7 views

Uploaded by Kristin Dikiciyan

helpful source that summarizes the concept of System Type and Steady-State Error

save

You are on page 1of 2

System Type Consider the single loop feedback system with input R( s ) and output Y ( s ) as shown at the right. The system type is determined by the form of the loop (or open-loop) transfer function GH ( s ) . In general, the form of GH ( s) can be written as

R( s) +

−

E (s)

G ( s)

Y (s)

H ( s)

Simple Closed Loop System

GH ( s ) =

N ( s) s n D( s)

(1)

where N ( s ) and D( s ) represent polynomials in s, and s n represents all powers of s that can be factored from the denominator. The number n determines the system type. It is said that the system is a “type n” system. As we will show in the following paragraphs, the value of n determines the "type" of steady-state error the system will have for various inputs.

System Error Transfer Function and Steady-State Error

Using block diagram reduction, it can be shown that the error transfer function for the single loop system is

E 1 (s) = 1 + GH ( s ) R

(2)

Combining equations (1) and (2) gives the general form

E s n D(s) (s) = n R ( s D( s) ) + N ( s)

(3)

The steady state error is found by using the final value theorem. Steady state errors for type "0" and type "1" systems for step, ramp, and parabolic inputs are calculated below. Given these results, the results for type "2" and higher systems are easily deduced.

1

Type "0" System The steady-state error of a type “0” system to step, ramp, and parabolic inputs may be calculated as follows: Step Input:

⎛ ⎞ D( s) D(0) ⎛ E 1⎞ ess = lim ( s E ( s ) ) = lim ⎜ s ⋅ ⋅ ⎟ = lim ⎜ = = finite value ⎟ s →0 s →0 ⎝ R s ⎠ s→0 ⎝ D( s ) + N ( s ) ⎠ D(0) + N (0) Ramp Input: ⎛ ⎞ D(0) D( s) ⎛ E 1⎞ ess = lim ( s E ( s ) ) = lim ⎜ s ⋅ ⋅ 2 ⎟ = lim ⎜ = infinite value ⎟= s →0 s →0 ⎝ R s ⎠ s →0 ⎝ s ( D ( s ) + N ( s ) ) ⎠ 0 Parabolic Input: ⎛ ⎞ D(0) D( s) ⎛ E 1⎞ ess = lim ( s E ( s ) ) = lim ⎜ s ⋅ ⋅ 3 ⎟ = lim ⎜ 2 = infinite value ⎟= s →0 s →0 ⎝ R s ⎠ s →0 ⎝ s ( D ( s ) + N ( s ) ) ⎠ 0 Type "1" System The steady-state error of a type “1” system to step, ramp, and parabolic inputs may be calculated as follows: Step Input: ⎛ ⎞ s D( s) 0 ⎛ E 1⎞ ess = lim ( s E ( s ) ) = lim ⎜ s ⋅ ⋅ ⎟ = lim ⎜ = zero ⎟= s →0 s →0 ⎝ R s ⎠ s→0 ⎝ ( s D( s ) ) + N ( s ) ⎠ N (0) Ramp Input: ⎛ ⎞ D(0) D( s) ⎛ E 1⎞ ess = lim ( s E ( s ) ) = lim ⎜ s ⋅ ⋅ 2 ⎟ = lim ⎜ = = finite value s →0 s →0 ⎝ R s ⎠ s→0 ⎝ sD( s ) + N ( s ) ⎟ ⎠ N (0) Parabolic Input: ⎛ ⎞ D(0) D( s) ⎛ E 1⎞ ess = lim ( s E ( s ) ) = lim ⎜ s ⋅ ⋅ 3 ⎟ = lim ⎜ = infinite value ⎟= s →0 s →0 ⎝ R s ⎠ s →0 ⎝ s ( s D ( s ) + N ( s ) ) ⎠ 0 Summary Following the pattern of the above calculations, we can make the following table. Steady State System Error Step Ramp Parabolic finite ∞ ∞ 0 finite ∞ 0 0 finite 0 0 0

2

Type 0 1 2 3

- Elon Musk: Tesla, SpaceX, and the Quest for a Fantastic FutureAshlee Vance
- Dispatches from Pluto: Lost and Found in the Mississippi DeltaRichard Grant
- The Innovators: How a Group of Hackers, Geniuses, and Geeks Created the Digital RevolutionWalter Isaacson
- Yes PleaseAmy Poehler
- The Unwinding: An Inner History of the New AmericaGeorge Packer
- Sapiens: A Brief History of HumankindYuval Noah Harari
- The Emperor of All Maladies: A Biography of CancerSiddhartha Mukherjee
- This Changes Everything: Capitalism vs. The ClimateNaomi Klein
- Grand Pursuit: The Story of Economic GeniusSylvia Nasar
- A Heartbreaking Work Of Staggering Genius: A Memoir Based on a True StoryDave Eggers
- The Prize: The Epic Quest for Oil, Money & PowerDaniel Yergin
- Devil in the Grove: Thurgood Marshall, the Groveland Boys, and the Dawn of a New AmericaGilbert King
- John AdamsDavid McCullough
- The World Is Flat 3.0: A Brief History of the Twenty-first CenturyThomas L. Friedman
- The Hard Thing About Hard Things: Building a Business When There Are No Easy AnswersBen Horowitz
- Smart People Should Build Things: How to Restore Our Culture of Achievement, Build a Path for Entrepreneurs, and Create New Jobs in AmericaAndrew Yang
- Rise of ISIS: A Threat We Can't IgnoreJay Sekulow
- The New Confessions of an Economic Hit ManJohn Perkins
- Team of Rivals: The Political Genius of Abraham LincolnDoris Kearns Goodwin
- Steve JobsWalter Isaacson
- Angela's Ashes: A MemoirFrank McCourt
- How To Win Friends and Influence PeopleDale Carnegie
- Bad Feminist: EssaysRoxane Gay

- You Too Can Have a Body Like Mine: A NovelAlexandra Kleeman
- The Incarnations: A NovelSusan Barker
- The Light Between Oceans: A NovelM.L. Stedman
- Extremely Loud and Incredibly Close: A NovelJonathan Safran Foer
- The Sympathizer: A Novel (Pulitzer Prize for Fiction)Viet Thanh Nguyen
- The Silver Linings Playbook: A NovelMatthew Quick
- Leaving Berlin: A NovelJoseph Kanon
- The MasterColm Toibin
- Bel CantoAnn Patchett
- A Man Called Ove: A NovelFredrik Backman
- The Flamethrowers: A NovelRachel Kushner
- Brooklyn: A NovelColm Toibin
- The Rosie Project: A NovelGraeme Simsion
- The Blazing World: A NovelSiri Hustvedt
- We Are Not Ourselves: A NovelMatthew Thomas
- The First Bad Man: A NovelMiranda July
- The Love Affairs of Nathaniel P.: A NovelAdelle Waldman
- Life of PiYann Martel
- The Bonfire of the Vanities: A NovelTom Wolfe
- Lovers at the Chameleon Club, Paris 1932: A NovelFrancine Prose
- The Perks of Being a WallflowerStephen Chbosky
- The Cider House RulesJohn Irving
- A Prayer for Owen Meany: A NovelJohn Irving
- My Sister's Keeper: A NovelJodi Picoult
- The WallcreeperNell Zink
- The Art of Racing in the Rain: A NovelGarth Stein
- Wolf Hall: A NovelHilary Mantel
- The Kitchen House: A NovelKathleen Grissom
- Beautiful Ruins: A NovelJess Walter
- Interpreter of MaladiesJhumpa Lahiri