Plasma membrane

⇝ semi-permeable ⇝ regulates the movement of substance




biochemical reactions and living process occurs mechanical strength and support plant cells
plant elongation controls the activities of the cell

Cell wall

Vacuoles Nucleus Mitochondria


release energy and sites for cellular respiration sites for protein synthesis Smooth ER ⇝synthesize lipids
Rough ER ⇝ transport proteins processing, packaging and transport centre digestive compartments in a cell cell division

    

(Amoeba sp.)


Endoplasmic reticulum

Golgi apparatus Lysosomes

Amoeba live in freshwater Constantly changing shape in response to stimuli Use pseudopodium (false feet) for movement and feeding Cytoplasm is 2 layers, inner (endoplasm) and outer (ectoplasm) Pseudopodia also used for eating, surrounding food (phagocytosis), packaging it in a food vacuole and digests it with lysozyme (lysosome enzyme)  Exchange of substances through plasma membrane Os moregul a ti on by diffusion –  Water goes into the cell by osmosis and fills the Regul a te wa ter contractile vacuole, when full, blows out the water from time to time(osmoregulation)  Amoeba sp. reproduces by binary fission, but produces spores when cannot do binary fission MULTICELLULAR 1. Cells grow, change shape and differentiate in multicellular organisms. 2. Mature cells carry out different functions, like different medical specialists are experts in their field, like a cardiologist in the heart, the neurologist in the brain, etc. 3. They undergo specialization to carry out their functions more efficiently. 4. Organisation is in this form:

Centrioles (animal cell) Chloroplasts

captures energy for photosynthesis

Bones . undifferentiated. nerve. salt and sugar content . dense cytoplasm and no vacuoles o Young. actively dividing cells. sweat glands and oil glands     Internal environment consists of blood plasma. Several organs that contribute to one section of an organism’s functions (circulatory. leaf. Example: The skin:  Consists of various tissues joined together  2 main layers. root and flower. bud.Cell Tissue Organ System Multicellular Organism 5. 6. 8. This is governed by the negative feedback mechanism . blood vessels. brain etc. sclerenchyma)  Vascular tissue ( xylem tissue. muscular) are grouped into a system. Leaf for photosynthesis. These are called organs. provide support and protection) . control and coordiante body activities) . Homeostasis is maintenance of constant internal environment for optimal cell performance. Several systems make up an organism. collenchyma. Physical factors include temperature. Flowers for pollination. Systems are root and shoot systems.neurons →dendrites and axons tissues protection. which constantly divides  Dermis is made of connective. ANIMALS There are 4 main types of tissue in an animal: PLANTS Two main types of tissue in plants:  Meristematic tissue o Consists of small cells with thin walls. heart.Blood Fat cells Nerve tissues (transmit nerve impulses. epithelial and muscle tissue  Blood is supplied through blood capillary network  Nerve endings are scattered throughout the skin. flower and fruit. Stem.Cartilage . phloem tissue)   Organs in plants are leaf. Different tissues that carry out a function are grouped into an organ. located at root tips and shoot buds  Permanent tissue o Differentiated/partly differentiated mature tissues o Three types of permanent tissue :  Epidermal tissue  Ground tissue (parenchyma.Tendons -Ligaments . o Shoot system – stem. secretion and absorption ⇝Smooth muscle (intestine. the epidermis and the dermis  Epidermis is made of epithelial tissue. 7. large nuclei. transmit impulses to nervous system  Epithelial cells produce hair follicles. Examples are lungs. stem. Any change in the internal environment will cause homeostasis to kick in and work to cancel the change. Chemical factors include pH. Cells that carry out a function are grouped into tissues. Tissues in animals Muscle tissues (movement) Epithelial Connective tissues (bind structure. . branch for support system. urinary and reproductive tract) ⇝ Skeletal muscle (arms and legs)    ⇝ Cardiac muscle (heart walls) Tissues work together to perform a specific function. o Root system – all plant roots. interstitial fluid and lymph. blood pressure and osmotic pressure . kidneys.

Simple diffusion The movement of particles (molecules or solutes) within a gas or a liquid from a region of high concentration to a region of lower concentration.K.E. facilitated and simple AT diffusion) Does not require energy Require energy from cell respiration Substances move with concentration Substances move against concentration gradient gradient Will continue until an equilibrium is Process leads to accumulation or reached elimination of the substance from the cell Wa ter molecules can move across pl a sma membrane. Ca ) . Osmosis The movement of water molecules from region of their higher concentration to a region of their lower concentration through a semipermeable membrane. glycerol) Water Small uncharged molecules (O 2 and CO 2 ) Molecules that cannot move freely across the plasma membrane and require the aid of transport protein (pore proteins and carrier protein) Water-soluble molecules (glucose.D. amino acids) + + 2+ Inorganic ions ( K .fatty acid tails is repelled by water The pl asma membrane is generally described as s emipermeable or selectively permeable because it only l ets certa i n substances through. Differences between Passive Transport and Active Transport PT (osmosis. Na . Wa ter s oluble s ubstances such as gl ucose and amino a cids and ions need to aid by ca rrier protein.CHAPTER 3: MOVEMENT OF SUBSTANCE ACROSS THE PLASMA MEMBRANE Movement of substance across the plasma membrane The structure of the plasma membrane (fluid mosaic model)  Function: regulates the exchange of Hydrophilic head substance between the content of a cell and the external environment  A polar head is attracted to water Hydrophobic tails  A pair of non. Molecules that can move freely across the plasma membrane by simple diffusion Lipid-soluble molecules (A.

Facilitated diffusion The movement of hydrophilic molecules or ions across the plasma membrane with the help of transport proteins. ⇝ Water diffuses out of the large central vacuole by osmosis. ⇝The plant cell becomes flaccid and less turgid. . Hypertonic ⇝ water diffuses out of the cell by osmosis ⇝ the cell shrinks Crenation Hypotonic PLANT CELLS ⇝ Water diffuses into the large central vacuole by osmosis. ⇝ Both the vacuole and cytoplasm lose water to surroundings and shrink. Isotonic ⇝ water diffuses into and out of the cell at equal rate ⇝ no net movement of water Normal cell shape Active transport The movement of particles across the plasma membrane against the concentration gradient. causing the cell to swell. ⇝ The plasma membrane pulls away from the cell Turgid Isotonic • Solutions with equal solute concentration Hypertonic • Solution with a higher solute concentration Hypotonic • Solution with lower solute concentration Isotonic Normal cell shape Solutions ANIMAL CELLS Observation Discussion ⇝ water diffuses into the cell by osmosis ⇝the cell swell up and eventually burst Condition Hypertonic Haemolysis Hypotonic ⇝Plasmolysis. ⇝ Water diffuses into and out of the cell at equal rates. that is from a region of low concentration to a region of high concentration. ⇝ The large central vacuole expands.

Monosaccharides (Glucose. Break down by adding water (hydrolysis) c. Wilting of plants  Problems can arise if chemical fertilisers are added in excess to the soil.  Water moves out of the plant by osmosis. Fructose.  The soil solution becomes hypertonic to the cell sap of the root hair cells. Galactose) a.O) ORGANIC COMPOUNDS 1. wilting occurs. Joined together through condensation b. Disaccharides ( Maltose. Primary source of energy 2.H. Maltose & lactose ( reducing sugar) .  When flaccidity spreads throughout the plant. Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins Nucleic acid Monosaccharides Fats Enzymes Disaccharides Oils Polysaccharides Waxes Phospholipids Steroids Carbohydrates (C.CHAPTER 4: CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF THE CELL CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF THE CELL Elements (one atom) Inorganic (x carbon) (eg: water) Chemical compounds (more than two elements) Organic (√ Carbon and hydrogen) The Effects and Applications Of Osmosis In Everyday Life 1.  When salt or sugar is added to the food. Reducing sugars 3. This results in slower growth of the microorganisms or even death. Lactose) a. Preservation of foods  Food can be preserved by using salt or sugar. it creates a hypotonic condition for the microorganisms that spoil the food. Sucrose.  Water passes out from the microorganisms into the concentrated solution. 2.

all active sites are filled up Enzyme concentration. ° C ⇝ Low ° C.Lipids (C. rate of reaction increases with the [subs] ⇝ Increase [subs]. oestrogen) 1. Nitrogenous base b. Quaternary 1.H. [enzyme] ⇝ reaction rate is directyly proportion to the [enzyme] until maximum rate is achieved . Protein structures: Primary.O. Fats and Oils a. Secondary. Medium for biochemical reactions b. Basic units ( nucleotides) a. Store genetic information) 2. Solvent c. testosterone. slow reaction ⇝ ↑the temperature every 10° C. Transport medium d. Providing support and moisture e. more products are formed. Lubrication g. Glycogen) 1. Maintaining osmotic balance and turgidity h. Polysaccharides ( Starch. Maintain body temperature f. Broken down into amino acids by hydrolysis 3. Include cholesterol and hormones (progesterone. 1 glycerol: 3 fatty acids (saturated or unsaturated) 2. Steroids a. Functions: a. Made up of one or more polypeptides (monomers: amino acids – Essential and non-essential) 2. the reaction is doubled until the optimum temperature is reached ⇝ Max ° C will causing the enzyme to denatured Substrate concentration. High surface tension and cohesion General charateristic Bind with substrate to produce product Not changed or destroyed Highly specific Needed in small amounts Metabolic reactions: Reversible The activities can be slowed down or inhibited Require cofactors to function Mechanism (Lock and Key) Factors affecting the activity of enzymes pH ⇝ Optimum pH (enzymatic reaction rate is the fastest) ⇝ Changing in pH. Cellulose. Pentose sugar c. changing the charges on active site causing reducing the ability of both molecules to bind ENZYMES: ∆ Metabolism (anabolism and catabolism) ∆ Consists of intracellular and extracellular ∆ Biological catalysts ∆ Proteins ∆ Naming: -ase ∆ Uses: o Food processing o Tenderising meat o Detergent manufacturing Temperature.O) Proteins (C. Phosphate group INORGANIC COMPOUNDS 1.H. A polar molecule 2. increase rate of reaction ⇝ Constant rate. Tertiary. Waxes 3. [subs] ⇝ Low [subs]. Phospholipids (plasma membrane) 4. enzyme is saturated.N) Nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) Water Sucrose (non-reducing sugar) 4.

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