Stephanie Cogdill & Stephanie Doss Unit Development May 1, 2012 Unit Title: Early Colonization in NC Grade Level: 8th

Grade Unit Rationale: This unit is necessary for understanding subsequent history classes students will take, such as U.S. History and is also an integral part of being an informed citizen of North Carolina. Since students live in North Carolina, it is helpful to know its geography and the features of the state. Within the context of the class this unit would be taught in, this information is essential for the understanding of concepts later in North Carolina history such as the distribution of political power in North Carolina, and the changing economic conditions for different parts of the state. Unit Objectives: SWBAT identify difficulties of early settlement in North Carolina. SWBAT describe major features of NC geography. SWBAT analyze factors of NC development, such as why certain areas experienced more growth, why certain industries developed but not others. SWBAT hypothesize how events in early NC settlement influenced events later in NC history. SWBAT identify major figures of early NC settlement. SWBAT analyze the impact of major figures in early NC. SWBAT identify major events of early NC settlement. SWBAT analyze the impact of major events in early NC. Unit Materials: Textbooks Projector Smart board/white board Flip cameras Visual related to colonial-era Native Americans Printed copies of Native American legend Probable Passage worksheets Laptops (for each student) Primary source letters (colonial NC) Students will be expected to provide their own: Notebooks Notebook dividers Paper Writing utensils

Large paper (for maps or timelines) Rubrics for each project

Stephanie Cogdill & Stephanie Doss Unit Development May 1, 2012 Sequence Description: Day 1: In this class period, students will spend their time learning about the geographical layout of North Carolina and how it was a contributing factor to how the state was colonized. The class will begin with students listing out in a journal what they believe are the major landmarks of North Carolina. The class will be presented with a map of North Carolina, and will be shown the three major regions of the state (mountains, piedmont, coastal plains). After the teacher has explained and held a class discussion about the three regions, the activity will be presented to the class. The goal for the activity is for the students to conceptualize what makes each of the three regions important to the state. The students will create a geography cube where they depict two scenes from each region on the sides of the cube and will use their textbooks and own prior knowledge to pick the scenes. The assembling of the cube will be demonstrated for the class so that they understand what the final product should look like. They will have class time to work on the cube, and will be required to finish it for homework. It will be due at the beginning of class on Day 3. As an exit pass, students will be required to name their favorite region of the state and why it is their favorite. Day 2: Native Americans ● Display a picture/painting of some kind that relates to Native Americans from North Carolina that pertains to this time period. ● Have students do a clustering freewrite about the picture. They can start the cluster however they choose, and it should reflect their questions, assumptions, knowledge or connections to the visual. (5 minutes) ● First, the teacher will provide a short introduction to the main tribes of North Carolina: Cherokee, Lumbee, Tuscarora, and Croatan. Show a map depicting where the tribes were located at the time when settlers began moving in to NC. Describe some general features of Native American culture, highlighting differences between European settlers. For example, how they dressed, what kind of weapons or tools they used, their religion(s). Explain about the rich storytelling tradition of Native Americans, how it uses lots of symbolism and usually includes some kind of moral message. (10 minutes) ● Find a short Native American legend and read it as a class. Take this opportunity to read the story to the students while modeling good reading strategies, pausing periodically to make observations or ask questions. (10 minutes) ● Next, divide students into groups, with each group focusing on one of the NC Native American tribes. Have each group research the tribe to gain more in depth information than what was initially presented, like specific cultural traditions, what type of housing they lived in, how they dressed, aspects of their belief system, their language, etc. Students should use laptops to conduct this research. The teacher should move around the room and monitor the students to make sure everyone is contributing and to see if there are questions. Part of this activity is for students to come up with their own Native American legend, featuring aspects of the legend that were discussed in class. At the end of class each group will present their information and legends, with the information in a presentation format, and the legend typed in a document.

Stephanie Cogdill & Stephanie Doss Unit Development May 1, 2012 Day 3: Early Colonies: Failed Colonization Attempts/Lost Colony ● Students will do an Anticipatory Activity like Probable Passage, but a little different since it’s not based on a specific reading. By doing this you can treat the Lost Colony like a narrative. ● Put some random names of important people (like Ralph Lane), places (like Roanoke) or other terms (like the name of a ship, or a Native American tribe, such as Croatan) on the board. ● Students put these words into the appropriate places on the Probable Passage worksheet. You could change the words from “characters” to “people” or “setting” to “place” to make it seem less literature-geared. Students come up with a statement about how they think the terms are related. Even if they guess it’s about the Lost Colony, they likely won’t know the exact role of all the people, or what the places are. ● Groups of students (maybe 3 groups of 10 or so) will use what they learned about the Lost Colony to write a short skit describing what they think happened to the colony from the time they landed until John White’s return to find them disappeared. ● After writing the skit, the students will perform the skit and record it via flip cam. Day 4: Early Colonies: Successful Colonization of NC ● Anticipatory activity: What do you think the settlers learned from the earlier colony experiences (such as the Lost Colony)? How do you think this helped them become successful in colonizing NC eventually? How do you think they accomplished settlement? Have an oral discussion based on these topics. (5 minutes) ● The teacher will present a mini-lesson about how NC was first colonized. Topics such as people moving south from Virginia, people moving north from South Carolina, what towns were first established, and how slaves and Native Americans fit in will be discussed. Special emphasis will be placed on the daily lives of these people, examining roles of a diverse group of individuals. (15 minutes) ● Next, the class will examine letters written by people from this early colonization time period. Students should be divided into groups of 3-5 and each group should get a letter to focus on, ideally from a diverse group of people. Groups will silently read their letters, then discuss them within their group. Each group will share their findings with the class. (10 minutes) ● Individual students will then each write their own letters from the perspective of a colonist - describe where they came from, why they came to NC, details about their life, important events, etc. They should use the primary source letters as models. (15 minutes) Day 5: New England Colonies ● As a warm-up, have some trivia-like questions displayed about the New England colonies, and ask students to come up with what they think the answer is (like, which colony was founded first, or which colony came up with this weird law, etc.) (5 minutes) ● Try to make the facts interesting to get students interested in learning more about them ● Mini lesson about each of the New England Colonies. Highlight only the important facts, such as where each is in America, when it was founded, why, etc. (10-15 minutes)

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Stephanie Cogdill & Stephanie Doss Unit Development May 1, 2012 Begin first day of two-day collage project that focuses on the Middle Colonies. The class will be divided into four groups, with each focusing on one of the Middle Colonies. Assign students to groups randomly. (remainder of the class period) Students begin by doing research as a group about their colony. Things to focus on: ○ How/why colony was founded, by whom, and when ○ What the colony’s economy is like ○ What the colony’s population is like ○ What the climate is like ○ The role of Native Americans in the colony ○ The role of African Americans in the colony ○ The form of government of the colony ○ Display a map of the colony in context with the rest of the colonies They will use this research to create several artifacts which will be used in the collage about their colony. It might be a good idea to give a list of acceptable artifacts and then let students choose which ones to do. The number should be related to how many students are in each group - i.e., don’t make so many required one student will be required to work on more than one artifact. Each artifact should be created by the students. Artifacts that could be used: ○ Diary/journal entry from someone in the colony of that time ○ Letter from someone in the colony of that time ○ Poem about the colony, or from the perspective of someone living in the colony ○ Newspaper article (written by the student) about some issue (real or imagined) from the colony ○ Slave narrative (written by the student) - maybe just a portion, so it’s not too time consuming ○ Charts or graphs about the colony’s population or economy ○ A timeline of the progression of the colony Depending on how many students are in the group, how in depth each artifact is could be adjusted so two or three students could collaborate.

Day 6: New England Colonies ● As a warm-up, students write a short reflection of yesterday’s class: What do they think of the project, how are they contributing, what do they need to do today (as a group and individually). (5 minutes) ● Have students finish group collage project, and devote the end of class time/the beginning of next class to some short presentations. (remainder of class) ● Have students complete a rubric evaluation of their peers in the group. Part of each student's grade will come from these evaluations. Have students also complete a short reflection on the project (maybe one paragraph) focusing on what they learned, if they liked the project, their process as a group, and their personal contribution. They should add this to the warm up they did at the beginning of class, so they can see if they accomplished the goals they needed to do.

Stephanie Cogdill & Stephanie Doss Unit Development May 1, 2012 Day 7: During this class period, students will be introduced to the Middle Colonies and learn about the various aspects of the states that make up the Middle Colonies. To begin the class, students will participate in a Mad Talk, Soft Talk, Fast Talk exercise but all from the viewpoint of a settler. After this introduction, students will be assigned to groups of four in order to discuss their writing exercise. Students will discuss what they wrote about, and how easy or difficult it was to accomplish from this other point of view. After about five minutes of discussing, the class will convene back together to discuss it as a whole for several minutes. The class will then proceed to learn about the Middle Colonies and the demographic of the people who settled there. A small debate will take place where students can argue the pros and cons of settling in the Middle Colonies versus anywhere else. The students will ‘make their case’ by using facts from the textbook and any additional information that the teacher provides. For homework, the students will be assigned a journal entry. In this journal entry students will write a reflection from the viewpoint of a settler. In this reflection, they will talk about various things that they think would pertain to life in the Middle Colonies. The journal entry will be used in class the next day, so students should have it completed by class time on Day 8. The exit pass for today will have students write down on a piece of paper what kind of business they think would prosper in the Middle Colonies and a brief description (2-3 sentences) as to why they think it would prosper to be handed in to the teacher at the door as they leave. Day 8: The class period today focuses on wrapping up information on the Middle Colonies. For an anticipatory set, students will use the journal entries that they created for homework last night. Students will be given a couple minutes to look back over their entries, and then the teacher will call on people to identify key items that they talked about in their journal entries (answers should range from family to business ideas and life back in England). The teacher writes these key items on the board, and then has the students create freewrites based on these key words. It is essentially like the looping activity, but with a set list of words to begin with that have been pulled out from journal entries. After this has been completed, students will create “web videos to home.” For this activity, students will be assigned into groups of four or five students. The groups will then each be assigned a state in which they live in and will have to draft a letter to family members back in Europe on what life is like in the Middle Colonies. Once students have created a draft of the letter, they will take flip cameras and record themselves reading it, and it will be a video clip that they could send home. Students will have the entire class period to work on these, and they need to be completed by the time that class ends. Students will turn in their cameras to the teacher when they are finished. As they leave the classroom, the students’ exit pass will be to tell the teacher what they enjoyed the most about making the video clips. Day 9: For the class period, students will be focused on learning about the Southern Colonies. For their warm-up, students will write another entry in their journals. In this entry, students will be writing a letter of intent to the King of their country of origin, informing him that they want to explore and settle the Southern Colonies. When students have finished with their entries, there will be a class discussion on how they think their entries went. Students will discuss voice and content and how they utilized these devices to make a professional letter. For the rest of the class, students will once again be divided into groups for group work. Students will be assigned a section of the chapter on the Southern Colonies to review in their group. The group will pick out the important parts of the section and then present their findings to the class via note-guided presentations. Students will be given section outline sheets that they will fill out as the groups

Stephanie Cogdill & Stephanie Doss Unit Development May 1, 2012 present. If there is time left at the end of class, students will be able to watch video clips that their classmates created from Day 8. Day 10: This class period will consist of finishing up rest of the information in the units. For the anticipatory activity, students will finish watching their classmates video clips and write journal reflections on what they have learned about the colonies and what activity they have enjoyed the most and why. To close on the Southern Colonies, the students will create a mini project in class. The students will decide which state in the southern colony they would want to live in, and will create an overview as to what their life in that state would be like from day to day. Students can create small journal entries, a family tree, create family photos, etc. to show what their life might have been like as a new settler in the Southern Colonies. Students will be able to finish these for homework if they are unable to complete them in class. This mini project will be turned in with other class activities on Day 12 as a way to evaluate students on what they have learned in the unit. For an exit pass, the students will respond with either “New England,” “Middle,” or “Southern” when the teacher gives them the name of a state.

Stephanie Cogdill & Stephanie Doss Unit Development May 1, 2012 LESSON PLANS

Lesson Plan Day 1: Geography
Learning Outcomes: Students will learn about the three major geographic regions of North Carolina and how they impacted the settlement of the state. Students will also learn about the major characteristics of the three regions and how they differ from one another. Learning objectives: SWBAT name and locate the major geographic regions of North Carolina. SWBAT define the characteristics of each of the major geographic regions. SWBAT discuss how these regions impacted the settlement of North Carolina. Materials needed: -textbooks -cube cutout -colored pencils, markers, or crayons Procedures: Warm-up (5 minutes) -have students draw on their prior knowledge of geography by having them list what they think are major landmarks of North Carolina. Introduce students to the chapter (10 minutes) -explain the three regions of the state -locate the three regions of the state on a map for the students Discussion with the class (10-15 minutes) -discuss how why the various regions would have an impact on settlers in the state -draw from the warm-up as to the major landmarks of the state, and what makes them important -ask students what part of the state they would want to settle in if they were coming to North Carolina and why they would want to settle there. Assign activity (10 minutes) - see below for directions on this activity -pass handout to students that is a cutout to make a cube -show students how they will assemble the cube, but tell them that they do not assemble it until after they are done drawing and writing on it -tell students to be aware of how the final product is folded so that they can avoid upside down pictures if they so choose -pass around a completed example so students have an idea as to what the final product should look like Work on activity (remainder of the class) -allow students time in class to begin work on their cube -allow students to ask questions if they have any Assign homework (as students are wrapping up) -cubes should be finished and turned in two days from now

Stephanie Cogdill & Stephanie Doss Unit Development May 1, 2012 Exit pass (around 1-2 minutes before the bell rings) -have each student state what their favorite region is and why Geography Cube Activity: -students will be provided the cutout for their cube -demonstrate how the cube will be folded for the final product -pass around a completed example so students have a visual to look at -what the cube entails: -students will fill in all six sides of the cubes with depictions from the three regions -there will be two sides completed for each region, so two pictures for each one -students will depict what the region looks like for one, and a major landmark of the region for the other depiction -on each depiction, students should label what the region is, and for the landmark one, the name of the landmark Evaluation: Participation points will be awarded as the teacher monitors the students’ work on their cubes in class. Upon receiving the students’ cubes, they will be given a completion grade based on the accuracy in which they finished their cubes.

Stephanie Cogdill & Stephanie Doss Unit Development May 1, 2012

Lesson Plan Day 3: Early Colonization/Lost Colony
OBJECTIVES: ● SWBAT analyze the situation of each colonization attempt, who the key figures were, and why the colonies failed. ● SWBAT analyze the situation of the “Lost Colony,” and evaluate the actions of its leaders. ● SWBAT predict the fate of the Lost Colony, then translate this into a short skit. ● SWBAT identify the broad reasons early attempts at colonization in NC failed. ● SWBAT predict why/how colonization in NC was eventually successful. MATERIALS: Probable Passage sheet PowerPoint/presentation by teacher Computers (to be used for writing script for skit) Flip cams (to record student performance of skit) PROCEDURE: ● Anticipatory set/warm up: Write some terms (maybe 10) on the board so all students can see them. These should be terms related to today’s lesson on the Lost Colony, and can be anything from names (like Ralph Lane) to names of places (such as Roanoke) or even objects (like ship). This activity gets students to place the words in different boxes based on how they think they fit into the “story.” Students then have to come up with a summary statement about how they think the words fit together. This activity gets students interested, sets up the Lost Colony as if it’s a narrative format, and assesses students’ prior knowledge. Have students do this activity in groups. (10 minutes at most) ● Discuss the probable passage sheets as a group (this would be a strategy students were already familiar with so they should know how to use the words and the strategy). Have students share some of their summary statements, and what they think the words could be about. Draw out some common theories and write them on the board. (5 minutes) ● Explain (if they haven’t already figured it out) these words talk about the story of the Lost Colony. Give a mini-lesson on the Lost Colony describing key events, the leaders of the colony, their reasons for coming to NC, and show on the map where the group landed. End the lesson with the idea that when Ralph Lane returns from England with supplies, the colony has vanished, and it’s still a mystery as to exactly what happened. (10 minutes) ● Move into skit-writing activity (remainder of class, but at least 25-30 minutes). Begin with a discussion about what students think might have happened to the colonists, and share some theories historians have (they died from disease, they were killed by Native Americans, they moved on to another place, etc.). Explain to students they are going to solidify their theories as small groups, then turn these ideas into a skit that depicts the solution of the mystery to the Lost Colony. Their skit should begin with Ralph Lane’s departure for England, and can last as long as they feel it’s necessary. When they perform the skit, it shouldn’t last more than ten or fifteen minutes. Encourage creativity, but make

Stephanie Cogdill & Stephanie Doss Unit Development May 1, 2012 sure students take the assignment seriously. For example, if students come up with a really good, funny story about how the colonists were transported to another time, or attacked by zombies, let them have their fun. ● Before students begin writing their skit, explain the features of how a script is written and provide an example. Ideally, students would already be familiar with reading this form of writing and would be familiar with its conventions (from studying plays in language arts, maybe). Also explain they should brainstorm ideas for their skit, then create a rough draft of their script, then type a final draft. As the groups are working, the teacher will move around and help as necessary. Each group must get approval to move to the next stage after the teacher has given feedback. ● At the end of class, have each group perform for everyone else. ● Students will fill out short evaluations of their group, including what each person did and giving themselves a grade. CLOSURE: ● Close class by explaining what they did is exactly what historians do - they use evidence to come up with a theory. ● Explain that next time the class will begin talking what colonies were successful, and why. ● As an exit slip, have students write which skit they liked the best/which theory they thought was true about the Lost Colony. EVALUATION: ● Evaluation will be based on class participation as observed by the teacher when working with groups, each student’s role in the skit and the evaluations completed by the students.

Stephanie Cogdill & Stephanie Doss Unit Development May 1, 2012

Lesson Plan Day 4: Successful Colonization of NC
OBJECTIVES: ● SWBAT analyze primary source documents in the form of letters written by Roanoke colonists ● SWBAT recognize how factors of colonization already discussed influenced the events of the Roanoke colony (the difficulties they had, etc.) ● SWBAT compose personal letters from the perspective of a colonist in the Roanoke colony MATERIALS: ● Print out letters for student groups to look at ● http://www.virtualjamestown.org/fhaccounts_date.html ● http://docsouth.unc.edu/nc/barlowe/menu.html ● http://www.constitution.org/primarysources/ronoake.html PROCEDURE: ● Anticipatory activity: What do you think the settlers learned from the earlier colony experiences? How do you think this helped them become successful in colonizing NC eventually? How do you think they accomplished settlement? Have an oral discussion based on these topics. ● Mini lesson on the early settlement of NC. ● Display a map (current or one from that period) and show how settlers moved into NC, where they settled, where certain groups were concentrated, etc. ○ Talk more specifically about each group and their backgrounds - people who moved south from Virginia, people who moved north from South Carolina, etc. ● Explain how Native Americans and slaves fit into settlement. Demonstrate where these groups lived or where most concentrated. Also describe the roles of these groups in early settlement, such as how Native Americans were driven off their land, if there were conflicts between Natives and soldiers, where the largest concentration of slaves were in NC, where these slaves came from in Africa, etc. ● Divide students into groups of three or four. Give each group a different letter written by a colonist. ○ Instruct students to read and analyze the letter, telling them to consider who the person was and their position in society, who they were writing to, and where they were writing from and what was going on in that place at the time. ○ After students are finished, go to each group and ask them to tell the class about their letter and what they concluded. ○ Discuss what some common themes were students noticed in the letters, what style they were written in, whom the audience was, etc. ○ Finally, have students individually write their own letter (you could keep them in their groups to do this, but this way you can assess their learning individually). Instruct them to write as a specific person, and decide some personal details like

Stephanie Cogdill & Stephanie Doss Unit Development May 1, 2012 what their name is, how old they are, how they know the person they are writing to, where they are from, etc. ○ Tell them they can use the letters they read as groups as models, then model how they would go about writing their letters by beginning your own. Explain your reasoning about what you would write about and who you would address it to. Write a quick sample paragraph so students get the idea. ○ Give students some ideas of what they can include, such as: ■Discuss why your family/you decided to leave England ■Describe your fears about moving to this new place ■Describe some things that have happened ■Describe some people you have met, etc. ○ Students can decide who they are (they can make up a name) and some aspects of their identity. They also decide who the audience of their letter is, but explain letters are written differently based on the audience, and try to connect this by using the primary sources they already read as examples. CLOSURE: ● Have an oral discussion about how the students felt about their letters. ○ What was it like to think from the perspective of a colonist? ○ What were some things they included? What kind of identities did they adopt? Did it change the way they perceived some events we had discussed in colonization? ● Collect letters - if there are students who haven’t finished, allow them to take them home. EVALUATION: ● Letters written by students. The main focus should be if the students are accurately portraying the lifestyle of a colonist, if they mention events discussed in colonization, and if their letter makes sense in the context of the time period.

Stephanie Cogdill & Stephanie Doss Unit Development May 1, 2012

Probable Passage Worksheet
Directions: 1. Think about the words or phrases in the vocabulary list. Work with a group. 2. Place each word in the category you think is most appropriate. If you can’t decide or don’t know what a word means, put it in the “Unknown Words” category. 3. Write a “Gist” sentence summarizing how you think the words relate to one another, or what you think these words are about.

Characters

Setting

Conflict/Problem

Resolution/Solution

Unknown Words

Questions about the words

Prediction or Gist Statement: ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________

Stephanie Cogdill & Stephanie Doss Unit Development May 1, 2012

Lesson Plan Day 8: The Middle Colonies
Learning Outcomes: Students will finish learning about the Middle Colonies and what life was like settling these colonies. Students will also learn how to use flip cameras in order to complete an assignment. Learning objectives: SWBAT name and locate the Middle Colonies. SWBAT define the characteristics of the Middle Colonies. SWBAT discuss how the Middle Colonies differ from the New England Colonies. Materials needed: -textbooks -flip cameras -paper -writing utensils Procedures: Warm-up (10 minutes) -students will use their journal entries that they completed for homework assigned on Day 7 -the students will be doing a version of a looping activity, where the teacher asks them to look over their journal entries and pick out major themes or items they talked about and puts them on the board -once the major ideas are on the board, the students will then be given a minute to freewrite about each of them items on the board (essentially what comes to their mind first when they see that word) Introduce the activity (1 minute) -explain to students that they will be creating video clips -students will have the rest of class time to work on these video clips Explain the activity (5 minutes) -students will be divided into groups by the teacher to first draft letters home -in these letters home students should identify to whom they are writing to, and the voice of the letter should reflect this -students will include in their letter what life is like living in the Middle Colonies -after the students have drafted their letters, they will bring them to the teacher to show that they are done, and will then receive a flip camera -students should find a corner or other area in the classroom in which to set up and record their video -every student should participate in the video Work on activity (remainder of the class) -students will draft their letters and film their video clips for the remainder of the class period -allow students to ask questions if they have any

Stephanie Cogdill & Stephanie Doss Unit Development May 1, 2012 Assign homework (as students are wrapping up) -no homework for this evening Exit pass (around 1-2 minutes before the bell rings) -students will tell the teacher what they enjoyed most about creating the video clips Evaluation: Students will receive participation points for their completed journal entries from the beginning of class, as well as for the freewrite that they accomplish as part of the warm-up. They will be given completion grades for the letters that they draft and video clips that they create.

Stephanie Cogdill & Stephanie Doss Unit Development May 1, 2012 Evaluation of the Unit: Students are evaluated informally throughout the unit based on participation and completion points for the various class work and homework assignments that they complete. These participation and completion points are worth 50 points of the students’ grades. Students are evaluated formally through the means of a portfolio-based presentation as follows: Students will be told at the beginning of the unit to keep track of the work and activities that they complete for homework and in class. At the end of the unit, students will give quick 3-5 minute presentations to the class that are based on their work. They are to take the viewpoint of a historian who has found these documents (i.e. journal entries, letters home, video clips) and describe to the class what they have learned from these documents. This presentation is worth 100 points for the students’ grades.