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1.1 ABOUT WITRICITY
In this era of modernization, electricity has become the cup of life. A moment without electricity makes your thinking go dry. The major source of conventional form of electricity is through wires. The continuous research and development has brought forward a major breakthrough, which provides electricity without the medium of wires. This wonder baby is called WiTricity. There are certain small but very useful discoveries made in history, which changed the world for ever, Newton‘s gravitational law, Watt‘s steam engine, Thomson‘s bulb and many more. But a renaissance occurred with the invention of Electromagnetic Waves by Maxwell. Sir Jagdish Chandra Bose successfully generated electromagnetic waves having wavelength in the range of 5mm to 25 mm. Thereafter an Italian scientist named Marconi succeeded in transmitting electromagnetic waves up to a distance of several miles. And with this there started a new era called WIRELESS TECHNOLOGY. Today, as we can see the word ‗wireless‘ is common in day – to – day life. Wireless communication has made the world smaller. Almost each and everything is wireless or cordless. Cordless mouse, cordless keyboard, satellite communication, mobiles, cordless microphones and headphones, wireless internet service i.e. WIFI, etc. And these have definitely increased the standard of living. In fact it dates back to the 19th century, when Nikola Tesla used conduction based systems instead of resonance magnetic fields to transfer wireless power. As it is in Radiative mode, most of the Power was wasted and has less efficiency. Further, in 2005, Dave Gerding coined the term WiTricity which is being used by the MIT researchers today.
Moreover, we all are aware of the use of electromagnetic radiation (radio waves) which is quite well known for wireless transfer of information. In addition, lasers have also been used to transmit energy without wires. However, radio waves are not feasible for power transmissions because the nature of the radiation is such that it spreads across the place, resulting into a large amount of radiations being wasted. And in the case of lasers, apart from requirement of uninterrupted line of sight. WiTricity is nothing but wireless electricity. Transmission of electrical energy from one object to another without the use of wires is called as WiTricity. WiTricity will ensure that the cell phones, laptops, iPods and other
the group also simulated GHz dielectric resonators. each filled with wine up to a different level. Even better. but with far-field techniques. because of WiTricity some of the devices won't require batteries to operate. where the radiation pattern and/or the energy level depends on the distance from the antenna. while not influencing the other glasses. to simply a lack of need. Only recently have modern consumers obtained a high number of portable electronic devices which currently require batteries and plug-in chargers. So two objects having similar resonance tend to exchange energy without causing any effects on the surrounding objects.2 PRINCIPLE The concept of wireless electricity works on the principle of using coupled resonant objects for the transfer of electricity to objects without the use of any wires. In their first paper. The near field is that part of the radiated field nearest to the antenna. Unlike the far field wireless power transfer systems based on traveling EM waves. Researchers attribute the non development of the concept to various reasons ranging from the limitations of wellknown physical laws. The WiTricity concept is fundamentally identical to the near field magnetically coupled Tesla coil resonators . This concept of witricity was made possible using resonance where an object vibrates with the application of a certain frequency of energy. so they all have different resonant frequencies. 1. a glass of the corresponding frequency might accumulate sufficient energy to even explode. even if there is no receiver. which interact far more weakly with surrounding objects. Near-field technologies draw power from the transmitter when a receiver is nearby. As WiTricity operates in the electromagnetic near-field. WiTricity employs near field inductive coupling through magnetic fields. If an opera singer sings a sufficiently loud single note inside the room. including biological tissue.power hungry devices get charged on their own. WiTricity uses considerably lower and safer power levels and thus may be able to meet FCC and EMC regulations. the receiving devices must be no more than about a quarter wavelength from the transmitter that is a few meters at the frequency of a few MHz used by the system. eliminating the need of plugging them in. In any system of coupled resonators there often exists a so-called "strongly 2 . Another example involves acoustic resonances: Imagine a room with 100 identical wine glasses. Beyond the near field is the infinite far field. In the study of diffraction and antenna design the electromagnetic field (or EM field) is. the source is always transmitting power in all directions.
1 Working principle of witricity 1. very close but non touching coils. With the basics of electricity and magnetism. and are about a "million times less efficient" than resonant "Two coils with a matched resonance at the exact matching frequency on both ends is equals to wireless power. but the researchers note that such non resonant magnetic induction drops off very quickly as the coils are moved apart.. While these considerations are universal. 1. electromagnetic. A convenient way for energy to get from one place to another. etc. Fig.3 BASICS OF WITRICITY TECHNOLOGY WiTricity technology is transferring electric energy or power over distance without wires. the energy transfer can be very efficient. which is used in transformers to transmit power between two. mechanical.coupled" regime of operation. It might sound like magnetic induction. Electricity: The flow of electrons (current) through a conductor (like a wire). acoustic. and work our way up to the WiTricity technology. 3 . applying to all kinds of resonances (e. the MIT team focused on one particular type: magnetically coupled resonators.).g. If one ensures to operate in that regime in a given system. or charges through the atmosphere (like lightning).
4 . Magnetic Induction: A loop or coil of conductive material like copper. which causes certain types of materials to attract or repel each other.2 The lines represent the magnetic field that is created when current flows through a coil. Permanent magnets. and can be generated by alternating current (AC) flowing on a wire. For example. Oscillating magnetic fields vary with time. direction. Fig 1. and extent of magnetic fields are often represented and visualized by drawings of the magnetic field lines. Electromagnetism: A term for the interdependence of time-varying electric and magnetic fields. carrying an alternating current (AC).Magnetism: A fundamental force of nature. are examples of objects having constant magnetic fields. it turns out that an oscillating magnetic field produces an electric field and an oscillating electric field produces a magnetic field. like the ones on your refrigerator and the earth‘s magnetic field. The strength. is a very efficient structure for generating or capturing a magnetic field.
A second conducting loop. In this way. it will generate an oscillating magnetic field in the vicinity of the loop. generates or induces an electric current in the second coil. Energy/Power Coupling: Energy coupling occurs when an energy source has a means of transferring energy to another object. magnetic coupling does not require any physical contact between the object generating the energy and the object receiving or capturing that energy. electric energy can be transferred from a power source to a powered device. In contrast to the example of mechanical coupling given for the train. the train moves. and overcome the forces of friction and inertia that keep the train still—and. The current generated in the second coil may be used to power devices. This type of electrical power transfer from one loop or coil to another is well known and referred to as magnetic induction. which in turn.3 Diagram for Energy/power coupling 5 .If a conductive loop is connected to an AC power source. Some common examples of devices based on magnetic induction are electric transformers and electric generators. Magnetic coupling occurs when the magnetic field of one object interacts with a second object and induces an electric current in or on that object. brought close enough to the first. Fig 1. may ―capture‖ some portion of that oscillating magnetic field. One simple example is a locomotive pulling a train car— the mechanical coupling between the two enables the locomotive to pull the train.
clear note. It can be thought of as the natural frequency at which energy can most efficiently be added to an oscillating system. and how much water is in it. the glass absorbs energy. Another example of resonance is the way in which a singer can shatter a water glass by singing a single loud. and the sound energy is converted to mechanical vibrations of the glass itself. and can eventually even shatter. The swing is oscillating at its resonant frequency and the simple movements of the child efficiently transfer energy to the system. Resonant coupling occurs when the natural frequencies of the two objects are approximately the same. the water glass is the resonant oscillating system. In this example. 6 . Resonant Magnetic Coupling: Magnetic coupling occurs when two objects exchange energy through their varying or oscillating magnetic fields. thickness of the glass. The child swings back and forth at a rate that is determined by the length of the swing. WiTricity Technology: WiTricity power sources and capture devices are specially designed magnetic resonators that efficiently transfer power over large distances via the magnetic near-field. Sound waves traveling through the air are captured by the glass. begins vibrating. When the singer hits the note that matches the resonant frequency of the glass. The child can make the swing go higher if he properly coordinates his arm and leg action with the motion of the swing. shape.Resonance: Resonance is a property that exists in many different physical systems. The resonant frequency of the glass depends on the size. These proprietary source and device designs and the electronic systems that control them support efficient energy transfer over distances that are many times the size of the sources/devices themselves. A playground swing is an example of an oscillating system involving potential energy and kinetic energy.
It was probably the sixth time that month that he was awakened by his mobile phone beeping to let him know that he had forgotten to charge it. by a utensil. the mobile phone) to exchange energy strongly. A child on a swing is a good example of a resonant system. Another example involves acoustic resonances: imagine a room with 10 identical water glasses. Two resonant objects of the same resonant frequency tend to exchange energy efficiently. all through my office—everywhere. one would have to find a way to transfer power from the existing wired infrastructure to the cell phone—without wires. the glass having the corresponding resonant frequency can accumulate enough energy to shatter. while interacting only weakly with living beings and other environmental objects. If an opera singer enters that room and sings a very loud single note. The phenomenon of coupled resonators precisely fits this description. like furniture and walls. while interacting weakly with extraneous off-resonant objects. At that moment. they each emit a different tone or note when tapped. one needs to use a physical phenomenon that enables the power source and the device (in this case. energy transfer can be very 7 . 2.1 STRONG COUPLING: Coupled resonators are said to operate in a strongly coupled regime if their energy transfer rate is substantially higher than the rate at which they lose energy due to factors such as material absorption and radiation. staring at his cell phone on the kitchen counter. so that each resonates at a different frequency (that is. so only when the child pumps her legs at the natural frequency of the swing is he able to impart substantial energy into the motion of the swing. for example). but each filled with water up to a different level.CHAPTER 2 INVENTION OF WITRICITY TECHNOLOGY The story started late one night a few years ago. it occurred to him: ―There is electricity wired all through this house. Coupled Resonators was fit for the situation To achieve wireless power transfer in a way that is practical and safe. A swing exhibits a type of mechanical resonance. This phone should take care of its own charging!‖ But to make this possible. In the strongly coupled regime. Soljacic started thinking of physical phenomena that could make this dream a reality. with MIT Professor Marin Soljacic standing in his pajamas. while the other glasses are unaffected.
efficient wireless power transfer could be enabled. connected to an AC power supply. Once the physical theories were developed. 2. each a self resonant system.5 meters (8. The power source and capture device were suspended in mid-air with nylon thread. etc. Science. mechanical. but the theoretical predictions of high efficiency over distance were proven experimentally. but the experimental work focused on proving that magnetically coupled resonators could exchange energy in the manner predicted by the theory and required for the wireless charging or devices. the resonant capture device. The theory was developed to cover a broad range of coupled resonator systems. applying to all kinds of resonances (e. the team demonstrated how the magnetic near field can transfer power through certain materials and around metallic obstacles. in 2007. Fisher) set out to validate them experimentally. such as cell phones.efficient. Soljacic and his colleagues at MIT (Karalis and Joannopoulos) set out to explore and develop the physical theory of how to enable strongly coupled magnetic resonators to transfer power over distances that would enable the kind of wireless device charging that Soljacic first imagined. They were able to identify the strongly coupled regime in this system. Their successful experiment was published in the journal. was the resonant source. These considerations are universal. Their theoretical results were published first in 2006. The team explored a system of two electro-magnetic resonators coupled through their magnetic fields. Joannopoulos. electromagnetic.. and again in 2008 in the Annals of Physics.2 WITRICITY TECHNOLOGY IS BORN: The experimental design consisted of two copper coils. Soljacic and his team (Kurs. Moffatt. acoustic.g. The team had proven that in this strongly coupled regime. Not only was the light bulb illuminated. The other coil. 8 .mKaralis.).2 ft). One of the coils. and showed that strong coupling could be achieved over distances that greatly exceeded the size of the resonant objects themselves. at distances that ranged from a few centimeters to over 2. By placing various objects between the source and capture device. was connected to a 60 watt light bulb.
witricity is made possible with the resonance of low frequency electromagnetic waves.1 EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN The first experiment of historicity. was conducted in the year 2006. a transmitter that was attached to a power source and a receiver that was placed about seven feet from the transmitter. Data collected through measurements showed that there was transference of 40% of electricity through witricity. This experiment was done using two copper coils of diameter two feet. the coils were resonated at 10 MHz where the cols coupled and energy made to flow between them. So two objects having similar resonance tend to exchange energy without causing any effects on the surrounding objects. The interesting part of the electricity was that the bulb glowed despite the fact that wood. metal and other devices were placed in between the two coils. the bulb lit up despite there being no physical connection between the transmitter and receiver. The Assistant Professor of this team of researchers was Marin Soljacic. by researchers from Massachusetts Institute of Technology. more pressure and voltage built up in the coil till the accumulation of voltage provided enough pressure and energy to flow to the light bulb. while providing forty percent efficiency. it has almost zero response to absorbing power from a magnetic field. the bulb got powered even when the coils were not in sight. This concept of witricity was made possible using resonance where an object vibrates with the application of a certain frequency of energy. With this witricity setup. The MIT researchers have been able to power a 60 watt light bulb from a power source that is located about seven feet away. In this experiment. This was made possible using two copper coils that were twenty inches in diameter which were designed so that they resonated together in the MHz range. With each cycle. to a bulb. These low frequency electromagnetic waves are rather safe as though the body responds strongly to electric fields. One of these coils were connected to a power source while the other.CHAPTER 3 EXPERIMENTATION AND DEVELOPMENT 3. This receiver was attached to a light bulb and once power was switched on at the transmitter. where there is a chance of a glass breaking if you strike the right tone. the concept of wireless electricity. 9 . Just like in acoustic resonance.
disc-shaped rectifying antenna or rectenna.1 Experimental structure of witricity 3. Canada‘s Communications Research Centre created a small airplane that could run off power beamed from the Earth. These antennae connect to semiconductors diodes. which have positive an negative poles. 3. just behind the plane‘s wings changed the microwave energy from the transmitter into directcurrent (DC) electricity. The SHARP‘s circular flight path kept it in range of this transmitter.Fig. The unnamed plane.2 LONG RANGE WIRELESS POWER TRANSMISSION: In 1980s. Because of the microwaves interaction with the rectenna. The diodes act like switches that are open or closed as well as turnstiles that let electrons flow in only one direction. reach the dipole antennae. The secret to the SHARP‘s long flight time was a large. They are usually made an array of dipole antennae. The circuitry routes the electrons to the parts and systems that need them. Rectifying antennae are central to many wireless power transmission theories. 10 . A large. ground-based microwave transmitter. They direct that electrons to the rctenna‘s circuitry. the aircraft would fly for months at a time. the SHARP had a constant power supply as long as it was in range of a functioning microwave array. Here‘s what happens : Microwave which is a part of the electromagnetic spectrum. Most importantly. The antennae collect the microwave energy and transmit it to the diodes. called the Stationery High Altitude Relay Sharp could fl in circles two kilometers in diameter at an altitude of about 13 kilometers(21 kilometers).
Electrical power accounts for much of the energy consumed. and substations. cables. The proposed project would demonstrate a method of energy distribution calculated to be 90-94% efficient. A system of power distribution with little or no loss would conserve energy. There are areas of the world where the need for electrical power exists. 11 .3 THE NEED FOR A WIRELESS ENERGY TRANSMISSION SYSTEM: A great concern has been voiced in recent years over the extensive use of energy. and the pollution of the environment from the use of present energy conversion systems.3. based on this method would eliminate the need for an inefficient. Africa is in need of power to run pumps to tap into the vast resources of water under the Sahara Desert. It would reduce pollution and expenses resulting from the need to generate power to overcome and compensate for losses in the present grid system. This loss implies that our present system of electrical distribution is only 70-74% efficient. and transmission towers. costly. Rural areas. An electrical distribution system. The system would reduce the cost of electrical energy used by the consumer and rid the landscape of wires. require the electrical power necessary to bring them into the 20th century and to equal standing with western nations. such as those in China. towers. Much of this power is wasted during transmission from power plant generators to the consumer. The resistance of the wire used in the electrical grid distribution system causes a loss of 26-30% of the energy generated. the limited supply of resources. and capital intensive grid of cables. yet there is no method for delivering power.
12 . household robots. This is a ecofriendly system. Further applications for this technology include transmission of information — it would not interfere with radio waves and thus could be used as a cheap and efficient communication device without requiring a license or a government permit. 4.2 DISADVANTAGES The resonance condition should be satisfied or else an error exits and there is no possibility of power transfer.FEATURES AND BENEFITS 4. medical and military. There are no limitations in witricity power applications where anything and everything that used to run with batteries or electrical connections can be used using witricity. Some of these potential applications include the powering of cell phones.CHAPTER 4 WITRICITY TECHNOLOGY. These witricity applications are expected to work on the gadgets that are in close proximity to a source of wireless power wherein the gadget charges automatically without necessarily having to get plugged in.3 APPLICATIONS This technology can potentially be used in a large variety of applications. laptops and other devices that normally run with the help of batteries or with plugging in of wires. industrial. Its aim is to reduce our dependence on batteries. including consumer. Reduction in E-waste 4. If there is a possibility of strong ferromagnetic material presence causes low power transfer due to radiation. weather or seasons. Replacing the old goods with new ones is costly affair. No need for electric rooms or meter closets.1 ADVANTAGES Unaffected by day or night cycle.
Since radiation spreads in all directions. energy would only be picked up by gadgets specified to "resonate" with the frequency. The fact that magnetic fields interact so weakly with biological organisms is also important for safety considerations. it is not feasible to use it for power transmission. radio waves). which is why you can cook a chicken in a microwave. Perhaps the best known example is electromagnetic radiation.4 COMPARITATIVE ADVANTAGES OF WITRICITY OVER OTHER RADIATION METHODS: Various methods of transmitting power wirelessly have been known for centuries. which are said to be harmless to humans. Magnetic coupling is particularly suitable for everyday applications because most common materials interact only very weakly with magnetic fields. although working out the details will not necessarily be easy. Essentially. the body really responds strongly to electric fields. a vast majority of power would end up being wasted into free space. Apart from this. 13 . As far as we know the body has almost zero response to magnetic fields in terms of the amount of power it absorbs. and to ensure that non-powered components within a facility don't share the same resonant frequencies. This has also been achieved. Besides the wasteful nature of dispensing energy in a non-controlled direction (i.e. such as radio waves. It requires an uninterrupted line of sight between the source and the device. But it doesn't respond to magnetic fields. there is also concern for safety. but this is not very practical and can even be dangerous. so interactions with extraneous environmental objects are suppressed even further. One can envision using directed electromagnetic radiation. One property of WiTricity is that released energy remains within a magnetic field surrounding the source resonator until it is picked up by an object sharing the same frequency. It is realized that instead of irradiating the environment with electromagnetic waves. such as lasers. a power transmitter could fill the space around it with a "nonradiative" electromagnetic field. Here they use extremely low frequency.4. Soljacic believes that the technology can be developed to be relatively safe. thirty meter long electromagnetic waves. While such radiation is excellent for wireless transmission of information. as well as a sophisticated tracking mechanism when the device is mobile. it becomes the role of the designer to think of where these properties can appropriately be used. everything has a resonant frequency. As this technology will inevitably take off. At any rate.
a power transmitter could fill the space around it with a "nonradiative" electromagnetic field. so interactions with environmental objects are suppressed even further. However. 4.5 DEVELOPMENTS MADE SO FAR As witricity is in the developmental stage. with debates if it is risky living next to power lines and having a low power witricity network running in the home.The main advantage of this system is that we can get electricity anywhere without wires. This will enable us to use our portable electronic gadgets everywhere without bothering about ending up in the charge of the batteries. lots of work is still to be done in improving it as it is disclosed that witricity power applications operate at only 40% efficiency. Magnetic resonances are particularly suitable for everyday application because most of the common materials do not interact with magnetic fields. The nature of power delivery is omni directional i. However despite these contraindications. This has also been achieved.e. convenience and portability of electrical appliances 14 . Just as beneficial witricity may be. Intel reproduced the MIT group's experiment by wirelessly powering a light bulb with 75% efficiency at a shorter distance. They wonder what happens if a glass of water is spilt in a witricity room. in every direction. Essentially. there are some contraindications to the concept.It is realized that instead of irradiating the environment with electromagnetic waves. witricity has a bright future with the many advantages it provides in terms of weight. energy would only be picked up by gadgets specified to "resonate" with the frequency.
or buying new batteries for your electrical gadgetsThe wireless transfer of electricity has been a sci-fi dream up to this point . in the same way radio waves and wi-fi signals are. with witricity.and truly. there will be no need of charging batteries. if electricity could simply be in the air. 15 . where there will be no need of power cables and batteries. The city just has to be covered with witricity hot spots wherein you can use your electric gadget battery and wire free making it more convenient to carry around and much lighter. it would change the world.CONCLUSION This technology is a big impediment to development in the retail sector right now. Just imagine the future. With witricity.
WiTricity.REFERENCES · http://www.com/0706/070613-WiTricity.witric.breakingnewsenglish.com · http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/abstract/1143254 · http://www.com · http://www.sciencemag.html · http://www.WiTricitypower.com/2007/06/10/WiTricity-impact/ 16 .org/cgi/data/1143254/DC1/1 · http://www.
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