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How to prevent pump cavitation?
Types of pump cavitation
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Vaporization cavitation, also called inadequate NPSHa cavitation. Internal re-circulation cavitation. Vane passing syndrome cavitation. Air aspiration cavitation. Turbulence cavitation.

Prevention or Action measures to be taken against pump cavitation are discuseed in the following sections.

Pump cavitation due to vaporization

It’s called “classic Cavitation”. According to Bernoulli’s Law, when velocity goes up, pressure goes down. Centrifugal pump works by acceleration and imparting velocity to the liquid in the eye of the impeller. Under the right conditions, the liquid can boil or vaporize in the eye of the impeller. When this happens we say that the pump is suffering from vaporization cavitation. This type of cavitation is also called inadequate NPSHa cavitation. To prevent this type of cavitation, the NPSHa in the system (the available energy in the system), must be higher than the NPSHr of the pump (the pump’s minimum energy requirement).

How to prevent cavitation due to vaporization
NPSHa > NPSHr + 3 ft or more safety margin 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Lower the temperature. Raise the liquid level in the suction vessel. Change the pump. Reduce motor RPM if possible. Increase the diameter of the eye of the impeller. Use an impeller inducer.

Use a booster pump to feed the principal pump. How to prevent pump cavitation due to internal circulation This condition cannot be corrected on pumps with an enclosed impeller. A closed discharge valve. First. Pump Cavitation by Internal circulation This is a low flow condition where the discharge flow of the pump is restricted and the product cannot leave the pump. Check valve installed backwards Operating the pump at or close to shut-off head. The liquid is forced to re-circulate from high-pressure zones in the pump into low-pressure zones across the impeller. 6. 5. This type of cavitation originates from two sources.7. 4. 1. An over-pressurized header. The problem could be a clogged downstream filter. Use two lower capacity pumps in parallel. 8. the liquid is forced to pass through tight tolerances at very high speed the heat and the high velocity cause the liquid to vaporize. 2. Pump Cavitation due to vane passing syndrome The free space between the impeller blade tips and the cutwater should be 4% of the impeller diameter . the liquid is circulating inside the volute of the pump at the speed of the motor and it rapidly overheats. 3. Second. You need to open the restricted discharge valve on the pump.

Tighten all flange faces and gaskets. To prevent pump cavitation due to air aspiration 1. the free space should be 4% of the impeller diameter between the blade tips and the cutwater. Pump cavitation due to turbulence Turbulent flow leads to formation of vortexes in pump suction. Free space between the impeller blade tips and the cutwater should be at least 4% of the impeller diameter. Liquids that foam can introduce air into the pump. Keep the velocity of the fluid in the suction piping at less than 8 ft per second. Tighten all pump packing rings and all valve stem packing on suction piping. 4. through following routes Through pump shaft packing. Consider using dual mechanical seals with a forced circulation barrier fluid. This high liquid velocity leads to low pressure. The waterfall effect in suction vessels is another contributing factor to pump turbulence. 2. Air can enter into the piping when the pump is in vacuum. The faces of single mechanical seals. For example.4”. heating. 3. To prevent pump cavitation due to excess turbulence in suction line 1. To prevent pump cavitation due to vane passing To prevent damage due to such cavitation. Air can also enter into the pump from bubbles and air pockets in the suction piping. 10” x 0. Inadequate piping. sharp elbows. the liquid velocity between these spaces becomes very high. O-rings and other secondary seals on single mechanical seals. With the pump disassembled the damage is seen on the blade tips at the OD of the impeller and just behind the cutwater on the internal volute wall. free space between the impeller blade tips and the cutwater should be at least 4% of the impeller diameter. Pump cavitation due to air aspiration Air can be drawn into the piping and pump from diverse forms and different points.04 = 0. Joint rings on suction piping. Design the pump suction piping and routig to avoid excess turbulence . Valves stem packing on valves in the suction piping. O-rings and threaded fittings on instrumentation in the suction piping. It may be necessary to increase the diameter of the pipe. For smaller spaces. filters and strainers in suction line contribute to turbulence.This is caused by use of a larger diameter impeller or from re-metalizing or coating the internal housing of the pump. for a 10” impeller. Flange faces sheet gaskets at pipe joints. bubble formation and hence cavitation. restrictions.

Home Piping Miscellaneous Process Design Solved Examples Newsletter Calculators Unit Conversion Contact Us Request a Calculator Request for a free engineering calculator to be added to EnggCyclopedia. Respect the maximum allowable flow limit of the pumps. . Take precaution while fixing the pump suction line size to avoid turbulence and have sufficient NPSHa 3.2. Related Posts Pump Cavitation Pump Cavitation Causes Pump Performance Curves Pump Priming How to prime centrifugal pump? No related Pages. Previous Next Member Login Username: Password: forgot password? Remember Me Log Me In Sign up now Sign up for free if you are not a member already.

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