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in a Title 1 third grade classroom do not understand the concept of fractions. The majority of students are unsure of what the term fraction means, as well as how to visually represent and recognize fractions as being part of a whole. Because of this, it can be assumed that the majority of students do not remember basic fraction concepts they learned in second grade. In fourth grade, students will be expected to successfully perform more advance computations pertaining to fractions such as multiplication and division. Thus, students need rigorous instruction this school year to prepare them for the instruction and expectations that will come in fourth grade.

Instructional Design Document

Tackling Fractions Stefani Anderson, Carol Davis and Jennifer Willie

Instructional Goals: Students will identify fractions as a part of a whole. Students will sort fractions in order from least to greatest. Students will use whole numbers and simple fractions in a recipe. Learning Objectives: At the end of this unit of instruction, the student will be able to: ● Independently measure amounts in a recipe using whole numbers and simple fractions (1 cup, 1/2, 1/3, 1/4 etc.) ● Order written fractions from smallest to largest with no mistakes ● Write fractions with no mistakes based on verbal directions and visual examples ● Match written and spoken fractions to visual examples ● Create equal groups from a whole to represent fractions using manipulatives ● Articulate vocabulary such as denominator, numerator, part and whole when discussing fractions with instructor and peers ● Accurately follow written and verbal directions for a recipe in a timely manner ● Identify ingredients used in the recipe by correctly selecting specific items from a collection of all ingredients ● Identify basic tools used in the recipe and use them correctly Assessment Strategy: Students will demonstrate their prior knowledge of fractions by completing a brief preassessment to help determine their entry skills. Students will be quizzed throughout instruction to ensure that they understand the key terms and recognize necessary tools and ingredients. At the end of instruction and practice, students will be tested for mastery of the concepts in the lesson. Feedback: Students will receive feedback from the instructor and other students (as an element of group work) throughout the lesson. Motivational Strategies:

The entertaining nature of the activities will be motivating to students, as will the realworld application of math concepts. Students will also be motivated by knowing that an understanding of fractions will help them in their future math studies. Learning Environment: Instruction will take place in the student’s normal classroom. Students will work at their desks and at larger classroom tables as appropriate. There will be approximately 23 students and one classroom teacher.

Preinstructional Activities

Students will demonstrate their prior knowledge of fractions by completing a brief pre-assessment to help determine their entry skills. Note: Through our data analysis, we found that this group of students’ entry skills are recognizing whole numbers and putting them in ordinal order.

Content Presentation

Lesson 1, Introductory Lesson Goal: Students will identify fractions as a part of a whole. Objective: Match written and spoken fractions to visual examples Objective: Articulate vocabulary such as denominator, numerator, part and whole when discussing fractions with instructor and peers Objective: Create equal groups from a whole to represent fractions using manipulatives Time: 45 minutes Motivational Strategies: Students will be engaged in hands-on activities through the Smart Board, drawing of vocabulary words and Hershey’s bars. Materials: visuals of fractions, Smart Board, Hershey's bars, math journal, pencils Instructional Steps:

● Using the Smart Board, interactive visuals will be displayed such as circles that can be divided into thirds, halves, fourths, etc. ● The instructor will point out a non-example where the parts of the circle are not equal in size, thus it’s not a true fraction. ● The instructor will explain the vocabulary pertinent to fractions (part, whole, denominator and numerator) ● As a whole group, the students will repeat the vocabulary multiple times orally and then individually illustrate each vocabulary word in their math journal ● Each student will receive a king size Hershey’s bar. ● Students will open their Hershey bar and count the number of squares the Hershey bar is divided into. ● Students will break off two parts of the Hershey’s bar and identify this as 2/16. Two out of the sixteen parts were broken off. ● Students will then break off 4 more pieces and identify the fraction as 6/16. A total of six pieces out of the sixteen parts were broken off. ● The activity will continue in a similar fashion. Assessment & Feedback: Students will receive feedback informally from the instructor throughout the lesson. In addition, students will formal written feedback in their math journals from their instructor.

Lesson 2, Fraction Pizzas Goal: Students will identify fractions as parts of a whole. Objective: Match written and spoken fractions to visual examples Objective: Articulate vocabulary such as denominator, numerator, part and whole when discussing fractions with instructor and peers Objective: Create equal groups from a whole to represent fractions using manipulatives Objective: Write fractions with no mistakes based on verbal

directions and visual examples Time: 45 minutes Motivational Strategies: Students will be engaged in hands-on activities creating pizza fractions. Materials: pizza fraction paper, markers, crayons, scissors, math journal, pencils Instructional Steps: ● Students will take their math journals out, and explain to their partner the vocabulary and concepts from the previous day’s instruction ● Each student will receive five pizza crusts made out of paper ● The pizza crusts are each split into different amounts of pieces as follows: eighths, sixths, fourths, thirds and half ● On the opposite side that the lines are drawn on the crusts, students will use construction paper to decorate their pizzas with toppings, etc. ● Using scissors, students will cut their pizza crusts into the given amount of slices ● Using their fraction pizzas, students will work with their partners, selecting slices of pizza and writing the fraction of what part of the whole (or what fraction) they selected ● For example, for the pizza cut into six slices, a student may select 2 pieces of pizza or 2/6 ● Instructor will be sure to point out a non-example that just because the denominator of ⅙ has a 6 and the denominator of ⅓ is 3, ⅙ is not a bigger fraction. ● Practice will continue as outlined above Assessment & Feedback: Students will receive feedback informally from the instructor and student-partner throughout the lesson. Lesson 3, Ordering Fractions Goal: Students will sort fractions from least to greatest. Objective: Order written fractions from smallest to largest

with no mistakes Objective: Match written and spoken fractions to visual examples Objective: Articulate vocabulary such as denominator, numerator, part and whole when discussing fractions with instructor and peers Objective: Write fractions with no mistakes based on verbal directions and visual examples Time: 45 minutes Motivational Strategies: Students will be engaged in hands-on activities putting pieces of their fraction pizzas in order from least to greatest. Materials: fraction pizzas, glue, math journal, pencils Instructional Steps: ● Using the Smart Board and interactive manipulatives, the Instructor will connect what students already know about fractions, to placing them in order from least to greatest ● Teacher will remind students of the non-example that the size of the denominator does not make the fraction bigger ● Using their fraction pizzas, students will select one slice from each of the pizzas ● Working together in pairs or small groups, students will determine which piece of pizza is the largest, second largest, and so on, until they determine which piece of pizza is the smallest ● Continuing to work in small groups or pairs, students will put the pieces of pizza in order from least to greatest. ● They will glue the pizzas in their math journals, labelling each slice of pizza with the coordinating fraction. Assessment & Feedback: Students will receive informal

feedback from instructor and peers throughout the lesson. Student will receive formal written feedback from the instructor in their math journals. Lesson 4, Fraction Trail Mix Goal: Students will use whole numbers and simple fractions in a recipe. Objective: Accurately follow written and verbal directions for a recipe in a timely manner Objective: Identify ingredients used in the recipe by correctly selecting specific items from a collection of all ingredients Objective: Identify basic tools used in the recipe and use them correctly Objective: Independently measure amounts in a recipe using whole numbers and simple fractions (1 cup, 1/2, 1/3, 1/4 etc.) Objective: Match written and spoken fractions to visual examples Objective: Articulate vocabulary such as denominator, numerator, part and whole when discussing fractions with instructor and peers Time: 45 minutes Motivational Strategies: Students will be engaged in hands-on activities putting pieces of their fraction pizzas in order from least to greatest. Materials: trail mix ingredients (M & M’s, almonds, peanuts, Cheerios, pretzels, raisins), trail mix recipe, Ziplock bags, measuring cups Instructional Steps: ● Instructor will connect knowledge obtained by

practicing parts and a whole in previous lessons and apply it to using fractions with a measuring cup. The instructor with use visual models and also demonstrate with actual measuring cups. ● Instructor will demonstrate the correct and incorrect way (example and non-example) of how to use the measuring cups. A non-example would be not filling the measuring cup to the top or overflowing it. ● Students will work together to follow a recipe to make fraction trail mix ● Recipe as follows: Fraction Trail Mix 1/3 cup M&M’s 1/2 cup almonds 1/4 cup peanuts 2/3 cup Cheerios 1/8 cup raisins 1 cup pretzels

First, measure each ingredient carefully and pour into your bag. Next, close your bag and shake it to mix all together. Last, eat and enjoy!! Assessment & Feedback: Teacher will ask students to identify (point out, pick up, or name) the following cup measures for 1 cup, 1/4 cup, 1/3 cup, 1/2 cup, M&M’s, Cheerios, pretzels, almonds, raisins, and peanuts. Lesson 5, Formal Assessment Students will complete a similar assessment given to them at the beginning of the unit to measure growth.

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