable or insurmountably difficult. 107. 4 measures IV= II . therefore. In any event. 90. 6 measures. 109. 129. principal Part. Application of C. qualified as "irregular. Par. 107. example of Staged (par. pars. hereafter. See par. the 3rd departure (Part VI) identical with the first one (Part II). 107. V. revolving structural designs. 4 measures II. y-Part form. 133 An An example of Stage 4 (par. No. . VII. 107. . Tare. See par. Review pars. 89. i. 96. followed by a long Coda in which even Parts VIII and IX are intimated. 137. or 130. An example of the 5-Part Song-form. 2 measures III. 5 measures. be made. measures 25 to 51 7-Part form on a diminutive scale (Part I. CHAPTER 1 XVII. a with 3 different and distinct "departures.204 THE IRREGULAR PART-FORMS. followed by Retransition into the Principal Song)." to remain in ignorance of them. 88. 15. op. 87. See par. io6^f). A. all detailed conditions optional. especially the PRINCIPAL MELODIC LINE OR LINES. The student of musical FORM should shun their imitation." parallel Period.

op. 2. 2. the extent. But a harmless transis nevertheless conceivable under the following conditions position That the beginning of Part I is of so striking a character (1) in melodic. with meas. 3 (Part III in Subdom. and That a return to the is decided effectuated principal key (4) during the course of the Third Part. (2) That Part III appears just where it is expected . 110. 205 THE TRANSPOSED THIRD PART. meas. n. i). 1-2) Pfte. 37 (first . 23 (comp. No. 41. (3) That it appears at nearly. of the Part. or all. 118. is naturally hazardous. (op.par. of which they are the "contrary motion"). 10. 55. in this phase of beginning. meas. 1-2. March in ^f-minor. with first measure. 3. measures 41-42 (comp. Further. Mazurka 46(meas. Nocturne 16 SCHUMANN. 4. 119. 119. d minor. 1-3) op. with meas. measure of Part III). op. op. with meas. The transposition may extend through the entire Third Part. despite the change of key . 27-28 (comp. affect its but will always. second tempo (4-sharp signature). the end of Part II should be plainly recognizable. 1-2). MENDELSSOHN. 6. of which they are an " augmentation "). Songs Words. SCHUMANN. No. 2. THE TRANSPOSED THIRD PART. or vice versa. 2. Bunte . 4. with meas. because the resumption of the original key (after probable absence from it during Part II) is quite as vital an indication of the Third Part. measures 25-26 (comp. Pieces. \\Afulllength. 88. with meas. 36. next-related) Tonic is chosen . 82) No. key) Arabesque. or through only a portion of irregular form. 117. of Part III as paves the way to the deliberate transposition of a section. 24-25). but simply changes the mode from major to minor. and are repeated here for " renewed reference: without Nos. with meas. i. op. A da capo. 118. op. have been cited in the notes to Ex." 40. . 99). But usually some other (almost invariably most frequently the Subdominant. 9) meas. No. rhythmic or harmonic respect. No. that its recurrence is in : sufficiently convincing. 27-30 (a third . meas. 59-62 (comp. These various conditions. No. Illustrations of such "tampering with the beginning" In some cases the transposition of Part III does not affect the original Tonic. 1 1 O. it . and the modulatory relation of the transposed Third Part. No. . higher than first Phrase of Part I). as is the recurrence of the first melodic member. and context. 51-54 (comp. are illustrated in the following : Blatter (op. meas. BRAHMS. or quite. 1-4). 18. " Minore II " (Part II very independent). No. or recurrence of the First Part. No. Waldsccnen (op. meas. CHOPIN. 34-36 (comp. meas. No. concerning the manner. Balladen op. same work. beginning any other than the principal key.

. 55). "Trio" (four-sharp signature. Part III begins Subdom. one-sharp signature. Finale. (Part V transposed. 29. VII (particularly pars. No. key. op. CHOPIN. THE GROUP OF PARTS. e\)-a\)-B'v Part V. 111. And it is not infrequently involved by some modulatory design extending through an entire 5-Part Form. Pfte. Adagio. BEETHOVEN. (Part III begins in Subdom. Sometimes this transposed recurrence is applied to the Fifth Part (par. movement IV. distinction INCIPIENT STAGE. very elaborate Coda. Sonata. . CHOPIN. less complete . 2). . Etude op. either in consequence of principles of logical continuity thematic independence and diversity. "Group" may justly is initiated by all such liberties in the structure of the Second Part as tend to isolate it from its fellows. 78. 5^ 59) between the regular. " Trio " of Menuetto. Sonata. 30-69. GRIEG. Symphony No. Part III. : . 107). op. op. and reproduced in original key. meas. 22. in BRAHMS. as usual. Funeral March. <fy-<fy-F. the "Parts. and follows the First Part closely for four measures. 8. 16.). i. Prelude 22 (the same Part II begins in meas.2O6 THK GROUP OF PARTS. 3 (Parts III and IV transposed Part V again in original key quaint modulatory design). extended. . Thus. a\}-d\>-E$). op." even in the 3-Part form. similar). Vol. These last two unique examples should be carefully examined. No. SCHUMANN. Par. with so little regard to the loosely connected and cohesion. No. 90. "Intermezzo" (key-scheme Part I. key. No. INCIPIENT STAGE. 3. 25. then becoming more independent). Fantasie in G. Symphony 12 (Peters ed. 26. first tempo. 2. 4. Impromptu. 14. String-quartet in A. SCHUBERT. and the more group-formations. 5. No. Prelude 9.. coherent forms. Parts II and III repeated. "Trio" (one-sharp signature. i. II. 38. HAYDN. quasi 7-Part form. the Parts very broad. with Coda). op. Faschingsschivank op. op. Menuetto. Part III the Opposite mode of Part I for 4 measures) Impromptu op. 116. Part III begins in the Subdominant key). The 57 made in chap. may be extended to the Part-forms also. (Part II ends on Dom. measures 72-103. Finale^ op. 37. Pfte. or of more or separation by a full cadence. No. . No. that only the term This disintegration of the form be applied. are sometimes so loosely associated. BACH. Nocturne 12 (op. Vol. Moments musicals op. Vol. 94. 111. Well-tempered Clavichord. II. first Theme. Part III in meas. 36 a unique example. Codettas). I. Prelude 19 (in each case.

116. Compare par. 88. An Indirectly analogous to the Transposed Third Part no). 32. i. Finale. Mazurka No. op. Pfte. but chiefly for its modulatory design. Son. (b) in direct A REPETITION OF THE SECOND PART ALONE often OCCUrS consequence of such distinctness of character. BRAHMS. 21-38. 16) No. Compare par. 28. sequential reproduction of First Part. No. Such daring experiments as this are for the pupil's amazement. is 7. 1050. cadence in the principal key. No. op. No. No. closes ^vith a perf. followed. . 124. (op. or by complete detachment (at the cadence) from Part III. 4. agitato Prel. 124) 5. In BRAHMS. op. meas. 2. and par. 32-57. and GRIEG. THE GROUP OF PARTS. (par. SCHUBERT. GRIEG. 15. Son. . modified sequence of Part I. Nocturne 4 (op. OR TRANSPOSED. Two-Part form. No. 14. the Second Part is thematically almost identical with Part I. No. 24. not only because of the (apparently uncalled-for) repetition of Part II. Finale. Pfte. No. inti- par. 73-124 (Part II repeated and extended. Fantasie in G (op. meas. 91 of this book. 6. Ex. caused by striking difference in style or thematic structure. 4. 33. op. op. but radically different in style. the distinct Second Part is followed by quite an elaborate Retransition. each of the three Parts. 38. Albumblatter (op. a process which also militates See against the stability of the structure. For illustration. meas. op. In BRAHMS. are exhibited in the following : SCHUMANN. but it is here. 2. Pfte. 2) pit* CHOPIN. 2). Kreisleriana CHOPIN. and 105$ . found in BEETHOVEN. Vol. a 2-Part form with Codetta. not for his imitation he must defer them to the period of his most absolute maturity. 17-32. Finale. Prelude No. 31-49. first 32 measures peculiar. (a) Cases of UNDUE ISOLATION OR DISTINCTNESS OF PART II. see: BEETHOVEN. Nocturne 10 (op. No. 90. Part II sequentially reproduced (a third higher). No. 2. by a slightly modified sequence. REPRODUCTION of one or another of the Parts. BACH. 78) Andante. 38. 3. including Part II and its repetition. op. SCHUMANN. 62. of these irregularities have 112. 117. No. reproduced bodily a half-step higher. through its entire length. in the next 19 measures. i. 103.Par. . : 113. n (F major). BRAHMS. Bagatelle op. is the SEQUENTIAL. Well-tempered Clavichord. 113. op. to enumerate them more specifically. Some mated in already been necessary. II. 2. INCIPIENT STAGE. Third Part extended by elaborate transposed reproduction. Son. CHOPIN. 15. No. Two-Part form. meas. op. op. followed by a Retransition). No. op. 24. i). No. second Subject (one-sharp signature). extraordinary example . 118. in meas. 87^. last clause. in Nocturne 18 (op. No.

suggestive of the foregoing Parts. 9. i6-measure Double period. this irregular design is adopted. Such examples of the Group-form as are thus limited It is far it to three Parts. AND EXTENDED. 8-meas. but unquestionably independent of them). are. 8-meas. No. Mazurka 34 Parts. and Codetta. 3 (four Parts and Coda. 19. thus: I. becomes complete identified as such by and by the foregoing cadence) does not in any sense correspond to the First Part. 32. Mazurkas. CHOPIN. repeated. 8. but in this case there is no more than a trace (in the last measure) of such a compensation. 3. Kir. the specific principle of the tripartite forms is manifested by a "return to the beginning" (Part I). represents an ostensible 5-Part form (Part III like I) with omission of the final da capo (Part V). Review 69^. very rare. 82. with introductory Part (four in all). II. Nocturne 5 (op. AND EXTENDED. finale. 119. 2) No. however. Parts II and III similar. Mazurka No. (Part I. . in one of the later Parts. and is repeated. Such deficiencies are usually made partly good in the Coda. No. VII each Part repeated). 9. Part IV like I). when four or more Parts. its when Part member Three (unmistakably style. 15. I (six Parts. no other epithet than "Group" can See properly be employed. No. and occasional presence. VI like II.). with strong perf. cadence on original Tonic Part III. For illustrations. Coda). 39 II. . 3 (five Parts. the possibility. par. four distinct Parts. especially. 94. Nocturne 6. 9 (Peters ed. 7. and 70. Bagatelle op. each Part . Mazurka 35 (seven like I. quite frequently. of which the above paragraphs exhibit the incipient stages. Momens musicals op. 14. Part IV like I). In this case. IV like I). I). SCHUMANN. III. Comp. GROUP OF PARTS. Part V like I). Papillons (op. Part II. III like I followed by a Fourth Part which embraces a transposed recurrence of Part II. and Coda. Nos. 1 15. No. and 41 (four Parts. 27 (five Parts. repeated.2O8 GROUP OF PARTS. "dissolved" and extended. 1 4. with Codetta-extension). is almost precisely the same. And. No. to extend to more usual. 82). 21. . 2). principal Theme. In the Papillons (op. Nos. 20 (five Parts. 2. of an independent Coda to the Group may be demonstrated. 3. V like I). each repeated. 8ia. SCHUMANN. 6. DEVELOPED. No. Period. Nocturne 9 (op. No. VI like III. Period. Symphony No. . Mazurkas. For such a series of three independent Parts. generally the last one. i peculiar Parts I to III regular. : HAYDN. SCHUBERT. Op. 1 The disintegration of the regular Song-form. the form is ostensibly 3-Part. 115. see : BEETHOVEN. four Parts. VII reproduced. DEVELOPED. Waldscenen (op.

like III. io6#.Par. example of the 3-Part Song-form with transposed Third Part Choice of key optional. Apply par. op. and the transposition may extend through the whole. first stage. 115. B. See par. or 131. or 130. of Part I. 137. . no). 129. or only a portion. par. An One example of the Group of Parts. III like I. Apply par. 115. 133. DEVELOPED. 76. interpolated Part EXERCISE A. 5 (six Parts. V like II. No. the form is quasi 5-Part. GROUP OF PARTS. with after Part III). 34. 209 BRAHMS. AND EXTENDED. VI Coda. according to par. (par. brief Capriccio.

is the exception. e. THE SONG-FORM WITH ONE 1 "TRIO. 91. in which each "Part" has expanded into a complete 810." Compare par. (in the Gavotte). IIT. than the rule. "Fris" or "Friska" (after the " Lassan " in the Hungarian Czardas). but 116. Thus. Par. the successive Song-forms were sometimes simply numbered r composers " ." IT. Thus. is " SUBORDINATE SONG." "Musette" Alternative." many others are employed by different to indicate the Subord. the Prin." conformably with the ruling principle of all tripartite designs. The with less stringency. THE COMPOUND SONG-FORMS. "Song-form. DIVISION THREE.. The most common of these Compound forms consists two Song-forms. 69*". See par.2IO TIIK SOXCi-FOR.g. while the law of "Recurrence" must be respected. but the designation adopted in this book. rather CHAPTER XVIII. the Song-form with one "Trio" is perceived to be a broader exposition of the 3-Part Song. The one which comes first is called the PRINCIPAL SONG (chiefly by virtue of its location. as a "DA CAPO. is achieved possible by associating complete Song-forms. Song recurs. in analogy with the terminology of all Higher forms. rupted connection at the points of contact." in the association of .form. Song in their Compound Song-forms. and its the second one in the series is commonly called the recurrence) "TRio" (for reasons derived from a now obsolete custom). " "Intermezzo. The association is effected in general accordance with the rules governing the union of Parts in the 3-Part and 5-Part forms. After the latter. 77 > Besides the popular term "Trio. more latitude is permitted in regard to thematic and formative relation between the several Song-forms and uninter. last degree of enlargement and development within the domain of the homophonic forms. In older compositions.M WITH ONE "TRIO.

a very brief i (Prin. with all As a rule. CHOPIN. save perhaps a change of all external Finally. 5. llSc. 6. before the Subord. as Variation. ext. intervenes between the Prin. See: CHOPIN. indicating mode for the Subordinate Song. Pfte. No. No. In the latter case. Song must be at least 2. and constructed most frequently in the 3-Part Song-form. impair independence complete cadence of the latter may precede the transitional passage though . similar. 2. so modified or concealed that the Tran- . 7 (similar). each Part separately repeated). 3. Pfte. Song. 3rd French Suite. The PRINCIPAL SONG may . rare cases. op. be of any character. op. Menuetto (ditto). sufficient to constitute See: BEETHOVEN. Double period but the following Subord. No. Son. for a similar reason. (BACH. at the same time the corresponding change of Passepied " I. Son. 211 Menuet Menuet II. and very still distinct in character. all repetitions. i (Prin. first Song (40 meas3-Part form. No. BEETHOVEN. op. In HAYDN. 2. Menuet (Prin. 9. Pfte. it closes with repetitions possibly with a brief Codetta. for the of the Prin.Par. op.). first signature (2-Part form). (c) In some comparatively TRANSITION the following "Trio. Song and It need not in proportion to the degree of their differentiation. i. (" piu lento. THE PRINCIPAL SONG. the Song. Song is 3-Part form and distinct). I. first 34 meas. Scherzo (ditto). Song only One-Part form. the Subord. Hungarian Dances. (Prin. One-Part). Sometimes the terms Minore and Suite). Song 2-Part form. the sign of altered tempo or character " meno mosso. 2. and more extended. Son. op. each . 3. BRAHMS. Son. No." It serves as a mediating link between the different styles and keys of the two Songs.) serves to denote the second Song-form. Song for two melodic parts. Passepied " " II.or 3-Part form. 116. hence a "). Menuetto. Song appears. Part repeated). Pfte. 6 (Cotta ed. sometimes sition may cadence emerge from this is it." indication is often omitted. ures) own key. . second movement. No. 50. first movement. and more rarely is the One-Part form chosen. Mazurka No. The derivation of the term "Trio" is illustrated in BACH. 1 1 8a. 116. Subord. Son. 31. Op. and frequently. 2nd English " Maggiore are used. and becomes more necessary. Song for " Trio three. Nocturne No. signature. The details of the SONG-FORM WITH " TRIO " are as follows: THE PRINCIPAL SONG. no. the Principal Song is repeated entire. first 32 measures (2-Part form. is a strong perfect cadence in its absolute independence of form. Nos. etc. No. (b) A Prin." etc. Pfte. Song in 2-Part Song-form is very unusual.

Prin. inner and outer harmony) between the two Songs in this Compound form. Song. In the next Son. especially in the latter example. No. OR "TRIO. In the next Sonata. the cadence-measure transitionally bridged. op. in or "Trio. for a time. 3. No. when See: of the Subord. depends more largely upon the correlation of Time. the contrast is more striking. Son. Pfte. These establish the requisite external conformity without encroaching upon the conditions of contrast and separation while thematic coincidence may only ensure the more vague and (in homophonic forms) comparatively unessential inner affinity. Menuetto. and in the opposite mode. 119. the Subord. . Finale. the first figure Song. and congruity. Song resembles it. Pfte. i. 2. No. of Transition precede the "Trio"). admirable consistency is preserved. the rest thematically independent. . there is any recognizable diversity between the two Songs but modern composition. Pfte. so closely that it appears to be no more than a Variation of the former. and in the 3rd movement of the next (op. HAYDN. Prelude op. and somewhat dramatic. Waldscencn (op. though radical or extreme difference of style. No. Son. contrast and separation are the laws . but it is in 3-Part form.). 14. No. Symphony No. must be avoided. 2. In BRAHMS. Song is it appears. is HAYDN. 3) it is still more emphatic but in both. the Prin. 8. No. 3 (Peters ed. SCHUMANN. The SUBORDINATE SONG. Song is in 2-Part form." should contrast quite positively general character with its Principal Song. 6 (Cotta Song corresponds closely ed. but similar in style. op. long Codetta. Song 3-Part form.). Key and Tempo. 7). . it must be counteracted by more complete contrast in style. op.212 THE SUBORDINATE SONG. Song 3-Part form. Par. No. uncommon. but the change in style almost radical. 15 (Prin. one measure of Transition). 119." 1 19. 116. 82). and op. 2. cadence evadedmeasure 27 by resting on Dominant). op. 2. scarcely in more In some examples. Thematic relation of the Subord. 28. . the "Trio" is smooth and more lyric but the organic harmony between them is perfect. i. No. movement. first to that of the Prin. THE SUBORDINATE SONG." See: BEETHOVEN. Scherzo. Song to its Prin. and. 2. Song is rhythmically marked. the Prin. OR "TRIO. (No. consistency. second movement (Prin. to the utter exclusion of organic interdependence. But the entire perplexing question of analogy (consistency. of the Subord. Menuetto (2 meas. Song. CHOPIN. 3-Part form with Codetta. the thematic material of the two Songs is identical. In BEETHOVEN. No. especially older Dances. Son.

It is a rule. ro. or minor) key is The Relative (major BEETHOVEN. movement of each. in which case the separation of the Songs. 8. BEETHOVEN. will be reverted to in connection with the Rondo. 22. No. 2. the selfsame key is retained. Next key and (or in its to these in popularity is the choice of the Subdominant Relative) for the "Trio". Exceptions In CHOPIN. op. I 119. as that of its Prin. and the "Trio'' (molto pih lento) in J. 10. or measure. (b) The KEY of the Subord. in distinction to the aspiring impresis characteristic sion conveyed by the upper (Dominant) ones." The TIME of the Subord. Symphonies. 213 (a) Song e. 2) the Prin. third BRAHMS.) keynotes. This point. BEETHOVEN.. movement (c-minor and C-major). is more strongly marked and : their respective completeness HAYDN. 4. Pfte. third movement of each. No. i. 8. Nos. which is of vital moment in the Complex forms. Song. and Nocturne No. change from | to must be emphasized. : i. op. that exceedingly un- common. 4. Sonatas. 6. op. 3. because the inclination to relax toward the many Dances. the | time. 2. Song is always related. CHOPIN. n. ^ time changes from f |. In Nocturne 14 (op. op. op. 7. 12. 28. and in some modern. i. In the oldest. op. in the early history of the "Trio.Par. 6. 2. in a subsequent Volume. No. examples. this 6." Mode of the same BEETHOVEN. No. this. OR "TRIO. Song is in In BRAHMS. C or Jjj and time are interchanged. op. No. 5. 119b. Polonaise No. though unlimited option prevails in the choice of relationship (near or remote). lower (Subdom. G^-major Impromptu.). is almost invariably the same triple. third The next Tonic : appears to have been the choice of the Opposite step to this. movement of each. of the inferior range of forms. in the modern March has become a usage almost equivalent to notably appropriate in the homophonic domain of musical architecture. is third movement. No. in some degree. third 2. to It jj. third movement (C-major and op. 5. 116. Symphony No. Symphonies (Peters ed. of form. both are either in duple. 7. o-minor) . i. Nos. THE SUBORDINATE SONG. 48. Song. Sonatas. 2. to that of the Prin. 3. 7. . Symphony No. 2. found in : Pfte.and Sonata-forms. third movement of each. .

no assai). 38. CHOPIN. 2. Song. 10. and Subord. op. Menuetto ("Trio" un poco meno Allegro). op. Song form. No. is the Dominant D (c) The TEMPO of the Subord. No. occaThe One-Part form is very uncommon. 2. In BEETHOVEN. in this respect also. Son. sionally only Two-Part. key appears in BEETHOVEN. 8 (piu mosso. BEETHOVEN. In HAYDN. second movement (" Trio '' pih vivace). BRAHMS. 27. op. Symphony No. i. OR "TRIO. second movement. Symphony No. Pfte. Son. No. No. third movement. 27. though it may be the reverse of this. 2. in 3-Part second movement (Subord. Subord. but distinct) . See also: CHOPIN. also op. Son. No. sometimes. it remains unchanged. Song. The same relation obtains in HAYDN. ma tranquillo). No. Pfte. (Z>-major and G-major) and in Pfte. No. and when its Prin. The Subdom. Menuetto ("Trio" 3-Part Song-form). 10. a slight relaxation of speed. relation. and. No. Symphony No. Son. i. as in the majority of no tempo-mark is given for the "Trio". Polonaises. Song 3-Part. Mazurka 10 (Prin. 7. 6. 2. No. Song is very often. op. and op. i. in BEETHOVEN. . op. 27. No. op. second movement (March). Song contains at least two Parts. the keys are and . the Mediant of the key of the Prin. 4. op. Mazurkas 45 and 46 (" Trio" One-Part form) . which prevails. 2. 3. Impromptu op. par. No. compare op.ffj?-major (Tonic-Mediant relation). 90. with modified repetitions). No. second movement of each. perhaps usually. 14. but it is manifestly more cases. Pfte. No. This is dictated by the consideration of : contrast. tranquil in character than the Prin. Song of the "Trio"). BEETHOVEN. 26. Pfte. The same in CHOPIN. 116. No. op. Son. See : BEETHOVEN. 101. i. 6. Mazurka 51 . op. 26. third movement (" Trio" Presto tne. op. 119d. 2. third movement. and will almost certainly suggest to a thoughtful and susceptible performer. 2 (2?r)-major and -minor). SCHUBERT. 3 (Subord. n8. 7. Song is very distinct in character. second movement. Sym. Symphony No. Pfte. 10. 3 (Peters ed. Song only One-Part form. second movement. third movement (Mediant-Dominant : F-major and Z>-major. Nocturne 13 (poco piu lento): MENDELSSOHN.). Pfte. second and third movements ("Trio" in each case 2-Part form). a little more tranquil than that of the Prin. No. Son. the same in op. Songs are exhibited in the following BEETHOVEN. Song un poco meno Allegro). Other possibilities of key-relation between the Prin. No. 3. Polonaise No. 4. GRIEG. second movement (/"-minor and Z>p-major). and can be chosen only when the Subord. (d) The FORM of the "Trio" is generally Three-Part. third movement. Son. The Relative of the Subdom. See mildly. 6 (DominantRelative key).214 THE SUBORDINATE SONG. 116. BRAHMS. and op." Par. CHOPIN.

No. 3. as to lead away from its . 26. of : independent Re-transition). op. as a rule. 116. op. 2 (Peters ed. Son. the form having once been expanded by the addition of a Subord. The details may be apprehended from the following examples BEETHOVEN. No. 33. end of " Minore " (two measures of Re-transition). HAYDN. The DA CAPO. BEETHOVEN. . it being unnecessary to write out the entire Prin. serving to lead smoothly back into the recurrence of the Prin. however. It is a rule. 3. third movement of each. Song. THE " DA CAPO. op. the "Trio" ends on the Dom. 10. second movement (the same). Pfte. and the latter is so modified. Song. own Tonic. No. 6. op. 2. 3. after the Subord." Comp. one Part). BEETHOVEN. is. Song. Song). No. THE ' ' DA CAPO. after the Subord. Pfte. second movement (6 meas. of Re-transition). op. 3 (the same). or dal segno (i. No. like the Principal one. evolved by dissolution and modification of the cadence-member. 3. Scherzo (the "Trio" is in 3-Part form Parts II and III are repeated. Menuetto (ditto). third movement of each. 116. which follows as "Da capo"). Scherzo (4 meas. (i. more necessary than the Transition into the n8c). of the Prin. Song (par. its reproduction is merely indicated by the ' ' the beginning"). Song Two-Part form with Codetta. 2. and No. Waldscenen. C. ] 20. and op. C. op. SCHUMANN." after the Subordinate Song.Par. op. is (0) expected to terminate with a complete perfect cadence. 14. Bagatelle. Song. or simply the letters D. e. 117. that such repetitions of the Parts as may have occurred at first. inevitable. Song. Symphony No. No. into the Dominant of the Prin. i. 4 (Subord. i. dissolved. Song. No. Song. 116. 5. because. are to be omitted in the "Da capo". 7. op. 82. " from the sign in case the first ) few tones or measures are so involved in the Re-transition as to words da capo "from be excepted from the recurrence. ma senza ripetizione. 7 (elaborate independent Re-transition. 117. at its end. It is Subord. with no other foundation than tradition. op.. op. BRAHMS. or " Da capo. again. the same. Symphony No. 10. 10. While the Subord. Song). C)oc. Song. op." recurrence of the Prin. Subord. No. Song. or the so-called 1 2O. one Part). No. No. as implied in par. literal When such is the case. op. Son. BRAHMS. and No. 3. or it may be latter . Menuetto (similarly.)." 21$ ("Trio" one large Part). " Song . No. hence the directions often encountered : D '. third movement.. 7 (Prin. it is by no means uncommon to introduce a brief RETRANSITIOX par.e. the "Da capo" is The Retransition may be independent following after the complete cadence of the of the Subord.

Son. op. second movement' and BEETHOVEN. and " Trio. No. 22. i. end of "Trio". op." CHOPIN. as a literal reproduction of the Prin." as long as they remain thoroughly zinessential. op. Symphony No. the "Da capo" is written out. Nos. Writing out the literal reproduction of the Prin. the first 14 measures of the "Da capo" are transposed (a half-step lower). 5. written out. See: BEETHOVEN." But slight modifications or variations of the " Da capo. 3 (repetitions also omitted). See BEETHOVEN. it be) is. the same ratio from the specifically homophonic Compound Song-form. end of op. 47 (literal. No. i. 36. 2. 2. Son. 33. Scherzo. B. 2. "Da capo" Menuetto . Scherzo. Nocturnes No. op. Such be extended. Pfte. 13. op. 3. are permissible. No. end of "Trio". subsequently. literal. in the " Da capo. Somewhat more elaborate variation occurs in the " Da capo " of CHOPIN. that. 10. Impromptu. literal. above.2l6 THE "DA CAPO. BRAHMS. Scherzo. Impromptu. 23 (literal)' No. Mazurka No. i. as implied above. 117. because they are of a more essential nature. 66 (r$-minor). 94. excepting introduction. 3. No. B. i and 4. See N. 31. It must be strictly borne in mind. or otherwise modified. excepting the final chord. SCHUBERT. op. No. . Menuetto. the species which characterizes the genuine The " Da capo." Par. Momens musicals. Mazurka No. Pfte. N. i. Song. to its a contracted "Da capo" may. excepting repetitions). 10." genuineness of this class of forms more seriously than simple variation of detail. 29 (Afy-ma)or). third movement. The most natural. . Song (Menuetto. In or whatever such cases the recurrence of the Prin. 117. The " Da capo " is slightly variated in CHOPIN. etc. 27. 4. Bagatelle op. of course. Also. op. as the modifications of the become more and more elaborate. 33. 12. No. Mcnuetto . abbreviate the "Da capo" reducing the recurrence First Part alone. BEETHOVEN. In CHOPIN. No. No. and approaches the spirit and detail of the Rondo form. CHOPIN. op. op. Son. justifiable . Polonaise I Mazurka 6. but not a tone is altered. op. and common practice. Song appears whimsical. No. 3. is. and may be done purely for the convenience of the player. 116. op. Bagatelle op. is to especially by of the 3-Part (or 2-Part) Song-form. affect the Alterations of the design of the Prin. 119. design diverges in the See BEETHOVEN. ISO." Song-form with "Trio. n. Nocturne No. No. but it is often involved by the Coda. op. 26. Song. Pfte. No. No.

: CHOPIN. 10. broad First Part. The is addition of a CODA to the entire Compound form not only possible. Song (chiefly the former) or. Allegretto (Coda taken from Subord. 14. 2. 4. op. op. Pfte. 2. g8a. No. See par. to both in turn. Song). Pfte. 7. Polonaise No. op. Song. Nos. and modified by extension). 118. . 2. 51. 2IJ Mazurka 25 (Prin. Polonaise No. and Mazurka 38. movement of each. possibly. Impromptu in (Tp-major. 7 measures. broad 2-Part CHOPIN. and often it is quite extensive and literal employed in older D. 26. 2. last 12 measures "Da capo"). modified. 38 (Coda from Part II of Subord. 6. op. op. no Coda. 3-Part form. op. Sonatas. No. "Da capo" abbreviated to First Part. third No. Song. No. op. third movement. Song or the Subord. MENDELSSOHN. 4. 3." SCHUBERT.). 8. op. Prelude. and BRAHMS.) op. Mazurka No." and the extent of its elaboration. if self-assertive. 119. No. 28. Son. No. anterior motive or The Coda may be derived from any or it member | may (rarely) introduce new motives. Son.Par. 9. No. Symphony No. See . op. Song). 27. 2. op. No. Scherzo (Coda derived from Prin. 6." 2-Part form. Part I repeated. No. 7. THK CODA. ("Da capo" abbreviated. CHOPIN. but desirable and necessary. SCHUBERT. Pfte. 4. Pfte. " Trio. i. THE CODA. 32 (Coda (elaborate Coda). i . 116. with complete repetition. 2 (Coda from "Trio"). 4. No. movement ("Funeral march "). 6 (Prin. 90." op. the same in Nocturnes 3 and 14. No. BEETHOVEN.. Mazurkas 32 and 36. And it may conform in style and melodic contents either to the Prin. 142. Son. Son. No. Coda utilizes ingeniously a motive of the "Trio. simply an extension of the Impromptu. : BEETHOVEN. 6. Pfte. that has been modified. Song).2. Pfte. 116. op. last 23 measures. Subord. Song. Impromptu. third movement of each. apparently in proportion to the importance attached to the "Da capo. Hence. No. 121. Maggiore ") . Mazurkas 17 and 31 form. " No. Song). last 7 measures (from Subord. last second movement. 2. while a Coda very rarely follows the simple forms of the Song with "Trio" it is as Dances (with capo" " Da ever. 4(" Italian. 121." BRAHMS. " Da capo Part I). last 5 measures (from. 90). BRAHMS. C. op. third i. . Sonatas. 15. ("Da capo" abbreviated and An extension of the " Da capo " takes place in 116. op. 1. No. absent after a rarely. slightly expanded). 118. etc. op. op. Part II dissolved into elabo" contracted to one-half of rate Re-transition. MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES OF THE SONG-FORM WITH ONE "TRIO. op.

Son. 3. An example literal. Pfte. 136. where the Subord. "Da capo" contracted to one of the original three Parts). Son. . Precisely the same conditions prevail in GRIEG. again only five Parts are represented. Song 3-Part form Subord. The String-quartets of HAYDN. design of Songs optional. Song in one . Pfte. i. These are both examples of the is This seen in CHOPIN." in major. op. op. 10. Pfte. par. 5. stage 5. Same form. design of Songs optional. is exhibited in certain diminutive examples of the former. n. "Da capo" abbreviated. Re-transition. Apply D. 12. 13. but here the Da " is not abbreviated omission of capo (save by repetitions). op. BEETHOVEN and other writers. or par. 1^3. MOZART. A confusing trait of resemblance between the Song with one "Trio" and the simple 5-Part Song-form. " " Song is only One-Part form. Song only one 5-Part Song-form. MOZART. Scherzo . cited in par. the third movement of each). 2. C." Were the "Da capo" not reduced to one Part. Nos. in minor. No. "Da capo'' Apply par. . op. both Songs " Da " capo literal .2l8 THE CODA. 12. Scherzo . " Song being in tivo Parts. and the Subord. 5. 136. Lyric Pieces. An in 3-Part form example of the Song-form with one "Trio. par. Scherzo 76. io6e. BRAHMS. Part. . 35. Apply par. i j Intermezzo. op. 135. for this reason. Coda. Song. Same form. 135. but very distinct in character and mode. of the same form. 6. movement of each. par. Son. 3. EXERCISE A. 4.). 134. 3. No. assumes the rank and characteristics of a " Trio. 7 (Prin. no Transition or Re-transition. Pfte. See . which. op. third movement. Symphony No. One-Part form) classic 22. No. the Prin. third 2. and the Da capo abbreviated. Symphonies (Litolff ed. "Da capo" unessentially modified. the identity of such a Subord. 137. owing to the unusual independence and diversity of the Fourth Part. Par. 1 Mazurka 13 (Prin. Mazurka 42. In CHOPIN. but they are extreme specimens. Song would be beyond question. Apply . Balladen. Menuetto or Scherzo (as a rule. B.

this extensive repetition is omitted. 120). When it is. THE SONG-FORM WITH TWO "TRIOS. 7 (Cotta ed. Song and "Da capo" are repeated with considerable. Song. Coda). third movement. Bagatelle " op. generally The more repetition it former.Par. 7. 12.). Finale. Song. Subord. . It is " Da and the Song is." 23. reverting very briefly . after the capo. to the Subord. 33. but variated Coda). Son. by invent- ing a new (second) ''Trio. 3-Part. all repetitions. and enlarged reproduction. io6e). in progressive degrees. Pfte. that not applied. Symphony No. 2-Part form. with repetitions." it is abbreviated to the length of a simple Period. to the motive of the Subord. similarly. " Trio " 3-Part Song form." 24. op. 3-Part form with third movement (Prin. the second " Da capo " is omitted. This design corresponds to that of the fully developed 5-Part Song-form (par. Coda of 3 measures). the same. Song is at first an extended Period. Scherzo. " capo together. second clause. precisely as in the 3-Part Song-form with repeated Second and Third Parts. 7. Compare par. Pfte. In BEETHOVEN. Pfte. and Re-transition. Pfte.124. Son. though rarely the See is modified. first movement (the Subord. HAYDN. op. Scherzando (very similar. Symphony No. infrequently. Song. the same repetition occurs. No. both "Da capos" complete. " Minuetto " BEETHOVEN. brief Coda). No. In THE SONG-FORM WITH Two 1 " TRIOS. The simplest method of extension of Repetition. with transposed ." first one." 219 CHAPTER XIX. second capo" contracted to Third Part. No. EXTENSIONS OF THE "SONG WITH 1 TRIO. excepting repetitions. when it recurs. 8. 1050. but probably unessential.of which it is a broader exposition. in the original score a Coda is added. may natural to abbreviate the last be exact or the "Da capo. the Subord. first movement. plated. Son. the "Trio" " Da recurs. See par. Re-transition. Son. Symphony No. exactly as before. "Trio" " Da again. and Codetta. in other words. 117. A Coda may 4. 54. much better and more customary to avoid upon so extensive a repetition. 4 (rf-minor. no Coda). here again. In SCHUMANN. the two "Da capos " are variated. BEETHOVEN. (both Songs" in concise 2-Part form. and modern performances. No.) BEETHOVEN. modification (Prin. (In some modern editions.'" instead of the recurrence of the first one. the monotony attendant such an enlargement of the form is contemhowever." but is linked with the Transition which leads into the Finale . folio w. ist "Da capo" literal. after the first " Da capo.

73. with modified repetitions. The two ''Trios'' should stand in quite murked contrast with each other. After each Subord. I Partita II. 8 1 a). very divergent in character. Pfte. 44. See I. broad form. it is not unusual for the Subord. Song. Consequently. Song. A Coda may be (three. Song. the two "Trios" represent. Quartet. Symphony No. MENDELSSOHN. or otherwise modified. Par. Song 3-Part form "Trio I " and tempo. Symphony No. JOHAXN LUDWIG KREBS. Scherzo. or irregular disposition. in the Group of entire Song-forms. by the absence. two similar extreme Variations of the Prin. \ time. 1 25. Scherzo (Prin.] MOZART. Coda contains reminiscences of Trio I"). no. I. explained above. Song. Songs to differ from each other in T'ime. f time. in character and style. 3. Song: THE GROUP OF SONG-FORMS. but more frequently abbreviated. Pfte. as \vell as in tempo and key . I. 8 (Litolff ed. Presto . Song \ time. same key. Pfte. added. first "Da capo" without repetitions "Trio II" resembles Prin. after Departure. op. fourth movement. Pfte. culminates. It is distinguished from the regular Compound forms. with the Prin. Symphony)." to " Midsummer-Night's . In this unique example. Song recurs. 47. op. No. 59). op. Symphony No. op. BRAHMS. the Prin. 6pc. Trio. 3-Part form. though this is more commonly the case in modern examples. Coda). beginning with the (par. First Subord. Allegretto. "Menucts" numbered recurring as "Da capo" after each of the others). Song.). [To be found in " L. the Large Phrase-group (par. 114. time. 57) and passing on through the Group of of Parts (par.- SCHUMANN." See par. not fully or correctly satisfied . Menuetto with two "Trios" (not to be confounded with the second movement of the III. Symphony No. Vol. 2. 3-Part form. Scherzo. with Codetta from Second Part. first "Da capo" abbreviated and modified. third movement (Prin. second "Da capo" complete.). Scherzo. (par. essentially. II. but transposed during the first Part. 115). 104) and the Group process of group-formation. 125. Quintet.*' sometimes literally (excepting the repetitions). 4. 3-Part form. in the homophonic forms. No. Presto. . Second Subord. second "Da capo" " abbreviated.220 THE GROUP OF SOXG-KOHMS. of the "Da capo" is whereby the condition of "Return. The Phrase-group Periods (par. Scherzo.es Maitres du clavecin" (Litolff ed. p. one of them generally maintaining closer agreement. third movement. while the other diverges more emphatically. as " Da capo. 2. Wedding-March from music Dream.

Song "Trio II" Coda. EXERCISE A. B. 136. Ballade op. in minor. BRAHMS. op. change of time and tempo. 4. (the Third Song. Apply par. Ballade op. very broad. No. 3 Parts. Second Song. Third Song. (design: Prin. SCHUMANN. 4. 36. The final "Da capo" is 2 Parts. The same. 2. . Fourth Song like First. Song. the broadest within the sphere of the Homophonic Forms. CHOPIN. No. i (Group of 5 Songs. - V like I). first An " example of the Song with two Trios. THE GROUP OF SONG-FORMS. Son. Pfte. Song. the same. 119. or 2nd ''Trio. These represent the proportions attainable last degree of enlargement. transposition of Prin. or Principal. Song Song II Song III Song IV. 125. and with complete transposed reproduction). Song "Trio I" Prin. Song. 133 {Scherzo). op. Song "Trio I'' " Trio II " " Trio I " 7-Part form Re-transition Prin. Apply par. Song Song V Song VI. (design Prin." in major. abbreviated Prin. Scherzo (First. each repeated. Symphony No. Coda).'' is in Two-Part form. : omitted). 3 Sc/ierzo.Par. the same design. Song. No. variated Coda. (design: Prin. 2. (design: Prin. V. Nachtstucke^ op. 106. Pfte. consisting in a portion of the First Subord. Waltz No. 10.'o Trios in succession"). Song Coda). interwoven with the first motive of the Prin. "Da capo" of Prin. Rhapsody. ditto. CHOPIN. " Da capo " abbreviated. No. 23. . Pfte. 221 See BEETHOVEN. Song). Song" Trio I " " Trio II " " Trio I " Prin. 10. Polonaise No. Song. The form is quasi "Song with tr.

review (Carefully par. conception.) The first. though the character of these latter is indefinite and variable. is class. other compositions of similar character but with more or less arbitrary and specific titles. To this class belong also the sacred Hymn. the secular Terzetto. Serenade. or ETUDE-. Chorale. and includes also the various kinds of Studies and Exercises . All of these may be either vocal or instrumental in conception and setting. all of vocal (b) The second. the simpler church Anthems. Pastorale. and embraces also the Air or Aria. Madrigal. Cavatina. Canzone. DIVISION FOUR. Psalm-tune. Berceuse or Cradle-song. Nocturne. "Melody..) (a. etc. class. Impromptu. that the distinctions there defined constitute a different classification from the one : under present consideration. Lyric Piece. CONVENTIONAL STYLES OF COMPOSITION. 1 26. ." Chanson. The compositions of this class are almost invariably instrumental in conception and setting. in which the most prominent element is that of the HARMONY. 97. Scherzo. recollecting. the Toccata . An extremely large proportion of all music written. Intermezzo. Reverie. The entire range of musical products within this domain may be approxi- mately divided into three general classes or styles of composition. is characterized chiefly by the Etude. or without words). Idyll. however. belongs to the Homophonic domain of composition. and many Ballade. generally also the Caprice or Capriccio. Chorus. Chant. distinguished by the respective predominance of one of the three essential factors of the art Melody. Barcarolle or Gondellied. Romania. or LYRIC. Scherzando. in which the element of MELODY characterized chiefly by the Song (with predominates. Glee. Quartet. certain varieties of the Prelude . Lied.222 CONVENTIONAL STYLES OF COMPOSITION. Harmony and Rhythm. Par. Elegy.

. embraces distinguished by the prevall Dances. peculiarities of the piece. of the typical varieties noted. in his almost exclusive A and use of the terms Capriccio." "Shower of "Among pearls. for his pianoforte-pieces. must be remembered that this is only an approximate classification. old and modern.g. 127. and many other species of a more This class of compositions is very generor less kindred nature. It is best never to use descriptive titles (almost utterly senseless when applied to music e. Siciliano. distinctly typical. instrumental in conception and setting. As a rule. Saltarello." etc. the student should exercise judgment in naming his compositions. The third. technical. Marches of varied character (Wedding-M. and in such A of composition description of each of these conventional species may be found in standard dictionaries of music. others again are so indefinite classification.). which indicate the general or typical musical characteristics of the piece. Festival-M. Courante. Polonaise. is melodic character to a Dance-form. Waltz. Sarabande.Par." etc. CONVENTIONAL STYLES OF COMPOSITION. or to an Etude. so-called. here. in the latter case. very important lesson is conveyed to the young composer by BRAHMS.). PAUER. the roses. This accounts for the apparently careless or erroneous choice of title in certain examples. but only such conventional titles as the above. Mazurka. Funeral-M. is a purely technical definition of such structural traits as concern the present student. in the choice of the simple tempo designations: "Allegretto. however. Galop. Tarantella. . ally. and the March. it and arbitrary as to defy exact often impracticable and unwise to apply these It is perfectly just to impart a conspicuously class-distinctions rigorously. Fantasie. though. Bolero. belongs properly to the and rice versa. 127. etc. or at least of the most important. Polka. as long as the rhythmic element maintains its preeminence.. All that need be added. though (d) It and that. alence of the element of RHYTHM. adopted as sole title by many serious composers. class. while some of the conventional styles enumerated have become Hence. or 22$ (c) DANCE-. Gavotte. Landler." "Andante. not always. Conspicuous among these are the Minuet. many a Nocturne or Waltz. Gigue or Jig. it would transfer the composition to the lyric class. Quadrilles.. and the reasons for calling it an " litude" would have to be sought in other. books as the "Musical Forms" by E. who is expected to write an example of each. Intermezzo.. tude-class.

the rhythmic distinctions of the musical meter must coincide quite accurately with the prosody of the text. From these he can Or he choose. may adopt is the least advisable course for the beginner to pursue. bold or graceful style." "of the past. e. if the accent is subordinate . i. mainly by comparison an unaccented word or syllable may be set to an accented tone. WITH WORDS.. tones lables. major and minor mode.. i. brisk or deliberate tempo. As concerns the and apparently difficult. the student will find the richest and most trustworthy fund of suitable words in the volumes of Songs already written and published. or higher. For illustration : : *1) *2) 1 *3) r~Q- 1 < 1 IT 1 1O1 ' Ool - den vis. between duple and triple Time. the past. until it begins to suggest consistent musical setting. eration of choosing the TEXT for a may a take a Psalm. . shorter or syl- unaccented tones should accompany unemphatic words and This important rule operates. This will facilitate the choice of general characteristics.ions" "Ool - den vis -ions of. WITH WORDS. or some other Bible passage or from books of this standard poem poetry. however. or longer.224 THE SONG. Par. CHAPTER. consid- Song. Important words and accented syllables should be placed against the accented." 'dawn - ing.. XX. or to a higher tone. studiously ignoring the musical setting before him. 1 THE SONG. . (b) In the SETTING. though . 128b. if it occupies a light beat. and lower. THE LYRIC CLASS. first. and mentally repeated. The text should first be thoroughly memorized.. 28a.

Furthermore. as the subordinate element upon of a Song. following *2) a light final syllable. (d) The student should endeavor to reflect the character of the determine the dynamic and declamatory design. or low. *6) Better. because of the emphasis attached to a compara*3) Better. this rule must always be applied with sufficient latitude to ensure perfectly unconstrained melodious conduct of the vocal part. ALTO. and self-sufficient music. according to the dramatic undulations of the text but must avoid exaggerated minuteness in this respect. and hampers the essentially musical conThis is the gravest error that can attach itself to a vocal ception. either (e) In the NOTATION . * *> 1O2. it the average compass of the part in question * /*"! necessary to regard : . and always. by beams. This . either a comparatively high. tively very high tone. 128e. Good. *4) Eccentric. The words are to be regarded and treated. *7) Such an accent as this. constantly. melodious. THE SONG. WITH WORDS. He must . *5) Objectionable. BASS. effort to "illustrate" composition . of the vocal part. because the accent b. the notes which or two or words accompany separate syllables must be detached more notes to the same word or syllable must be connected. range of the chosen voice. persistently. TENOR. The each single suggestive word leads to unevenness of structure. is permissible at any cadence. or slurs : . ties. ^m . between Alto and Soprano. Care must be taken to avoid maintaining. because the high tone is unaccented. * (\>m\ The range of Baritone is between Bass and Tenor that of Mezzo-Soprano. for a Song must be first. is (c) In writing for the human voice. and at the Doubtful. 22$ *i) at c is subordinate to that at g.Par. text in the mood of the music. good. consideration will influence the choice of key. I /-in SOPKANO.

II." SCHUMANN. No. for the following ones. from the large (or repeated) But Period. 49. 25). 5." B "Fit ~ ful sun - beams. Subord. 9. fully. 98). 6. See : be strophic. No. 5 (Five-Part form). No. d. See : SCHUBERT. the Group of Song-forms (par. Miiller-Lieder. 7. Song with " Trio. or Group of Parts. a Phrase. <?." a compound of both foregoing Songs. " Liederkreis" (op. IV. in is form the final section is a Coda. WITH WORDS. 3-Part Period. or the Group of Parts. Song. a da capo at the end. set to "Trio. 13. Or be the composition maybe progressive. Nos. . 8.Part Songforms. 3 (Three-Part form).. No. probably. sections a." may " be chosen as structural design. 3. compounded out of (section f 3-Part the first section). Miiller-Lieder (op. This cycle of Songs ranks among the most beautiful and impressive in all musical literature. is When divided (or divisible) into stanzas. No. the i. BRAHMS..and Three. before commencing the text the composition. of course. (I. up to the 3." op. 24).e. i. Coda). a Period. In this case. III. 3-Part Song-form. 2. 7. the possibly Song with 3-Part or 5>Part Song. throughout." No. (Prin. SCHUMANN.or 5-Part form. 4.226 THE SONG. "Shroud-ed in sad - ness. Song with "Trio". 10. . Nos. No. as in some of the Group-forms. "Liederkreis" (op. the words may music consecutively. which may demand almost any of the forms explained in chapters VI to XVII of this book. an extended Phrase. preference should be given to the Two. 2 (almost strophic). i (partly strophic). . with. 24). Group of four Parts. " " SCHUBERT. and an effort be made to adapt the text to such a design. music may be set to the first composition may stanza only. quasi 3 strophes." "all is dark. i. "The two Grenadiers. i. The student is to examine it thoughtIts design is. 128f. etc." (f) The FORM of the Song will depend largely upon that of the text. Nos. "Da capo. "An die feme Geliebte (op. two repeated Phrases).e. repeated 4. Song. Par. " BEETHOVEN. 125). and simply reproduced. c. with more or less essential change.

2. 9. or dramatic contents of the text . THE SONG. 3) is antiquated. 16. n. 10. and common. but often very appropriate. See SCHUBERT. 4. No. WITH WORDS. of the structural design. A i. (op. 17. more artistic. Nos. op. 3. op. No. n. first. 24. 4. Nos. 25. will become more or itself. 5. No. interludes and postlude in the accompaniment (during the pauses of the vocal part) though the necessity of occasional interludes. This will give rise most naturally to the prelude. less characteristic. No. 6. and. the vocal part. 15.). in itself. the It should not disturb or overpower the latter. 12.Par. 6. No. not too or both for the relief of the singer and the benefit long. as found in SCHUBERT. "Winterreise." Nos. 6. " Frauenliebe und -leben. 48." Nos. The primary 22^ (g) to a Song are." op." op. 10. 9. as a rule. But the student must guard against the impression that the vocal part should be duplicated throughout in the accompaniment (as in SCHUMANN. No. SCHUBERT. SCHUMANN. and assume a degree of that of the vocal independence. l-28g. " Dichterliebe." op. 16 (elaborate postludes). 9. 2. " Lowenbraut. 3. JENSEN. at times. 4. more than to support. 3 (Bass part). is " Haidenroslein " The simple rhythmic enunciation (op. may even exceed part See SCHUBERT. 24. See SCHUMANN. No. 24 (especially). not : referred to The Songs of MENDELSSOHN. etc. "Dichterliebe. op. 3. and op. No. i. 2. 30. 2. This tends to obscure. "Miiller-Lieder" No. 4. But it is permissible. 89). i. in which the vocal melody is from time to time reinforced by the pianoforte. op. ROBERT FRANZ. op. to assign to the instru- mental accompaniment the task of reflecting and emphasizing the and. 25. TAUBERT. is sufficiently imperative. while it is often necessary. 15. Nos. No. 31. op. 14. op. Song-albums (Schirmer ed. 25. "Winterreise" is very (op. 6 (elaborate postludes). 25). n. Additional examples for reference and study of SCHUBERT. which. op. 25. Nos. 12. to support. 3. 25. GRIEG. 5. which is at and more individualized. 6. objects of the instrumental ACCOMPANIMENT and secondly. 5. 27. epic." Nos. No. and vocal part. 6. RUBINSTEIN. of the chords. 27. Nos. or in SCHUMANN. SCHUMANN. " Miiller-Lieder " to limit itself to general harmonic figuration. BEETHOVEN and SCHUMANN. 7). in so doing. duplication of the vocal melody. No. it is better. to complement. Other Songs above. frequent . 9.). i. it poetic. 3. as in SCHUBERT. 42. etc. for the accompaniment once less obtrusive. No. effective. therefore the danger of too much accompaniment must be recognized and avoided. 9. . "Winterreise. BRAHMS. 19. 13. 25. The method adopted by SCHUMANN in the " Lotosblume " (op.

The species of composition for the instrumental duo is to be selected from the list given in the next paragraph (or par. 3. H. 3Oa. which are to be reviewed.228 THE SONG WITHOUT WORDS. Par. but with as are conditioned by modifications. Legende. Cantilena in E. 94. 1 THE SONG WITHOUT WORDS. 26. or The wider compass. op. op. 130a. Cavatine. 109). Elegie. or and Violoncello. op. at liberty to develop his musical conception and purpose without embarrassment. Some theoretical guides to his natural musical impulses are recorded in par. and " solo "-instrument. Violoncello and Pianoforte: MENDELSSOHN. 3. 3." POPPER. Romance from Suite II. io8. 1 ETC. Nocturne. Iilegie. Song without Words for Cello (Z?-major. Swedish Dances. commonly set ETC. 63 (essentially JADASSOHN. See also par. or as duo *See Preface. Romance. lyric). The instruments most frequently chosen for the duo are the Pianoforte and Violin. Nos. Romanza and 6. Horn. op. 23. Barcarolle. Pfte. 4. The same law applies to the use of the Flute. 17. 16. Nos. II. op. TlIE INSTRUMENTAL Duo. 22. specific tone-effects. Cornet. 97. etc. 2. op. BAZZINI. 96. specific peculiarities of the The absence of words leaves the composer without a certain quality of melodic stimulus and suggestion. Romanze. Gondoliera from Suite III. and the various technical characteristics of the instrument. bearing upon such additional liberty. JOACHIM. but. SPOHR. The music rules for the conception and treatment of this style of conform in general to those of the Song (excepting those the text). Examples for reference * Violin and Pianoforte : RAFF. Serenata. RIES. op. Clarinet. and obtained from him sufficient information concerning the tone. if unfamiliar with the Violin and Violoncello. " Waldesruhe. op. i. VIEUXTEMPS. 95. DAVIDOFF. the Pianoforte. 29. ' ERNST. 137. DVORAK. F. 2. WIENIAWSKI. 126 : a). 40. The most conception of this class of instrumental comfor positions. section . Reverie. SITT. compass. at the same time. H. 2. Notturno. GOLTERMANN. Lied. DVORAK. MAX BRUCH. Serenade op. Romanza. The student. SVENDSEN. Romance sans paroles. 2. greater technical facilities and resources. op. No. should not undertake to write for them until he has consulted some expert performer.

Melodic. 10. 18. i and 7. 7. No. op. n. See GROVE'S dictionary. 5. 3. 5. 5. for reference : CHOPIN. 40. (par. (par. No. 2 melodies. op. op. Nos. continuous. No. Kinderscenen 12. 3. 2.Par. will call 1260). 129). op. 7. ANTHEM. Romanza. 50. 18). Nos. BRAHMS. 15. SCHUMANN. 8. Nos. character is indefinite and variable. 3. W. 17. Adagio . 6.3. 40. 109. 5. 30. It may appear that these species as " PART-SONGS. 22. 2. These modifica- specific variety of conventional style embraced under etc. Pfte. Examples. Impromptu BEETHOVEN. 7.. viz. i. op. 9. 2. 19. i. 15). with a more or less characterdistinctly predominating element Each istic and elaborate equipment in the accompanying parts. i. op. 18. PADEREWSKI. GADE. Elegie. Romanzas (op. Barcarolle. Pfte. Romance. op. 3. op. and need variety. 31. ETC. 47. 28). 2. 4. 3. op. . No. 4. op. op. op. Ballade. ANTHEM. forth its own peculiar modifications. and (7-major. Nos. 5. 27. characterized by predominance of the Harmony. op. op. Andantino. is 229 a invariably the same as that of the vocal Song. also to this class. 72. RAFF. op. . TSCHAIKOWSKY. 3 (^-minor) also Barcarolles in <z-minor.y-minor. . 13. 149. BARGIEL. Son. 8. 4. 36. 37. 43.-SAENS. (op. RUBINSTEIN. Nos. Andante. 10. No. op. the second class (par. . third movement. 38. No. " SOHN. 12). Nocturnes (especially Nos. ST. dictated Any form may be employed. 79. 4. 82. op. Theme. Son. musicals. but its It is usually more elaborate. Arioso dolente. 6. or BAKER'S "Dictions. Nos. No. op. by the special character and purpose of the chosen be inferred from the self-explaining titles. 126$). No. 2. Nos. this heading. and. longer. 51. REINECKE. No. 16. 8. but the ruling principle is identical in them all. 5. MOSZKOWSKI. No. (b) The Ballade belongs.2. Idyls. 31. op. 90. THE HYMN. 46). op. 22. op. 2 Elegies. i. SCHUBERT." 2-Part Song up to Song with one "Trio. 1. i. Nocturne." See par. 62. 2. Barcarolle. no. op. op. 10. movement. 3 Notturnos (" Liebestraume ") Gondoliera and Canzone from " Venezia e Napoli " Consolations. 54. 43. in the execution of this aim . 4 Ballades. third " " movement. 4. Chanson. properly. GRIEG. 4. 19). No. GLEE. 31. 7. op. THE HYMN. 2. 9. 12. 6. 1 It implies a more or less ideal narrative. 20. Songs without Words" (especially Nos. 16. No. of composition. Nos. 4. op. 6. 6. Silhouettes. DVORAK. See CHOPIN. i. 2. No. Nocturnes (Nos. may no exposition here. cantilena.. 13." belong to known commonly 1 3 a. 34. op. from tionary of Musical Terms. MENDELS- 12. . from pianoforte literature. n. op. and more dramatic than the Romanza. 94. 36. I. GLEE. LISZT. 137. 7. first " Fantasiestiicke" (op. Nos. i. ETC. 2. u.: as coherent. tuneful melodic thread. 27. 131a. op. and constructed in Group-form. FIELD. Momens No. 25. op. 29. No. 1. 14. No. Chanson.

exceptequally practicable and often very effective. the trio. is Roman Catholic liturgy strongly commended. or Organ). instead of sacred. strictly examples Song " which fall within the domain of the homophonic forms." the 3-Part form should be used. usually the Soprano. or from the ritual of use of Latin sentences from the any denominational service. as the above details. the several Parts of the Group may be differently treated (as solo. and affords excellent opportunity for characteristic and interesting formal designs. coherent and continuous cantilena. Chorale. gaiety. tempo and character). Tenor. duet. the parts may be rendered by solo singers. or simple 2-Part Songform. Anthem. grace. ETC. Alto. For the Anthem. One of the parts. but the female trio (more rarely female quartet). For the Hymn. mixed " " ing perhaps the duet.230 THE HYMN. perhaps in different varieties of The conditions of the instrumental time. in secular music. (e) The structural design will depend largely upon the text. indeed. the Psalms and other parts of the Bible. text. by such brightness. the male trio or quartet. is (c) The ensemble most commonly adopted for the setting. this fallacious view has been often confirmed by writers not nevertheless But it is sufficiently scrupulous in regard to artistic distinctions. pathos or brilliancy. the lyric element must prevail. in which. or by a chorus and either with instrumental accompaniment (Pfte. or the secular "Part-Song. for instance. ANTHEM. but none of The dignity and seriousness which should music designed for religious use and association. all befits the character of the words selected. words be chosen from a church hymn-book. the Double-period form. is best. may The (b) For the Sacred Hymn. will influence the character of the musical conception. Par. quartet or chorus. is distinguish more or less thoroughly supplanted. etc. though the "Group of Parts" is often more convenient. must consist in a distinctly melodious. and the duet (the association of any two voices).. if possible. . 131 e. " Partin true those of the that. dramatic fervor. GLEE. Bass) . the mixed quartet (Soprano. (d) The choice of secular. or without ("a cappella "). are all In any case. . which the other parts chiefly serve to accompany and support.

and Choruses (Nos. i. while disguised the chords. 2. 10. the In the genuine representatives of this class of commelodic element (as sustained cantilena}. both individually and collectively. these species may. op. See St. But. 12). tinctly lyric character. Etudes. 3. 26. motive is . less elaborate and independent. St. 8. * i. with "Trio. BRAHMS. i. Study. the harmonies are not. for various ensembles of male. CHAPTER XXI. 10. 10 (especially Nos. THE ETUDE. 4. Etudes. 7. contained in great number in the 8vo collections of the edition of G. The vocal duets of MENDELSSOHN. i3th Psalm.). 128. though is so vague. and op. for the simple reason that the aim of a "study" is not always a purely technical one. Duet from 31). 2. Anthem-books for mixed voices (Schirmer ed. imperfect and fragmentary. tionary. or mixed voices. the titles : possibly. RUBINSTEIN. In the ETUDE proper. female Terzetto from Elijah. 4 and context). n. 231 accompaniment the "Song" are similar to those explained in connection with (par. 25 (especially Nos. sometimes assume a disSee par. never totally absent. 7. lyric). (both lyric 9. 16). though rarely. OR STUDY. as a rule.0-). op. No. 3. 9. 132.Par. ^ 1 32. For this figuration of the harmony. 9. THE ETUDE-CLASS. Nos. For more specific definitions. 12 (10 and n. 5. and BRAHMS. or Exercise. AD. op. 6. 3. 5. the Harmonies. stand out in proportionately greater prominence. HENSELT. " Ave Maria". 8. See also a few Etudes . Schirmer." sacred and secular. 126^?. see GROVE'S dic- also: MENDELSSOHN. SCHUMANN. n. 12).. fitudes. Song from Ossian's Fingal. THE ETUDE. OR STUDY. e. position. 6. and etude-class). female. though. also Chorales (Nos. a adopted with a view to some technical purpose hence Etude. thus prominent in unbroken bulk. i. Op. Paul (No. or so and obscured. but in some figurated form (as shown in Ex.33) from Paul. as a rule. are lyric. 9. 7. 10. 25 No. and similar collections of other publishers. Reference may also be made to a few specimens of the " Part-Songs. 5. as to recede into the background. Nos. 2. The design of the Etude is usually one of the Song-forms. without inconsistency. 3." See CHOPIN.

THE TOCCATA. op. op. and often as an independent piece. which sometimes has two "Trios. i26d. ETC. and Review par. and thus enters more essentially into the structure of the composition than is the case with the chiefly technical figures of the Study. Preludes 3 (ist section)." written Examples for reference : Toccata-species. Dance. and also in the Impromptu. Review par. especially among the etude-species. 15. When the motive or figure. but neither as Certain conspicuously. " Gigue. op. without reference to the Symphony. 6.. 133d. MOSCHELES. 18. sections of an Etude. SCHUMANN. SCHUBERT. upon which the "figuration" or dissolution of the harmony is to be based. CAPRICCIO. Vol. Etudes op. usually designated or Caprice." op. op. In this case. 1 33a. SCHERZO. 3. appearing in duple as well as triple time. of Par. 40. SCHUMANN. Nos. 15. op. Finally. are quite often scarcely perceptible. THE TOCCATA. op. and Prelude: BACH. 2. 3. 23. . the vague. and adopted the time (|) of that Sonata. 5. Iitude and Toccata. RUBINSTEIN. No. CLEMENTI. " La fileuse. the designs chosen are the Song-forms. SCHERZO. No. 4. Arabesque. 21. Symphony. transcendentalcs. style is is small)." excepting in the Scherzo. is necessarily al-ways present Melody. (b) The Scherzo was originally nearly identical with the Later it was substituted for the Minuet in the "Caprice. Partita No. RAFF. in a more or less apparent and assertive degree. Vol. ETC. though by no means always. II. Momens musicals. assumes more of a thematic character. etc. i. op. In the latter species. the "Trio"). 45. etc. Nos. or of a Dance-form (e. as already stated. 21. 70. of these species of composition the (c) In it all element of must be remembered. the Toccata (especially when the figure Prelude. or but partially broken. tudes MENDELSSOHN. 157. 2. and op. three Concert-etudes. i. g. 2. and. 126^. distinctions of style. Preludes i. i. bulk. Intermezzo. rarely with "Trio. may be purely lyric. 12." and Quartet. CAPRICCIO. 2. CRAMER and CZERNY. nor as continuously. as in the lyric class.." BARGIEL. No. 5. the harmony frequently appears in unbroken. LISZT. it superseded the latter.. 104. op. TSCHAIKOWSKY. I. Well-tempered Clavichord. 81. (d) These species are usually. Toccata. in the homophonic forms. 94. Studies.

second movement. 31. 26. 36. op. Fantasies. op. etc. 90. 3. MOSZKOWSKI. Nos. 24. OLD DANCE-SPECIES. 82-86. OLD DANCE-SPECIES. Aquarelles. op. No. Very many of the older dances have fallen into disuse. SCHUMANN. i26c. English Suites. Nos. "Songs without Words. op. pages 16. LES MAITRES DU CLAVECIN (Litolff ed. CHOPIN. Caprice." old and modern. Impromptu. Pfte. 4. pages 50. 333 ST. op. Nos. i. SCHUBERT. op. Son. op. reference must be made to GROVE'S dictionary. Intermezzi. Son. op. 4. with their expressly for the purpose of dancing.-SAKNS. 35. op. 8. op. Praeludien. 2. 38. carefully." Nos. Vol. 6. Nos. 3. 46. and par. 20. No. 5. Sonatas Nos. I. MENDELSSOHN. 106. I. op. No. 189. op. 28. 191. CHOPIN. 2. Scherzo: BEETHOVEN. Courante. Pfte. 45. 221 (Galliardo). Vol. third movement. respective and invested with the setting. SCHUMANN. op. 70. 6. No. 3. 2. op. 12. French Suites. " Songs without Words. CHAPTER XXII. or some standard book " upon Dances. op. in their original condition (in older \vritings). Preludes. i. 2. 3. CHOPIN. 178. No.). HUMMEL. 4. 5. : RUBINSTEIN. 6 (Ex. Passepied : BACH.Par. Caprices. op. Impromptus. 24.) third movement of each. 43. Son. Nos." No. 26. 7. 62. SCHUBERT. : of this book). Partitas. No. 57. Vol. Vol. II. op. 75 LES MAITRES DU CLAVECIN. 81. 167. 5. 66. i. No. op. Capriccio. 8. No. third movement. 14. Pfte. 34. lai. 45. op. 54. second movement. op. THE DANCE-CLASS. MENDELSSOHN. Gavotte p. op. op. . Engl. 4. 47. 12. Suites. op. 5. 4. second movement Scherzos. third movement. HELLER. 2. op. 117-119. are nevertheless often adopted. 21. 72. 174 (Tambotirni). TSCHAIKOWSKY. 29. Pfte. Son. op. 4. Bourree. op. GRIEG. 3. Sarabande. i. Nos. pages 68. 6. the following examples of these dance-species as found. BACH. Preludes. BRAHMS. i. RUBINSTEIN. i and 9 3. 127 and . op. No. GRIEG. 166. No. 51. Impromptu. ^8. 39. . 4. Nos. and the corresponding musical species are therefore seldom written But the old types. 69. 2. 16. 7. examine. op. op. 21. op. GABE. no. Pfte. op. 1 34. No. i. (Peters ed. 41. 22. and in the idealized expositions of more modern composers : Alleman Je. op. 6. 32. French Suites. second movement. Nos. See par. 109. Toccata. 8. and their several details. op. 28. op. 54. rhythmic peculiarities. characteristics and charms of modern musical For the list of old dance-forms. II.

op. Suite of old Dances. 4. 208. 5. Waltzes. No. 192. 187. third movement. RUBINSTEIN. 6. The most prominent among modern dances with musical setting is assigned to the Waltz. ST. p. No. 24. 18. second movement. 14. Sonatas. Partitas. op. ditto. " RUBINSTEIN. latter may be obtained from the authorities already cited. 13. Tambourin. op. I. 3. No. 8." op. brief . Par. Nos." in the specific sense of the 36. a. and a few others of national. Polonaise in E major. Waltzes. Quadrille. No. 150. Engl. for 2 or 4 hands. . 14. op. Suite. 6. LISZT. 128. second movep. few Waltzes and other Dances (Schirmer BRAHMS. second movement. Waltzes. 5. No. Nos. 43. 3. 72. 72. op. 14. 62. third movement of each. DVORAK. 200. 3. 143. Pfte. 6. Polonaise. 4. op. Though not a term. Their musical exposition is sometimes and simple but more commonly they are idealized. Bourree. in. for 2 or 4 hands. 31. 17. of the distinctive rhythmic Information concerning the peculiarities of the respective species. 7. third movement. "Dance. op. Pfte. ment. II. i.). 6. 38. 132. Slavonian Dances. Mazurkas 22. 74. 2. op. 9 (Cotta ed. Nos. JOHANN STRAUSS. WEBER. i. 10. Tarantella. 8. Mazurka. 57. MENDELSSOHN. Hungarian ed. or elabo" of considerable rated into " Concert-pieces length and freedom of form. 142. 12. 9. 5. 6. I. . LES MAITRES DU CLAVECIN. Further: BARGIEL. Symphonies and String-quartets. MOZART. 48. MOSZKOWSKI. 4. op. 6. 8. 12. 50. 3. i. SILAS. op. op. TSCHAIKOWSKY. 3. 19. Son. Waltzes. op. No. 3. Bolero. i. 178. however. Son. (especially Nos. 204. 4. 47) . No. i (Cotta ed.234 (iigue : TIIE MARCH. 20. importance. Polonaises (especially Nos.-SAENS. Vol. and from : careful inspection of the following examples CHOPIN. Le Bal. Nos. ditto. Son. 2. Vol. op. 38. 32. No. GRIEG. Polka.). op. op. p. 9. Nos. i. 38. op. GRIEG. 104. rather than universal. i. No. SCHUBERT. 25. Minuet: BACH. Symphonies and String-quartets. op. 4. i. No. Dances. without neglect. Nos. No. "Invitation to the Dance " No. LES MA!TRES DU CLAVECIN. 2. op. op. PADEREWSKI. Pfte. 39. 136. Waltzes for 4 hands. i. 41.). op. 2. MODERN DANCE-SPECIES. op. 58. 22. RAFF. Mazurka. BEETHOVEN. i. No. the March belongs in the foremost rank of that class of musical compositions in which marked rhythm is the ruling trait and purpose. < Waltz). French Suites. 4. 46. op. HAYDN. 1 THE MARCH. Vol. II. Son. 47. Pfte. 46. p. {" Venezia e Napoli"). Vol. 36. Gavotte in e-minor. 26. MOSZKOWSKI. ditto. 54. 6. i. place 135. 10) Tarantella. 93. No. 144. 189. 12. op. Tarantella op. op. 196.

Marches See BEETHOVEN. op. of other writers. Marches" (| Nos. op. movement. No. time) op. "Wedding-March". Festival-M. ed. Its upon pany and generally vigorous. 99. 235 To a certain extent this is also true of the Polonaise and Minuet (each of which might be denned as a "March in triple time "). the Quadrilles. the conscientious composer or critic must reason from the following vital considerations. 14. 137. op.). Marcia fantastica. CONCLUSION : CRITICISM. Marches.. among which many exquisite examples of the conventional styles will be found. 40." second number. Passamezzo. Funeral-M.Par. Quickstep. though the special type depends the nature of the procession which the March is to accomregulate. CHOPIN. No. Is the demand of Contrast adequately respected and the bane of Monotony avoided ? . TSCHAI- KOWSKY. including "Characteristic op. first for 4 hands (Peters March from Athalia. hence the distinctions : Wedding-March. third third 35.. The March character is is written in duple time (). " section (| time). lot.. op. Son. etc. Military-M. and is its melodic delineation striking. "German Requiem. In his judgment of his own compositions. CONCLUSION : CRITICISM. 3. 31. BRAHMS. and usually in the (rarely form of u Song *with ''Trio" without "Trio"). SCHUMANN. MENDSLSSOHN. etc. The student is also urged to examine the works of leading American and English composers in the homophonic forms. Pfte. Priests' 26." op. 74. second movement. Pfte. op.). movement. or those 1 3T. (2) (3) (4) and ingenious ? Is the Formal Design rational and clear? Is its Rhythmic Structure it distinct and effective? Does contain sufficient harmonic and modulatory fullness and charm (5) ? . Funeral-March. 76. agreeable. 3 (\ and | time). 121. testing each question in turn with the utmost objectiveness and fullness : (1) Is the work sufficiently melodious. and some of the stately old dances (Pavana. SCHUBERT. Son. BARGIEL. worthy of imitation. op. u.

by faithful study and exercise of the POLYPHONIC FORMS OF COMPOSITION. he may confidently defer all other details until he shall have secured the resources of contrapuntal technique. Is it Par. the young composer can honestly affirm each of these main questions. THE KND. . with regard to the technique instrument for which it is designed? appropriate? it Is its title Does it sound as well as looks upon the paper? But if There are many other considerations of minor importance.230 (6) CONCLUSION: CRITICISM. 137 of the {7) (8) written conveniently and sensibly.

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