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Section A Four suggested answers labelled A, B, C and D are given for each question. Choose one correct answer. 1 The percentage of iron in a haemoglobin molecule is 0.335%. If a haemoglobin molecule consists of four iron(II) ions, what is the relative molecular mass of haemoglobin? [Relative atomic mass of Fe is 55.8.] A 6.66 × 102 C 1.67 × 104 3 B 4.16 × 10 D 6.66 × 104 2 Boron has two isotopes with relative isotopic masses of 10 and 11. When 1.00 g of boron reacts completely with hydrogen, 1.278 g of boron hidride, B2H6, is produced. Which graph shows the mass spectrum of boron? A
Relative intensity 4 3 2 1 0 8 9 10 11 12 m/e
Time: 1h 45 min
Relative intensity 4 3 2 1 m/e
Relative intensity 4 3 2 1 m/e
Relative intensity 4 3 2 1 0 8 9 10 11
3 Which equation illustrates the first ionisation energy of the given element? A C(g) → C+(g) + e– B Na(s) → Na+(g) + e– C Cl(g) + e– → Cl–(g) D O(g) + e– → O–(g) 4 Vanadium has the electronic configuration 1s22s22p63s23p63d34s2. Which ion does not exist? A VO42– B VO3– C VO2+ D VO2+
Actual 2008 STPM Chemistry Examination Paper
© Majlis Peperiksaan Malaysia 2008
5 The ionic radii of four ions are as follows: Ion P Q2+ R– S–
Ionic radius/nm 0.095 0.031 0.136 0.126
9 The thermochemical equation for the reaction between nitrogen monoxide and ozone is as follows: NO(g) + O3(g) ∆H = –200.0 kJ NO2(g) + O2(g);
Which ionic compound has bonding with the greatest covalent character? A PR C QR2 B PS D QS2 6 Which species has a trigonal planar shape? A BF3 C ClO3– B PCl3 D SO32– 7 Coordinate bonds do not exist in A CO B BeCl2 C PH4+ D [Fe(CN)6]3– 8 The graphs of initial rate versus concentration of reactants for the reaction X + Y → Z are shown below.
If the activation energy of the reaction is 10.5 kJ mol–1, the activation energy of the reverse reaction is A 10.5 kJ mol–1 B 189.5 kJ mol–1 C 200.0 kJ mol–1 D 210.5 kJ mol–1 10 Which underlined molecule reacts as a Lewis base? A K2O + SO3 → K2SO4 B BF3 + NH3 → H3N•BF3 C OH– + CO2 → HCO3– D CH3Cl + FeCl3 → CH3+ + FeCl4– 11 The equilibrium constant, Kc, for a reaction between ethanol and ethanoic acid is 4.0 at 25 °C. If 1.0 dm3 of an aqueous solution containing 92.0 g ethanol and 120.0 g ethanoic acid is left to react until equilibrium is attained at 25 °C, what is the mass of ethanol left? [Relative molecular masses of ethanol and ethanoic acid are 46.0 and 60.0 respectively.] A 18.4 g C 61.3 g B 30.7 g D 73.6 g 12 In which reaction is the value of Kc equals to the value of Kp? A N2O4(g) 2NO2(g) B CO2(g) + C(s) 2CO(g) C H2O(g) + C(s) H2(g) + CO(g) D 3Fe(s) + 4H2O(g) Fe3O4(s) + 4H2(g) 13 An aqueous solution of a monobasic acid has pH 3.5. A 25.00 cm3 volume of an aqueous solution of the acid is completely neutralised by 27.50 cm3 of a 0.10 mol dm–3 sodium hydroxide
© Majlis Peperiksaan Malaysia 2008
What is the order of the reaction with respect to X and Y? X Y A 0 1 B 1 0 C 1 2 D 2 1
Actual 2008 STPM Chemistry Examination Paper
B hydrogen choride gas is evolved. in kJ mol–1. The value of the dissociation constant of the acid is A 3.60 g C 5. 15 The partition coefficient of a liquid X between ethoxyethane solvent and water is 3.00 V at equilibrium and Half-cell reaction 2+ Zn (aq) + 2e– Zn(s) Ag+(aq) + e– Ag(s) E o /V –0. –286 kJ mol–1 and –278 kJ mol–1 respectively. C the pink colour of the solution remains unchanged.80 17 In plating chromium onto plastic. D a solution with a pH less than 7 is formed.6 –57. for the reaction 2Ag+(aq) + Zn(s) → Zn2+(aq) + 2Ag(s) at 25 °C? A 1. n [reduced species] where E o is the standard electrode potential and n the number of electrons transferred when the oxidised species changes into the reduced species.61 × 1052 dm3 mol–1 © Majlis Peperiksaan Malaysia 2008 The standard enthalpy of neutralisation of HF is the most negative because A HF is the strongest acid.16 × 10–4 mol dm–3 B 3.48 × 10–5 mol dm–3 C 9.solution.50 g D 5. The standard enthalpies of formation of ethanoic acid. Kc.00. for the preparation is A –1051 B –495 C –209 D +495 19 The standard enthalpies of neutralisation for the reactions between an aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide and several hydrohalic acids are given below. A a buffer solution is formed.00 g of X. Actual 2008 STPM Chemistry Examination Paper 3 . the cathode is a plastic object coated with graphite.41 × 10–2 dm3 mol–1 C 2. D make the surface of the plastic object coarse so that chromium is adsorbed on it.3 –57.6 –57.08 × 10–7 mol dm–3 D 9. C the fluorine atom has the highest electronegativity. What is the mass of X extracted from a 200 cm3 of an aqueous solution containing 6. Hydrohalic acid HF HCl HBr HI Standard enthalpy of neutralisation/kJ mol–1 –68. The graphite is used to A enable oxidation to occur and chromium to be deposited.059 [oxidised species] E = E o – ——– log ——–————— . D the fluorine ion has the most exothermic enthalpy of hydration. Given that E = 0. of a half-cell is given by 0. extracted twice with 100 cm3 of ethoxyethane used in each extraction? A 3. E. The standard enthalpy change.2 What is the equilibrium constant. B form an alloy with chromium so as to strengthen the coating.76 × 1026 dm3 mol–1 D 7. B HF has the strongest covalent bond. 18 In industry.04 g B 4.63 g 16 The electrode potential. water and ethanol are –487 kJ mol–1.31 × 10–53 dm3 mol–1 B 4.76 +0.99 × 10–8 mol dm–3 14 When solid ammonium chloride is added in excess to an aqueous solution of ammonia containing phenolphthalein as an indicator. ethanoic acid can be prepared from the oxidation of ethanol with oxygen. C enable the plastic object to act as an electrical conductor.
Which statement about the reaction is true? A The reaction is endothermic. 22 SiCl4 compound forms an acidic solution with water while CCl4 compound does not dissolve in water because A silicon atom has empty 3d orbital while carbon atom does not. with an aqueous solution of ammonia. B Y forms a compound with the molecular formula K2YO4. D Strontium nitrate is more difficult to decompose than barium nitrate when heated. 27 Zn2+ ions form a white precipitate. C Strontium carbonate is more difficult to decompose than barium carbonate when heated. Br2 and I2 decreases down Group 17 of the Periodic Table. Zn(OH)2. Y and Z form octahedral complexes. 23 At 500 °C. B The electronegativity of the elements increases. D The catenation of the elements decreases. D van der Waals forces between SiCl4 molecules are weaker than those between CCl4 molecules. B Strontium sulphate is less soluble in water than calcium sulphate.20 Strontium is an element in Group 2 of the Periodic Table which is situated between calcium and barium. C the SiCl4 molecule is polar while the CCl4 molecule is non-polar. B The reaction occurs through three steps. 21 Which property is true of the elements in Group 14 of the Periodic Table on descending the group? A The electrical conductivity of the elements decreases. The white precipitate © Majlis Peperiksaan Malaysia 2008 . Which statement is true? A The strontium ion has a higher charge density than the calcium ion. 4 Actual 2008 STPM Chemistry Examination Paper C The value of the equilibrium constant is lower at a temperature more than 500 °C. B the Si Cl covalent bond is weaker than the C Cl covalent bond. C Z2O is an oxidising agent. D The percentage yield of ammonia increases when the pressure is reduced. nitrogen and hydrogen gases react according to the equation N2(g) + 3H2(g) → 2NH3(g). Which property does not influence the trend in the reactivity of the halogens? A Atomic size B Electron affinity C Ionisation energy D Bond energy 26 The oxidation states of several d-block elements represented by letters which are not the usual symbols for the elements concerned in the Periodic Table are as follows: Element X Y Z – – – – 2 2 Oxidation state 3 3 3 – 4 4 – – 5 – – 6 – – 7 Which statement is not true? A X forms colourless hydrated ions. C The stability of the +4 oxidation state of the elements increases. D X . 24 Ammonia gas can be prepared in a laboratory by heating an ammonium salt with A Devarda’s alloy B hydrochloric acid C calcium hydroxide solution D acidified solution of potassium manganate(VII) 25 The reactivity of the halogens Cl2.
I 33 Which pair of compounds corresponds to the reagent used to differentiate the two compounds? Actual 2008 STPM Chemistry Examination Paper B CH(CH3)CH2CH3 © Majlis Peperiksaan Malaysia 2008 5 . III C II. C NH4+ ions increase the solubility product of Zn(OH)2. Which statement explains the observation? A A soluble ZnCl2 compound is formed. B NH3 molecule is a stronger ligand than OH–. I D III. II B II. D NH4+ ions decrease the concentration of OH– ions in the solution. 29 Which compound reacts with chlorine following the mechanisms for free radicals and electrophilic substitution? A CH3CH3 B CH2Cl2 C CH3CH=CH2 D C6H5CH3 30 Which compound is formed when benzene reacts with 1-butene in the presence of aluminium chloride? A CH2CH2CH2CH3 32 Each of the following compounds is put into a test tube and an aqueous solution of silver nitrate is added. The possible structural formula of the compound is A CH2CH3 C CH2OH OH CH(CH3)2 B CH2Cl D CHO Which statement is true of menthol? A It has two chiral centres. B It has two functional groups. C It reacts with an aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide. II. D It decolourises an acidified solution of potassium manganate(VII). III. Cl CH3COCl ClCH2COOH I II III Which sequence of the compounds according to the ascending order of their reactivity is correct? A I. The three test tubes are then placed in a hot water bath. The structure of its molecule is as follows: CH3 C CH=CHCH2CH3 D CH2CHCH2CH3 31 When a compound is heated with an acidified solution of potassium manganate(VII).dissolves when a NH4Cl solution is added to it. III. a white precipitate is formed and a gas which turns lime water chalky is evolved. 28 Menthol is one of the substances added into a cough mixture. I.
compounds Q and R are formed. Which observation about the reaction is true? A The gas evolved forms white fumes with hydrogen chloride. What are X.1 g of ethanamide in a test tube and then heated. What is the possible structural formula of the acid? [Relative atomic mass of H is 1. with molecular formula C13H10O2. © Majlis Peperiksaan Malaysia 2008 6 Actual 2008 STPM Chemistry Examination Paper .0 mol dm–3 sodium hydroxide solution for complete neutralisation.0 cm3 volume of sodium hydroxide solution is added to 0. is converted to compound Z according to the following reaction scheme. is refluxed with an aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide and then acidified with hydrochloric acid. NaOH(aq) KMnO4/H+ C5H11Cl ⎯⎯⎯⎯→ Y ⎯⎯⎯⎯→ Z ∆ ∆ Z forms an orange precipitate with 2.16 g of the acid in aqueous solution requires 20. with molecular formula C5H11Cl. 1. C is 12.4-dinitrophenylhydrazine and a yellow precipitate with an alkaline solution of iodine.0. What are Q and R? Q A CH2OH OH D O C OH CH3CH2OH R B C O OH OH 37 A 2. B The gas evolved turns blue litmus paper red.0] A HCOOH B HOOC—COOH C CH2=CHCOOH D HOOCCH=CHCOOH 36 When a white solid P. D A layer of colourless oil is formed. C A liquid with a smell of vinegar is formed.0 and O is 16.0 cm3 of a 1. Y and Z? X A B C D CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2Cl CH3CH2CH(Cl)CH2CH3 CH3CH(Cl)CH2CH2CH3 (CH3)2C(Cl)CH2CH3 Y CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2OH CH3CH2CH(OH)CH2CH3 CH3CH(OH)CH2CH2CH3 (CH3)2C(OH)CH2CH3 C O C ONa ONa Z CH3CH2CH2CH2CHO CH3CH2COCH2CH3 CH3COCH2CH2CH3 CH3COCH2CH2CH3 35 An organic acid decolourises bromine water.A B C D Pair of compounds (CH3)3COH and (CH3)2CHCH2OH CH3CH2OH and C6H5OH CH3CH2OH and CH3COOH C6H5OH and CH3COOH Reagent Sodium metal Bromine water Phosphorus(V) chloride Aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide 34 An organic compound X.
Y and Z? 1 W has a larger Rf value than Y. Which reagent reacts only with the acidic group of GABA? A B C D HCl HNO2 CH3CH2Cl CH3CH(OH)CH3 40 Ziegler-Natta catalyst is used in addition polymerisation of ethene. only are correct. The responses A to D should be selected as follows: A B C 2 and 3 only are correct. 2 and 3 are correct. © Majlis Peperiksaan Malaysia 2008 Actual 2008 STPM Chemistry Examination Paper 7 . 3 Z has the lowest solubility in ethanol. B It requires a low temperature. D 1. one or more of the three numbered statements 1 to 3 may be correct.0 P What could P and Q be? Which statement(s) is/are true of the samples W. Section B For each question in this section. 2 X is a mixture of W and Y. X. Y and Z which is obtained using ethanol as an eluent is shown below. C It produces high density poly(ethene). Which statement is not true of the process? A It requires a low pressure. 41 The phase diagram of a mixture of two liquids P and Q is as follows: Solvent front Vapour pressure/ atm W X Y Z 1. P Q 1 Trichloromethane Propanone 2 Benzene Methylbenzene 3 Ethanol Water 42 The paper chromatogram of samples W. Its structural formula is H2NCH2CH2CH2COOH.0 Q Mole fraction 1. X. D It is an example of free radical polymerisation. 1 only is 1 and 2 correct.38 What is the compound formed when (CH3)2C=CHCN reacts with hydrogen gas in the presence of platinum? A (CH3)2CHCH2CN B (CH3)2C=CHCH2NH2 C (CH3)2CHCH2CH2NH2 D (CH3)2CHCH2NHCH3 39 GABA is a neuro-transmitter released by red algae which encourages shellfish larvae to settle on the ocean bed.
65 × 104 C mol–1. H 46 [Al(H2O)6]3+ ion is hydrolysed in aqueous solution according to the equation [Al(H 2 O) 6 ] 3+ (aq) + H 2 O(l) [Al(H2O)5(OH)]2+(aq) + H3O+(aq) Which statement(s) about the reaction is/are true? 1 The [Al(H2O)5(OH)]2+ ion is not stable with respect to hydrolysis.43 Which property(ies) of the elements in Period 2 and Period 3 of the Periodic Table change(s) periodically? 1 Electronegativity 2 Electrical conductivity 3 Enthalpy of vapourisation 44 The bond angles in methane.8 A is passed through a molten ionic compound for 1 hour. 45 When a current of 0. 1. 2 the hybridisation of the central atom. The solution formed is added with an aqueous solution of silver nitrate followed by an aqueous solution of ammonia. 3 The rate of reaction increases when an acid is added.5° H H The difference in the bond angles in the three molecules is due to 1 the number of lone pair electrons in the central atom. What could the metal be? [Faraday constant is 9. 3 the electronegativity of the central atom.5° N 107° H H H H O 104. ammonia and water molecules are shown below. ∆ © Majlis Peperiksaan Malaysia 2008 . 47 A solution is prepared by dissolving a small amount of sodium chloride and sodium iodide in water.00 × 10–2 mol of a metal is deposited at the cathode.] 1 Fe 2 Cr 3 Pb 8 Actual 2008 STPM Chemistry Examination Paper CH2CH3 2 CH2CH3 Cl2/Light 3 CH(OH)CH3 I2/NaOH. The reaction(s) involved is/are 1 Ag+(aq) + I–(aq) → AgI(s) 2 Ag+(aq) + Cl–(aq) → AgCl(s) 3 AgCl(s) + 2NH3(aq) → Ag(NH3)2+(aq) + Cl–(aq) 48 Which compound(s) and reagent(s) with reaction condition(s) react to form a compound with halogen atoms attached directly to its benzene ring? Compound 1 Reagent/Reaction condition Br2/Fe C H H 109. 2 The reaction is a redox reaction.
3 The chemical reaction involved is a redox reaction. Which statement(s) is/are true of butyl lithium? 1 It is more reactive than Grignard reagents. is a very useful organometallic compound in organic synthesis. Which statement(s) is/are true? 1 The alcohol to be determined is ethanol.49 A breath analyser is used to determine the alcohol content in a driver’s body. © Majlis Peperiksaan Malaysia 2008 Actual 2008 STPM Chemistry Examination Paper 9 . 50 Butyl lithium. 2 It is a starting substance in the synthesis of silicone. 2 The chemical substance used could be acidified solution of potassium dichromate(VI). 3 It can be used to prepare alcohols. with molecular formula C4H9Li.
[3 marks] [2 marks] 2 (a) Dmitri Mendeleyev is acknowledged by scientists as the founder of the modern Periodic Table. [1 mark] (ii) Sketch and label the energy profiles for the catalysed and uncatalysed reactions on the axes below. (i) What is the basis of Mendeleyev’s Periodic Table? [1 mark] (ii) Based on his Periodic Table. [1 mark] (iii) State the number of unpaired electrons in atom X. [1 mark] (b) A graph of first ionisation energy versus proton number for several elements in Period 3 of the Periodic Table is given below. the orbitals are each filled with one electron. 1 (a) “If two or more orbitals with equal energy are available. [1 mark] (ii) Draw a diagram showing valence shells filled with valence electrons for an atom X with proton number 28. Mendeleyev successfully predicted the properties of some elements that had not been discovered. The catalysis steps are as follows: 2Br– + H2O2 + 2H+ → Br2 + 2H2O Br2 + H2O2 → 2Br– + 2H+ + O2 (i) Write an overall equation for the above exothermic reaction. Name one of the elements. Energy Reaction coordinate (iii) State two observations for the catalysed reaction.PAPER 2 Section A [40 marks] Answer all questions in this section.” (i) Name the above rule. [1 mark] (iv) Why does the total energy of atom X decrease when there is a transfer of an electron from one subshell to another? [1 mark] (b) The decomposition of aqueous hydrogen peroxide can be accelerated by the addition of a small amount of an acidic solution of sodium bromide. First ionisation energy /kJ mol–1 Y Proton number 10 Actual 2008 STPM Chemistry Examination Paper © Majlis Peperiksaan Malaysia 2008 . before a second electron of the opposite spin is added. with the electrons having parallel spins.
[2 marks] (ii) State the main component of borosilicate glass and its property. that may be used to produce propene. (i) State the components of soda glass. [1 mark] (ii) Write an equation to show the formation of this salt. Write the rate equation for the decomposition of cyclopropane. [1 mark] Calculate the half-life of cyclopropane. [2 marks] (ii) State one property of silicone. and draw the structure of the yellow precipitate [2 marks] (b) Insulin is a hormone which controls the concentration of glucose in the blood. [1 mark] (iv) When an aqueous solution of this salt is added to an alkaline solution of phenol. [1 mark] 3 (a) Silicon compounds are mainly used in making glass. sodium carbonate and limestone. what is the concentration of cyclopropane at 400 °C after two half-lives? [1 mark] (iv) What is the relationship between cyclopropane and propene? [1 mark] (v) Name a chemical compound. The most common and cheapest glass is soda glass which is manufactured by fusing sand. C6H5NH2.0 mol of cyclopropane is introduced into a 1 dm3 container.(i) Identify the element labelled Y. Name the organic product formed. It is a globular protein which has two interlinked polypeptide chains. other than cyclopropane. [1 mark] (iii) Explain why silicone is used in the manufacture of waterproof fabrics. (i) Draw the structure of chain silicone showing three repeating units with alkyl groups. and write the equation for the reaction involved.12 s–1 at 400 °C. (i) Name this salt. a vigorous reaction occurs. Name the chemical reaction which occurs. (i) Draw the structural formula of the basic unit in a polypeptide. [2 marks] (iv) Name one type of bonding which can contribute to the rigidity of the structure of the insulin molecules. [1 mark] (ii) What is meant by a polypeptide? [1 mark] (iii) Explain why insulin is easily denatured under a strong alkaline or acidic condition. [1 mark] (iii) When an aqueous solution of this salt is heated to 70 °C. [1 mark] (ii) Why is the first ionisation energy of Y higher than that of the next element? [1 mark] (c) Cyclopropane decomposes into propene through the ring opening of cyclopropane according to the equation C3H6(g) → CH2=CHCH3(g) The (i) (ii) (iii) rate constant for the decomposition is 15. reacts with nitric acid in the presence of concentrated hydrochloric acid at a temperature of 0 °C to 5 °C to produce a salt used in dyeing industry. [2 marks] (b) Silicones are oils or rubber-like materials used commercially in a wide variety of products. [1 mark] © Majlis Peperiksaan Malaysia 2008 Actual 2008 STPM Chemistry Examination Paper 11 . Commercial silicones have infinite O-Si-O chains with alkyl or aryl groups attached to the silicon atoms. a yellow precipitate is formed immediately. [3 marks] 4 (a) Phenylamine. [2 marks] If 1.
It is prepared commercially by the Haber process.40 mol at equilibrium. one of the stages in nitrogen extraction is the liquefaction of air by applying high pressure and low temperature.0 mol of nitrogen gas and 1. (ii) Sketch the enthalpy diagram for the reaction. and explain the observations. [4 marks] (c) Gases X and Y are allowed to react in a closed container until equilibrium is reached. 12 Actual 2008 STPM Chemistry Examination Paper © Majlis Peperiksaan Malaysia 2008 . It changes to a brown gas Y when heated and forms X again when cooled.0 mol of hydrogen gas are introduced into a 2. [2 marks] 7 (a) The table below shows the formulae of ions with proton numbers 7 to 13 except proton number 10. [6 marks] (b) The standard enthalpies of atomisation of several species are given in the following table. Identify gases X and Y. compare the shape of a methyl free radical to that of a methane molecule. (a) Using the valence-shell electron pair repulsion theory. 1.0 dm3 volumetric flask at 450 °C. [2 marks] (ii) Explain the equilibrium position when a small amount of argon gas is added to the equilibrium mixture at constant volume. Species CH4 •CH3 HC1 Standard enthalpy of atomisation/ kJ mo1–1 + 1740 + 1305 + 431 (i) Calculate the standard enthalpy of reaction for the homolytic dissociation of [6 marks] methane by a chlorine free radical. oxygen and argon. [3 marks] (b) In industry.Section B [60 marks] Answer any four questions in this section. [3 marks] 6 (a) Ammonia is a nitrogen fertiliser which is very soluble in water. Calculate the equilibrium constant for the reaction involved at this temperature. [7 marks] (b) A colourless gas X is an oxide of nitrogen. The liquefied air contains mainly nitrogen. The amount of hydrogen gas is 0. Proton number Formula of ion 7 N 3– 8 0 2– 9 F – 11 Na + 12 Mg 2+ 13 A13+ (i) Sketch a graph of the ionic radius against proton number. 5 A methane molecule dissociates homolytically in the presence of a chlorine free radical to form a methyl free radical. [2 marks] (ii) Explain your graph. (i) State and explain what would be observed when the pressure of the container is increased at constant temperature.
[4 marks] (b) The stability constants. State the number of 3d suborbitals which are not filled with electrons. B shows geometrical isomerism but C does not. [5 marks] (ii) Determine the isomer of Z which reacts with ethanolic potassium hydroxide solution to form only one organic compound. Justify your answers. C. expressed as their logarithms. [3 marks] © Majlis Peperiksaan Malaysia 2008 Actual 2008 STPM Chemistry Examination Paper 13 . [7 marks] (b) An optically active compound Z. C6H5COO-OOCC6H5. of the complex ion [Cu(EDTA)]2–. Give a reason for your answer. compound D is formed and a gas which turns lime water chalky is evolved. compounds B and C are formed. (i) Explain what happens when an aqueous solution of ammonia is added to an aqueous solution of [CuCl4]2–. [2 marks] 9 Compound A. (i) Write the structural formulae of compounds A. reacts with ethanolic potassium hydroxide solution to form three isomers of unsaturated organic compounds. and explain its reaction with ethanolic potassium hydroxide solution. (c) The relative molecular mass of aluminium chloride calculated from its vapour density at different temperatures are shown in the table below. When A is heated with alumina. (i) Write the structural formula of Z. with the molecular formula C5H12O. expressed as their logarithms. E and F. [4 marks] (ii) A Fe2+ ion reacts with CN– ions to form the complex ion hexacyanoferrate(II). compound E is formed which reacts with lithium tetrahydridoaluminate(III) to form compound F. D. and give a reason for your answer. the reactions which occur in the polymerisation of propene.2 respectively. with molecular formula C4H9C1. When C is heated with an acidified potassium manganate(VII) solution. with chemical equations. [1 mark] (iii) Write the equations for all the reactions above. of the complex ions [CuC14]2– and [Cu(NH3)4]2+ are 5. When D is heated with an aqueous solution of ammonia. and state one of the uses of liquid nitrogen. to form polypropene. [4 marks] 10 (a) Propene polymerises in the presence of benzoyl peroxide. [3 marks] 8 (a) What is meant by a transition element? [1 mark] (i) State and explain what would be observed when an aqueous solution of potassium thiocyanate is added to an aqueous solution of iron(III) ions. Draw the shape of this complex ion. [3 marks] (iii) Give a reason for the inertness of nitrogen. Explain.6 and 13. [10 marks] (ii) Write the structural formulae of the cis and trans isomers of compound B. which has a straight chain structure is an optically active alcohol. B. Temperature /°C Relative molecular mass 200 269 600 163 800 133 Explain why the relative molecular mass of aluminium chloride shows different values at the different temperatures. and give reasons for your answer. and explain a natural phenomenon [3 marks] which produces nitrogen oxides. [4 marks] (ii) Predict the stability constants.(i) Why is carbon dioxide not found in the liquefied air? [1 mark] (ii) Explain how pure nitrogen is obtained from the liquefied air.
(008974-T) 2008 3.60 = 2.7 g For Kc = Kp.8 100 ⇒ x = 20% ∴ 10B : 11B = 1 : 4 First ionisation energy is the amount of energy required to remove one mole of electrons from one mole of gaseous atoms to form one mole of unipositive ions. A 7.50 × 0. C The first graph shows the relationship: Rate = k[X] ⇒ 1st order The second graph shows the relationship: Rate = k[Y]2 ⇒ 2nd order 9.0 [CH3COOH] = ——— = 2 mol dm–3 60 C2H5OH + CH3COOH CH3COOC2H5 + H2O Let x = number of moles of ethanol that has reacted x2 —————— = 4. HbFe4 = Mr. in VO2+ is +5 and in VO2+ is +4.0 11. A 15. C 6. pH = 3. D Let relative molecular mass of haemoglobin molecule.00 – 3. in VO3– is +5.10 ⇒ c = 0. number of moles of gases on right-hand side = left-hand side. D 14 Actual 2008 STPM Chemistry Examination Paper . Energy NO + O3 +10.333) × 46 = 30.16 × 10–4 Let concentration of monobasic acid = c mol dm–3 ∴ 25.66 × 104 2.333 ∴ Mass of C2H5OH left = (2 – 1.00 ⇒ y = 1. B 3H + NC Fe NC CN CN CN CN C O H—P—H H 8.00 × c = 27. Bhd. D 13.40 – y ———— 200 Total mass of X extracted = 3.5kJ +(10. NH3 has a lone pair that is donated to the empty orbital in BF3.60 + 1.04 g © Oxford Fajar Sdn. C 14.00 —— 1 Ar ⇒ ——— = — ⇒ Ar = 10.40 g Let y = mass of X extracted in the second extraction y —— 100 ————— = 3. Let x = mass of X extracted in the first extraction x —— 100 ————— = 3.08 × 10–7 mol dm–3 A weak base and its salt forms an alkaline buffer solution.8 % Fe = ———— × 100 = 0. C 4.11 mol dm–3 + [H ] = Ka × c Ka = 9.278 g B2H6 ∴ Mass of H = 0.60 g 6. Valence electronic configuration of 3d3 4s2 indicates that vanadium can have oxidation states of +1 to +5.00 g boron forms 1. B [C2H5OH] = ——– = 2 mol dm–3 46 120. B A Lewis base is an electron-pair donor.335% Mr Mr = 6.00 ⇒ x = 3.0 (2 – x)(2 – x) ⇒ x = 1. Fajan’s rule for a compound to exhibit high covalent character: (i) Small cation (ii) Large anion (iii) High ionic charge PCl3.278 3 ——– 1 Let % abundance of 10B : 11B = x% : (100 – x)% 10x + 11(100 – x) ∴ ————–——— = 10. A 5.5 + 200) kJ –200 kJ NO2 + O2 Reaction coordinate 10.278 g mol B 2 ——— = — mol H 6 1. 92.44 = 5. The oxidation states of V in VO42– is +6. A 12. A 2B + 3H2 → B2H6 1.5 ⇒ [H+] = 3. 4 × 55.00 – x ———— 200 ∴ Mass of X remaining in aqueous solution = 6.5 kJ +10.8 0.44 g 2.SUGGESTED ANSWERS PAPER 1 Section A 1. ClO3– and SO32– are trigonal pyramidal in shape.
24. D Decolourises bromine water ⇒ alkene Number of moles of NaOH = 0. B C6H5OH (phenol) forms a white precipitate with bromine water but ethanol does not.02 If acid is monobasic ⇒ ——– = 1 1. It has empty 3d orbitals to accept lone pairs of electrons from water molecules. A When ethanamide is heated with NaOH. D The presence of NH4+ ions cause a common ion effect which decreases the concentration of OH– ions. C Reaction between N2 and H2 is exothermic. 23. But the oxidation states of Y are +2. This causes the ionic product of [Zn2+][OH–]2 < Ksp of Zn(OH)2.56 V At equilibrium 0.16 —— Mr ⇒ Mr = 58 ≠ Mr of (C) 0. Y has an oxidation state of +6 in K2YO4. C Z forms an orange precipitate with 2.02 1. 27. D Ziegler-Natta catalyst produces HDPE at low temperature and pressure via coordination polymerisation. 34. D Descending Group 14: • Conductivity increases as metallic character increases • Electronegativity decreases • Stability of +4 oxidation state decreases • Carbon can undergo catenation but not other elements 22. 40. Bhd. (008974-T) 2008 37. D There are three chiral centres. +3 and +4 only. 35.76) = +1. 26. C Ionisation energy involves the formation of positive ions. it will form colourless hydrated ions. D –COOH is the acidic group. B C O O (P) NaOH(aq) C O– Na + Na –O O HCl(aq) + + C OH + HO O (Q) (R) * * * OH CH(CH3)2 © Oxford Fajar Sdn.059 ⇒ 0 = E o cell – ——— log Kc 2 ⇒ Kc = 7. NH3 gas will be liberated. D The aromatic nucleus undergoes electrophilic substitution while the methyl side chain can undergo free radical substitution. It can react with an alcohol. 28.61 × 1052 dm3 mol–1 17. 25. thus charge density decreases • Solubility of sulphates decreases • Thermal stability of carbonates and nitrates increases 21. B CH3CH2CH=CH2 + CH3CH2CHCH3 31. A Si is in Period 3. Hence.16. The –OH group does not react with NaOH.80 – (–0. D The small F – ion has a very exothermic enthalpy of hydration. B C2H5OH + O2 → CH3COOH + H2O ∆H = Σ ∆Hf (products) – Σ ∆Hf (reactants) = [–487 + (–286)] – [(–278) + 0] = –495 kJ mol–1 19. 18. 38. 30. and X is a haloalkane with CH3CHCl.16 Number of moles of acid = ——– Mr 0. A CH2CH3 + 6[O] COOH + CO2 + 2H2O white precipitate 32. C Plastic is a non-conductor while graphite is a conductor.4-dinitrophenylhydrazine and a yellow precipitate with I2/OH– indicates that Z is a ketone with CH3C=O group. C When an NH4+ compound is heated with a base. It is a secondary alcohol that can be oxidised. 20. the value of Kc decreases. Thus.02 If acid is dibasic = ——– = 2 1. D E o cell = +0. B & C X has one oxidation state only (Sc). Thus when temperature increases. NH3 gas is liberated and sodium ethanoate is formed.group. There is only one functional group (–OH). Z2O means Z has oxidation state of +1 but Z does not have oxidation state of +1.16 —— Mr ⇒ Mr = 116 = Mr of (D) 36. Y is a secondary alcohol with CH3CH(OH)group. B Descending Group 2: • Ionic size increases. C Ease of hydrolysis : RCOCl > RCl > C6H5Cl 33. CH3 29. NH3 gas forms white fumes with HCl gas. Actual 2008 STPM Chemistry Examination Paper 15 . C ( C H 3 ) 2 C = C H C ≡ N + 3H2 → (CH3)2CHCH2CH2NH2 39.
(ii) Germanium (b) (i) Phosphorus (ii) P has a stable half-filled p subshell. The total energy of 16 Actual 2008 STPM Chemistry Examination Paper where R = alkyl group (ii) High viscosity liquid / stable towards heat / chemically inert © Oxford Fajar Sdn. B Quantity of electricity =I×t = (0. No answer W has a smaller Rf value than Y. 46.98 × 10–2 electricity required = ————— =3F 1. D Ag+ ions form precipitates with Cl– and I– ions. (v) Propanol (dehydration of propanol forms propene) (i) Soda glass consists of SiO2.8 × 1 × 60 × 60)/ 9. Thus. They are structural isomers. (c) (i) Rate = k [C3H6] (This is a first order reaction because the unit for the rate constant k is s–1.00 × 10–2 The metal ion has a charge of +3. (a) (i) Hund’s rule (ii) 3d 8 4s 2 atom X increases (not decrease as in the question). 42. (008974-T) 2008 . Has low expansion coefficient. 2.693 = ——— 15. Bhd. K2Cr2O7 oxidises ethanol to ethanoic acid and is itself reduced to Cr3+ ions. CHCl3 and propanone molecules are held together by hydrogen bonds which are stronger than the van der Waals forces between CHCl3 molecules or propanone molecules.0458 s (iii) 0. Na2O. A The reaction is an electrophilic substitution reaction of the aromatic nucleus. 47. electrical conductivity and enthalpy of vapourisation are periodic functions of the elements across a period. the electron gains energy and is promoted to a higher subshell.Section B 41.25 mol dm–3 (1. (b) (i) 2H2O2 → 2H2O + O2 (ii) energy E2 E1 2H2O2 ∆H 2H2O + O2 reaction coordinate E2 = activation energy without catalyst E1 = activation energy with catalyst ∆H = enthalpy change (iii) The solution turns reddish-brown at the beginning (due to formation of Br2) then becomes colourless (Br2 is reduced to Br–). 50.12 = 0. A The difference in the bond angles is due to the number of lone pairs in the molecules. (a) (iii) 2 (iv) When an electron is transferred from one subshell to another. A [Al(H2O)5(OH)]2+ can be hydrolysed to Al(OH)3 under basic conditions. Z and W seem to have the same (lowest) solubility in ethanol. 49. (b) (i) R R R O Si R O Si O R Si R 3.98 × 10–2 F To deposit 1 mol of the metal.65 × 104 = 2. lone pairlone pair repulsion > lone pair-bond pair repulsion > bond pair-bond pair repulsion 45. SiO2 + Na2CO3 → Na2SiO3 + CO2 (ii) Main component is B2O3 and SiO2. Silicones are also prepared from chlorosilanes. 43. X is not a mixture of W and Y.) ln 2 (ii) t 1 = —— — k 2 0.5 → 0. PAPER 2 Section A 1.0 → 0. CaO. A The mixture shows negative deviation. D Organolithium compounds are more reactive than Grignard reagents and they can be used to prepare alcohols. AgCl dissolves in ammonia to form [Ag(NH3)2]+ complex ions.25) (iv) Both have the same molecular formula. D Electronegativity. intermolecular forces between molecules in the mixture are stronger than those between molecules in the pure liquids. (a) (i) Properties of elements are periodic functions of atomic mass. can withstand temperature/heat change without cracking. According to VSEPR theory. quantity of 2. D Ethanol can be consumed. 48. 44.
(a) N2(g) + Initial: 1 mol At equilibrium: 0.4 3 —— —— 2 2 = 12.5 mol–2 dm6 (b) Gas X is N2O4. The hydrophilic –OH group is replaced by the hydrophobic organic group (–CH3) that repels water.8 mol 0.8 0. Silicone fluid shows spreading properties due to low surface tension. Hence.5°. (iv) Hydrogen bond between C=O group of an insulin molecule with N–H group of another insulin molecule. The equilibrium position shifts to the left —— 2 0. The hydrophobic organic groups act as barrier on the surface of fabrics and repel water. Decomposition of N2O4 to NO2 is an endothermic process.5°. When cooled. Section B 5. Repulsion between electron-pairs increases in the order: bond pair – bond pair < bond pair – lone pair < lone pair – lone pair CH4: Has four bonding electron-pairs and no lone pair. Thus.4 —— mol 2 2NH3(g) 0 mol 0. the O atoms of silicone form hydrogen bonds with molecules on the surface of fabrics. H 6. tetrahedral shape with bond angle of 109. the equilibrium position shifts to the right.4 —— mol 2 H H C H •CH3: Has three bonding electron-pairs and one lone electron. 4. (008974-T) 2008 = —————— 0. N2O4(g) 2NO2(g) .(iii) When applied to fabric. The electron-pairs arrange themselves as far apart as possible to minimise the repulsion. (a) (i) Benzene diazonium chloride (ii) C6H5NH2 + HNO2 + HCl → C6H5N2+ Cl– + 2H2O (iii) Phenol (iv) Coupling reaction -N=N-O– energy pyramidal shape with smaller bond angle of < 109. (c) N2O4(g) 2NO2(g) (i) When pressure is increased. forming a film on the fibre that water cannot wet.8 ≡ [ ] in 2 dm3 —— mol 2 [NH3]2 Kc = ————– [N2] [H2]3 3H2(g) ↔ 1 mol 0.4 mol 0. the equilibrium position shifts to the left. c H H H (b) (i) Enthalpy of atomisation is the heat energy required to convert one mole of a covalent compound (or species) into its free gaseous atoms. the mixture turns light brown / pale yellow as more N2O4 is formed. ∆H = +ve When heated. trigonal © Oxford Fajar Sdn. Gas Y is NO2. ∆H = +1740 – (+1305) – (+431) = + 4 kJ mol–1 (ii) (b) (i) H H2N C COOH •CH3(g) + HCl(g) CH4(g) + Cl•(g) ∆H = +4 kJ mol–1 reaction coordinate R The basic unit in polypeptide is amino acid. colourless N2O4 is formed. (ii) Long chain of amino acids bonded by peptide linkages (iii) Hydrogen bonds are disrupted and hydrolysis occurs on the –CONHgroup. ∆H CH4(g) + Cl•(g) ⎯→ •CH3(g) + HCl(g) +1305 kJ +431kJ +1740 kJ C(g) + 4H(g) + Cl(g) Enthalpy of reaction. Bhd.4 mol 0.4 2 Actual 2008 STPM Chemistry Examination Paper 17 . Hence. water falling on the fabric roll off instead of penetrating through and wetting it. colourless N2O4 decomposes to the brown NO2. (a) VSEPR (valence-shell electron-pair repulsion) theory states that the geometry of a molecule is determined by the repulsion among the electron-pairs associated with a central atom.
N2(g) + O2(g) → 2NO(g) Further oxidation: 2NO(g) + O2(g) → 2NO2(g) (c) RMM of AlCl3 = 27. (iii) Nitrogen is inert due to the strong triple covalent bond in N2 molecule that has a high bond energy and requires a lot of energy to break. Cl– is a weaker ligand and is displaced by the stronger NH3 ligand. aluminium chloride exists as monomer AlCl3 as its rmm is 133. expressed in logarithm. Hence. the effective nuclear charge increases. (008974-T) 2008 . Therefore. [CuCl4]2–(aq) + 4NH3(aq) → yellow solution [Cu(NH3)4]2+(aq) + 4Cl–(aq) deep blue solution [Cu(NH3)4]2+ has a higher stability constant than [CuCl4]2– which implies that the complex ion [Cu(NH3)4]2+ is more stable. The electrons in the 3d subshells rearrange to form vacant orbitals in order to accept lone pair electrons from the CN– ions. F–. the ionic size decreases in the order: N3–. CO2 is in solid form and is filtered off. © Oxford Fajar Sdn. the equilibrium position is unaffected because the partial pressure of each component gas remains unchanged. orbitals hybridised to accept electrons from CN– ions Fe2+ 3d 4s 4p (b) (i) Yellow solution turns a deep blue colour. 8. (ii) The stability constant of [Cu(EDTA)]2– complex. SCN– is a stronger ligand than H2O.0 + (3 × 35. Al3+.5 At 200 °C. thus enabling nitrogen and oxygen gases to react to form nitrogen oxides. (b) (i) Under very low temperatures. There are six electrons in Fe2+. Mg2+. (a) (i) ionic radius N3– O2– F– Na+ Mg2+ 3+ Al 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 proton number Dissociation of dimer Al2Cl6 occurs between 400 – 800 °C. (ii) Pure nitrogen is obtained by fractional distillation of liquefied air. 7. hence almost similar shielding effect but the nuclear charge increases with increasing proton number. 18 Actual 2008 STPM Chemistry Examination Paper Two of the 3d orbitals are not filled with electrons. At 800 °C. [EDTA]4– is a stronger ligand than Cl– and NH3 because it is a polydentate / chelating ligand that is attached to the metal ion by several bonds.2. (ii) When argon gas is added to the equilibrium mixture at constant volume. is higher than 13. At 600 °C. Liquid nitrogen is used as refrigerant to freeze food rapidly / as biological preservation. O2–. both monomer AlCl3 and dimer Al2Cl6 exist in equilibrium as its rmm is >133 but < 269. Bhd.5) = 133. aluminium chloride exists as a dimer Al2Cl6 as its rmm is twice that of AlCl3. Hence. Na+. (a) Transition element is an element that forms at least a stable simple ion with partially filled d orbitals. forming the complex ion [Fe(H2O)5SCN]2+ which is red in colour.as the reaction to the left is accompanied by a reduction in the number of moles of the gases. 10 e–). An aqueous solution of iron(III) contains [Fe(H2O)6]3+. N2 is more volatile and is distilled out while O2 is left in the residual liquid air. Nitrogen oxides are produced during thunderstorms. Lightning provides very high energy to break the strong covalent bonds in N2 and O2. (ii) [Fe(CN)6]4– CN NC Fe NC CN CN CN Octahedral shape 4- (ii) All the ions are isoelectronic (having the same number of electrons. SCN– displaces a H2O ligand. (i) [Fe(H2O)6]3+(aq) + SCN–(aq) → [Fe(H2O)5SCN]2+(aq) + H2O(l) Yellow solution becomes blood-red.
9. Amide E with LiAlH4 is reduced to an amine F. (i) H H C H A H H C H B H H C H C H H C H D H H C H E H H C H F (iii) H H C H H C H C H C H C OH H C C H H H H H 2-pentanol H C C C H A is an optically active alcohol implies that A has a chiral carbon atom that is attached to four different groups. Bhd. an amide E is formed. When carboxylic acid D is heated with ammonia. Under strong oxidation (when heated with KMnO4). C H H C is an alkene with C=C double bond at one end. C3H7 C* C3H7 C* H CH3 H CH3 OH H HO H H H 2-pentene H C H C C When heated with alumina. H (ii) CH3 C H N H C C2H5 CH3 C C H H H H 1-pentene H C H C O C OH H H butanoic acid H C H C O C H N H H butanamide H C H C H C H H cis-2-pentene H C2H5 trans-2-pentene H H H butanamine OH H C C H H 2H C H Al2O3 ᭝ H H C H H C H C C H C H H + H H C H H C H H C C C H H + 2H2O H H A H C C H H B H H C H D H C H H H C H H C H H C H C H H + 5[O] KMnO4 ᭝ H C H O C OH + CO2 + H2O H C H H H C H C H O C H H C H H C H D H OH + NH3 ᭝ H C H H C H E O C H N H + H2O © Oxford Fajar Sdn. (008974-T) 2008 Actual 2008 STPM Chemistry Examination Paper 19 . the C=C double bond breaks and carboxylic acid D is formed and CO2 gas that turns lime water chalky is evolved. A undergoes elimination to alkenes B and C.
(i) Initiation step: Benzoyl peroxide. C6H5CHCH2• + CH CH2 → C6H5 CHCH2CHCH2• CH3 CH3 CH3 CH3 CH3 C6H5CHCH2CHCH2• + CH CH2 → C6H5CHCH2 CH CH2 CH CH2• → → C6H5CHCH2 CH CH2 CH3 CH3 CH3 CH3 CH3 CH3 CH3 CH3 nCH CH2• (iii) Termination step: Two free radicals combine to form a molecule. C6H5COO–OOCC6H5 acts as initiator.H H C H H C H H C H E O C H N H + 4[H] LiAlH4 H H C H H C H H C H F H C H H N H + H2O 10. (a) Free radical addition polymerisation. 20 Actual 2008 STPM Chemistry Examination Paper © Oxford Fajar Sdn. The chain propagates as successive monomers add on until a long polymeric chain is formed. (008974-T) 2008 . CH3CH=CHCH3. Bhd. C6H5CHCH2• + C6H5 CHCH2• → C6H5 CHCH2CH2CHC6H5 CH3 (b) (i) Z is H H C H H C H H C H C H CH3 CH3 CH3 Cl H Z is optically active implies that Z has a chiral carbon that is attached to four different groups. CH3CH2CH=CH2 and 2-butene. C2H5 C* Cl H CH3 H CH3 C2H5 C* Cl Z undergoes elimination reaction with ethanolic potassium hydroxide solution to form two different alkenes (unsaturated organic compounds): 1-butene. undergoes photochemical/thermal decomposition to form free radicals C6H5COO OOCC6H5 → 2C6H5COO• → 2C6H5• + 2CO2 C6H5• + CH3CH = CH2 → C6H5CHCH2• CH3 (ii) Propagation steps: The free radical reacts with propene monomer to form another free radical. CH3CH2CH(Cl)CH3 + KOH → CH3CH2CH=CH2 + KCl + H2O CH3CH2CH(Cl)CH3 + KOH → CH3CH=CHCH3 + KCl + H2O 2-butene forms two geometrical (cis-trans) isomers because it has different groups on the unsaturated carbon atom.
H H Hence the three isomers are C H H C H C H C H H CH3 C . ethanolic KOH CH3 CH3 C=CH2 + KCl + H2O methylpropene CH3 CH3 CH CH2Cl © Oxford Fajar Sdn. Cl Reaction with ethanolic KOH: CH3CH2CH2CH2Cl ethanolic CH3CH2CH=CH2 + KCl + H2O KOH 1-butene CH3 CH3 C CH3 Cl The products formed do not have geometrical isomers because they have the same group on the unsaturated carbon atoms. Bhd. (008974-T) 2008 Actual 2008 STPM Chemistry Examination Paper 21 . H C CH3 CH3 C C H H and H CH3 (ii) There are three possible isomers of Z that give only one organic compound with ethanolic KOH. CH3 CH3 CH3CH2CH2CH2Cl / CH3 C CH3 / CH3 CH CH2Cl.
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