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CHAPTER 2: CELL STRUCTURE AND CELL ORGANISATION

Plasma membrane

⇝ semi-permeable ⇝ regulates the movement of substance

UNICELLULAR

non-organelles

Cytoplasm

biochemical reactions and living process occurs mechanical strength and support plant cells
plant elongation controls the activities of the cell

Cell wall

Vacuoles Nucleus Mitochondria

CELL COMPONENTS

release energy and sites for cellular respiration sites for protein synthesis Smooth ER ⇝synthesize lipids
Rough ER ⇝ transport proteins processing, packaging and transport centre digestive compartments in a cell cell division

    

(Amoeba sp.)

Ribosomes

Endoplasmic reticulum

Golgi apparatus Lysosomes

Amoeba live in freshwater Constantly changing shape in response to stimuli Use pseudopodium (false feet) for movement and feeding Cytoplasm is 2 layers, inner (endoplasm) and outer (ectoplasm) Pseudopodia also used for eating, surrounding food (phagocytosis), packaging it in a food vacuole and digests it with lysozyme (lysosome enzyme)  Exchange of substances through plasma membrane Os moregul a ti on by diffusion –  Water goes into the cell by osmosis and fills the Regul a te wa ter contractile vacuole, when full, blows out the water from time to time(osmoregulation)  Amoeba sp. reproduces by binary fission, but produces spores when cannot do binary fission MULTICELLULAR 1. Cells grow, change shape and differentiate in multicellular organisms. 2. Mature cells carry out different functions, like different medical specialists are experts in their field, like a cardiologist in the heart, the neurologist in the brain, etc. 3. They undergo specialization to carry out their functions more efficiently. 4. Organisation is in this form:

Centrioles (animal cell) Chloroplasts

captures energy for photosynthesis

Several systems make up an organism. flower and fruit. the epidermis and the dermis  Epidermis is made of epithelial tissue. Chemical factors include pH. Leaf for photosynthesis. This is governed by the negative feedback mechanism . branch for support system. collenchyma. located at root tips and shoot buds  Permanent tissue o Differentiated/partly differentiated mature tissues o Three types of permanent tissue :  Epidermal tissue  Ground tissue (parenchyma. dense cytoplasm and no vacuoles o Young. sweat glands and oil glands     Internal environment consists of blood plasma. Example: The skin:  Consists of various tissues joined together  2 main layers. Systems are root and shoot systems. Homeostasis is maintenance of constant internal environment for optimal cell performance. Several organs that contribute to one section of an organism’s functions (circulatory. epithelial and muscle tissue  Blood is supplied through blood capillary network  Nerve endings are scattered throughout the skin. nerve. Any change in the internal environment will cause homeostasis to kick in and work to cancel the change. Flowers for pollination. o Root system – all plant roots. 6. large nuclei. These are called organs. 8. Tissues in animals Muscle tissues (movement) Epithelial Connective tissues (bind structure. actively dividing cells. root and flower. Physical factors include temperature. ANIMALS There are 4 main types of tissue in an animal: PLANTS Two main types of tissue in plants:  Meristematic tissue o Consists of small cells with thin walls. leaf. blood pressure and osmotic pressure . provide support and protection) . interstitial fluid and lymph.Tendons -Ligaments . Examples are lungs.Cartilage . o Shoot system – stem. salt and sugar content . stem. Different tissues that carry out a function are grouped into an organ. undifferentiated. urinary and reproductive tract) ⇝ Skeletal muscle (arms and legs)    ⇝ Cardiac muscle (heart walls) Tissues work together to perform a specific function. Stem. kidneys. bud. sclerenchyma)  Vascular tissue ( xylem tissue. phloem tissue)   Organs in plants are leaf.Bones .neurons →dendrites and axons tissues protection. heart. secretion and absorption ⇝Smooth muscle (intestine. brain etc. muscular) are grouped into a system. . control and coordiante body activities) . transmit impulses to nervous system  Epithelial cells produce hair follicles.Cell Tissue Organ System Multicellular Organism 5. blood vessels. which constantly divides  Dermis is made of connective. 7.Blood Fat cells Nerve tissues (transmit nerve impulses. Cells that carry out a function are grouped into tissues.

amino acids) + + 2+ Inorganic ions ( K .CHAPTER 3: MOVEMENT OF SUBSTANCE ACROSS THE PLASMA MEMBRANE Movement of substance across the plasma membrane The structure of the plasma membrane (fluid mosaic model)  Function: regulates the exchange of Hydrophilic head substance between the content of a cell and the external environment  A polar head is attracted to water Hydrophobic tails  A pair of non. Osmosis The movement of water molecules from region of their higher concentration to a region of their lower concentration through a semipermeable membrane. facilitated and simple AT diffusion) Does not require energy Require energy from cell respiration Substances move with concentration Substances move against concentration gradient gradient Will continue until an equilibrium is Process leads to accumulation or reached elimination of the substance from the cell Wa ter molecules can move across pl a sma membrane. Simple diffusion The movement of particles (molecules or solutes) within a gas or a liquid from a region of high concentration to a region of lower concentration.D.K. Molecules that can move freely across the plasma membrane by simple diffusion Lipid-soluble molecules (A.fatty acid tails is repelled by water The pl asma membrane is generally described as s emipermeable or selectively permeable because it only l ets certa i n substances through. Wa ter s oluble s ubstances such as gl ucose and amino a cids and ions need to aid by ca rrier protein. Differences between Passive Transport and Active Transport PT (osmosis. Ca ) . Na .E. glycerol) Water Small uncharged molecules (O 2 and CO 2 ) Molecules that cannot move freely across the plasma membrane and require the aid of transport protein (pore proteins and carrier protein) Water-soluble molecules (glucose.

Hypertonic ⇝ water diffuses out of the cell by osmosis ⇝ the cell shrinks Crenation Hypotonic PLANT CELLS ⇝ Water diffuses into the large central vacuole by osmosis. ⇝ The plasma membrane pulls away from the cell Turgid Isotonic • Solutions with equal solute concentration Hypertonic • Solution with a higher solute concentration Hypotonic • Solution with lower solute concentration Isotonic Normal cell shape Solutions ANIMAL CELLS Observation Discussion ⇝ water diffuses into the cell by osmosis ⇝the cell swell up and eventually burst Condition Hypertonic Haemolysis Hypotonic ⇝Plasmolysis. ⇝ Both the vacuole and cytoplasm lose water to surroundings and shrink. Isotonic ⇝ water diffuses into and out of the cell at equal rate ⇝ no net movement of water Normal cell shape Active transport The movement of particles across the plasma membrane against the concentration gradient.Facilitated diffusion The movement of hydrophilic molecules or ions across the plasma membrane with the help of transport proteins. causing the cell to swell. ⇝ The large central vacuole expands. ⇝ Water diffuses out of the large central vacuole by osmosis. . that is from a region of low concentration to a region of high concentration. ⇝The plant cell becomes flaccid and less turgid. ⇝ Water diffuses into and out of the cell at equal rates.

2.  When salt or sugar is added to the food. wilting occurs.O) ORGANIC COMPOUNDS 1. Disaccharides ( Maltose. Preservation of foods  Food can be preserved by using salt or sugar. Reducing sugars 3.  Water passes out from the microorganisms into the concentrated solution.CHAPTER 4: CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF THE CELL CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF THE CELL Elements (one atom) Inorganic (x carbon) (eg: water) Chemical compounds (more than two elements) Organic (√ Carbon and hydrogen) The Effects and Applications Of Osmosis In Everyday Life 1. Sucrose. Maltose & lactose ( reducing sugar) . Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins Nucleic acid Monosaccharides Fats Enzymes Disaccharides Oils Polysaccharides Waxes Phospholipids Steroids Carbohydrates (C.  The soil solution becomes hypertonic to the cell sap of the root hair cells. Joined together through condensation b. Break down by adding water (hydrolysis) c. it creates a hypotonic condition for the microorganisms that spoil the food. Galactose) a.  When flaccidity spreads throughout the plant. This results in slower growth of the microorganisms or even death. Primary source of energy 2. Fructose. Lactose) a. Wilting of plants  Problems can arise if chemical fertilisers are added in excess to the soil.  Water moves out of the plant by osmosis. Monosaccharides (Glucose.H.

Pentose sugar c. Basic units ( nucleotides) a.O. the reaction is doubled until the optimum temperature is reached ⇝ Max ° C will causing the enzyme to denatured Substrate concentration. Quaternary 1. enzyme is saturated. all active sites are filled up Enzyme concentration. more products are formed. Protein structures: Primary.O) Proteins (C. rate of reaction increases with the [subs] ⇝ Increase [subs]. Maintain body temperature f.H. Made up of one or more polypeptides (monomers: amino acids – Essential and non-essential) 2. Providing support and moisture e. Waxes 3. Functions: a. [enzyme] ⇝ reaction rate is directyly proportion to the [enzyme] until maximum rate is achieved . Broken down into amino acids by hydrolysis 3. Transport medium d. Solvent c. [subs] ⇝ Low [subs]. Secondary. changing the charges on active site causing reducing the ability of both molecules to bind ENZYMES: ∆ Metabolism (anabolism and catabolism) ∆ Consists of intracellular and extracellular ∆ Biological catalysts ∆ Proteins ∆ Naming: -ase ∆ Uses: o Food processing o Tenderising meat o Detergent manufacturing Temperature. Nitrogenous base b. Medium for biochemical reactions b. Tertiary. testosterone.Lipids (C. Phospholipids (plasma membrane) 4. increase rate of reaction ⇝ Constant rate. High surface tension and cohesion General charateristic Bind with substrate to produce product Not changed or destroyed Highly specific Needed in small amounts Metabolic reactions: Reversible The activities can be slowed down or inhibited Require cofactors to function Mechanism (Lock and Key) Factors affecting the activity of enzymes pH ⇝ Optimum pH (enzymatic reaction rate is the fastest) ⇝ Changing in pH. Fats and Oils a. Lubrication g. Maintaining osmotic balance and turgidity h. slow reaction ⇝ ↑the temperature every 10° C. Store genetic information) 2.N) Nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) Water Sucrose (non-reducing sugar) 4. Polysaccharides ( Starch. Steroids a. Include cholesterol and hormones (progesterone. A polar molecule 2. 1 glycerol: 3 fatty acids (saturated or unsaturated) 2. Phosphate group INORGANIC COMPOUNDS 1. ° C ⇝ Low ° C. Cellulose.H. Glycogen) 1. oestrogen) 1.