# Monroe L.

Weber-Shirk
School of Civil and
Environmental Engineering
Manifold Hydraulics
Cayuga Lake
Ithaca WWTP Outfall
Manifolds
Examples
Sprinkler and drip irrigation systems
wastewater discharge (multiport diffuser)
Design objectives
distribute a given discharge through
multiple ports
choose pipe size given constraints of head loss,
flow distribution, and cost
uniformly
Multiport Diffuser
Objectives
Minimize detrimental
effects of the discharge
on the environment
Maximize initial
Meet regulatory
requirements
Pollutants
treated wastewater

Cooling water from
power plant

Sites
Rivers, Lakes,
Oceans

dilution
BOD, N, P, metals
Heat
Multiport Diffuser
z = 0
?
Representation of EGL and HGL for
multiport diffuser. Does it make sense?
What happens to HGL across the ports?
Remember Expansions
( )
2 1 1 2 2
p p V V V µ ÷ = ÷
Multiport Diffuser:
Flow Calculations
We will derive equations in terms of ________
because pressure controls the port flow
Port flow
based on ______ equation
head loss through port (possibly including a riser)
Piezometric head change (AH) across port
flow expansion
Piezometric head change (A H) between ports
Darcy-Weisbach and Swamee-Jain
energy
In diffuser
HGL
p
z
g
+
Port types
Nozzle riser
diffuser can be buried
nozzle can give direction to
discharge
Port cast in wall of diffuser pipe
can’t be used if diffuser pipe is
buried
generally not recommended
The Problem
Given a desired discharge
Calculate the flow from each port
Develop a strategy to solve this problem
 Simple Solution
________ ________ in the diffuser pipe
Each port is an ________________
Complete Solution
Determine HGL for the diffuser pipe

exit (minor losses)
Constant pressure
Strategy
The diffuser has many ports. If we can develop
equations describing pressures and flows at one
port we can then apply them to all of the ports.
We need equations describing
Flow from a port as a function of pressure (HGL) in the
diffuser
Head loss (and pressure drop) in the diffuser
Flow in the diffuser _________________ (mass conservation)
Port Flow

H =
p
¸
+ z

V
r
riser
port
diffuser pipe

V
d
2
2
2 2
p
d
d p L
V
V
H H h
g g
+ = + +
L
p
p
p
a
a
a
h
g
V
z
p
g
V
z
p
+ + + = + +
2 2
2
2
¸ ¸
2
2
p
d L
V
H h
g
= +
z = 0 at water surface
p
V

p
0
Control volume?
d p
V V <<
g
V
K h
r
el el
2
2
=

h
riser
= f
L
r
D
r
V
r
2
2g

V
r
D
r
2
= V
p
D
p
2

V
r
2
= V
p
2
D
p
D
r
|
\

|
.
|
4
continuity

V
p
L entrance riser elbow
h h h h = + +
2
2
r r
L en el
r
L V
h K f K
D g
| |
= + +
|
\ .
4
2
2
p p
r
L en el
r r
D V
L
h K f K
D D g
| || |
= + +
| |
\ .\ .
g
V
K h
r
en en
2
2
=

p

H
d
= K
r
V
p
2
2g
|
\

|
.
|
r
d
p
K
gH
V
2
=
(riser loss coefficient)
Note that the riser
coefficient is a function
of ________ number.
Port velocity (or flow) given
and a riser loss coefficient
r
d p
p
K
gH D
Q
2
4
2
t
=
4
2
1
2
p p
r
d en el
r r
D V
L
H K f K
D D g
(
| || |
= + + + (
| |
(
\ .\ .
¸ ¸
4
1
p
r
r en el
r r
D
L
K K f K
D D
| || |
= + + +
| |
\ .\ .
Reynolds
Orifice equation!
2
2
p
d L
V
H h
g
= +
_________
applied over
entire cross
section
___________
transferred
over smaller
area
Flow ____________
Same equation applies
as derived previously
The velocities
upstream and
downstream from the
port are determined
from continuity
( )
2
1
2
i
i i
L
V V
h
g
+
-
=
1 2
separation
V
i
V
i+1
Pressure Momentum
expansion
HGL in Diffuser across Port
section 1 and section 2
some distance downstream
(~5 times the diameter of
the diffuser)
 We will treat this head loss
as if it all occurred
immediately after the port
 Although there is head loss
past the port the pressure
(HGL) will __________
(proof coming up)

h
L
i
=
V
i
÷V
i +1
( )
2
2g
AH from
pressure
recovery
EGL
HGL
1 2
V
i
V
i+1
increase
HGL in Diffuser across Port
i i
L
i i
i i
h
g
V
g
V
H H H ÷ ÷ = ÷ = A
+
+
2 2
2
1
2
1 expansion
( )
g
V V V
H
i i i 1 1
expansion
i
+ +
÷
= A
________ equation using
pressure increase across abrupt expansion
( )
g
V V
g
V
g
V
H
i i i i
2 2 2
2
1
2
1
2
expansion
i
+ +
÷
÷ ÷ = A

h
L
i
=
V
i
÷V
i +1
( )
2
2g
L
i
i
i
i
h
g
V
H
g
V
H + + = +
+
+
2 2
2
1
1
2
energy
1 +
>
i i
V V
HGL in Diffuser across Port

V
i
÷ V
i+1
=
Q
p
i
A
d
( )
g
V V V
H
i i i
i
1 1
expansion
+ +
÷
= A
d
p i
gA
Q V
H
i
i
1
expansion
+
= A

V
i +1
= V
i
÷
Q
p
i
A
d
continuity
How can we find velocity downstream
of port i? ___________
1 +
+ =
i p i
Q Q Q
i
Now we have the velocity
downstream of the next port
And we can calculate the increase
in HGL across the port
HGL between Ports
HGL is parallel to EGL so AH = AE
between diffusers
AE = -h
f
and is due to friction loss (major
losses)
2
9 . 0
Re
74 . 5
7 . 3
log
25 . 0
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
D
f
c

Re =
VD
v

h
f
= f
L
D
V
2
2g
Multiport Diffuser: Solution
The diffuser number, spacing, and jet velocity would be
determined in part by the mixing required in the ambient
water (Environmental Fluid Mechanics)
Available head and total flow would be determined by the
water source hydraulics
A criteria may also be established for uniformity of flow
from the ports
Alternate design criteria may dictate different solution
methods
Multiport Diffuser: Solution
Given total discharge, pipe
diameter, port size...
Calculate the piezometric
water surface) required to
give the necessary discharge
in the first port
loss coefficient for port
desired flow from port
r
d p
p
K
gH D
Q
2
4
2
t
=

H
d
=
K
r
2g
4Q
p
tD
p
2
|
\

|
.
|
2
4
1
p
r
r en el
r r
D
L
K K f K
D D
| || |
= + + +
| |
\ .\ .
Multiport Diffuser: Solution
 Starting with the first port and
proceeding to the last port ...
Calculate the discharge from port i
Calculate velocity change in
diffuser past port i
increase across port i
decrease between ports i and i+1
port i+1
d
p i
gA
Q V
H
i
i
1
expansion
+
= A

V
i +1
= V
i
÷
Q
p
i
A
d

AH
pipe
= ÷f
L
D
d
V
i+1
2
2g
i i i i
pipe d d
H H H H A + A + =
+
expansion
1
r
d p
p
K
gH D
Q
i
i
2
4
2
t
=
Multiport Diffuser: Solution
V
i
r
d p
p
K
gH D
Q
i
i
2
4
2
t
=

V
i +1
= V
i
÷
Q
p
i
A
d
HGL
1
5
g
V
D
L
f H
i
d
pipe
2
2
1 +
÷ = A
3
2
4
(_________ in pressure)
(__________ in pressure)
i
d
H
d
p i
gA
Q V
H
i
i
1
expansion
+
= A
i i i i
pipe d d
H H H H A + A + =
+
expansion
1
Known from previous step
increase
decrease
Multiport Diffuser: Solution
Calculate the total discharge from the ports
Compare with design discharge
Adjust the _________ ____ at first port to give design
discharge (use goal seeking, solver, or trial and error on
spreadsheet). Alternately, set velocity past last port = 0
by changing piezometric head at first port.
It may be necessary to adjust diffuser or port diameter.
It will likely be possible to decrease the size of the
diffuser pipe as the flow decreases. This may also help
increase the discharge uniformity of the ports.
Multiport Diffuser:
Example Solution (1 m pipe)
total flow (Q) 2.5
port velocity (Vp) 3
port diameter (Dp) 0.230
port area (Ap) 0.04
number of ports 20
port flow (Qp) 0.13
distance between ports (L) 4
pipe roughness (e ) 0
diffuser diameter (Dd) 1
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
1.4
0 20 40 60 80
distance along diffuser (m)
(
m
)
EGL
HGL
SI units
Multiport Diffuser:
Example Solution (0.63 m pipe)
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
0 20 40 60 80
distance along diffuser (m)
(
m
)
EGL
HGL
total flow (Q) 2.5
port velocity (Vp) 3
port diameter (Dp) 0.230
port area (Ap) 0.04
number of ports 20
port flow (Qp) 0.13
distance between ports (L) 4
pipe roughness (e ) 0
diffuser diameter (Dd) 0.63
SI units
Design Guidelines
The port discharge velocity should be _______ to achieve
good mixing with the ambient water.
The sum of all port areas must be less than the diffuser pipe
area. The best area ratio (port area/diffuser area) is usually
between 1/3 and 2/3.
The effects of pipe friction and pressure recovery will tend
to cancel when
L
d
is the total length of the diffuser pipe and the friction factor, f, is
obtained by iteration since it is a function of the pipe diameter.
If the diffuser area obtained using this method is less than 1.5 x
port area then this design criteria can not be used.
f
3
d
d
L
D =
~3 m/s
Multiport Diffuser:
Thought Experiments
What happens to the uniformity of flow rates from
the ports as the size of the diffuser pipe decreases?
(Assume the pressure in the feeder pipe is varied to
maintain constant flow while the port size remains
the same.) ______________
What happens to the uniformity of flow rates from
the ports as the size of the ports decreases?
______________
If the goal is uniform flow distribution why not use
very small ports? ____________________
Which port will have the highest flow rate?
_____________ First or last!
Energy requirements
More Uniform
Less Uniform
Diffuser Homework
Hometown WWTP
300 m 95 m
20 ports
Quiz
 The friction factor for major losses in pipe flow is
relatively constant for a given geometry at high Reynolds
numbers. Head loss is proportional to the friction factor.
Therefore head loss is independent of Reynolds number at
high Reynolds numbers. Explain why this is or isn’t true.
 In large multiport diffusers the diameter of the main
diffuser pipe is decreased in increments as the flow
decreases (due to discharge from the ports). If you
compare discharge from a port upstream from a decrease in
diffuser pipe diameter with the port just downstream from
a diameter change which port will have the highest flow?
You may assume the transition in diffuser pipe diameter is