MB 0050 Research Methodology

Contents Unit 1 An Introduction to Research Unit 2 The Importance of Measurement in Research Unit 3 Selection and Formulation of a Research Problem Unit 4 Hypothesis Unit 5 Research Design Unit 6 Case Study Method Unit 7 Sampling Unit 8 Sources of Data
Edition: Spring 2010 BKID – B1206 10 June 2010
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Unit 9 Observation Unit 10 Schedule and Questionnaire Unit 11 Interviewing Unit 12 Processing Data Unit 13 Research Report Writing Unit 14 Ethics in Research Acknowledgements, References & Suggested Readings 209 198 187 129 108 101 92

Dean Directorate of Distance Education Sikkim Manipal University Board of Studies Chairman HOD Management & Commerce SMU – DDE Additional Registrar SMU – DDE Controller of Examination SMU – DDE Dr. T. V. Narasimha Rao Adjunct Faculty & Advisor SMU – DDE Prof. K. V. Varambally Director, Manipal Institute of Management, Manipal Content Preparation Team Content Writing Prof. Xavier V. K. Christ College, Bangalore Format Editing Ms. Shulagna Sarkar Former Lecturer, Dept. of Management & Commerce SMU DDE, Manipal Edition Printed : Spring 2010 : June 2010 Content Modification & Review Vimala Parthasarathy Assistant Professor SMU DDE Language Editing Mr. Radhakrishna Rao Lecturer in English UPMC, Udupi

Mr. Pankaj Khanna Director HR, Fidelity Mutual Fund Mr. Shankar Jagannathan Former Group Treasurer Wipro Technologies Limited Mr. Abraham Mathew Chief Financial Officer Infosys BPO, Bangalore Ms. Sadhna Dash Ex-Senior Manager, HR Microsoft India Corporation (Pvt.) Ltd.

This book is a distance education module comprising of written and compiled learning material for our students. All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced in any form by any means without permission in writing from Sikkim Manipal University of Health, Medical and Technological Sciences, Gangtok, Sikkim. Printed and Published on behalf of Sikkim Manipal University of Health, Medical and Technological Sciences, Gangtok, Sikkim by Mr. Rajkumar Mascreen, GM, Manipal Universal Learning Pvt. Ltd., Manipal – 576 104. Printed at Manipal Press Limited, Manipal.

. Scientific method is a means for gaining knowledge of the universe. It is a purposive investigation. It does not belong to any particular body of knowledge. Unit 1 : An Introduction to Research  Meaning of research – Purpose of research  Types of research  Significance of research in Social and Business Sciences Unit 2 : The importance of Measurement in Research  Definition and Purpose of Measurement  Levels of Measurement  Characteristics of Good Measurement Unit 3 : Selection and Formulation of a Research Problem  Choosing the problem  Review of literature  Formulating the problem  Criteria of a good research problem Unit 4 : Hypothesis  Hypothesis – Meaning and Examples of hypothesis  Types of hypothesis  Testing of hypothesis Unit 5 : Research Design  Needs of research design  Components of research design – Different research designs  Research design for studies in commerce and management. It does not refer to a field of specific subject of matter. Research is a scientific endeavour. but rather to a procedure or mode of investigation. it is universal.SUBJECT INTRODUCTION Research simply means a search for facts – answer to questions and solutions to problems. It involves scientific method. It is an organized inquiry. It seeks to find explanations to unexplained phenomenon to clarify the doubtful facts and to correct the misconceived facts. “The scientific method is a systematic step-by-step procedure following the logical processes of reasoning”.

Unit 6 : Case Study Method  Assumptions of case study method  Advantages and disadvantages of case study method – Making case study effective  Case study as a method of business research Unit 7 : Sampling  Sampling procedure  Characteristics of good sample  Methods of sampling Unit 8 : Sources of Data  Primary sources of data  Methods of collecting primary data  Secondary sources of data Unit 9 : Observation  General characteristics of observation method  Process of observation  Use of observation in business research Unit 10 : Schedules and Questionnaire  Process of data collection  Importance of questionnaire  Distinction between schedules and questionnaire Unit 11 : Interview  Types of interviews  Approach to the interview  Qualities of interview  Interview techniques in business research Unit 12 : Processing Data  Checking – Editing – Coding  Transcriptions and Tabulation  Data analysis .

styles of reporting  Steps in drafting reports  Editing the final draft  Evaluating the final drafts Unit 14 : Ethics in Research  Meaning of Research Ethics  Ethical issues in the overall research process  Ethical issues in Gaining Access to Participants  Ethical issues in Data Collection  Ethical issues related to data analysis and reporting  Ethically questionable research situations  Responsibility for ethics in research .Unit 13 : Report Writing  Types of reports  Contents.

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Research Methodology Unit 1 Unit 1 An Introduction to Research Structure: 1.4 Research Approaches 1.2 Applied Research 1.6 Summary 1. blind belief or impression.1 Meaning and Definition of Research Objectives 1.6 Evaluation Studies 1. a big snake swallows sun or moon causing solar or lunar eclipse.1.4 Descriptive Research 1.3.2 Purpose of Research 1.3.5 Significance of Research in Social and Business Sciences Self Assessment Questions I 1.1.3 Types of Research 1.2 Characteristics of Research 1.g.3.7 Action Research 1. It is subjective.5 Diagnostic Study 1. opinion.8 Answers to SAQs and TQs 1.3. The search for facts may be made through either:  Arbitrary (or unscientific) Method: It’s a method of seeking answers to question consists of imagination. E. it was believed that the shape of the earth was flat.3 Exploratory Research 1.3. It is a purposive investigation.1 Research and Scientific Method 1. It is an organized inquiry.7 Terminal Questions 1. 1 Sikkim Manipal University . It is vague and inaccurate. Or Page No.1 Meaning and Definition of Research Research simply means a search for facts – answers to questions and solutions to problems. It seeks to find explanations to unexplained phenomenon to clarify the doubtful facts and to correct the misconceived facts.3.3. the finding will vary from person to person depending on his impression or imagination.1 Pure Research 1.

search of facts should be made by scientific method rather than by arbitrary method. It does not belong to any particular body of knowledge. (b) Analyze their sequences. “The scientific method is a systematic step-by-step procedure following the logical processes of reasoning”. precise and arrives at conclusions on the basis of verifiable evidences. Sikkim Manipal University Page No.Research Methodology Unit 1  Scientific Method: this is a systematic rational approach to seeking facts. but rather to a procedure or mode of investigation. 2 . by means of logical and systematic techniques”. It involves scientific method. Then only we may get verifiable and accurate facts. It does not refer to a field of specific subject of matter. empirical and critical investigation of hypothetical propositions about the presumed relations among natural phenomena”. it is universal. It eliminates the drawbacks of the arbitrary method.1 Research and Scientific Method Research is a scientific endeavour. (d) Kerlinger defines research as a “systematic. controlled. Therefore. (c) Develop new scientific tools. concepts and theories which would facilitate reliable and valid study of human behaviour. aims to: (a) Discover of new facts or verify and test old facts. Objectives: After studying this lesson the students should be able to understand:  Research and scientific method  Characteristics of Research  Purpose of research  Different types of Research  Research Approaches  Significance of research in Social and Business Sciences 1. It is objective. interrelationships and causal explanations. Scientific method is a means for gaining knowledge of the universe.1. Hence research is a systematic and logical study of an issue or problem or phenomenon through scientific method. Young defines Research as “a scientific undertaking which.

This reasoning process is used for drawing inference from the finding of a study or for arriving at conclusion. Science aims at nothing but making true and adequate statements about its object. using appropriate methods of analysis. The validity and the reliability of data are checked carefully and the data are analyzed thoroughly. When his conclusion is tested by others under the same conditions.” These are:  Reliance on Empirical Evidence: Truth is established on the basis of evidence. This can be avoided by the accumulation of a large body of data and by the employment of comparisons and control groups. The conclusion should not vary from person to person. According to Schrödinger “Science never imposes anything. He must make known to others how he arrives at his conclusions. It means forming judgement upon facts unbiased by personal impressions. Otherwise. Relevant data are collected through observation or experimentation. In order to deal with them. only when it is based on evidence. Verifiability: The conclusions arrived at by a scientist should be verifiable.Research Methodology Unit 1 The scientific method is based on certain “articles of faith. Use of Relevant Concepts: We experience a vast number of facts through our sense. Facts are things which actually exist. we use concepts with specific meanings. clarity and correct understanding cannot be achieved.” Generalization: In formulating a generalization. He should thus expose his own methods and conclusions to critical scrutiny. The answer to a question is not decided by intuition or imagination. Logical reasoning process: The scientific method involves the logical process of reasoning. which arises through an inclination to generalize on insufficient or incomplete and unrelated data. science states. Page No. we should avoid the danger of committing the particularistic fallacy. We use them in our thinking and communication. They are symbols representing the meaning that we hold. It does not say that they are good or bad. then it is accepted as correct. Commitment of Objectivity: Objectivity is the hallmark of the scientific method. 3       Sikkim Manipal University . Ethical Neutrality: Science does not pass normal judgment on facts. Conclusion is admitted. It should be the same for all persons.

1. Research verifies and tests existing facts and theory and these help improving our knowledge and ability to handle situations and events. They are:  Research extends knowledge of human beings.      Sikkim Manipal University Page No. interpreting and explaining a phenomenon. The search is for answers for various types of questions: What. It is a purposive investigation aiming at describing. It emphasizes the development of generalization.2 Characteristics of Research         It is a systematic and critical investigation into a phenomenon. applying possible test to validate the measuring tools and the conclusions reached. 4 . How and Why of various phenomena. and enlighten us. principles or theories. social life and environment. Research establishes generalizations and general laws and contributes to theory building in various fields of knowledge.Research Methodology Unit 1 1. General laws developed through research may enable us to make reliable predictions of events yet to happen. Where. It is based upon observable experience or empirical evidence. Research aims to analyze inter-relationships between variables and to derive causal explanations: and thus enables us to have a better understanding of the world in which we live. It is objective and logical. 1. The purpose of research is not only to arrive at an answer but also to stand up the test of criticism. Research is directed towards finding answers to pertinent questions and solutions to problems. Research brings to light information that might never be discovered fully during the ordinary course of life. It adopts scientific method.2 Purpose of Research The objectives or purposes of research are varied. When.

Though the immediate purpose of an applied research is to find solutions to a practical problem. e. It is also known as basic or fundamental research. According to the intent.3. It develops many alternative solutions and thus enables us to choose the best solution. It is not necessarily problem-oriented. It may lead to either discovery of a new theory or refinement of an existing theory. research may be classified as: 1. Einstein’s theory of relativity. marketing research carried on for developing a news market or for studying the post-purchase experience of customers. It seeks an immediate and practical result. It may aid in conceptual clarification.   1.g. Newton’s contributions.. Research aids planning and thus contributes to national development.g. health problems. Galileo’s contribution. It is undertaken out of intellectual curiosity or inquisitiveness. It helps to find the critical factors in a practical problem.1 Pure Research It is undertaken for the sake of knowledge without any intention to apply it in practice.3. human relations problems in organizations and so on. It is thus problem-oriented and action-directed. e. Research also aims at developing new tools. Sikkim Manipal University Page No.. Research may be classified crudely according to its major intent or the methods. It may integrate previously existing theories. It offers solutions to many practical problems. It aims at extension of knowledge.2 Applied Research It is carried on to find solution to a real-life problem requiring an action or policy decision. 1. It can put theory to the test. etc. it may incidentally contribute to the development of theoretical knowledge by leading to the discovery of new facts or testing of theory or o conceptual clarity. It lays foundation for applied research. 5 .3 Types of Research Although any typology of research is inevitably arbitrary. concepts and theories for a better study of unknown phenomena.Research Methodology Unit 1  Applied research aims at finding solutions to problems… socioeconomic problems.

The information obtained may be useful for prediction about areas of social life outside the boundaries of the research. 6 . It is more specific than an exploratory research. It aims at identifying the various characteristics of a community or institution or problem under study and also aims at a classification of the range of elements comprising the subject matter of study. clear-cut definition of the given population. The purpose of this research may be to generate new ideas.4 Descriptive Study It is a fact-finding investigation with adequate interpretation. It usually takes the form of a pilot study. It can highlight important methodological aspects of data collection and interpretation. “At the first level is the discovery of the significant variable in the situations. the discovery of relationships between variables.Research Methodology Unit 1 1.5 Diagnostic Study It is similar to descriptive study but with a different focus.” 1.3.3 Exploratory Research It is also known as formulative research. its thorough formulation. Sikkim Manipal University Page No. It contributes to the development of a young science and useful in verifying focal concepts through empirical observation. at the second. It may also be concerned with discovering and testing whether certain variables are associated. This type of research requires prior knowledge of the problem. precise measurement of variables. why it is happening and what can be done about. It is preliminary study of an unfamiliar problem about which the researcher has little or no knowledge. It is the simplest type of research. statistical analysis and test of significance. or to increase the researcher’s familiarity with the problem or to make a precise formulation of the problem or to gather information for clarifying concepts or to determine whether it is feasible to attempt the study. 1. It aims at identifying the causes of a problem and the possible solutions for it. It is ill-structured and much less focused on pre-determined objectives.3. It is directed towards discovering what is happening.3. adequate methods for collecting accurate information. Katz conceptualizes two levels of exploratory studies. They are valuable in providing facts needed for planning social action program.

developing change programme.6 Evaluation Studies It is a type of applied research. It is descriptive in nature. it must often depend upon inference and logical analysis or recorded data and indirect evidences rather than upon direct observation. explain phenomena. It is concerned also with change over time. and post experimental evaluation. 1. sharing of diagnostic information. initiation of organizational change. It includes six major steps: diagnosis. Experimental Research: It is designed to asses the effects of particular variables on a phenomenon by keeping the other variables constant or controlled. It aims at testing hypothesis and specifying and interpreting relationships. It is a concurrent evaluation study of an action programme launched for solving a problem for improving an exiting situation. planning. Its purpose is to provide information. 4.7 Action Research It is a type of evaluation study. Hence it is also known as the Statistical Method. 3. According to the methods of study. It is concerned with causal relationships and is more actively guided by hypothesis. It may consist of a system of mathematical models or statistical techniques applicable to numerical data.3. Historical Research: It is a study of past records and other information sources with a view to reconstructing the origin and development of an institution or a movement or a system and discovering the trends in the past. and to specify its attributes and conditions required for its success. 7 . Analytical Study: It is a system of procedures and techniques of analysis applied to quantitative data. It is thus directed to assess or appraise the quality and quantity of an activity and its performance. to make comparisons and concerned with cause and effect relationships can be useful for making predications Sikkim Manipal University Page No.Research Methodology Unit 1 1. 2. It is made for assessing the effectiveness of social or economic programmes implemented or for assessing the impact of developmental projects on the development of the project area. implementation of participation and communication process. Survey: It is a fact-finding study. It aims at determining whether and in what manner variables are related to each other. It is a method of research involving collection of data directly from a population or a sample thereof at particular time. research may be classified as: 1. It is a difficult task.3.

8 . and simulation approaches to research. Research in a situation is a function of the researcher’s impressions and insights. Collection of statistical information though not a routine task. focus group interviews. This approach further includes experimental.5 Significance of Research in Social and Business Sciences According to a famous Hudson Maxim. for example. The quantitative approach involves the collection of quantitative data. “All progress is born of inquiry. research also facilitates the decision making of policy-makers. It brings out the significance of research. In the process. besides promoting the development of logical habits of thinking and organization. It provides the basis for almost all government policies of an economic system. research also helps in the proper allocation of a country’s scare resources. increased amounts of which makes progress possible. and projective techniques. this approach uses techniques like depth interviews. Research encourages scientific and inductive thinking. for it leads to inquiry. in addition to examining the consequences of these alternatives. Sikkim Manipal University Page No. Meanwhile. Government budget formulation. Doubt is often better than overconfidence. for both the government and business. and inquiry leads to invention”. inferential. 1. Research assumes significant role in formulation of economic policy.4 Research Approaches There are two main approaches to research. which requires research. Thus. Usually. depends particularly on the analysis of needs and desires of the people. Research is also necessary for collecting information on the social and economic structure of an economy to understand the process of change occurring in the country. which are put to rigorous quantitative analysis in a formal and rigid manner. The role of research in applied economics in the context of an economy or business is greatly increasing in modern times. The results generated by this type of research are either in non-quantitative form or in the form which cannot be put to rigorous quantitative analysis. the qualitative approach uses the method of subjective assessment of opinions.Research Methodology Unit 1 1. behaviour and attitudes. and the availability of revenues. although in itself it is not a part of research. Research helps to formulate alternative policies. namely quantitative approach and qualitative approach. The increasingly complex nature of government and business has raised the use of research in solving operational problems.

Motivational research helps to determine why people behave in the manner they do with respect to market characteristics. It gives intellectual satisfaction of knowing things for the sake of knowledge. research in social sciences is concerned with both knowledge for its own sake. Market research is refers to the investigation of the structure and development of a market for the formulation of efficient policies relating to purchases. and motivational research are vital and their results assist in taking business decisions. Research is a repetitive search. Sikkim Manipal University Page No. Applied research gives a solution to problem. which are responsible for business decision making. Self Assessment Questions State whether the following are true or false: 1. market research.. and The prognosis. and knowledge for what it can contribute to solve practical problems. research as a tool of government economic policy formulation involves three distinct stages of operation which are as follows:    Investigation of economic structure through continual compilation of facts Diagnoses of events that are taking place and the analysis of the forces underlying them. Thus. All these researches are very useful for business and industry. it is concerned with the analyzing the motivations underlying consumer behaviour. Operational research relates to the application of logical.e. 9 . the prediction of future developments Research also assumes a significant role in solving various operational and planning problems associated with business and industry. large staff of research technicians or experts is engaged by the government these days to undertake this work. i. or the optimization problems. operations research. Research is equally important to social scientist for analyzing social relationships and seeking explanations to various social problems. This. In several ways. It also possesses practical utility for the social scientist to gain knowledge so as to be able to do something better or in a more efficient manner. More specifically.Research Methodology Unit 1 involves various research problems. 2. and analytical techniques to find solution to business problems such as cost minimization or profit maximization. Therefore. production and sales. mathematical.

Kerlinger defines research as a “systematic.6 Summary Research simply means a search for facts. Use of relevant concepts 3. 5. empirical and critical investigation of hypothetical propositions about the presumed relations among natural phenomena”. Pure research is not fundamental research. The purpose of research is to extend knowledge of human beings Research establishes generalizations and general laws and contributes to theory building in various fields of knowledge. concepts and theories which would facilitate reliable and valid study of human behaviour. Young defines Research as “a scientific undertaking which. It emphasizes the development of generalization. Sikkim Manipal University Page No. General laws developed through research may enable us to make reliable predictions of events yet to happen.Research Methodology Unit 1 3. The purpose of research is not only to arrive at an answer but also to stand up the test of criticism. Verifiability 7. controlled. 4. Ethical neutrality 5. develop new scientific tools. principles or theories.” These are: 1. aims to: Discover of new facts or verify and test old facts. Objectivity is not required for all types of research. 10 . Research aims to analyze interrelationships between variables and to derive causal explanations: and thus enables us to have a better understanding of the world in which we live. Scientific method is systematic. analyze their sequences. interrelationships and causal explanations. Research verifies and tests existing facts and theory and these help improving our knowledge and ability to handle situations and events. Generalization 6. Logical reasoning process Research is directed towards finding answers to pertinent questions and solutions to problems. Reliance on empirical evidence: 2. by means of logical and systematic techniques”. 1. The search for facts may be made through either arbitrary (or unscientific) method or scientific method. Commitment of objectivity 4. The scientific method is based on certain “articles of faith.

Research Methodology Unit 1 Applied research aims at finding solutions to problems… socio-economic problems. health problems. The role of research in applied economics in the context of an economy or business is greatly increasing in modern times. 11 . Diagnostic Study is similar to descriptive study but with a different focus. Evaluation Studies is a type of applied research. 1. Action Research is a type of evaluation study. What are the features of research? 5 6 What are the purposes of research? What are the types of research? 7. Descriptive Study is a fact-finding investigation with adequate interpretation. Research aids planning and thus contributes to national development. It is thus problem-oriented and action-directed. Research also aims at developing new tools. Exploratory Research is also known as formulative research. Applied Research is carried on to find solution to a real-life problem requiring an action or policy decision. Research also assumes a significant role in solving various operational and planning problems associated with business and industry. Research is equally important to social scientist for analyzing social relationships and seeking explanations to various social problems. human relations problems in organizations and so on. Define the following: i) Scientific Method iii) Applied Research v) Descriptive Study vii) Action Research ii) Research iv) Exploratory Research vi) Diagnostic Study 2. What is the meaning of research? 3. What are the articles of faith in scientific method? 4. What is the significance of research in social and business sciences? Sikkim Manipal University Page No. concepts and theories for a better study of unknown phenomena. Pure Research is undertaken for the sake of knowledge without any intention to apply it in practice. It is preliminary study of an unfamiliar problem about which the researcher has little or no knowledge.7 Terminal Questions 1.

8 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs 1.1 3) Section 1. 3.3.4 Section 1.7 2) Section 1.1 Section 1.3 7) Section 1.3.1.2 Section 1.2 5) Section 1.3.2 6) Section 1. 2.1 4) Section 1.2.3 Section 1.3.3 Section 1. 5.5 Sikkim Manipal University Page No.1. 4. 12 . True True True False False TQs 1) i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) vii) Section 1.Research Methodology Unit 1 1.3.5 Section 1.3.

4 Characteristics of Good Measurement 2.7 Answers to SAQs and TQs 2.6 Terminal Questions 2. While the measurement of variables is an important stage in the research process.1 Introduction Objectives 2. the need for measurement.5 Summary 2.4. According to Stevens.3 Levels of Measurement 2.2 Definition and Purpose of Measurement 2. you will be able to:  Explain what is meant by measurement in research  Describe the different levels of measurement  Recognize what makes for good measurement  Distinguish between the various concepts used to describe good measurement 2. Objectives: After studying this unit. 13 . measurement is “the assignment of numerals to objects or events according to rules. The different levels of measurement and the validity and reliability of measuring instruments will also be explained in detail. it is also a difficult task.2 Definition and Purpose of Measurement Different definitions of measurement have been offered by different authors– 1. functions and procedure.1 Introduction Research basically deals with the measurement of various variables.Research Methodology Unit 2 Unit 2 The Importance of Measurement in Research Structure: 2. its nature. This section helps to understand the concept of measurement.1 Validity 2.2 Reliability 2.” Sikkim Manipal University Page No.4.

measurement is “the assignment of numbers to objects to represent amounts or degrees of a property possessed by all of the objects. etc. events or things.Research Methodology Unit 2 A simple example of assignment of numerals according to a rule is described below – Suppose a survey is conducted to study the applicants of an MBA program and one of the objectives of the study is to find out the sex-wise break-up of applicants. employee satisfaction). measuring devices help the researcher in classifying cultural patterns and behaviors. Campbell defines measurement as “the assignment of numbers to represent properties. Thus numbers may be used to label individuals.  Measurement also makes it possible to quantify variables and use statistical techniques to analyze the data gathered. Measurement also has several purposes –  The researcher constructs theories to explain social and psychological phenomena (e. 2. we may assign the number “0” to male applicants and the number “1” to female applicants.” 3. For example. which in turn are used to derive hypotheses or assumptions.  Measurement enables the researcher to classify individuals or objects and to compare them in terms of specific properties or characteristics by measuring the concerned variables. weight. In this case. The important point to remember is that the researcher is concerned with measuring properties and not the objects themselves. In the words of Torgerson.g. a person is an object and his/her physical characteristics include height. it is necessary to distinguish between “objects” and “properties’ or characteristics of these objects. labor unrest. These hypotheses can be verified statistically only by measuring the variables in the hypotheses. color.  Measurement makes the empirical description of social and psychological phenomena easier. psychological properties such as intelligence are inferred. 14 . Example – When conducting a study of a tribal community. For example. Sikkim Manipal University Page No. while his or her psychological characteristics include intelligence and attitudes. In research. a child’s score in an IQ test indicates his or her level of intelligence. While physical properties may be directly observed.

persons or objects are assigned numerals which indicate ranks with respect to one or more properties. The individual with the highest score might be assigned rank 1. 1. Example Individuals may be ranked according to their “socio-economic class”. distance or arithmetic origin. Ordinal measurement In this level of measurement. The numbers in this level of measurement indicate only rank order and not equal distance or absolute quantities. the next highest rank 2.Research Methodology Unit 2 Examples Comparison of male and female students’ performance in college exams or of length of stay on the job of older and younger employees.3 Levels of Measurement Measurement may be classified into four different levels. 2. Nominal measurement is therefore the simplest level of measurement. This means that the distance between ranks 1 and 2 is not necessarily equal to the distance between ranks 2 and 3. rating and paired comparisons. The number of cases under each category are counted. and so on. distance and origin. based on the characteristics of order. Nominal measurement This level of measurement consists in assigning numerals or symbols to different categories of a variable. 15 . Variables that lend themselves to ordinal measurement include preferences. Sikkim Manipal University Page No. 2. Statistical techniques that are commonly used to analyze ordinal scale data are the median and rank order correlation coefficients. The example of male and female applicants to an MBA program mentioned earlier is an example of nominal measurement. either in ascending or descending order. The numerals or symbols are just labels and have no quantitative value. or vice versa. Ordinal scales may be constructed using rank order. which is measured by a combination of income. ratings of organizations and economic status. It does not have characteristics such as order. occupation and wealth. education.

Since there is a natural zero. Example The Centigrade or Fahrenheit temperature gauge is an example of the interval level of measurement. distance and origin. 4. This implies that it is not possible to multiply or divide the numbers on an interval scale. However. it does not have an origin or a true zero.Research Methodology Unit 2 3. it is possible to multiply and divide the numbers on a ratio scale. The main limitation of ratio measurement is that it cannot be used for characteristics such as leadership quality. such as standard deviation. The different levels of measurement and their characteristics may be summed up. techniques like the geometric mean and coefficient of variation may also be used. Sikkim Manipal University Page No. weight. This level of measurement has all the three characteristics – order. Since interval scales are more powerful than nominal or ordinal scales. Examples Height. distance and area. 16 . happiness. Interval measurement This level of measurement is more powerful than the nominal and ordinal levels of measurement. satisfaction and other properties which do not have natural zero points. Ratio measurement This is the highest level of measurement and is appropriate when measuring characteristics which have an absolute zero point. since it has one additional characteristic – equality of distance. ordinal and interval scales. product moment correlation and “t” tests and “F” tests of significance. A temperature of 50 degrees is exactly 10 degrees hotter than 40 degrees and 10 degrees cooler than 60 degrees. Apart from being able to use all the statistical techniques that are used with the nominal. they also lend themselves to more powerful statistical techniques.

4.4 Characteristics of Good Measurement A good measurement tool must possess the following characteristics – 1. distance or origin Order. distance and origin 2. Validity – This means that a measurement scale should measure what it is supposed to measure. a scale should measure only length and not both length and temperature at the same time. so that the results of a test can be interpreted easily. 4. Practicability – The measurement tool should be easy to understand and administer. 17 . 3. validity and reliability are the most important requirements of a measurement scale and will be explained in more detail. For example. Unidimensionality – This means that the measurement scale should not measure more than one characteristic at a time.Research Methodology Unit 2 In the table below – Levels of measurement Nominal Ordinal Interval Ratio Characteristics No order. Reliability – This refers to consistency.The question of validity does not arise in the case of measurement of physical Sikkim Manipal University Page No. Simplicity – A measurement tool should not be very complicated or elaborate. 5. 6. Linearity – A good measurement scale should follow the straight line model. 7. There should be proper guidelines regarding its purpose and construction procedure. but no distance or origin Both order and distance.1 Validity A measurement scale may be considered to be valid if it effectively measures a specific property or characteristic that it intends to measure. but no origin Order. 2. Of the above characteristics. The measurement scale should give consistent results. 2. Accuracy and Precision – The measurement scale should give an accurate and precise measure of what is being measured.

However. is also based on the judgment and subjective evaluation of both the researcher and outside experts.Research Methodology Unit 2 characteristics such as length. Face validity is determined through a subjective evaluation of a measuring scale. This is because the measurement is direct and can be done through standard measuring devices. Sampling validity refers to how representative the content of the measuring instrument is. there must be some evidence to prove that the measurement scale actually measures what it is supposed to measure. the measuring instrument’s content must be representative of the content universe of the characteristic being measured. the limitation of this type of validity is that it is determined by opinions. weight and height. In such cases. statistical procedures or both. Validity may be classified into different types. In other words. the researcher may conclude that the scale has face validity. In this case. Such evidence is generally gathered through the application of statistical techniques. The determination of the content universe and the selection of the relevant items that are to be included in the measuring scale are both done based on the knowledge and skill of the investigator and other judges. like face validity. its content universe may comprise statements and questions indicating which aspects of attitude need to be measured. For example. sampling validity will be determined by comparing the items in the measuring instrument with the items in the content universe. The degree of validity of each type is determined by applying logic. as described below. 1. the measurement of abstract characteristics such as motivation and attitudes is more indirect and therefore poses the problem of validity. Sampling validity. Content validity: This type of validity may be of two types – a) Face validity and b) Sampling validity. On the other hand. 18 . Sikkim Manipal University Page No. If the experts are satisfied with the scale. if attitude is the characteristic being measured. a researcher may develop a scale to measure consumer attitudes towards a brand and pre-test the scale among a few experts. For example. rather than through a statistical method.

These relationships must be tested in order to determine the construct validity of a measuring instrument. Example – In the case of an admission test designed for prospective MBA students. Predictive validity: This type of validity refers to the extent to which one behavior can be predicted based on another. To give a simple example. in this case. the grade point average of students during the first semester.Research Methodology Unit 2 2. 19 . extra training or coaching) and may not necessarily be linked to the score on the admission test. the grade point average may have been influenced by other factors (e. 3. Therefore. based on the association between the results yielded by the measuring instrument and the eventual outcome. In other words. Sikkim Manipal University Page No. A statistical measure of this association – the correlation coefficient – could be computed to determine the predictive validity of the admission test. a weighing machine may be said to be reliable if the same reading is given every time the same object is weighed.g. 2. predicting behavior from one situation to another is not always accurate. Construct validity: A construct is a conceptual equation that is developed by the researcher based on theoretical reasoning. may be influenced by other “extraneous” variables or factors. When determining the validity of a particular measurement instrument. The instrument may be considered to have construct validity only if the expected relationships are found to be true. One limitation of determining predictive validity using this statistical association is that the eventual outcome. all the three types of validity discussed above should be determined.2 Reliability This refers to the ability of a measuring scale to provide consistent and accurate results. Predictive validity would be strong if the coefficient is greater than . the predictive validity of the test would be determined by the association between the scores on the test and the grade point average secured by students during the first semester of study.50.4. Various kinds of relationships may be perceived by the researcher between a variable under study and other variables.

However. That is. as in the weighing machine example. 2) By making the measuring instrument more consistent internally. since there is not much variation in the data. but the reverse is not true. In the case of a homogeneous population. The problem of reliability is more likely to arise with measurements in the social sciences than with measurements in the physical sciences. This in turn can be achieved by standardizing the conditions under which measurement is carried out. If precise estimates are required. Research is concerned with the measurement of objects. 20 . A measuring instrument that is valid is always reliable. in order to increase the probability of more accurate measurement.Research Methodology Unit 2 There are two dimensions of reliability – stability and equivalence or nonvariability. Reliability and validity are closely interlinked. 2. due to factors such as poor memory or recall of respondents. Stability refers to consistency of results with repeated measurements of the same object. an instrument that is not valid may or may not be reliable and an instrument that is not reliable is never valid. a lower level of reliability may be sufficient. through an analysis of the different items 3) By adding more number of items to the measuring instrument. Non variability refers to consistency at a given point of time among different investigators and samples of items. A person’s emotions may be directly observed. an instrument that is reliable is not always valid. the higher will be the desired level of accuracy. 3. as well as the homogeneity of the population under study. by employing trained investigators and by providing standard instructions. The most powerful level of measurement is ratio measurement. The desired level of reliability depends on the research objectives. Reliability can be improved in three ways – 1) By reducing the external sources of variation. Self Assessment Questions Are the following statements true or false? 1. lack of clear instructions given to respondents and irrelevant contents of the measuring instrument. Sikkim Manipal University Page No.

Different research situations require different levels of reliability. The next level is ordinal measurement in which objects are rank ordered with respect to a specific characteristic. linearity. Sampling validity refers to the extent to which the measuring instrument’s content is representative of the content universe of the characteristic being Sikkim Manipal University Page No. distance and origin. 7. The highest level of measurement is ratio measurement which is suitable for measuring properties which have an absolute zero point. It permits the use of advanced statistical techniques to analyze the data.Research Methodology Unit 2 4. based on three characteristics – order. distance and equality of interval but no origin. reliability. 2. The lowest level of measurement is nominal measurement and involves assigning numerals or labels to different categories of a variable. Validity refers to how effective an instrument is in measuring a property which it intends to measure. Measurement facilitates the verification of hypotheses. accuracy. helps to quantify variables. Face validity is determined by a subjective evaluation of a measuring scale. predictive validity and construct validity. precision. Content validity may be of two types – face validity and sampling validity. It refers to the assignment of numerals to objects in order to measure the characteristics or properties of objects.4 Summary Measurement is an important concept in research and is a difficult task. Validity is determined mainly by predictive validity. makes data suitable for statistical analysis and enables comparison between objects in terms of specific characteristics. Measurement may be classified into four different levels. Linearity means that the measuring scale should not measure more than one characteristic at a time. The interval level of measurement has the characteristics of order. Validity and reliability do not always go together. 21 . 8. The problem of extraneous variables arises in the case of construct validity. The characteristics of good measurement are uni-dimensionality. validity. simplicity and practicability. 5. 6. There are three types of validity – content validity.

2. but not vice versa. 6.Research Methodology Unit 2 measured. based on another behavior. Construct validity of a measuring instrument is determined by testing the relationships between the variables in the study and other variables. Differentiate between nominal. Reliability and validity are closely associated. Refer 2. 3. 2.7 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs 1. rather than through a statistical method. What is meant by validity? How does it differ from reliability and what are its types? 3. Refer 2. 4. 8. The main limitation of content validity is that it is determined in a subjective manner. 2.2 Sikkim Manipal University Page No. 5. 2. ordinal. Reliability of a measuring instrument refers to its ability to provide consistent and accurate results with repeated measurements. F F T F F F T T TQs 1. Predictive validity of a measuring instrument refers to the extent to which it may be used to predict a particular behavior.6 Terminal Questions 1. interval and ratio scales. Refer 2. with an example of each.3 2. An instrument that is valid is also reliable. What are the purposes of measurement in social science research? 2.4.4.2 3. 22 .1. 7.

This general area of interest. A problem in simple words is some difficulty experienced by the researcher in a theoretical or practical situation.2 External Criteria 3. defines only the range of subjectmatter within which the researcher would see and pose a specific problem for research. Ackoffs analysis affords considerable guidance in identifying problem for research.1 Internal Criteria 3. R. 1) Research-consumer: There must be an individual or a group which experiences some difficulty.4.10 Answers to SAQs and TQs 3.5 Objective of Formulating the Problem 3. 23 .1 Meaning of Research Problem Objectives 3.8 Summary 3. Solving this difficulty is the task of research. Social conditions do often shape the preference of investigators in a subtle and imperceptible way.4 Formulating the Problem 3. L.6 Techniques involved in Formulating the Problem 3.2 Choosing the Problem 3. He visualizes five components of a problem.Research Methodology Unit 3 Unit 3 Selection and Formulation of a Research Problem Structure: 3.7 Criteria of Good Research Problem Self Assessment Questions I 3.1 Meaning of Research Problem Research really begins when the researcher experiences some difficulty. Personal values play an important role in the selection of a topic for research. really speaking the first step in a scientific enquiry. i. a problem demanding a solution within the subject-are of his discipline..3 Review of Literature 3.4. Sikkim Manipal University Page No.e.9 Terminal Questions 3. The formulation of the topic into a research problem is. however.

Objectives: After studying this unit you should be able to understand:  The meaning of Research Problem  Choosing the problem  Review of Literature  Criteria for formulating the problem  Objective of Formulating the Problem  Techniques involved in Formulating the Problem  Criteria of Good Research Problem 3.2 Choosing the Problem The selection of a problem is the first step in research. curious and imaginative mind and is sensitive to practical problems could easily identify problems for study. It is least amenable to formal methodological treatment. 5) There must be One or More Environments to which the Difficulty or Problem Pertains: A change in environment may produce or remove a problem. alternative means for achieving the objectives he desires. it self is a problem. One with a critical. 4) Doubt in Regard to Selection of Alternatives: The existence of alternative courses of action in not enough. Vision. 24 .Research Methodology Unit 3 2) Research-consumer’s Objectives: The research-consumer must have available. The sources from which one may be able to identify research problems or develop problems awareness are:  Review of literature Sikkim Manipal University Page No. an imaginative insight. The selection of a problem for research is not an easy task. the research consumer must have some doubt as to which alternative to select. 3) Alternative Means to Meet the Objectives: The research-consumer must have available. A research-consumer may have doubts as to which will be the most efficient means in one environment but would have no such doubt in another. alternative means for achieving the objectives he desires. plays an important role in this process. in order to experience a problem. The term problem means a question or issue to be examined.

research groups and voluntary organizations are a constant source of information about unpublished works in their special fields.4. Professional organizations. 3. which may be grouped into: 3. The researcher’s task then is to review the available material with an eye on the possibilities of developing hypothesis from it. he may not develop sustained perseverance. Sociological journals. some governmental agencies and voluntary organizations publish listings of summaries of research in their special fields of service.Research Methodology Unit 3        Academic experience Daily experience Exposure to field situations Consultations Brain storming Research Intuition 3. The researcher has to take stock of these various hypotheses with a view to evaluating their usefulness for further research and to consider whether they suggest any new hypothesis. 25 . hypothesis may have been stated by previous research workers.4 Formulating the Problem The selection of one appropriate researchable problem out of the identified problems requires evaluation of those alternatives against certain criteria. the bulletin of abstracts of current social sciences research. directory of doctoral dissertation accepted by universities etc afford a rich store of valuable clues. Interest in a problem depends upon Sikkim Manipal University Page No.3 Review of Literature Frequently.1 Internal Criteria Internal Criteria consists of: 1) Researcher’s interest: The problem should interest the researcher and be a challenge to him. Without interest and curiosity. In addition to these general sources. Even a small difficulty may become an excuse for discontinuing the study. In some areas of the subject matter. economic reviews. an exploratory study is concerned with an area of subject matter in which explicit hypothesis have not yet been formulated.

4) Feasibility: A problem may be a new one and also important. in selecting problems for research. Time resource is more important than finance. Hence feasibility is a very important consideration. 3. but available research efforts are very much limited.e. An important and urgent problem should be given priority over an unimportant one. outlook and sensitivity. it cannot be selected. To be researchable a question must be one for which observation or other data collection in the real world can provide the answer. i. Therefore. There is no use of wasting one’s time and energy on a problem already studied thoroughly by others. In social sciences in some cases. 3) Novelty of the problem: The problem must have novelty. 2) Researcher’s competence: A mere interest in a problem will not do. This does not mean that replication is always needless. 26 . 3) Researcher’s own resource: In the case of a research to be done by a researcher on his won. their relative importance and significance should be considered. but if research on it is not feasible. He must have the ability to grasp and deal with int. experience. unless he gets some external financial support. Sikkim Manipal University Page No.. If it is beyond his means. The researcher must be competent to plan and carry out a study of the problem. hence it should be properly utilized.4. amendable for finding answers to the questions involved in it through scientific method. Research is a time-consuming process. he must possess adequate knowledge of the subject-matter. he will not be able to complete the work.2 External Criteria 1) Research-ability of the problem: The problem should be researchable. it is appropriate to replicate (repeat) a study in order to verify the validity of its findings to a different situation. consideration of his own financial resource is pertinent. relevant methodology and statistical procedures. 2) Importance and urgency: Problems requiring investigation are unlimited.Research Methodology Unit 3 the researcher’s educational background.

data analysis facility. But in India and other developing countries.Research Methodology Unit 3 5) Facilities: Research requires certain facilities such as well-equipped library facility. Thus formulation gives a direction and a specific focus to the research effort. the setting of investigative questions. Hence the availability of the facilities relevant to the problem must be considered. Once the exact data requirement is known. It should be socially relevant. 27 . This consideration is particularly important in the case of higher level academic research and sponsored research. 3. The proper performance of this task depends upon the identification of exact data and information required for the study. the researcher can plan and execute the other steps without any waste of time and energy. the definition of the objectives of the study. the study of the problem should make significant contribution to the concerned body of knowledge or to the solution of some significant practical problem. the formulation of hypothesis to be tested and the operational definition of concepts and the delimitation of the study determine the exact data needs of the study. It helps in determining the methods to be adopted for sampling and collection of data. research has not yet become a prospective profession. It helps to delimit the field of enquiry by singling out the pertinent facts from a vast ocean of facts and thus saves the researcher from becoming lost in a welter of irrelevancies.5 Objective of Formulating the Problem A problem well put is half-solved. The formulation serves this purpose. Each identified problem must be evaluated in terms of the above internal and external criteria and the most appropriate one may be selected by a research scholar. Hence talent persons are not attracted to research projects. Sikkim Manipal University Page No. The primary task of research is collection of relevant data and the analysis of data for finding answers to the research questions. suitable and competent guidance. It prevents a blind search and indiscriminate gathering of data which may later prove irrelevant to the problem under study. etc. 6) Usefulness and social relevance: Above all. the development of the conceptual model. The clear and accurate statement of the problem. 7) Research personnel: Research undertaken by professors and by research organizations require the services of investigators and research officers.

its properties / elements and their inter-relations should be identified and structured into a framework. Building a conceptual model: On the basis of our theoretical knowledge of the phenomenon under study. reflect the real intention of the researcher. on the hypothesis to be tested. 28 . 3. but it is the conceptual model that defines.. 2. The question to be studied or the problem to be solved may not be known. Without adequate background knowledge. “Financing small-scale industries by commercial banks. It should indicate the core of the study. describes. a researcher cannot grasp and comprehend the nature of the research problem. They indicate what we are trying to get through the study.” This shows that the focus is on commercial banks and not on small-scale industries. and show on what is the focus e. It serves as a basis for the formulation of the objectives of the study.Research Methodology Unit 3 3. It is for this reason. which kinds of cases. if the title is “The Financial Problem of Small-scale industries”. and states the assumptions underlying these elements. the nature of the phenomenon. This conceptual model gives an exact idea of the research problem and shows its various properties and variables to be studied. On the other hand.6 Techniques involved in Formulating Problem The problem selected for research may initially be a vague topic. In order to workout a conceptual model we must make a careful and critical study of the available literature on the subject-matter of the selected research problem. Developing title: The title should be carefully worded. This is a difficult process. They state which elements in the conceptual modelwhich levels of. The objectives may aim at description or Sikkim Manipal University Page No. the focus is on small-scale industries. and which connections among properties – are to be investigated. which properties. Define the Objective of the Study: The objectives refer to the questions to be answered through the study.g. a researcher is expected to select a problem for research in his field of specialization. The objectives are derived from the conceptual model. Hence the selected problem should be defined and formulated. It requires intensive reading of a few selected articles or chapters in books in order to understand the nature of the problem selected. The process of defining a problem includes: 1.

3. 2. or collecting data in a systematic and organized way so that the conclusions drawn are reliable. Controlling conditions: That is controlling all variables except one and then attempting to examine what happens when that variable is varied. Data based on casual recollections are generally incomplete and give unreliable judgments and conclusions. Since human memory is fallible. 7.Research Methodology Unit 3 explanation or analysis of causal relationship between variables. or giving exact number or measurement. how to interpret in and avoid inaccurate data collection. Training investigators: That is imparting necessary knowledge to investigators to make them understand what to look for. and indicate the expected results or outcome of the study. Recording: That is jotting down complete details as quickly as possible. 8. all data collected are recorded. 4. Systematization: That is attempting to find all the relevant data. Sikkim Manipal University Page No. Objectivity: That is free being from all biases and vested interests. 6. This avoids colourful literature and vague meanings. This is the basic technique in all scientific experimentation – allowing one variable to vary while holding all other variables constant. 5. Accuracy: That is describing what really exists. Precision: That is making it as exact as necessary. beliefs and preferences to the extent possible and he is able to see and accept facts as they are. Verifiable evidence: That is factual observations which other observers can see and check. 29 . not as he might wish them to be. It means observation is unaffected by the observer’s values. The objectives may be specified in the form of either the statements or the questions. 3.7 Criteria of Good Research Problem Horton and Hunt have given following characteristics of scientific research: 1. It means truth or correctness of a statement or describing things exactly as they are and avoiding jumping to unwarranted conclusions either by exaggeration or fantasizing.

How is a research problem formulated? 2. really speaking the first step in a scientific enquiry.Research Methodology Unit 3 Self Assessment Question I 1. Internal criteria of research problem consist of –––––– and –––––– . 3. The process of defining a problem includes:           Developing title Building a conceptual model Define the Objective of the Study Horton and Hunt have given following characteristics of scientific research: Verifiable evidence Accuracy Precision Systematization Objectivity Recording Controlling conditions 3. 30 . The selection of one appropriate researchable problem out of the identified problems requires evaluation of those alternatives against certain criteria. Journals are ––––––––––––– of research problems. Why literature survey is important in research? Sikkim Manipal University Page No. The primary task of research is collection of relevant data and the analysis of data for finding answers to the research questions. ––––––––––––––––– is the first step in research.9 Terminal Questions 1. 3.. The formulation of the topic into a research problem is.8 Summary Research really begins when the researcher experiences some difficulty.e. a problem demanding a solution within the subject-are of his discipline. A problem well put is half-solved. which may be grouped into internal criteria and external criteria. i. 2. The problem selected for research may initially be a vague topic. What are the sources from which one may be able to identify research problems? 3.

Sources of problem 3. 2. Section 4 Section 3. 4.Research Methodology Unit 3 4. Researcher’s interest and competence TQs 1. 31 . 5. What are the criteria of good research problem? 3. What is the classification of research problems? 5.7 Sikkim Manipal University Page No.3 Section 3.6 Section 3.10 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs 1. 3.3 Section 3. Selection of a problem 2.

5.1 Introduction A hypothesis is an assumption about relations between variables.7 Summary 4.4 Characteristics of good hypothesis 4.4 Selecting a Random Sample and computing am approximate value 4.3 Types of hypothesis 4.3 The need for having Hypothesis 4.5.2.1 Important Parametric Tests Self Assessment Questions 4.9 Answers to SAQs and TQs 4.2.6 Testing of Hypothesis 4.8 Terminal Questions 4.2 Nature of Hypothesis 4.1 Null Hypothesis and alternative hypothesis 4.1 Making formal statement 4.2 Decision rule of testing hypothesis 4.6.2 Selecting a significant level 4.2.5.1 Introduction Objectives 4.4.5.2 Meaning and Examples of Hypothesis 4.1 Criteria for constructing of hypothesis 4.1 The level of Significance 4.3. Sikkim Manipal University Page No.2.4. It is a tentative explanation of the research problem or a guess about the research outcome.3 Deciding the distribution to use 4.4.4 Concepts of Hypothesis 4.5 Calculation of Probability 4. 32 .4.5.Research Methodology Unit 4 Unit 4 Hypothesis Structure: 4.6 Comparing the Probability 4.5 Procedures for testing hypothesis 4.4 Two Tailed and One Tailed Test 4. Before starting the research.3 Type I and Type II Errors 4.5. the researcher has a rather general.

the validity of which is usually unknown”. i. it contains variables that are measurable and specifying Sikkim Manipal University Page No. Hence.. This statement is intended to be tested empirically and is either verified or rejected. Kerlinger describes it as “a conjectural statement of the relationship between two or more variables”. it is not considered a scientific law.2 Meaning and Examples of Hypothesis According to Theodorson and Theodorson. 33 . Objectives: After studying this lesson you should be able to understand:  Meaning and Examples of Hypothesis  Criteria for constructing of hypothesis  Nature of Hypothesis  the need for having Hypothesis  Characteristics of good hypothesis  Types of hypothesis  Null Hypothesis and alternative hypothesis  Concepts of Hypothesis  The level of Significance  Decision rule of testing hypothesis  Type I and Type II Errors  Two Tailed and One Tailed Test  Procedures for Testing hypothesis  Testing of Hypothesis 4. even confused notion of the problem. Black and Champion have described it as “a tentative statement about something.Research Methodology Unit 4 diffused.e. a hypothesis carries clear implications for testing the stated relationship. It the statement is not sufficiently established. It may take long time for the researcher to say what questions he had been seeking answers to. In other words. What is a good problem statement? It is an interrogative statement that asks: what relationship exists between two or more variables? It then further asks questions like: Is A related to B or not? How are A and B related to C? Is A related to B under conditions X and Y? Proposing a statement pertaining to relationship between A and B is called a hypothesis. an adequate statement about the research problem is very important. “a hypothesis is a tentative statement asserting a relationship between certain facts.

Conceptual Clarity 2.  It should specify variables between which the relationship is to be established.  It determines the most appropriate technique of analysis.  It should describe one issue only. A statement that lacks variables or that does not explain how the variables are related to each other is no hypothesis in scientific sense. Specificity 3.2.  It should be specific and precise.1 Criteria for Hypothesis Construction Hypothesis is never formulated in the form of a question.  A hypothesis specifies the sources of data.4 Characteristics of Good Hypothesis 1. and in what context they shall be studied. whether it is right or wrong. The standards to be met in formulating a hypothesis:  It should be empirically testable.  The statements in the hypothesis should not be contradictory.  A hypothesis suggests which type of research is likely to be most appropriate. and it guides the direction on the study.2 Nature of Hypothesis A scientifically justified hypothesis must meet the following criteria:  It must accurately reflect the relevant sociological fact.  It must not be in contradiction with approved relevant statements of other scientific disciplines. Testability 4. which shall be studied.3 The Need for having Working Hypothesis  A hypothesis gives a definite point to the investigation. Theoretical relevance Sikkim Manipal University Page No.Research Methodology Unit 4 how they are related.2.2.2. 4. 4.  A hypothesis contributes to the development of theory 4.  It determines the data needs. 34 . Availability of Techniques 5. 4.  It must consider the experience of other researchers.

For H0: µ= µ H0=100. hypothesis of this type are called causal hypothesis. If we are to compare method A with method B about its superiority and if we proceed on the assumption that both methods are equally good. we should conclude that something else is true. One type of hypothesis asserts that something is the case in a given instance. we may think that the method A is superior. X is the producer of Y. What we conclude rejecting the null hypothesis is known as alternative hypothesis. 35 . this type of hypothesis may state that X is associated with Y. If we accept H0. Yet another type of hypothesis asserts that a particular characteristics is one of the factors which determine another characteristic.1 Null Hypothesis and Alternative Hypothesis In the context of statistical analysis. Symbolically presented as: Null hypothesis = H0 and Alternative hypothesis = Ha Suppose we want to test the hypothesis that the population mean is equal to the hypothesis mean (µ H0) = 100. then we are rejecting Ha and if we reject H0. person or situation has particular characteristics. As against this.g.3 Types of Hypothesis There are many kinds of hypothesis the researcher has to be working with. Objectivity 8.e. then this assumption is termed as null hypothesis. then we are accepting Ha. Another type of hypothesis deals with the frequency of occurrence or of association among variables. Simplicity 4.Research Methodology Unit 4 6. Consistency 7. we may consider three possible alternative hypotheses as follows: Sikkim Manipal University Page No. A certain Y proportion of items e. Then we would say that the null hypotheses are that the population mean is equal to the hypothesized mean 100 and symbolical we can express as: H0: µ= µ H0=100 If our sample results do not support these null hypotheses. we often talk null and alternative hypothesis. 4. urbanism tends to be accompanied by mental disease or than something are greater or lesser than some other thing in specific settings.3. it is alternative hypothesis. that a particular object. i.

Why so? The answer is that on assumption that null hypothesis is true.. in hypothesis testing we proceed on the basis of null hypothesis.  Null hypothesis should always be specific hypothesis i. but this cannot be done if we proceed with alternative hypothesis. it should not state about or approximately a certain value.e. 4.Research Methodology Unit 4 Alternative Hypothesis Ha: µ≠µ H0 To be read as follows (The alternative hypothesis is that the population mean is not equal to 100 i. it may be more or less 100) (The alternative hypothesis is that population mean is greater than 100) (The alternative hypothesis is population mean is less than 100) that the the Ha: µ>µ H0 Ha: µ< µ H0 The null hypothesis and the alternative hypothesis are chosen before the sample is drawn (the researcher must avoid the error of deriving hypothesis from the data he collects and testing the hypothesis from the same data).. Sikkim Manipal University Page No.  Generally.4 Concepts of Hypothesis Testing Basic concepts in the context of testing of hypothesis need to be explained. Hence the use of null hypothesis (at times also known as statistical hypothesis) is quite frequent. keeping the alternative hypothesis in view. In the choice of null hypothesis.e. the following considerations are usually kept in view:  Alternative hypothesis is usually the one which wishes to prove and the null hypothesis are ones that wish to disprove. the alternative hypothesis represents all other possibilities. it is taken as null hypothesis because then the probability of rejecting it when it is true is α (the level of significance) which is chosen very small. Thus a null hypothesis represents the hypothesis we are trying to reject. one can assign the probabilities to different possible sample results. 36 .  If the rejection of a certain hypothesis when it is actually true involves great risk.

e. observed evidence) has a less than 0. accept a).e. It is always some percentage (usually 5%) which should be chosen with great care.. also called as level of significance of test. For instance. we will accept H0 otherwise we will reject H0 (or accept Ha). the 5% level of significance means that researcher is willing to take as much as 5% risk rejecting the null hypothesis when it (H0) happens to be true. Decision Accept H0 H0 (true) Ho (false) Correct decision Type II error (β error) Reject H0 Type I error (α error) Correct decision Sikkim Manipal University Page No.4. thought and reason. Type I & Type II Errors In the context of testing of hypothesis there are basically two types of errors that researchers make. then this implies that H0 will be rejected when the sampling result (i. In case we take the significance level at 5%. and Type II error is donated by β(beta).1 The Level of Significance This is a very important concept in the context of hypothesis testing. We may reject H0 when H0 is true & we may accept H0 when it is not true.Research Methodology Unit 4 4... We might test 10 items in the lot and plan our decision saying that if there are none or only 1 defective item among the 10. This sort of basis is known as decision rule.e. that we must decide the number of items to be tested and the criterion for accepting or rejecting the hypothesis. 37 . In other words.05 probability of occurring if H0 is true. Thus the significance level is the maximum value of the probability of rejecting H0 when it is true and is usually determined in advance before testing the Decision Rule of Test of Hypothesis: Given a hypothesis H0 and an alternative hypothesis H0 we make rule which is known as decision rule according to which we accept H0 (i. The former is known as Type I & the later is known as Type II. Type I error is donated by α (alpha). reject Ha) or reject H0 (i. In other words. Type I error mean rejection of hypothesis which should have been accepted & Type II error means accepting of hypothesis which should have been rejected. if (H0 is that a certain lot is good (there are very few defective items in it) against Ha that the lot is not good (there are many defective items in it).

whether the population mean in either lower than or higher than some hypothesized value. one must make all possible effort to strike an adequate balance between Type I & Type II error. As a result one must set very high level for type I error in one‟s testing techniques of a given hypothesis. say.Research Methodology Unit 4 The probability of Type I error is usually determined in advance and is understood as the level of significance of testing the hypothesis. We can control type I error just by fixing it at a lower level. in that case we shall accept the null hypothesis. Both types of errors can not be reduced simultaneously. Such a test inappropriate when we haveH0: µ= µ H0 and Ha: µ≠µ H0 which may µ>µ H0 or µ<µ H0. 38 . But with a fixed sample size. 4. If we take µ = 100 and if our sample mean deviates significantly from µ. the sample mean is significantly higher or lower than the hypnotized value of the mean of the population.95. If significance level is % and the two-tailed test to be applied.2 Two Tailed Test & One Tailed Test In the context of hypothesis testing these two terms are quite important and must be clearly understood. then in such a situation one should prefer a type I error to a type II error means taking a chance that an entire group of users of this chemicals compound will be poisoned. A two-tailed test rejects the null hypothesis if.01. in testing of hypothesis.05 (equally split on both tails of curve as 0. Hence. say.025) and that of the acceptance region will be 0. the probability of the rejection area will be 0. then in such a situation one should prefer a type II error. Sikkim Manipal University Page No. For instance. There is a trade-off in business situations. if we fix it at 1%. A one-tailed test would be used when we are to test. But there are situations when only one-tailed test is considered appropriate. where as type II error means taking a chance that an entire group of users of this chemicals compound will be poisoned. the probability of committing type II error increases. n when we try to reduce type I error. If type I error is fixed at 5%. decision-makers decide the appropriate level of type I error by examining the costs of penalties attached to both types of errors. we will say that the maximum probability of committing type I error would only be 0. it means there are about chances in 100 that we will reject H0 when H0 is true.4. If type I error involves time & trouble of reworking a batch of chemicals that should have been accepted.

1 Making a Formal Statement The step consists in making a formal statement of the null hypothesis (Ho) and also of the alternative hypothesis (Ha). In hypothesis testing the main question is: whether the null hypothesis or not to accept the null hypothesis? Procedure for hypothesis testing refers to all those steps that we undertake for making a choice between the two actions i. The state wants to know if there is a significance difference between the local scores and the national scores. Mohan of the Civil Engineering Department wants to test the load bearing capacity of an old bridge which must be more than 10 tons. but when Ha is of the type “whether greater or smaller” then we use a two-tailed test. rejection and acceptance of a null hypothesis. If Ha is of the type greater than. 4.e. For instance.5. The average score in an aptitude test administered at the national level is 80. This means that hypothesis should clearly state.2 Selecting a Significant Level The hypothesis is tested on a pre-determined level of significance and such the same should have specified. 39 . in practice.5. In such a situation the hypothesis may be state as under: Null hypothesis HO: µ =80 Alternative hypothesis Ha: µ ≠ 80 The formulation of hypothesis is an important step which must be accomplished with due care in accordance with the object and nature of the problem under consideration. To evaluate a state‟s education system. It also indicates whether we should use a tailed test or a two tailed test. either 5% level or Sikkim Manipal University Page No. considering the nature of the research problem. The various steps involved in hypothesis testing are stated below: 4.Research Methodology Unit 4 4.5 Procedure for Testing Hypothesis To test a hypothesis means to tell (on the basis of the data researcher has collected) whether or not the hypothesis seems to be valid. Mr. we use alone tailed test. the average score of 100 of the state‟s students selected on the random basis was 75. in that case he can state his hypothesis as under: Null hypothesis HO: µ =10 tons Alternative hypothesis Ha: µ >10 tons Take another example. Generally..

if the null hypothesis were in fact true. The rules for selecting the correct distribution are similar to those which we have stated earlier in the context of estimation. but if the probability is greater then accept the null hypothesis.3 Deciding the Distribution to Use After deciding the level of significance.  The size of the sample.  The variability of measurements within samples. If the calculated probability is equal to smaller than α value in case of one tailed test (and α/2 in case of two-tailed test). 4.5. In brief. means). In case we reject H0 we run a risk of (at most level of significance) committing an error of type I. The factors that affect the level of significance are:  The magnitude of the difference between sample .6 Comparing the Probability Yet another step consists in comparing the probability thus calculated with the specified value for α.5. The choice generally remains between distribution and the t distribution. say. 4.4 Selecting A Random Sample & Computing An Appropriate Value Another step is to select a random sample(S) and compute an appropriate value from the sample data concerning the test statistic utilizing the relevant distribution. the next step in hypothesis testing is to determine the appropriate sampling distribution. but if we accept H0. draw a sample to furnish empirical data. accept the alternative hypothesis). 4. In other words.5.5 Calculation of the Probability One has then to calculate the probability that the sample result would diverge as widely as it has from expectations.5. then reject the null hypothesis (i. 40 .Research Methodology Unit 4 1% level is adopted for the purpose. the significance level.  Whether the hypothesis is directional or non – directional (A directional hypothesis is one which predicts the direction of the difference between. Sikkim Manipal University Page No. the level of significance must be adequate in the context of the purpose and nature of enquiry.e. then we run some risk of committing error type II. 4.

whether a hypothesis about the population is likely to be true or false. Statisticians have developed several Sikkim Manipal University Page No. 41 .Research Methodology Unit 4 Flow Diagram for Testing Hypothesis State H0 as well as Ha Specify the level of significance Decide the correct sampling distribution Sample a random sample and workout an appropriate value Calculate the probability that sample result would diverge as widely as it has form expectations.6 Testing of Hypothesis The hypothesis testing determines the validity of the assumption (technically described as null hypothesis) with a view to choose between the conflicting hypotheses about the value of the population hypothesis about the value of the population of a population parameter. if H0 were true Is this probability equal to or smaller than α value in case of one-tailed test and α/2 in case of two-tailed test Run the risk of some risk of committing type II error Reject H0 Accept H0 Run 4. Hypothesis testing helps to secede on the basis of a sample data.

The relevant test statistic is worked out and compared with its probable value (to be read from the table showing area under normal curve) at a specified level of significance for judging the significance of the measure concerned.. yet the test will be applicable on account of the fact that we mostly deal with samples and the sampling distributions closely approach normal distributions. Z-test is based on the normal probability distribution and is used for judging the significance of several statistical measures. most non-parametric test assumes only nominal or original data. variants etc must hold good before parametric test can be used. This is a most frequently used test in research studies.e. Assumption like observations come from a normal population. This test is used even when binomial distribution or t-distribution is applicable on the presumption that Sikkim Manipal University Page No.6. particularly the mean. Besides. As a result non-parametric test needs more observation than a parametric test to achieve the same size of Type I & Type II error. assumptions about the population parameters like mean.Research Methodology Unit 4 tests of hypothesis (also known as tests of significance) for the purpose of testing of hypothesis which can be classified as:  Parametric tests or standard tests of hypothesis .1 Important Parametric Tests The important parametric tests are:  z-test  t-test  x2-test  f-test All these tests are based on the assumption of normality i. In some cases the population may not be normally distributed. sample size is large. where as parametric test require measurement equivalent to at least an interval scale. Parametric tests usually assume certain properties of the parent population from which we draw samples. 42 . But there are situation when the researcher cannot or does not want to make assumptions.  Non Parametric test or distribution – free test of the hypothesis. the source of data is considered to be normally distributed. 4. In such situations we use statistical methods for testing hypothesis which are called non parametric tests because such tests do not depend on any assumption about the parameters of parent population.

Z-test is generally used for comparing the mean of a sample to some hypothesis mean for the population in case of large sample. 43 .Research Methodology Unit 4 such a distribution tends to approximate normal distribution as „n‟ becomes larger. F-test is based on f-distribution and is used to compare the variance of the two-independent samples. In case two samples are related. Test statistic. Sikkim Manipal University Page No. this test may be used for judging the significance of median. is calculated from the sample data and then compared with its probable value based on t-distribution at a specified level of significance for concerning degrees of freedom for accepting or rejecting the null hypothesis it may be noted that t-test applies only in case of small sample when population variance is unknown. The relevant test statistic. It can also be used for judging the significance of co-efficient of simple and partial correlations. f. X2-test is based on chi-square distribution and as a parametric test is used for comparing a sample variance to a theoretical population variance is unknown. It is also used for judging the significance of multiple correlation coefficients. we use paired t-test (difference test) for judging the significance of their mean of difference between the two related samples. is calculated and compared with its probable value for accepting or rejecting the H0. t. co-efficient of correlation and several other measures T-test is based on t-distribution and is considered an appropriate test for judging the significance of sample mean or for judging significance of difference between the two means of the two samples in case of samples when population variance is not known (in which case we use variance of the sample as an estimate the population variance). mode. Besides. or when population variance is known as z-test is also used for judging the significance of difference between means to of two independent samples in case of large samples or when population variance is known z-test is generally used for comparing the sample proportion to a theoretical value of population proportion or for judging the difference in proportions of two independent samples when happens to be large. This test is also used in the context of variance (ANOVA) for judging the significance of more than two sample means at one and the same time.

The hypothesis is tested on a pre-determined level of significance and such the same should have specified. 3.Research Methodology Unit 4 Self Assessment Questions Fill in the Blanks 1.is a negative statement. and in what context they shall be studied.7 Summary A hypothesis is an assumption about relations between variables. –––––––––. which shall be studied. the next step in hypothesis testing is to determine the appropriate sampling distribution. –––––––––– is tentative statement. This is a most frequently used test in research studies. diffused. even confused notion of the problem. in practice. 2. and it guides the direction on the study. say. 4. Z-test is based on the normal probability distribution and is used for judging the significance of several statistical measures. The hypothesis testing determines the validity of the assumption (technically described as null hypothesis) with a view to choose between the conflicting hypotheses about the value of the population of a population parameter. 44 . It is a tentative explanation of the research problem or a guess about the research outcome. T-test is based on t-distribution and is considered an appropriate test for judging the significance of sample mean or for judging significance of difference between the two means of the two samples in case of samples when population variance is not known (in which case we use variance of the sample as an estimate of the population variance). Before starting the research. either 5% level or 1% level is adopted for the purpose. Generally. the researcher has a rather general. particularly the mean. X2-test is based on Sikkim Manipal University Page No. A two-tailed test rejects the null hypothesis if. A hypothesis specifies the sources of data. In the context of hypothesis testing these two terms are quite important and must be clearly understood. The relevant test statistic is worked out and compared with its probable value (to be read from the table showing area under normal curve) at a specified level of significance for judging the significance of the measure concerned. A hypothesis gives a definite point to the investigation. Type II error is –––––––––––. the sample mean is significantly higher or lower than the hypnotized value of the mean of the population. After deciding the level of significance.

6. 45 .8 Terminal Questions 1.1 Section 4.2.9 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs 1. 3.3 Section 4. 5.4 Section 4.4 Section 4. 7.3 Section 4.2.Research Methodology Unit 4 chi-square distribution and as a parametric test is used for comparing a sample variance to a theoretical population variance is unknown. 7. 9.6 Sikkim Manipal University Page No. 4.5 Section 4. 8. 8. 4. 4. What is the meaning of Hypothesis? What are the criteria for Hypothesis Construction? What is the need for having Working Hypothesis? What are the characteristics of Good Hypothesis? What are the types of Hypothesis? What is Type I & Type II Errors? What are Two Tailed Test & One Tailed Test? What are the procedure and Flow Diagram for Testing Hypothesis? Which are the important Parametric Tests? 4. F-test is based on f-distribution and is used to compare the variance of the twoindependent samples. Accepting a statement that is false 3. 3.2.4.4.1 Section 4. Null hypothesis 2. Hypothesis TQs 1. Section 4. 6. 2 3.3 Section 4. 5. 2.

1 Meaning Objectives 5.5 Important Experimental Designs 5.3 Research Design in case of Hypothesis testing Research Studies 5.5.4 Different Research Designs 5. A research design is a logical and systematic plan prepared for directing a research study.3. Such a symbolic construction may be called the research design or model.1 Characteristics of a Good Research Design 5.1 Meaning of Research Design The research designer understandably cannot hold all his decisions in his head.1 Research Design in Case of Exploratory Research Studies 5. Therefore. The Sikkim Manipal University Page No.3 Components of Research Design 5.5.4 Principles of Experimental Designs 5. measurement and analysis of data.2 Needs of Research Design 5.Research Methodology Unit 5 Unit 5 Research Design Structure: 5. 46 . he would have difficulty in understanding how these are inter-related.2 Research Design in case of Descriptive and Diagnostic Research Studies 5. the methodology and techniques to be adopted for achieving the objectives.6 Summary 5. It specifies the objectives of the study.6 Formal Experimental Designs Self Assessment Questions 5. he records his decisions on paper or record disc by using relevant symbols or concepts. Even if he could.5 Research Design for Studies in Commerce and Management 5.5.5. It constitutes the blue print for the collection.8 Answers to SAQs and TQs 5.5.7 Terminal Questions 5.1 Experimental and Non-experimental Hypothesis Testing Research 5.5. It is the plan.2. structure and strategy of investigation conceived so as to obtain answers to research questions.

A research design is the program that guides the investigator in the process of collecting. Jahoda and Destsch and Cook describe. “A research design is the arrangement of conditions for collection and analysis of data in a manner that aims to combine relevance to the research purpose with economy in procedure. the researcher has no idea as to how accurate the results of his study ought to be in order to be useful. b. the time consumed in trying to ascertain what the data mean after they have been collected is much greater than the Sikkim Manipal University Page No. Where such is the case.2 Needs of Research Design The need for the methodologically designed research: a. 47 . In many research projects.” Objectives: After studying this lesson you should be able to understand:  Needs of Research Design  Characteristics of a Good Research Design  Components of Research Design  Experimental and Non-experimental Hypothesis Testing Research  Different Research Designs  Research Design for Studies in Commerce and Management  Research Design in Case of Exploratory Research Studies  Research Design in case of Descriptive and Diagnostic Research Studies  Research Design in case of Hypothesis testing Research Studies  Principles of Experimental Designs  Important Experimental Designs  Formal Experimental Designs 5. analyzing and interpreting observations.Research Methodology Unit 5 plan is the overall scheme or program of research. the researcher has to determine how much inaccuracy may be tolerated. In a quite few cases he may be in a position to know how much inaccuracy his method of research will produce. It provides a systematic plan of procedure for the researcher to follow elltiz. In either case he should design his research if he wants to assure himself of useful results. In many a research inquiry.

then demand is a dependent variable. age is a continuous variable. weight. But. It is a series of guide posts to keep one going in the right direction. Qualitative variables are not quantifiable in the strictest sense of objectivity. when the study progresses. 5.Research Methodology Unit 5 time taken to design a research which yields data whose meaning is known as they are collected. all variables need not be continuous. It encourages co-ordination and effective organization. like height. For example. The concept may assume different quantitative values.1 Characteristics of a Good Research Design 1. etc. It has to be geared to the availability of data and the cooperation of the informants. They are: 1. new conditions and new relationships come to light and insight into the study deepens. it is known as a dependent or endogenous variable. Values that can be expressed only in integer values are called „non-continuous variables‟. where as the number of children is a noncontinuous variable. The idealized design is concerned with specifying the optimum research procedure that could be followed were there no practical restrictions. 4.2. and the variables that cause the changes in the dependent variable are known as the independent or explanatory or exogenous variables. For example. 6. When changes in one variable depends upon the changes in one or more other variables.3 Components of Research Design It is important to be familiar with the important concepts relating to research design. 3. 5. It has also to be kept within the manageable limits 5. the qualitative phenomena may also be quantified in terms of the presence or absence of the attribute considered. as circumstances demand. It reduces wastage of time and cost. income. Sikkim Manipal University Page No. c. However. 2. 48 . while price is the independent variable. Dependent and Independent variables: A magnitude that varies is known as a variable. they are also known as „discrete variable‟. if demand depends upon price. new aspects. In statistical term. Phenomena that assume different values quantitatively even in decimal points are known as „continuous variables‟. It is a tentative plan which undergoes modifications.

The term control is used in experimental research to reflect the restrain in experimental conditions. more variables determine demand. it would be known as an extraneous variable. The research hypothesis is a predictive statement which relates a dependent variable and an independent variable. 4. in which case the latter is an independent variable and the former. a research study should always be framed in such a manner that the dependent variable completely influences the change in the independent variable and any other extraneous variable or variables. the relationships that are assumed but not be tested are predictive Page No. income and price of substitute. 49 Sikkim Manipal University . Therefore. For instance. Control: One of the most important features of a good research design is to minimize the effect of extraneous variable. However. the dependent variable. The influence caused by the extraneous variable on the dependent variable is technically called as an „experimental error‟. 3. assume that a researcher wants to test the hypothesis that there is relationship between children‟s school performance and their self-concepts. the term control is used when a researcher designs the study in such a manner that it minimizes the effects of extraneous independent variables. it is known as research hypothesis. demand is a dependent variable which is determined by the independent variables like own price. In this context. Whereas. Generally. 2. Technically. intelligence may also influence the school performance. since it is not directly related to the purpose of the study undertaken by the researcher. Confounded relationship: The relationship between dependent and independent variables is said to be confounded by an extraneous variable. when the dependent variable is not free from its effects. Then. a research hypothesis must consist of at least one dependent variable and one independent variable.Research Methodology Unit 5 And if. Extraneous variable: The independent variables which are not directly related to the purpose of the study but affect the dependent variable are known as extraneous variables. like income and prices of substitute commodity.  Research hypothesis: When a prediction or a hypothesized relationship is tested by adopting scientific methods. then demand also depends upon them in addition to the own price.

A research design may include only the experimental group or the both experimental and control groups together. Further. In the example considered. experiment may be conducted to examine the yield of a certain new variety of rice crop developed. Meanwhile. then it is known as absolute experiment. it is known as an „experimental group‟. the two treatments are the parents with regular earnings and those with no regular earnings. In the afore-mentioned example. then the three types of fertilizers would be treated as the three treatments. it is known as „control group‟. then both the groups may be called as „experimental groups‟.Research Methodology Unit 5 statements that are not to be objectively verified are not classified as research hypothesis.  Experimental and control groups: When a group is exposed to usual conditions in an experimental hypothesis-testing research. It is worth mentioning here that such experimental units must be selected with great caution. For instance. 50    Sikkim Manipal University . Page No. Experiments may be categorized into two types namely. if the researcher wishes to determine the impact of chemical fertilizer as compared to the impact of bio-fertilizer. absolute experiment and comparative experiment. if a research study attempts to examine through an experiment regarding the comparative impacts of three different types of fertilizers on the yield of rice crop. On the other hand. If both the groups A and B are exposed to some special feature. to which the different treatments are applied. Experiment unit: Experimental units refer to the predetermined plots. characteristics or the blocks. If a researcher wishes to determine the impact of a chemical fertilizer on the yield of a particular variety of rice crop. Treatments: Treatments are referred to the different conditions to which the experimental and control groups are subject to. Likewise. the Group A can be called a control group and the Group B an experimental one. Experiment: An experiment refers to the process of verifying the truth of a statistical hypothesis relating to a given research problem. when the group is exposed to certain new or special condition. then the experiment is known as a comparative experiment.

Research Methodology Unit 5 5. various writers advance different classification schemes. Historical method. A research in which the independent variable is manipulated is known as „experimental hypothesis-testing research‟.. because in this particular study the independent variable regular earnings of the parents have been manipulated 5.g. descriptive and causal designs (Selltiz. by calculating the coefficient of correlation between the two variables. Experimental. Such an example is known as a non-experimental hypothesis-testing research. Again assume that the researcher randomly selects 150 students from a group of students who pay their school fees regularly and them classifies them into tow sub-groups by randomly including 75 in Group A. Experimental. and laboratory experiments (Festinger and Katz) 6.1 Experimental and Non-Experimental Hypothesis Testing Research When the objective of a research is to test a research hypothesis. Sample surveys. some of which are: 1. descriptive and experimental studies (Body and Westfall) Sikkim Manipal University Page No. And that at the end of the study. Jahoda. the researcher conducts a test on each group in order to examine the effects of regular earnings of the parents on the school attendance of the student. and case and clinical studies (Goode and Scates) 5. experiments in field settings. Such research may be in the nature of experimental design or non-experimental design. whose parents have regular earning. where as a research in which the independent variable is not manipulated is termed as „non-experimental hypothesistesting research‟. 2. field studies.3.4 Different Research Designs There are a number of crucial research choices. whose parents do not have regular earning. 3. Exploratory. historical and inferential designs (American Marketing Association). Exploratory. E. and 75 in group B. assume that a researcher wants to examine whether family income influences the social attendance of a group of students. Deutsch and Cook). Such a study is an example of experimental hypothesis-testing research. because the independent variable family income is not manipulated. it is known as a hypothesis-testing research. and expost fact (Kerlinger) 4. 51 .

Experimental. Experimental. The mode of data collection (observational or survey) 6. As such the research design appropriate for such studies must be flexible enough to provide opportunity for considering different aspects of a problem under study. quasi-experimental and non-experimental designs (Smith). The time dimension(one-time or longitudinal) 5. In fact. The manipulation of the variables under study (experimental or expost facto) 7. Inbuilt flexibility in research design is needed because the research problem.5 Research Design for Studies in Commerce and Management The various research designs are: 5.5. True experimental. The nature of the relationship among variables (descriptive or causal) 5. Exploratory. quasi-experimental designs and Survey Research (Kidder and Judd). They are: 1. pre-experimental. the following three methods in the context of research design for such studies are talked about: Sikkim Manipal University Page No.Research Methodology Unit 5 7. because „research design‟ is a complex concept. descriptive and casual (Green and Tull) 8.1 Research design in case of exploratory research studies Exploratory research studies are also termed as formulative research studies. is transformed into one with more precise meaning in exploratory studies. The research environment: field setting or laboratory (survey. laboratory experiment) 4. which fact may necessitate changes in the research procedure for gathering relevant data. „quasi-experimental designs‟ (Nachmias and Nachmias) 9. broadly defined initially. The degree of formulation of the problem (the study may be exploratory or formalized) 2. Generally. 10. The major emphasis in such studies is on the discovery of ideas and insights. The main purpose of such studies is that of formulating a problem for more precise investigation or of developing the working hypothesis from an operational point of view. there are different perspectives from which any given study can be viewed. 52 . The topical scope-breadth and depth-of the study(a case or a statistical study) 3. These different categorizations exist.

already made in one‟s area of interest may as well as made by the researcher for precisely formulating the problem. they may be able to contribute effectively. Thus. people who are competent and can contribute new ideas may be carefully selected as respondents to ensure a representation of different types of experience. The researcher must prepare an interview schedule for the systematic questioning of informants. He should also make an attempt to apply concepts and theories developed in different research contexts to the area in which he is himself working. In this way the researcher should review and build upon the work already done by others. his task is to review the available material for deriving the relevant hypothesis from it. at the time of interview. The survey of concerning literature happens to be the most simple and fruitful method of formulating precisely the research problem or developing hypothesis. Hypothesis stated by earlier workers may be reviewed and their usefulness be evaluated as a basis for further research. 2. Experience survey means the survey of people who have had practical experience with the problem to be studied. the experience of collecting interview is likely to be long and may last for few hours.Research Methodology Unit 5 1. But the interview must ensure flexibility in the sense that the respondents should be allowed to raise issues and questions which the investigator has not previously considered. Hence. This will also give an opportunity to the respondents for doing some advance thinking over the various issues involved so that. For such a survey. It may also be considered whether the already stated hypothesis suggests new hypothesis. the bibliographical survey of studies. Sometimes the works of creative writers also provide a fertile ground for hypothesis formulation as such may be looked into by the researcher. Besides. 53 . The respondents so selected may then be interviewed by the investigator. it is often considered desirable to send a copy of the questions to be discussed to the respondents well in advance. but in cases where hypothesis have not yet been formulated. Generally. The object of such a survey is to obtain insight into the relationships between variables and new ideas relating to the research problem. an experience survey may enable the researcher to define the problem more concisely and help in the formulation of the Sikkim Manipal University Page No.

Now. or of a group. This. One can mention few examples of „insight-stimulating‟ cases such as the reactions of strangers. The studies concerning whether certain variables are associated are the example of diagnostic research studies. the study of individuals who are in transition from one stage to another. may be examined. the reactions of individuals from different social strata and the like. with narration of facts and characteristics concerning individual. what sorts of examples are to be selected and studied? There is no clear cut answer to it. As against this. Thus.2 Research design in case of descriptive and diagnostic research studies Descriptive research studies are those studies which are concerned with describing the characteristics of a particular individual.5. the reactions of marginal individuals. Experience indicates that for particular problems certain types of instances are more appropriate than others. or some other approach may be adopted. In general. if nay. the unstructured interviewing may take place. whatever method or research design outlined above is adopted. It is particularly suitable in areas where there is little experience to serve as a guide. Analyses of ‘insight-stimulating’ examples are also a fruitful method for suggesting hypothesis for research.Research Methodology Unit 5 research hypothesis. 54 . in an exploratory of formulative research study which merely leads to insights or hypothesis. the intensity of the study and the ability of the researcher to draw together diverse information into a unified interpretation are the main features which make this method an appropriate procedure for evoking insights. where as diagnostic research studies determine the frequency with which something occurs or its association with something else. the only thing essential is that it must continue to remain flexible so that many different facets of a problem may be considered as and when they arise and come to the notice of the researcher. studies concerned with specific predictions. This method consists of the intensive study of selected instance of the phenomenon in which one is interested. survey may as well provide information about the practical possibilities for doing different types of research. For this purpose the existing records. Attitude of the investigator. 5. Sikkim Manipal University Page No. 3. cases that provide sharp contrasts or have striking features are considered relatively more useful while adopting this method of hypothesis formulation.

4. Formulating the objective of the study Designing the methods of data collection Selecting the sample Collecting the data Processing and analyzing the data Reporting the findings. 2. In descriptive as well as in diagnostic studies. 55 . Then comes the question of selecting the methods by which the data are to be obtained. it is necessary to supervise closely the staff of field workers as they collect and record information. 3. questions must be well examined and be made unambiguous.Research Methodology Unit 5 group of situation are all examples of descriptive research studies. what he wants to measure and must find adequate methods for measuring it along with a clear cut definition of population he wants to study. Since the aim is to obtain complete and accurate information in the said studies. interviewers must be instructed not to express their own opinion. While designing data-collection procedure. From the point of view of the research design. In a descriptive / diagnostic study the first step is to specify the objectives with sufficient precision to ensure that the data collected are relevant. The research design must make enough provision for protection against bias and must maximize reliability. If this is not done carefully. are used. To obtain data. Sikkim Manipal University Page No. 6. More often than not. With due concern for the economical completion of the research study. Checks may be set up to ensure that the data collecting staffs performs their duty honestly and without prejudice. one or more forms of probability sampling or what is often described as random sampling. Most of the social research comes under this category. the researcher must be able to define clearly. the study may not provide the desired information. 5. sample has to be designed. the design in such studies must be rigid and not flexible and must focus attention on the following: 1. Usually. the descriptive as well as diagnostic studies share common requirements and as such we may group together these two types of research studies. adequate safeguards against bias and unreliability must be ensured. observers must be trained so that they uniformly record a given item of behaviour. the procedure to be used must be carefully planned. free from errors introduced by those responsible for collecting them. Which ever method is selected.

This includes steps like coding the interview replies.5. 5.Research Methodology Unit 5 The data collected must be processed and analyzed. Sikkim Manipal University Page No. 56 . grow one variety in half of these parts and the other variety in the remaining parts. Last of all comes the question of reporting the findings. This is the task of communicating the findings to others and the researcher must do it in an efficient manner. that is to say.3 Research Design in case of Hypothesis-Testing Research Studies Hypothesis-testing research studies (generally known as experimental studies) are those where the researcher tests the hypothesis of causal relationships between variables. We can compare the yield of the two parts and draw conclusion on that basis. but will permit drawing inferences about causality. The entire experiment can even be repeated several times for better results. observations. Consequently replication does not present any difficulty. the statistical accuracy of the experiments is increased. Hence. it should be remembered that replication is introduced in order to increase the precision of a study. The result so obtained will be more reliable in comparison to the conclusion we draw without applying the principle of replication. to increase the accuracy with which the main effects and interactions can be estimated. 5. For this purpose we may divide the field into two parts and grow one variety in one part and the other variety in the other part. but computationally it does.5. tabulating the data. experiments meet these requirements. we often mean the design of experiments. and performing several statistical computations. Such studies require procedures that will not only reduce bias and increase reliability. when we talk of research design in such studies. Usually.. For example. But if we are to apply the principle of replication to this experiment. suppose we are to examine the effect of two varieties of rice. etc. However. We can collect the data yield of the two varieties and draw conclusion by comparing the same. By doing so. each treatment is applied in many experimental units instead of one. The principle of replication: The experiment should be reaped more than once.4 Principles of Experimental Designs Professor Fisher has enumerated three principles of experimental designs: 1. Thus. then we first divide the field into several parts.

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2. The principle of randomization: It provides protection, when we conduct an experiment, against the effect of extraneous factors by randomization. In other words, this principle indicates that we should design or plan the „experiment in such a way that the variations caused by extraneous factors can all be combined under the general heading of “chance”. For instance if we grow one variety of rice say in the first half of the parts of a field and the other variety is grown in the other half, then it is just possible that the soil fertility may be different in the first half in comparison to the other half. If this is so, our results would not be realistic. In such a situation, we may assign the variety of rice to be grown in different parts of the field on the basis of some random sampling technique i.e., we may apply randomization principle and protect ourselves against the effects of extraneous factors. As such, through the application of the principle of randomization, we can have a better estimate of the experimental error. 3. Principle of local control: It is another important principle of experimental designs. Under it the extraneous factors, the known source of variability, is made to vary deliberately over as wide a range as necessary and this needs to be done in such a way that the variability it causes can be measured and hence eliminated from the experimental error. This means that we should plan the experiment in a manner that we can perform a two-way analysis of variance, in which the total variability of the data is divided into three components attributed to treatments, the extraneous factor and experimental error. In other words, according to the principle of local control, we first divide the field into several homogeneous parts, known as blocks, and then each such block is divided into parts equal to the number of treatments. Then the treatments are randomly assigned to these parts of a block. In general, blocks are the levels at which we hold an extraneous factors fixed, so that we can measure its contribution to the variability of the data by means of a two-way analysis of variance. In brief, through the principle of local control we can eliminate the variability due to extraneous factors from the experimental error. 5.5.5 Important Experimental Designs Experimental design refers to the framework or structure of an experiment and as such there are several experimental designs. We can classify
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experimental designs into two broad categories, viz., informal experimental designs and formal experimental designs. Informal experimental designs are those designs that normally use a less sophisticated form of analysis based on differences in magnitudes, where as formal experimental designs offer relatively more control and use precise statistical procedures for analysis. Informal experimental designs:  Before and after without control design: In such a design, single test group or area is selected and the dependent variable is measured before the introduction of the treatment. The treatment is then introduced and the dependent variable is measured again after the treatment has been introduced. The effect of the treatment would be equal to the level of the phenomenon after the treatment minus the level of the phenomenon before the treatment.  After only with control design: In this design, two groups or areas (test and control area) are selected and the treatment is introduced into the test area only. The dependent variable is then measured in both the areas at the same time. Treatment impact is assessed by subtracting the value of the dependent variable in the control area from its value in the test area.  Before and after with control design: In this design two areas are selected and the dependent variable is measured in both the areas for an identical time-period before the treatment. The treatment is then introduced into the test area only, and the dependent variable is measured in both for an identical time-period after the introduction of the treatment. The treatment effect is determined by subtracting the change in the dependent variable in the control area from the change in the dependent variable in test area. 5.5.6 Formal Experimental Designs 1. Completely randomized design (CR design): It involves only two principle viz., the principle of replication and randomization. It is generally used when experimental areas happen to be homogenous. Technically, when all the variations due to uncontrolled extraneous factors are included under the heading of chance variation, we refer to the design of experiment as C R Design.

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2. Randomized block design (RB design): It is an improvement over the C Research design. In the RB design the principle of local control can be applied along with the other two principles. 3. Latin square design (LS design): It is used in agricultural research. The treatments in a LS design are so allocated among the plots that no treatment occurs more than once in any row or column. 4. Factorial design: It is used in experiments where the effects of varying more than one factor are to be determined. They are especially important in several economic and social phenomena where usually a large number of factors affect a particular problem. Self Assessment Questions I State whether the following statements are true or false. 1. A research design is a logical and systematic plan 2. Exploratory research studies are also called formulative research studies 3. Descriptive research is concerned with describing the features of a particular individual or group.

5.6 Summary
A research design is a logical and systematic plan prepared for directing a research study. In many research projects, the time consumed in trying to ascertain what the data mean after they have been collected is much greater than the time taken to design a research which yields data whose meaning is known as they are collected. Research design is a series of guide posts to keep one going in the right direction. It is a tentative plan which undergoes modifications, as circumstances demand, when the study progresses, new aspects, new conditions and new relationships come to light and insight into the study deepens. Exploratory research studies are also termed as formulative research studies. The main purpose of such studies is that of formulating a problem for more precise investigation or of developing the working hypothesis from an operational point of view. Descriptive research studies are those studies which are concerned with describing the characteristics of a particular individual, or of a group, where as diagnostic research studies determine the frequency with which something occurs or its association with something else.

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5.7 Terminal Questions
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. What is research design? Why research design is needed in research? What are the characteristics of a good research design? What are the components of a research design? What are the different types of research designs? What are the features of an exploratory research design? How is a research design made incase of descriptive and diagnostic research studies? 8. What are the principles of experimental designs?

5.8 Answers to SAQs and TQs
SAQs I 1. True 2. True 3. True TQs 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Section 5.1 Section 5.2 Section 5.2.1 Section 5.3 Section 5.4 Section 5.5.1 Section 5.5.2 Section 5.5.4

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9 Answers to SAQs and TQs 6.3 Advantages of Case Study Method 6.1 Meaning of Case Study Objectives 6. The case data are always gathered with a view to attracting the natural history of the social unit. be it a person. The aim of case study method is to locate or identify the factors that account for the behaviour patterns of a given unit.7 Summary 6. In short. the case study serves the purpose similar to the clue-providing function of expert opinion. and its relationship with the environment.4 Disadvantages of Case Study Method 6.1 Meaning of Case Study Case study is a method of exploring and analyzing the life of a social unit or entity. Historians have used this method for portraying some historical character or particular historical period and describing the developments within a national community. by means of the case study method.2 Assumptions of Case Study Method 6. 61 . Anthropologists and ethnologists have liberally utilized cast study in the systematic description of primitive cultures. to understand the complex of factors that are working within a social unit as an integrated totality.5 Making Case Study Effective 6. It is most appropriate when one is trying to find clues and ideas for further research. a family. The major credit for introducing case study method into social investigation goes to Frederick Leplay.8 Terminal Questions 6. Sikkim Manipal University Page No. William Healey used case study in his study of juvenile delinquency. Looked at from another angle. Herbert Spencer was the first social philosopher who used case study in comparative studies of different cultures.Research Methodology Unit 6 Unit 6 Case Study Method Structure: 6.6 Case Study as a Method of Business Research Self Assessment Questions 6. the social researcher tries. an institution or a community. and its relationship with the social factors and forces operative and involved in this surrounding milieu.

an in-depth study of a firm’s top sales people and comparison with worst salespeople might reveal characteristics common to stellar performers. it must be as complete and coherent as possible. Here again. Life histories should have been written for knowledgeable persons. 62 .Research Methodology Unit 6 Objectives: After studying this lesson you should be able to understand:  Assumptions of Case Study Method  Advantages of Case Study Method  Disadvantages of Case Study Method  Making Case Study Effective  Case Study as a Method of Business Research 6.3 Advantages of Case Study Method Case study of particular value when a complex set of variables may be at work in generating observed results and intensive study is needed to unravel the complexities.      6.2 Assumptions of Case Study Method  Case study would depend upon wit. If the life history has been written in the first person. It is advisable to supplement case data by observational. Efforts should be made to ascertain the reliability of life history data through examining the internal consistency of the material. commonsense and imagination of the person doing the case study. It is easy to see how the exploratory research objectives of generating insights and hypothesis would be well served by use of this technique. For example. Sikkim Manipal University Page No. statistical and historical data since these provide standards for assessing the reliability and consistency of the case material. The investigator makes up his procedure as he goes along. A judicious combination of techniques of data collection is a prerequisite for securing data that are culturally meaningful and scientifically significant. the exploratory investigation is best served by an active curiosity and willingness to deviate from the initial plan when findings suggest new courses of inquiry might prove more productive.

5 Making Case Study Effective Let us discuss the criteria for evaluating the adequacy of the case history or life history which is of central importance for case study. adequacy and representativeness. the social meaning of behaviour must be taken into consideration. iv) The specific method of elaboration of organic material onto social behaviour must be clearly shown. ii) The organic motto of action must be socially relevant.Research Methodology Unit 6 6. the action of the individual cases must be viewed as a series of reactions to social stimuli or situation. 6. are especially fruitful. That is. That is. John Dollard has proposed seven criteria for evaluating such adequacy as follows: i) The subject must be viewed as a specimen in a cultural series. iii) The strategic role of the family group in transmitting the culture must be recognized. the role of family in shaping his behaviour must never be overlooked. vi) Social situation must be carefully and continuously specified as a factor. the life history must be a configuration depicting the inter-relationships between thee person’s various experiences. In other words. That is case histories that portray in detail how basically a biological organism. in case of an individual being the member of a family. gradually blossoms forth into a social person. In other words. standards and their shared way of life. the case documents hardly fulfil the criteria of reliability. 63 . the man. the case drawn out from its total context for the purposes of study must be considered a member of the particular cultural group or community. One of the important criteria for the life history is that a person’s Sikkim Manipal University Page No. but to exclude them form any scientific study of human life will be blunder in as much as these documents are necessary and significant both for theory building and practice. That is. The scrutiny of the life histories of persons must be done with a view to identify thee community values. v) The continuous related character of experience for childhood through adulthood must be stressed.4 Disadvantages of Case Study Method Blummer points out that independently.

Sikkim Manipal University Page No. this in turn would facilitate generalizations at a higher level. Case study is a method of exploring and analyzing the life of a social unit. an institution or a community.7 Summary Case study is a method of exploring and analyzing the life of a social unit or entity. A judicious combination of techniques of data collection is a prerequisite for securing data that are culturally meaningful and scientifically significant. Case study of not particular value when a complex set of variables may be at work. be it a person. 2. vii) The life history material itself must be organised according to some conceptual framework. commonsense and imagination of the person doing the case study. For instance.6 Case Study as a Method of Business Research In-depth analysis of selected cases is of particular value to business research when a complex set of variables may be at work in generating observed results and intensive study is needed to unravel the complexities. The investigator makes up his procedure as he goes along.Research Methodology Unit 6 life must be shown as unfolding itself in the context of and partly owing to specific social situations. Case study would depend upon wit. The exploratory investigator is best served by the active curiosity and willingness to deviate from the initial plan. a family. might prove more productive Self Assessment Questions State whether the following statements are true or false. 1. In-depth analysis of selected cases is not of particular value to business research 6. 64 . when the finding suggests new courses of enquiry. Efforts should be made to ascertain the reliability of life history data through examining the internal consistency of the material. 6. an in-depth study of a firm’s top sales people and comparison with the worst sales people might reveal characteristics common to stellar performers. Case study of particular value when a complex set of variables may be at work in generating observed results and intensive study is needed to unravel the complexities. 3.

Research Methodology Unit 6 The case documents hardly fulfil the criteria of reliability. What is the Meaning of case study? What are the assumptions of Case Study Method? What are the advantages of Case Study Method? What are the disadvantages of Case Study Method? How can a case study be made effective? How case study method is useful to Business Research? 6. 6.9 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs 1. 3. 3. 5. True 2.6 Sikkim Manipal University Page No. 4.5 Section 6. False TQs 1. 5.3 Section 6.1 Section 6. In-depth analysis of selected cases is of particular value to business research when a complex set of variables may be at work in generating observed results and intensive study is needed to unravel the complexities.2 Section 6. adequacy and representativeness. 65 . Section 6.8 Terminal Questions 1. 2. 6. but to exclude them form any scientific study of human life will be blunder in as much as these documents are necessary and significant both for theory building and practice. False 3. 2.4 Section 6. 6. 4.

5.5. 66 .5 Cluster Sampling 7.10 Replicated or Interpenetrating Sampling 7.5.5.11 Non-probability or Non Random Sampling 7.6 Area sampling 7.3 Sampling Procedure 7. The method consisting of the selecting for study.1 Meaning of Sampling Objectives 7. a portion of the ‘universe’ with a view to draw conclusions about the ‘universe’ or ‘population’ is known as sampling.1 Probability or Random Sampling 7.5.5.5.5.8 Answers to SAQs and TQs 7.3 Stratified Random Sampling 7.5.5.1 Meaning of Sampling A part of the population is known as sample.7 Multi-stage and sub-sampling 7.Research Methodology Unit 7 Unit 7 Sampling Structure: 7.6 Summary 7.4 Systematic Random Sampling 7.7 Terminal Questions 7.8 Random Sampling with Probability Proportional to Size 7.4 Characteristics of Good Sample 7.14 Quota sampling 7.9 Double Sampling and Multiphase Sampling 7.2 Advantages of Sampling 7.5.5. A statistical sample ideally purports to be a miniature model or replica of the collectivity or the population constituted of all the items that the study should Sikkim Manipal University Page No.12 Convenience or Accidental Sampling 7.13 Purposive (or judgment) Sampling 7.5 Methods of Sampling 7.5.5.5.2 Simple Random Sampling 7.15 Snow-ball Sampling Self assessment Questions 7.

in fact. Time: The time limit within the study should be completed in another important factor to be considered in deciding the question of sample survey.in another factor to be considered in deciding to sample or not. Objectives: After studying this lesson you should be able to understand:  Advantages of sampling  Sampling procedure  Characteristics of good sample  Methods of Sampling  Probability or Random Sampling  Non-probability or Non Random Sampling 7. the items which potentially hold promise of affording information relevant to the purpose of a given research. sampling is warranted. that is. otherwise the results obtained may be incorrect or misleading. 67 . However. the size is a relative matter. When the availability of these facilities is limited. sampling is preferable. access to computer facility and accessibility to population elements .Research Methodology Unit 7 principally encompass. Amount of funds budgeted for the study: Sampling is opted when the amount of money budgeted is smaller than the anticipated cost of census survey. Facilities: The extent of facilities available – staff. and the time and other resources available for it. is a primary reason for using sampling by academic and marketing researchers. It also helps in checking their accuracy. Whether a population is large or small depends upon the nature of the study.2 Advantage of Sample Survey Sampling has the following advantages:  The size of the population: If the population to be studied is quite large. But on the other hand it demands exercise of great care caution.    Sikkim Manipal University Page No. Sampling helps in time and cost saving. the purpose for which it is undertaken. This.

g. Degree of Precision: Should the results of the survey be very precise. Hence. 3. Information about Population: How much information is available about the population to be studied? Where no list of population and no information about its nature are available. Purpose of the Survey: What does the researcher aim at? If he intends to generalize the findings based on the sample survey to the population. Then exploratory study with non-probability sampling may be made to gain a better idea of population. readership surveys etc) any convenient nonrandom sampling like quota sampling would be enough. then an appropriate probability sampling method must be selected.3 Sampling Procedure The decision process of sampling is complicated one. it is difficult to apply a probability sampling method. even a simple random sampling will give a Sikkim Manipal University Page No. where the research objective requires statistical inference.. The researcher has to first identify the limiting factor or factors and must judiciously balance the conflicting factors. is the population homogenous or heterogeneous? In the case of a homogenous population. marketing surveys. depending on whether the population is homogenous or heterogeneous. Probability samples only allow such computation.Research Methodology Unit 7 7. or even rough results could serve the purpose? The desired level of precision as one of the criteria of sampling method selection. The choice of a particular type of probability sampling depends on the geographical area of the survey and the size and the nature of the population under study. Measurability: The application of statistical inference theory requires computation of the sampling error from the sample itself. 2. 4. appropriate probability sampling design may be adopted. The various criteria governing the choice of the sampling technique: 1. the sample should be drawn by applying simple random sampling method or stratified random sampling method. Where a high degree of precision of results is desired. probability sampling should be used. 68 . Where even crude results would serve the purpose (E. After gaining sufficient knowledge about the population through the exploratory study. 5. The Nature of the Population: In terms of the variables to be studied.

6. stratified random sampling is appropriate. But if the area and the size of the population are small. 7. as a compromise. Where the finance is not a constraint. Then. However. it represents a compromise between idealism and feasibility. Of course. If the population is heterogeneous. Geographical Area of the Study and the Size of the Population: If the area covered by a survey is very large and the size of the population is quite large. single stage probability sampling methods could be used. it may become necessary to choose less time consuming methods like simple random sampling instead of stratified sampling/sampling with probability proportional to size. It means achieving the desired level of precision at minimum cost. The above criteria frequently conflict and the researcher must balance and blend them to obtain to obtain a good sampling plan. Sikkim Manipal University Page No. A sample is economical if the precision per unit cost is high or the cost per unit of variance is low. multi-stage cluster sampling would be appropriate. One should use simple workable methods instead of unduly elaborate and complicated techniques. 8. Time Limitation: The time limit within which the research project should be completed restricts the choice of a sampling method. if the objectives of the study and the desired level of precision cannot be attained within the stipulated budget. multi-stage cluster sampling instead of single-stage sampling of elements. there is no alternative than to give up the proposed survey. 9. The chosen plan thus represents an adaptation of the sampling theory to the available facilities and resources.Research Methodology Unit 7 representative sample. it may become necessary to choose a less costly sampling plan like multistage cluster sampling or even quota sampling as a compromise. Economy: It should be another criterion in choosing the sampling method. That is. a researcher can choose the most appropriate method of sampling that fits the research objective and the nature of population. the precision has to be sacrificed to some extent. 69 . Financial resources: If the available finance is limited.

Preparation of a List of all elements. and 2.1 Probability or Random Sampling Probability sampling is based on the theory of probability. Size: a good sample must be adequate in size in order to be reliable. It is also known as random sampling. 1. 2. Precision: the sample must yield precise estimate.Research Methodology Unit 7 7.5 Methods of Sampling Sampling techniques or methods may be classified into two generic types: 7. Probability sampling technique yield representative sample. It provides a known nonzero chance of selection for each population element. Drawing sample numbers by using (a) lottery method. and a greater degree of accuracy of estimation of population parameters is required. An accurate sample is the one which exactly represents the population. Precision is measured by standard error. The procedure of drawing a simple random sample consists of enumeration of all elements in the population. 70 . An independent chance means that the draw of one element will not affect the chances of other elements being selected. The following are the types of probability sampling: i) Simple Random Sampling: This sampling technique gives each element an equal and independent chance of being selected. An equal chance means equal probability of selection. giving them numbers in serial order 1. (b) a table of random numbers or (c) a computer. B.5. It is used when generalization is the objective of study. and so on. Suitability: This type of sampling is suited for a small homogeneous population.   7. The cost and time required is high hence the benefit derived from it should justify the costs.4 Characteristics of a Good Sample The characteristics of a good sample are described below:   Representativeness: a sample must be representative of the population. Sikkim Manipal University Page No. Accuracy: accuracy is defined as the degree to which bias is absent from the sample.

. and from each stratum. does not ensure proportionate representation and it may be expensive in time and money.. But it is greater than that in other probability samples of the same size. Stratified random sampling may be classified into: a) Proportionate stratified sampling: This sampling involves drawing a sample from each stratum in proportion to the latter’s share in the total population. providing adequate data for analyzing the various sub-populations and applying different methods to different strata. It gives proper representation to each stratum and its statistical efficiency is generally higher. university students may be divided on the basis of discipline. random sample is drawn. 71 . The amount of sampling error associated with any sample drawn can easily be computed. Disadvantages: It is often impractical because of non-availability of population list or of difficulty in enumerating the population. In this method.g.Research Methodology Unit 7 Advantages: The advantage of this is that it is one of the easiest methods. This method is therefore very popular. the population is sub-divided into homogenous groups or strata. E.g. if the Management Faculty of a University consists of the following specialization groups: Sikkim Manipal University Page No. Stratification is necessary for increasing a sample’s statistical efficiency. all the elements in the population have an equal chance of being selected. and each discipline group may again be divided into juniors and seniors. The stratified random sampling is appropriate for a large heterogeneous population. number of strata and strata sample sizes. They are stratification base or bases. Stratification process involves three major decisions. does not require prior knowledge of the true composition of the population. ii) Stratified Random Sampling: This is an improved type of random or probability sampling. E. simple to understand. because it is less precise than other methods.

it is very expensive in time and money and identification of the strata may lead to classification of errors.Research Methodology Unit 7 Specialization stream Production Finance Marketing Rural development No. b) Disproportionate stratified random sampling: This method does not give proportionate representation to strata. It necessarily involves giving over-representation to some strata and underrepresentation to others. (a) the sizes of strata.4 0. and (c) sampling costs. and gives a self-weighing sample. Disadvantages: A prior knowledge of the composition of the population and the distribution of the population. (b) internal variances among strata.0 The research wants to draw an overall sample of 30. 72 .3 0.3 30 x 0.4 30 x 0. Sikkim Manipal University Page No. Then the strata sample sizes would be: Strata Production Finance Marketing Rural development Sample size 30 x 0.2 30 x 0.1 12 6 9 3 30 Advantages: Stratified random sampling enhances the representativeness to each sample. easy to carry out.1 1. gives higher statistical efficiency.2 0. The desirability of disproportionate sampling is usually determined by three factors. of students 40 20 30 10 100 Proportion of each stream 0. viz.

each element does not have equal chance of being selected. and it is statistically more efficient. requires less time. It consists of taking k th item in the population after a random start with an item form 1 to k. a sample of population elements is drawn by either simple random selection or stratified random selection. Disadvantages: The disadvantages are it ignores all elements between two kth elements selected. telephone directory etc. Then from each selected sampling unit. Advantages: The advantages of this type is it is less time consuming and facilitates giving appropriate weighing to particular groups which are small but more important. sample is spread evenly over the population. and this method sometimes gives a biased sample. Suitability: Systematic selection can be applied to various populations such as students in a class. 7. iii) Systematic Random Sampling: This method of sampling is an alternative to random selection. 1st. while others are homogeneous and when it is expected that there will be appreciable differences in the response rates of the subgroups in the population. it’s cheaper. It is also known as fixed interval method. Advantages: The advantages are it is simpler than random sampling. easier to check.5 Cluster Sampling It means random selection of sampling units consisting of population elements. 73 . E. Where the population elements are scattered over a wide area and a list of population Sikkim Manipal University Page No. easy to use.. easy to instruct. Disadvantages: The disadvantage is that it does not give each stratum proportionate representation. this method of sampling is not a probability sampling. is subject to classification errors and its practical feasibility is doubtful. 21st ……… Strictly speaking.g. houses in a street. 11th. It possesses characteristics of randomness and some non-probability traits. when certain groups are quite heterogeneous. Each such sampling unit is a cluster of population elements. requires prior knowledge of composition of the population.5.Research Methodology Unit 7 Suitability: This method is used when the population contains some small but important subgroups.

The sampling error in this method of sampling is greater and the adjacent units of study tend to have more similar characteristics than do units distantly apart. rural credit surveys.Research Methodology Unit 7 elements is not readily available. Appropriate random sampling method is adopted at each stage. and large scale surveys of political and social behaviour.6 Area sampling This is an important form of cluster sampling. it does not require more time. As the geographical areas are selected as sampling units in such cases. First. the use of simple or stratified random sampling method would be too expensive and time-consuming. 7. That is. ecological studies. In larger field surveys cluster consisting of specific geographical areas like districts. In such cases cluster sampling is usually adopted. It is not a separate method of sampling. The population is regarded as being composed of a number of second stage units and so forth. The cluster sampling process involves: identify clusters. then from each of the selected first stage sampling unit. It is also useful when a Sikkim Manipal University Page No. but forms part of cluster sampling. demographic studies. and determine the number of stages. promotes the convenience of field work as it could be done in compact places. Advantages: The advantages of this method is it is easier and more convenient.5. their sampling is called area sampling.7 Multi-stage and sub-sampling In multi-stage sampling method. cost of this is much less. Disadvantages: The cluster sizes may vary and this variation could increase the bias of the resulting sample. at each stage. attitude surveys and so on. a sampling unit is a cluster of the sampling units of the subsequent stage. It is appropriate where the population is scattered over a wider geographical area and no frame or list is available for sampling. The procedure continues down to the final sampling units or population elements. examine the nature of clusters. public opinion polls. sampling is carried out in two or more stages. Suitability: The application of cluster sampling is extensive in farm management surveys. units of study can be readily substituted for other units and it is more flexible. a sample of the first stage sampling units is drawn. villages or blocks in a city are randomly drawn. 74 . talluks. 7.5. a sample of the second stage sampling units is drawn. socio-economic surveys.

Sub-sampling balances the two conflicting effects of clustering i. 7. called multi-phase sampling. The major disadvantage is that the procedure of estimating sampling error and cost advantage is complicated. Sikkim Manipal University Page No. PPS leads to greater precision than would a simple random sample of clusters and a constant sampling fraction at the second stage. If the same number of persons is then selected from each of the selected clusters. When the procedure is extended to more than two phases of selection. “The statistics based on the sample of ‘n’ can be improved by using ancillary information from a wide base: but this is too costly to obtain from the entire population of N elements. 7. equal-sized samples from each selected primary cluster are convenient for field work. Thus PPS is a better method for securing a representative sample of population elements in multi-stage cluster sampling. the sampling in second and subsequent stage frames is called sub-sampling. This is also known as sequential sampling. cost and sampling errors. In a multi-stage sampling.8 Random Sampling with Probability Proportional to Size The procedure of selecting clusters with probability Proportional to size (PPS) is widely used. the overall probability of any person will be the same. If one primary cluster has twice as large a population as another. Instead.5. as sub-sampling is done from a main sample in phases.. Double sampling or multiphase sampling is a compromise solution for a dilemma posed by undesirable extremes. it is give twice the chance of being selected.e. information is obtained from a larger preliminary sample nL which includes the final sample n. Sub-sampling is a part of multi-stage sampling process. it is then. 75 .9 Double Sampling and Multiphase Sampling Double sampling refers to the subsection of the final sample form a preselected larger sample that provided information for improving the final selection.Research Methodology Unit 7 survey has to be made within a limited time and cost budget. Disadvantages: PPS cannot be used if the sizes of the primary sampling clusters are not known. Advantages: The advantages are clusters of various sizes get proportionate representation.5.

g. But disadvantage is that it limits the amount of stratification that can be employed. e.g.5. when probability sampling required more time. It may be classified into: 7. interviewing people whom we happen to meet. single or multi-stage or single or multiphase sampling. The replicated samples can throw light on variable nonsampling errors. Disadvantages: The demerits are it does not ensure a selection chance to each population unit. but the time constraints and the time limit for completing the study do not permit it. The reasons for usage of this sampling are when there is no other feasible alternative due to non-availability of a list of population. This method is also known as accidental sampling because the respondents whom the researcher meets accidentally are included in the sample. a teacher may select students in his class.Research Methodology Unit 7 7. This sampling does not provide a chance of selection to each population element. This sampling also means selecting whatever sampling units are conveniently available. It suffers from sampling bias which will distort results. when the study does not aim at generalizing the findings to the population. when the costs required for probability sampling may be too large. All the sub-samples should be drawn using the same sampling technique and each is a self-contained and adequate sample of the population. The selection probability is unknown.. Replicated sampling can be used with any basic sampling technique: simple or stratified.5.10 Replicated or Interpenetrating Sampling It involves selection of a certain number of sub-samples rather than one full sample from a population.11 Non-probability or Non Random Sampling Non-probability sampling or non-random sampling is not based on the theory of probability. 76 . The selection probability sample may not be a representative one. It provides a simple means of calculating the sampling error.5. Advantages: The only merits of this type of sampling are simplicity. It is practical. Sikkim Manipal University Page No. 7.12 Convenience or Accidental Sampling It means selecting sample units in a just ‘hit and miss’ fashion E. convenience and low cost..

it is a method of stratified sampling in which the selection within strata is nonrandom. opinion polls. Advantage: It is less costly and more convenient and guarantees inclusion of relevant elements in the sample. social class. and readership surveys which do not aim at precision. it does not require a list of population and it does not require any statistical expertise. age. 7. Sikkim Manipal University Page No. 7. The chance that a particular case be selected for the sample depends on the subjective judgement of the researcher.5. Disadvantage: The disadvantage is that it is highly biased because of researcher’s subjectivity. It is this Non-random element that constitutes its greatest weakness. does not ensure the representativeness. This is also known as judgment sampling. it is the least reliable sampling method and the findings cannot be generalized. Disadvantage: It is less efficient for generalizing.Research Methodology Unit 7 Suitability: Though this type of sampling has no status. It does not aim at securing a cross section of a population. but to get quickly some crude results. etc.14 Quota sampling This is a form of convenient sampling involving selection of quota groups of accessible sampling units by traits such as sex. it may be used for simple purposes such as testing ideas or gaining ideas or rough impression about a subject of interest.13 Purposive (or judgment) sampling This method means deliberate selection of sample units that conform to some pre-determined criteria. Advantage: It is the cheapest and simplest. requires more prior extensive information and does not lend itself for using inferential statistics. It is based on the judgement of the researcher or some expert. 77 . Suitability: This is used when what is important is the typicality and specific relevance of the sampling units to the study and not their overall representativeness to the population.5. This involves selection of cases which we judge as the most appropriate ones for the given study. Suitability: It is used in studies like marketing surveys.

and field work can easily be organized. Advantage: It is useful for smaller populations for which no frames are readily available. and subject to a higher degree of classification.5. Sampling helps in time and cost saving. It does not ensure the inclusion of all the elements in the list. Disadvantage: The disadvantage is that it does not allow the use of probability statistical methods. The decision regarding census or sampling depends upon the budget of the study. the size is a relative matter. Suitability: It is very useful in studying social groups. A sample must be ––––––––––––– representative of the population. Self Assessment Questions 1.6 Summary A statistical sample ideally purports to be a miniature model or replica of the collectivity or the population. Sampling is opted when the amount of money budgeted is smaller than the anticipated cost of census survey. Sikkim Manipal University Page No. and diffusion of information among professional of various kinds. Precision is measured by –––––––––––– standard error. 4. 5.15 Snow-ball sampling This is the colourful name for a technique of Building up a list or a sample of a special population by using an initial set of its members as informants. strict control if field work is difficult. 78 . takes less time. A good sample must be adequate in ––––––––size in order to be reliable. ––––––––– accuracy is defined as the degree to which bias is absent from the sample. 7. non need for a list of population. 3. This sampling technique may also be used in socio-metric studies.Research Methodology Unit 7 Advantage: It is less costly. 7. informal groups in a formal organization. An accurate sample is the one which exactly represents the population. It is difficult to apply when the population is large. 2. If the population to be studied is quite large. sampling is warranted. Disadvantage: It is impossible to estimate sampling error. However. –––––––––– Probability sampling technique yield representative sample.

taluks. It is also known as fixed interval method. the population is sub-divided into homogenous groups or strata. Multi-stage sampling is carried out in two or more stages. at each stage. Stratified random sampling is an improved type of random or probability sampling. It provides a known non-zero chance of selection for each population element. stratified random sampling is appropriate. It is also known as random sampling. In the case of a homogenous population. That is. Systematic random sampling method is an alternative to random selection. a sampling unit is a cluster of the sampling units of the subsequent stage. 79 . random sample is drawn. Sikkim Manipal University Page No. villages or blocks in a city are randomly drawn. Cluster sampling means random selection of sampling units consisting of population elements. Proportionate stratified sampling involves drawing a sample from each stratum in proportion to the latter’s share in the total population. and from each stratum. If the population is heterogeneous. An equal chance means equal probability of selection. Simple random sampling technique gives each element an equal and independent chance of being selected. It consists of taking kth item in the population after a random start with an item form 1 to k. The population is regarded as being composed of a number of second stage units and so forth. even a simple random sampling will give a representative sample. Disproportionate stratified random sampling does not give proportionate representation to strata. access to computer facility and accessibility to population elements – is another factor to be considered in deciding to sample or not. Double sampling and multiphase sampling refers to the subsection of the final sample form a pre-selected larger sample that provided information for improving the final selection. In this method.Research Methodology Unit 7 The extent of facilities available – staff. In Area sampling larger field surveys cluster consisting of specific geographical areas like districts. Probability sampling is based on the theory of probability.

What is the significance of Sampling in research? 2. 7. Distinguish between Double sampling and multiphase sampling 9. What is Purposive (or judgment) sampling? 12. What is Random sampling with probability proportional to size? 8. This sampling does not provide a chance of selection to each population element. Snow-ball sampling is the colourful name for a technique of Building up a list or a sample of a special population by using an initial set of its members as informants. age. Quota sampling is a form of convenient sampling involving selection of quota groups of accessible sampling units by traits such as sex. What is Quota sampling? 13. Distinguish between Census and sample survey 3. What are the types of Probability or random sampling? 6. How is Sample size determined? 5. Explain Multi-stage and sub-sampling? 7. What is replicated or interpenetrating sampling? 10. What is Snow-ball sampling? Sikkim Manipal University Page No.7 Terminal Questions 1. 80 . etc. it is a method of stratified sampling in which the selection within strata is non-random. Purposive (or judgment) sampling method means deliberate selection of sample units that conform to some pre-determined criteria. This is also known as judgment sampling. social class.Research Methodology Unit 7 Replicated or interpenetrating sampling involves selection of a certain number of sub-samples rather than one full sample from a population. What is Non-probability or non random sampling? 11. Explain the Sampling process 4. Non-probability or non random sampling is not based on the theory of probability.

1 Section 7. 3. 11. 3. 6.Research Methodology Unit 7 7.8 Section 7.5.1 Section 7. Representative Probability sampling Accuracy Standard error Size TQs 1.5.5.7 Section 7. 9. Section 7. 10.13 Section 7.15 Sikkim Manipal University Page No.5. 81 .3 Section 7. 5.10 Section 7. 5. 4.3 Section 7.5.9 Section 7.5.5. 13.5. 8.8 Answers SAQs and TQs SAQs 1.14 Section 7. 4. 2. 7.5. 2. 12.1 to Section 7.10 Section 7.5.11 Section 7.

6 Evaluation and of Secondary Data Self Assessment Questions 8.1 Meaning and Importance of Data The search for answers to research questions is called collection of data.2.3 Methods of Collecting Primary Data 8.Research Methodology Unit 8 Unit 8 Sources of Data Structure: 8. (b) Data relating to organization and (c) Data pertaining to territorial areas.4 Advantages of Secondary Data 8.2 Disadvantages of Primary Data 8.2 Use of Secondary Data 8.3. Data are facts.9 Answers to SAQs and TQs 8.3.5 Disadvantages of Secondary Data 8.8 Terminal questions 8.3 Secondary Sources of Data 8. 82 .1 Meaning and Importance of Data Objectives 8.2 Primary Sources of Data 8.7 Summary 8.2. serving as bases for study and analyses.1 Advantages and Disadvantages of Primary Data 8. The data needed for a social science research may be broadly classified into (a) Data pertaining to human beings.2.1 Features of Secondary Data 8. past and present. and other relevant materials. Objectives: After studying this lesson you should be able to understand:  Primary sources of data  Advantages and disadvantages of primary data  Disadvantages of primary data  Methods of collecting primary data  Secondary sources of data  Features of secondary data  Use of Secondary data Sikkim Manipal University Page No.

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  

Advantages of secondary data Disadvantages of secondary data Evaluation and of secondary data

Personal data or data related to human beings consist of: 1. Demographic and socio-economic characteristics of individuals: Age, sex, race, social class, religion, marital status, education, occupation income, family size, location of the household life style etc. 2. Behavioral variables: Attitudes, opinions, awareness, knowledge, practice, intentions, etc. 3. Organizational data consist of data relating to an organizations origin, ownership, objectives, resources, functions, performance and growth. 4. Territorial data are related to geo-physical characteristics, resource endowment, population, occupational pattern infrastructure degree of development, etc. of spatial divisions like villages, cities, talluks, districts, state and the nation. The data serve as the bases or raw materials for analysis. Without an analysis of factual data, no specific inferences can be drawn on the questions under study. Inferences based on imagination or guess work cannot provide correct answers to research questions. The relevance, adequacy and reliability of data determine the quality of the findings of a study. Data form the basis for testing the hypothesis formulated in a study. Data also provide the facts and figures required for constructing measurement scales and tables, which are analyzed with statistical techniques. Inferences on the results of statistical analysis and tests of significance provide the answers to research questions. Thus, the scientific process of measurements, analysis, testing and inferences depends on the availability of relevant data and their accuracy. Hence, the importance of data for any research studies. The sources of data may be classified into (a) primary sources and (b) secondary sources.

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8.2 Primary Sources of Data
Primary sources are original sources from which the researcher directly collects data that have not been previously collected e.g., collection of data directly by the researcher on brand awareness, brand preference, brand loyalty and other aspects of consumer behaviour from a sample of consumers by interviewing them. Primary data are first hand information collected through various methods such as observation, interviewing, mailing etc. 8.2.1 Advantage of Primary Data  It is original source of data  It is possible to capture the changes occurring in the course of time.  It flexible to the advantage of researcher.  Extensive research study is based of primary data 8.2.2 Disadvantage of Primary Data 1. Primary data is expensive to obtain 2. It is time consuming 3. It requires extensive research personnel who are skilled. 4. It is difficult to administer. 8.2.3 Methods of Collecting Primary Data Primary data are directly collected by the researcher from their original sources. In this case, the researcher can collect the required date precisely according to his research needs, he can collect them when he wants them and in the form he needs them. But the collection of primary data is costly and time consuming. Yet, for several types of social science research required data are not available from secondary sources and they have to be directly gathered from the primary sources. In such cases where the available data are inappropriate, inadequate or obsolete, primary data have to be gathered. They include: socio economic surveys, social anthropological studies of rural communities and tribal communities, sociological studies of social problems and social institutions. Marketing research, leadership studies, opinion polls, attitudinal surveys, readership, radio listening and T.V. viewing surveys, knowledge-awareness practice (KAP) studies, farm managements studies, business management studies etc.
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There are various methods of data collection. A ‘Method’ is different from a ‘Tool’ while a method refers to the way or mode of gathering data, a tool is an instruments used for the method. For example, a schedule is used for interviewing. The important methods are (a) observation, (b) interviewing, (c) mail survey, (d) experimentation, (e) simulation and (f) projective technique. Each of these methods is discussed in detail in the subsequent sections in the later chapters.

8.3 Secondary Sources of Data
These are sources containing data which have been collected and compiled for another purpose. The secondary sources consists of readily compendia and already compiled statistical statements and reports whose data may be used by researchers for their studies e.g., census reports , annual reports and financial statements of companies, Statistical statement, Reports of Government Departments, Annual reports of currency and finance published by the Reserve Bank of India, Statistical statements relating to Cooperatives and Regional Banks, published by the NABARD, Reports of the National sample survey Organization, Reports of trade associations, publications of international organizations such as UNO, IMF, World Bank, ILO, WHO, etc., Trade and Financial journals newspapers etc. Secondary sources consist of not only published records and reports, but also unpublished records. The latter category includes various records and registers maintained by the firms and organizations, e.g., accounting and financial records, personnel records, register of members, minutes of meetings, inventory records etc. 8.3.1 Features of Secondary Sources Though secondary sources are diverse and consist of all sorts of materials, they have certain common characteristics. First, they are readymade and readily available, and do not require the trouble of constructing tools and administering them. Second, they consist of data which a researcher has no original control over collection and classification. Both the form and the content of secondary sources are shaped by others. Clearly, this is a feature which can limit the research value of secondary sources.
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Finally, secondary sources are not limited in time and space. That is, the researcher using them need not have been present when and where they were gathered. 8.3.2 Use of Secondary Data The second data may be used in three ways by a researcher. First, some specific information from secondary sources may be used for reference purpose. For example, the general statistical information in the number of co-operative credit societies in the country, their coverage of villages, their capital structure, volume of business etc., may be taken from published reports and quoted as background information in a study on the evaluation of performance of cooperative credit societies in a selected district/state. Second, secondary data may be used as bench marks against which the findings of research may be tested, e.g., the findings of a local or regional survey may be compared with the national averages; the performance indicators of a particular bank may be tested against the corresponding indicators of the banking industry as a whole; and so on. Finally, secondary data may be used as the sole source of information for a research project. Such studies as securities Market Behaviour, Financial Analysis of companies, Trade in credit allocation in commercial banks, sociological studies on crimes, historical studies, and the like, depend primarily on secondary data. Year books, statistical reports of government departments, report of public organizations of Bureau of Public Enterprises, Censes Reports etc, serve as major data sources for such research studies.

8.4 Advantages of Secondary Data
Secondary sources have some advantages: 1. Secondary data, if available can be secured quickly and cheaply. Once their source of documents and reports are located, collection of data is just matter of desk work. Even the tediousness of copying the data from the source can now be avoided, thanks to Xeroxing facilities. 2. Wider geographical area and longer reference period may be covered without much cost. Thus, the use of secondary data extends the researcher’s space and time reach. 3. The use of secondary data broadens the data base from which scientific generalizations can be made.
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3. The use of secondary data enables a researcher to verify the findings bases on primary data. The most important limitation is the available data may not meet our specific needs.  What are the definitions and classifications employed? Are they consistent ? Sikkim Manipal University Page No.Research Methodology Unit 8 4. For example. 2. population census data are published tow or three years later after compilation. For example. 87 . It readily meets the need for additional empirical support. Environmental and cultural settings are required for the study. 1. To assess their accuracy we need to know how the data were collected. 1. units of measure may not match. The following questions should be considered. The definitions adopted by those who collected those data may be different. 8.5 Disadvantages of Secondary Data The use of a secondary data has its own limitations. Finally. the accessibility depends primarily on proximity. Data Pertinence The first consideration in evaluation is to examine the pertinence of the available secondary data to the research problem under study. 8. 4. because of time lag in producing them. The secondary data are not up-to-date and become obsolete when they appear in print. and they are not within the easy reach of researchers based in far off places. he should evaluate them before deciding to use them. 5. most of the unpublished official records and compilations are located in the capital city. The available data may not be as accurate as desired. Even if the location of the source is known. and no new figures will be available for another ten years. information about the whereabouts of sources may not be available to all social scientists. The researcher need not wait the time when additional primary data can be collected.6 Evaluation of Secondary Data When a researcher wants to use secondary data for his research. and time periods may also be different.

This depends on the methodology and sampling design adopted by the original organization. Data Completeness The completeness refers to the actual coverage of the published data. 3.Research Methodology Unit 8   What are the measurements of variables used? What is the degree to which they conform to the requirements of our research? What is the coverage of the secondary data in terms of topic and time? Does this coverage fit the needs of our research? On the basis of above consideration. Is the methodology sound? Is the sample size small or large? Is the sampling method appropriate? Answers to these questions may indicate the appropriateness and adequacy of the data for the problem under study. Then it is not possible to determine the adequacy of the secondary data for the researcher’s study. the pertinence of the secondary data to the research on hand should be determined. The question of possible bias should also be examined. 88 . reliability and completeness. The quality of data refers to their accuracy. Whether the purpose for which the original organization collected the data had a particular orientation? Has the study been made to promote the organization’s own interest? How the study was conducted? These are important clues. Sikkim Manipal University Page No. The researcher must be on guard when the source does not report the methodology and sampling design. the researcher can review the cautionary ands other comments that were made in the original source. What is the authority and prestige of the organization? Is it well recognized? Is it noted for reliability? It is capable of collecting reliable data? Does it use trained and well qualified investigators? The answers to these questions determine the degree of confidence we can have in the data and their accuracy. The assurance and reliability of the available secondary data depends on the organization which collected them and the purpose for which they were collected. 2. as a researcher who is imaginative and flexible may be able to redefine his research problem so as to make use of otherwise unusable available data. Then only. It is important to go to the original source of the secondary data rather than to use an immediate source which has quoted from the original. the next step is to examine the quality of the data. Data Quality If the researcher is convinced about the available secondary data for his needs.

mailing etc. (b) Data relating to organization and (c) Data pertaining to territorial areas. Territorial data are related to geophysical characteristics.7 Summary Data are facts and other relevant materials. past and present. (d) experimentation. Primary data are first hand information collected through various methods such as observation. cities. of spatial divisions like villages. mailing etc. occupation income. etc. taluks. objectives. The important methods are observation. Data form the basis for testing the hypothesis formulated in a study. etc. 3. Data also provide the facts and figures required for constructing measurement scales and tables. opinions. practice. awareness.Research Methodology Unit 8 Self Assessment Questions State whether following statements are true or false. The sources of data may be classified into (a) primary sources and (b) secondary sources. Personal data or data related to human beings consists of: Demographic and socio-economic characteristics of individuals: Age. religion. resource endowment. 4. education. occupational pattern infrastructure degree of development. interviewing. (b) interviewing. Primary data are first hand information collected through various methods such as observation. serving as bases for study and analyses. knowledge. 89 . the researcher using them need not have been present when and Sikkim Manipal University Page No. 2. functions. 8. The secondary sources consist of readily compendia and already complied statistical statements and reports. The data needed for a social science research may be broadly classified into (a) Data pertaining to human beings. intentions. performance and growth. martial status. That is. (e) simulation and projective technique. The sources of data may be classified into (a) primary sources and (b) secondary sources. state and the nation. The secondary sources consist of readily compendia and already complied statistical statements and reports. Behavioural variables: Attitudes. 1. population. sex. (c) mail survey. Organizational data consist of data relating to an organizations origin. social class. race. family size. Finally secondary sources are not limited in time and space. districts. resources. location of the household life style etc. interviewing. ownership.

The use of a secondary data has its own limitations. What are the criteria used for evaluation of secondary data? 8. (c) mail survey. The use of secondary data broadens the data base from which scientific generalizations can be made. The important methods are (a) observation. because of time lag in producing them. A ‘Method’ is different from a ‘Tool’ while a method refers to the way or mode of gathering data. if available can be secured quickly and cheaply. Primary data are directly collected by the researcher from their original sources. True True True True Sikkim Manipal University Page No. the use of secondary data extends the researcher’s space and time reach. 3. The most important limitation is the available data may not meet our specific needs. How is secondary data useful to researcher? 5. What are the sources of secondary sources? 4. 2. (d) experimentation. For example.Research Methodology Unit 8 where they were gathered. a tool is an instruments used for the method. There are various methods of data collection. The secondary data are not up-to-date and become obsolete when they appear in print. a schedule is used for interviewing. (b) interviewing. What are the advantages of secondary data? 6.8 Terminal Questions 1. What are the types of data? 2. Secondary data. Wider geographical area and longer reference period may be covered without much cost. Describe the disadvantages of secondary data. Thus. (e) simulation and projective technique. 90 . 8. 7. What are the primary sources of data? 3. 4.9 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs 1.

7. 6. 2. 5.Research Methodology Unit 8 TQs 1.4 Section 8.5 Section 8.6 Sikkim Manipal University Page No. 4. Section 8.4.1 Section 8. 91 .2 Section 8.6 Section 8. 3.0 Section 8.

4.3 Direct Observation 9.2 Non-participant Observation 9.6 Uncontrolled Observation 9.1 Participant Observation 9.11 Answers to SAQs and TQs Observation 9.Research Methodology Unit 9 Unit 9 Structure: 9.4.8 Use of Observation in Business Research Self Assessment Questions 9.4.4.4.1 Meaning of Observation Objectives 9. 92 . Observation may be defined as a systematic viewing of a specific phenomenon in its proper setting for the specific purpose of gathering data for a particular study.4 Types of Observation 9.5 Prerequisites of Observation 9.10 Terminal Questions 9.9 Summary 9.5 Controlled Observation 9.6 Advantages of Observation 9.4.2 General Characteristics of Observation Method 9. Observation is classical method of scientific study.1 Meaning of Observation Observation means viewing or seeing.7 Limitations of Observation 9.4 Indirect Observation 9. Objectives: After studying this lesson you should be able to understand:  General characteristics of observation method  Process of observation  Types of observation  Participant Observation  Non-participant observation Sikkim Manipal University Page No.3 Process of Observation 9.

the persons sitting in them. It grasps the significant events and occurrences that affect social relations of the participants. many things are before his eyes. Sikkim Manipal University Page No. When he observed the movements of vehicles on the road. 1. social metric scale etc. 4. It captures the natural social context in which persons behaviour occur. Observation is purposive and not casual: It is made for the specific purpose of noting things relevant to the study. size and colour of the vehicles. For example. etc. suppose a researcher desires to study the causes of city road accidents and also formulated a tentative hypothesis that accidents are caused by violation of traffic rules and over speeding. It is both a physical and a mental activity: The observing eye catches many things that are present. Observation is selective: A researcher does not observe anything and everything.Research Methodology Unit 9         Direct observation Indirect observation Controlled observation Uncontrolled observation Prerequisites of observation Advantages of observation Limitations of observation Use of observation in business research 9. 2. But attention is focused on data that are pertinent to the given study. Observation should be exact and be based on standardized tools of research and such as observation schedule. All such things which are not relevant to his study are ignored and only over speeding and traffic violations are keenly observed by him. scope and objectives of his study. the type. and precision instruments. 93 .2 General Characteristics of Observation Method Observation as a method of data collection has certain characteristics. but selects the range of things to be observed on the basis of the nature. their hair style. 3. make.. if any.

it may be classified into (c) direct observation. and other details of the task should be determined. The observation content should include the relevant variables.. for each variable chosen. The persons to be selected must have sufficient concentration powers.4 Types of Observations Observations may be classified in different ways. he must identify the specific investigative questions which call for use of observation method.  Fourth.1 Participant Observation In this observation. viz. the subjects to be observed. recording instruments to be used.3 Process of Observations The use of observation method requires proper planning. a study of tribal customs by an anthropologist by taking part in tribal activities like folk dance. recording. he must decide the observation content. specific conditions.  Third.  First.Research Methodology Unit 9 9. the observation setting. strong memory power and unobtrusive nature. For example.4. The persons who are observed should not be aware of the researcher’s purpose. events and activities that have to be observed for the required data. the researcher should carefully examine the relevance of observation method to the data needs of the selected study. With reference to investigator’s role.  Second.  Last. Selected persons should be imparted both theoretical and practical training. procedure. the observer is a part of the phenomenon or group which is observed and he acts as both an observer and a participant. 94 . The concealment of research objective and researcher’s identity is Sikkim Manipal University Page No. it may be classified into (a) participant observation and (b) non-participant observation. With reference to the rigor of the system adopted. and (f) uncontrolled observation 9. the timing and mode of observation. Observation is classified into (e) controlled observation. In terms of mode of observation. Then only their behaviour will be ‘natural’. the operational definition should be specified. These determine the data to be collected.  Fifth. 9. observers should be selected and trained.

g. This method is flexible and allows the observer to see and record subtle aspects of events and behaviour as they occur. the objectivity is lost. Such time lag results in some inaccuracy in recording 9.Research Methodology Unit 9 justified on the ground that it makes it possible to study certain aspects of the group’s culture which are not revealed to outsiders. This method calls for skill in recording observations in an unnoticed manner. Sikkim Manipal University Page No. Recording on the spot is not possible and it has to be postponed until the observer is alone. To the extent that the participant observer participates emotionally.4 Indirect observation This does not involve the physical presence of the observer. Naturally. photographic or electronic devices. For example. Recording can interfere with participation. the observer stands apart and does not participate in the phenomenon observed.4.4.3 Direct observation This means observation of an event personally by the observer when it takes place. 95 . and participation can interfere with observation. there is no emotional involvement on the part of the observer. change the focus of the observation. Advantages: The advantages of participant observation are:  The observer can understand the emotional reactions of the observed group. and the recording is done by mechanical. 9. e. Disadvantages: Participant observation suffers from some demerits.2 Non-participant observations In this method. and thus other avenues of information are closed to him. 9. He is also free to shift places.  The observer will be able to record context which gives meaning to the observed behaviour and heard statements. Another limitation of this method is the dual demand made on the observer. resulting in the incompleteness of the observation. 3. and get a deeper insight of their experiences. he comes to occupy one position within in. 2. A limitation of this method is that the observer’s perception circuit may not be able to cover all relevant events when the latter move quickly. 1. if there is a hierarchy of power in the group/community under study.4. The participant observer narrows his range of observation.

as the case may be.4. two separate observers and sets of instruments may be used in all or some of the original observations. It is also provides a permanent record for an analysis of different aspects of the event.5 Prerequisites of Effective Observation The prerequisites of observation consist of:  Observations must be done under conditions which will permit accurate results. The observer must be in vantage point to see clearly the objects to be observed. how and when to observe. The mechanical devices used must be in good working conditions and operated by skilled persons. Participant observation is a typical uncontrolled one 9. The results could then be compared to determine their accuracy and completeness.4. A certain number of cases can be observed again by another observer/another set of mechanical devices. 9. 96 .6 Uncontrolled observation This does not involve control over extrinsic and intrinsic variables. 9. Observation must cover a sufficient number of representative samples of the cases. Recording should be accurate and complete.    Sikkim Manipal University Page No. The distance and the light must be satisfactory. It is primary used for descriptive research. If it is feasible. The accuracy and completeness of recorded results must be checked. This method is less flexible than direct observations.5 Controlled observation This involves standardization of observational techniques and exercises of maximum control over extrinsic and intrinsic variables by adopting experimental design and systematically recording observations. It is typified by clear and explicit decisions on what. but it is less biasing and less erratic in recording accuracy. Controlled observation is carried out either in the laboratory or in the field.Research Methodology Unit 9 recording customer and employee movements by a special motion picture camera mounted in a department of a large store.

3. he can simply watch what they do and say. Observation is less demanding of the subjects and has less biasing effect on their conduct than questioning. animals. tribal.6 Advantages of observation Observation has certain advantages: 1. birds etc. especially when the observed persons are not aware of their being observed. studies of children. studying past events or activities.Research Methodology Unit 9 9. Mechanical devices may be used for recording data in order to secure more accurate data and also of making continuous observations over longer periods. There is no such artificiality in observational studies. Sikkim Manipal University Page No. The main virtue of observation is its directness: it makes it possible to study behaviour as it occurs. It is easier to conduct disguised observation studies than disguised questioning. One has to depend upon documents or narrations people for studying such things. The validity of what men of position and authority say can be verified by observing what they actually do. Other methods introduce elements or artificiality into the researched situation for instance. It has its own limitations: 1. Further more verbal resorts can be validated and compared with behaviour through observation. 6. 8. e. 5. 9. 2. the respondent may not behave in a natural way. Observations improve the opportunities for analyzing the contextual back ground of behaviour. 4. 7. For example only observation can provide an insight into all the aspects of the process of negotiation between union and management representatives. Observations is more suitable for studying subjects who are unable to articulate meaningfully. Observations make it possible to capture the whole event as it occurs. The researcher need not ask people about their behaviour and interactions.g. in interview. Data collected by observation may describe the observed phenomena as they occur in their natural settings.7 Limitations of Observation Observation cannot be used indiscriminately for all purposes. 97 . Observation is of no use.

managerial style. Yet it may not be possible to predict where and when the even will occur. communal clash. residences etc. 5. Self Assessment Questions State whether the following statements are true or false. 6. only when it is performed. and observations of the seating pattern of high caste and class persons in a general meeting in a village may be useful for forming an index of attitude. the selection of a random sampling can be rapidly ensured. (d) Flow of traffic and parking problems (e) movement of materials and products through a plant. it may be classified into (c) direct observation. (c) Physical characteristics of inanimate things like stores. an observation of related behaviour affords a good clue to the attitudes. an observation of folk dance of a tribal community is possible. 4. Observation is not suitable for studying and attitudes. 2. road accident. E. He has to wait for the eve n to occur. 9. In terms of mode of observation.g. However. Sikkim Manipal University Page No. Observation is slow and expensive process. 3.Research Methodology Unit 9 2. customs.: life style. But observing people of all types does not make the sample a random one. (b) The behaviour of other living creatures like birds. other behaviours and actions. For example. Observations may be classified into (a) participant observation and (b) non-participant observation. leadership styles. animals etc. e. It may be used for studying (a) The behaviour of human beings in purchasing goods and services. group dynamics.8 Use of Observation in Business Research Observation is suitable for a variety of research purposes.g. 98 . A major limitation of this method is that the observer normally must be at the scene of the event when it takes place. factories. For interviewing and mailing methods. interpersonal relations. 1. Observation poses difficulties in obtaining a representative sample.. Observation cannot be used as and when the researcher finds a convenient to use it. and manner. requiring human observers and/or costly surveillance equipments. crowd behaviour.

and (f) uncontrolled observation.Research Methodology Unit 9 3. It is primary used for descriptive research. Observation as a method of data collection has certain characteristics. Observation is classical method of scientific study. In terms of mode of observation. With reference to the rigor of the system adopted. crowd behaviour. Observation involves standardization of observational techniques and exercises of maximum control over extrinsic and intrinsic variables. With reference to investigator’s role. It has its own limitations. This does not involve control over extrinsic and intrinsic variables. photographic or electronic devices.g. With reference to the rigor of the system adopted. interpersonal relations. Participant observation is a typical uncontrolled one. (a) The behaviour of human beings in purchasing goods and services: life style. and manner. e. other behaviours and actions. group dynamics. Observation is classified into (e) controlled observation. Observation is suitable for a variety of research purposes. Observation is classified into (e) controlled observation. 9. Sikkim Manipal University Page No. This does not involve the physical presence of the observer. This involves standardization of observational techniques and exercises of maximum control over extrinsic and intrinsic variables by adopting experimental design and systematically recording observations. and (f) uncontrolled observation. leadership styles. managerial style. Observation has certain advantages: Observation cannot be used indiscriminately for all purposes.9 Summary Observation means viewing or seeing. 99 . Observations may be classified in different ways. recording customer and employee movements by a special motion picture camera mounted in a department of a large store. it may be classified into (a) participant observation and (b) non-participant observation. and the recording is done by mechanical. 4. Observation may be defined as a systematic viewing of a specific phenomenon in its proper setting for the specific purpose of gathering data for a particular study. it may be classified into (c) direct observation. customs.

6. 8.5 Section 9. 2. 100 .2 Section 9. 3.7 Sikkim Manipal University Page No.Research Methodology Unit 9 9.5 Section 9. 3.6 Section 9.4.6 Section 9. 10.4. 4.3 Section 9. 7.11 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs 1. 3.10 Terminal Questions 1.4. Section 9. 10. 5. 9.4 Section 9. 4. 6. 9. 8. 2. What are the types of Observations? What are non-participant observations? Distinguish between Direct and Indirect observation: What is Controlled observation? Describe the features of uncontrolled observation: What are the advantages of observation? What are the Limitations of Observation? What is the utility of Observation in Business Research? 9. True True True True TQs 1. 4.4.4.1 Section 9. 7. What is Observation? Explain the General Characteristics of Observation. 5. 2.3 and 9.2 Section 9.

101 .5 Distinction between Schedule and Questionnaire Self Assessment Questions 10.1 Advantages of Questionnaire 10.4.7 Terminal Questions 10.3.1 Meaning of Schedule and Questionnaire The mail survey is another method of collecting primary data.6 Summary 10.1 Structured or Standard Questionnaire 10.3.3.1 Alternate Method of Sending Questionnaires 10.2. The distinctive feature of the mail survey is that the questionnaire is selfadministered by the respondents themselves and the responses are Sikkim Manipal University Page No.6 Improving the response in a Mail Survey 10.3 Processes of Data Collection 10.2. The mail questionnaires should be simple so that the respondents can easily understand the questions and answer them.3.4 Advertising Questionnaire 10. This method involves sending questionnaires to the respondents with a request to complete them and return them by post.4 Importance of Questionnaire 10.8 Answers to SAQs and TQs 10. It should preferably contain mostly closed-end and multiple choice questions so that it could be completed within a few minutes.5 News Stat Insert 10. This can be used in the case of educated respondents only.2 Unstructured Questionnaire 10.2 Types of Questionnaire 10.3.4.3 Attaching Questionnaire to Products 10.3.2 Personal Delivery 10.1 Meaning of Schedules and Questionnaire Objectives 10.Research Methodology Unit 10 Unit 10 Schedule and Questionnaire Structure: 10.2 Disadvantages of Questionnaire 10.

2 Unstructured Questionnaire In unstructured questionnaires the respondent is given the opportunity to answer in his own terms and in his own frame of reference. and not by the investigator as in the case of personal interview method. Communication is carried out only in writing and this required more cooperation from the respondents than in verbal communication Objectives: After studying this lesson you should be able to understand:  Types of questionnaire  Structured or standard questionnaire  Unstructured questionnaire  Processes of data collection  Alternate method of sending questionnaires  Importance of questionnaire  Advantages of questionnaire  Disadvantages of Questionnaire  Distinction between schedule and questionnaire 10.2 Types of Questionnaires Questionnaires may be classified as: 10.Research Methodology Unit 10 recorded by them. concrete and preordained questions with additional questions limited to those necessary to clarify inadequate answers or to elicit more detailed responses. It does not involve face-to-face conversation between the investigator and the respondent. 10. The questions are presented with exactly the same wording and in the same order to all the respondents.2.2. 10. Sikkim Manipal University Page No. 102 .3 Process of Data Collection The researcher should prepare a mailing list of the selected respondents by collecting the addresses from the telephone directory of the association or organization to which they belong.1 Structured/ Standardized Questionnaire Structured questionnaires are those in which there are definite.

The potential respondent completes it tears it out and mails it to the advertiser. After a day or two he can collect the completed questionnaires from them.3. Anonymity may be assured. Alternatively.5 News-Stand Inserts This method involves inserting the covering letter. They are: (1) personal delivery.2 Personal Delivery The researcher or his assistant may deliver the questionnaires to the potential respondents with a request to complete them at their convenience. For example. (2) attaching questionnaire to a product (3) advertising questionnaire in a newspaper of magazine. Exhibit 7.3. It must explain to the respondent the purpose of the study and the importance of his cooperation to the success of the project. it combines the advantages of the personal interview and the mail survey. the committee of Banks customer services used this method.Research Methodology Unit 10 A covering letter should accompany a copy of the questionnaire. Management studies for collecting information from the customers of commercial banks in India. Sikkim Manipal University Page No.1 Alternative Modes of Sending Questionnaires There are some alternative methods of distributing questionnaires to the respondents.3. 103 . This method may be useful for large-scale on topics of common interest. 10. 10.4 Advertising the Questionnaires The questionnaire with the instructions for completion may be advertised on a page of magazine or in section of newspapers. the questionnaires may be delivered in person and the completed questionnaires may be returned by mail by the respondents.3 Attaching Questionnaire to a Product A firm test marketing a product may attach a questionnaire to a product and request the buyer to complete it and mail it back to the firm. questionnaire and self addressed reply-paid envelope into a random sample of news-stand copies of a newspaper or magazine. and (4) news stand insets. 10. The respondent is usually rewarded by a gift or a discount coupon. 10. 10.3.3. Often referred to as the self-administered questionnaire method.1 is a copy of a covering letter used by the author in a research study on ‘corporate planning’.

This may help the researcher to secure an effective sample size closer to the required size. 3. they may be approached through some one in that organization known as the researcher. and widely scattered groups of people. It must anticipate objections and answer them briefly. Certain techniques have to be adopted to increase the response rate. Quality Printing: The questionnaire may be neatly printed in quality light coloured paper. 4.Research Methodology Unit 10 10. so as to attract the attention of the respondent. Follow-up-contacts: In the case of respondents belonging to an organization. They are: 1. In questionnaire technique.3. Covering Letter: The covering letter should be couched in a pleasant style so as to attract and hold the interest of the respondent. 10. It is a desirable to address the respondent by name. Such preliminary contact with potential respondents is more successful than follow up efforts. diverse.4 Importance of Questionnaire The significance of questionnaire method is that it affords great facilities in collecting data from large. a sample of 1500 may be drawn. great reliance is placed on the respondent’s verbal report for data on the stimuli or experiences which is exposed as also for data on his behaviour. Larger sample size: A larger sample may be drawn than the estimated sample size. quantitative data as well as for securing information of a qualitative nature. stamps for collection and other incentives are also used to induce respondents to complete and return mail questionnaire. Sikkim Manipal University Page No. It is used in gathering objective. if the required sample size is 1000.6 Improving the Response Rate in a Mail survey The response rate in mail surveys is generally very low more so in developing countries like India. 104 . Advance Information: Advance information can be provided to potential respondents by a telephone call or advance notice in the newsletter of the concerned organization or by a letter. 5. For example. 2. 6. questionnaire is the sole research tool utilised but it is more often used in conjunction with other methods of investigations. Incentives: Money. In some studies.

The scope for mail surveys is very limited in a country like India where the percentage of literacy is very low.  Mail surveys are totally free from the interviewer’s bias. Hence. 10.4. being more impersonal. as cost of mailing is the same through out the country.4.  They can cover extensive geographical areas. 105 . irrespective of distance. as there is no personal contact between the respondents and the investigator. The response rate in mail surveys is generally very –––––––––––. 2. The response rate of mail surveys is low.  Certain personal and economic data may be given accurately in an unsigned mail questionnaire.1 Advantages of Questionnaires The advantages of mail surveys are:  They are less costly than personal interviews. 10. Sikkim Manipal University Page No. –––––––– can cover extensive geographical areas. 2.Research Methodology Unit 10 10.  Mail surveys. Questionnaires can be filled by the respondent only if he is able to understand the language in which it is written and he is supposed to be a literate. A questionnaire is filled by the respondent himself whereas the schedule is filled by the investigator.2 Disadvantages of Questionnaires The disadvantages of mail surveys are: 1. Self Assessment Questions Fill in the blanks 1. the resulting sample will not be a representative one. provide more anonymity than personal interviews.5 Distinction between Schedules and Questionnaires Questionnaires are mailed to the respondent whereas schedules are carried by the investigator himself. This problem can be overcome in case of schedule since the investigator himself carries the schedules and the respondent’s response is accordingly taken.  Mailing is useful in contacting persons such as senior business executives who are difficult to reach in any other way.  The respondents can complete the questionnaires at their convenience.

There are some alternative methods of distributing questionnaires to the respondents.Research Methodology Unit 10 3. Mail surveys are totally free from the interviewer’s bias. being more impersonal. more so in developing countries like India. The distinctive feature of the mail survey is that the questionnaire is self-administered by the respondents themselves and the responses are recorded by them. provide more –––––––– than personal interviews. and (4) news stand insets. and widely scattered groups of people. (2) attaching questionnaire to a product (3) advertising questionnaire in a newspaper or a magazine. diverse. They are less costly than personal interviews. as there is no personal contact between the respondents and the investigator.6 Summary The mail survey is another method of collecting primary data. Certain techniques have to be adopted to increase the response rate. A questionnaire Sikkim Manipal University Page No. Questionnaires are mailed to the respondent whereas schedules are carried by the investigator himself. being more impersonal. They are: (1) personal delivery. The respondents can complete the questionnaires at their conveniences Mail surveys. the resulting sample will not be a representative one. and not by the investigator as in the case of personal interview method. The response rate in mail surveys is generally very low. The response rate of mail surveys is low. provide more anonymity than personal interviews. Mail surveys. as cost of mailing is the same through out the country. Mail surveys are totally free from –––––––– as there is no personal contact between the respondents and the investigator 10. 106 . They can cover extensive geographical areas. The scope for mail surveys is very limited in a country like India where the percentage of literacy is very low. 4. Mailing is useful in contacting persons such as senior business executives who are difficult to reach in any other way. irrespective of distances. Certain personal and economic data may be given accurately in an unsigned mail questionnaire. The significance of questionnaire method is that it affords great facilities in collecting data from large. This method involves sending questionnaires to the respondents with a request to complete them and return them by post. Hence.

2.2 Section 10.4.4. Section 10.8 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs 1. 5. 10. 6. 4.6 Section 10. 2. 7.7 Terminal Questions 1.1 Section 10. Low Mail surveys Anonymity The interviewer’s bias TQs 1.3.5 Sikkim Manipal University Page No.3. What are a Schedule and a Questionnaire? What are the alternative modes of sending Questionnaires? What are the ways to improve the Response Rate in a Mail survey? What are the advantages of Questionnaires? Discuss the disadvantages of Questionnaires What is the importance of Questionnaire? Distinguish between schedules and questionnaires 10. 3.1 Section 10. 107 . 3.Research Methodology Unit 10 is filled by the respondent himself whereas the schedule is filled by the investigator. 4.3 Section 10. 3. 2. 6.4 Section 10. 7. 5. 4.

7.7.5 Additional sittings 11.4 Non-availability 11.2 Introduction 11.8. 108 .7 Closing the interview 11.8.8 Interview Problems 11.4 Qualities of interview 11.7.Research Methodology Unit 11 Unit 11 Interviewing Structure: 11.1 Preparation 11.8.7 Interview techniques in business research 11.2.2.1 Meaning of interview Objectives 11.9 Telephone Interviewing 11.3 Developing Report 11.7.7.2 Types of interviews 11.7.2 Interviewer‟s bias 11.8 Editing 11.3 Focused interview 11.2.3 Approaches to the interview 11.13 Answers to SAQs and TQs Sikkim Manipal University Page No.12 Terminal questions 11.1 Structured Directive interview 11.4 Clinical interview 11.11 Summary 11.8.7.2.2.10 Group Interviews Self assessment Questions 11.7.4 Carrying the interview forward 11.8.5 Refusal 11.6 Demerits of interview method 11.5 Depth interview 11.7 Methods and Aims of controlling non-response 11.1 Inadequate response 11.6 Inaccessibility 11.6 Recording the interview 11.5 Merits of interview method 11.2 Unstructured non-directive interview 11.8.8.3 Non-response 11.

Interviewing is the only suitable method for gathering information from illiterate or less educated respondents. It involves not only conversation. Interview is often superior to other data-gathering methods. values. and then interviewing is required. but also learning from the respondent‟s gesture. It may be defined as a two way systematic conversation between an investigator and an informant. Objectives: After studying this lesson you should be able to understand:  Types of interviews  Structured Directive interview  Unstructured non-directive interview  Focused interview  Clinical interview  Depth interview  Approaches to the interview Sikkim Manipal University Page No. facial expressions and pauses.1 Meaning of Interview Interviewing is one of the prominent methods of data collection. Where the area covered for the survey is a compact. even confidential information may be obtained. Interviewing requires face to face contact or contact over telephone and calls for interviewing skills. 109 . Interviewing may be used either as a main method or as a supplementary one in studies of persons. It enables the investigator to grasp the behavioural context of the data furnished by the respondents. It is useful for collecting a wide range of data from factual demographic data to highly personal and intimate information relating to a person‟s opinions. It is done by using a structured schedule or an unstructured guide. People are usually more willing to talk than to write. and his environment.Research Methodology Unit 11 11. Once report is established. attitudes. initiated for obtaining information relevant to a specific study. beliefs past experience and future intentions. It permits probing into the context and reasons for answers to questions. or when a sufficient number of qualified interviewers are available. personal interview is feasible. When qualitative information is required or probing is necessary to draw out fully. Interview can add flesh to statistical information.

the scope for exploration is limited. Advantages: This interview has certain advantages. it tends to lose the spontaneity of natural conversation.Research Methodology Unit 11         Qualities of interview Merits of interview method Demerits of interview method Interview techniques in business research Interview Problems Methods and Aims of controlling non-response Telephone Interviewing Group Interviews 11. Second. Only a Sikkim Manipal University Page No. 11. 110 . The same questions are put to all the respondents and in the same order. this type of interview suffers from some limitations. The interviewer encourages the respondent to talk freely about a give topic with a minimum of prompting or guidance. This type of interview is used for large-scale formalized surveys. (d) clinical interview and (e) depth interview. promoting measurement reliability. the way in which the interview is structured may be such that the respondent‟s views are minimized and the investigator‟s own biases regarding the problem under study are inadvertent introduced. irrelevant and time consuming conversation.1 Structured Directive Interview This is an interview made with a detailed standardized schedule.2 Unstructured or Non-Directive Interview This is the least structured one. and greater precision is achieved. Limitation: However. data from one interview to the next one are easily comparable.2. attention is not diverted to extraneous.2. Lastly. Lastly. First. Each question is asked in the same way in each interview. (b) unstructured or non-directive interview. (c) focused interview. a detailed pre-planned schedule is not used. Second. recording and coding data do not pose any problem. In this type of interview. 11. First.2 Types of Interviews The interview may be classified into: (a) structured or directive interview.

etc. It can closely approximate the spontaneity of a natural conversation. This type of informal interviewing calls for greater skill than the formal survey interview. it is not free from limitations. The situation is analysed prior to the interview. It takes place with the respondents known to have involved in a particular experience. By not focusing on one or another facet of a problem. The interview is focused on the subjective experiences of the respondent. i. As there is no particular order or sequence in this interview.g. Time may be wasted in unproductive conversations. It is less prone to interviewer‟s bias. Sikkim Manipal University Page No.Research Methodology Unit 11 broad interview guide is used. 111 . It is particularly useful in exploratory research where the lines of investigations are not clearly defined. Advantages: This type of interview has certain special advantages.. Questions are not standardized and ordered in a particular way. Instead he develops a very permissive atmosphere. seeing a particular film.e. the investigator may run the risk of being led up blind ally. the classification of responses and coding may required more time.3 Focused Interview This is a semi-structured interview where the investigator attempts to focus the discussion on the actual effects of a given experience to which the respondents have been exposed. class conflict. involved in a train/bus accident. his attitudes and emotional responses regarding the situation under study. Limitations: Though the unstructured interview is a potent research instrument. The interviewer avoids channelling the interview directions. It provides opportunity to explore the various aspects of the problem in an unrestricted manner. it is not suitable for surveys. It is also useful for gathering information on sensitive topics such as divorce.. The focused interview permits the interviewer to obtain details of personal reactions. This interviewing is more useful in case studies rather than in surveys. specific emotions and the like. viewing a particular program on TV. Hence. e. It provides greater opportunity to explore the problem in an unrestricted manner. One of its major limitations is that the data obtained from one interview is not comparable to the data from the next. An interview guide specifying topics relating to the research hypothesis used.2. generation gap. 11. social discrimination. drug-addiction etc.

yet gives the interview a set form and insured adequate coverage of all the relevant topics. The interviewer should handle such situation with great care. 11. They are: The Participants: The interviewer and the respondent – are strangers. The „personal history‟ interview used in social case work. he should use encouraging expressions like “uh-huh” or “I see” to motivate the respondent to continue narration.Research Methodology Unit 11 Merits: This type of interview is free from the inflexibility of formal methods. Of course. 11. Some times the interviewer has to face the problem of affections. The interviewer is also free to choose the sequence of questions and determine the extent of probing. the investigator has to get him introduced to the respondent in an appropriate manner.3 Approaches to Interview Interviewing as a method of data collection has certain features. emotions or convictions on the basis of an interview guide. The respondent is asked for certain information. Sikkim Manipal University Page No.e. This is generally a lengthy procedure designed to encourage free expression of affectively charged information. prison administration. yet he has plenty of opportunity to present his views.2. psychiatric clinics and in individual life history research is the most common type of clinical interview. The specific aspects of the individual‟s life history to be covered by the interview are determined with reference to the purpose of the study and the respondent is encouraged to talk freely about them. the respondent may hide expressing affective feelings. This requires much more training on inter-personal skills than structured interview.2.4 Clinical Interview This is similar to the focused interview but with a subtle difference. Hence. clinical interview is concerned with broad underlying feelings or motivations or with the course of the individual‟s life experiences. 11. The interviewer should totally avoid advising or showing disagreement.5 Depth Interview This is an intensive and searching interview aiming at studying the respondent‟s opinion. i. It requires probing. This deliberately aims to elicit unconscious as well as extremely personal feelings and emotions. 112 . While the focused interview is concerned with the effects of specific experience.

It can also be conducted with a group of persons. because he is dealing with respondents with varying motives and Sikkim Manipal University Page No. Interview is a mode of obtaining verbal answers to questions put verbally: The interaction between the interviewer and the respondent need not necessarily be on a face-to-face basis. Although interview is usually a conversation between two persons. One should. therefore.. because interview can be conducted over the telephone also. he should realize that his respondents are under no obligations to extend response. As far as possible. reluctance or indifference. or a group of children or a group of customers. 113 . the interviewer should try to be closer to the social-economic level of the respondents. such as family members. obtaining information relevant to a study. his perception of the thrust of the questions and his own personal needs. depending on the requirements of the study.Research Methodology Unit 11 The Relationship between the Participants is a Transitory one: It has a fixed beginning and termination points. The implication of this feature is that the interviewer cannot apply unvarying standardized technique. gestures. momentary experience for them. This poses a problem of seeing that recording does not interfere with the tempo of conversation. behaviour. One should rather maintain an impartial and objective attitude. it need not be limited to a single respondent. Interview is an inter-actionable process: The interaction between the interviewer and the respondent depends upon how they perceive each other. be tactful and be alert to such reactions of the respondents as lame-excuse. One should not also argue or dispute. Interview is not a mere casual conversational exchange: Interview is a conversation with a specific purpose. Information furnished by the respondent in the interview is recorded by the investigator. suspicion. facial expression and intonation. Interviewing is not a standardized process: Like that of a chemical technician. and deal with them suitably. The interview proper is a fleeting. it is rather a flexible psychological process. Moreover. viz. The respondent reacts to the interviewer‟s appearance.

dislike of the interview content.Research Methodology Unit 11 diverse perceptions. He should not affect the interview situation through subjective attitude and argumentation. Role perception: The respondent should understand his role and know what is required of him. The interview has interest in it for the purpose of his research. respect of the research agency and liking for the interviewer. The interviewer should also know his role: He should establish a permissive atmosphere and encourage frank and free conversation. Respondent’s motivation: The respondent should be willing to respond and give accurate answer. and fear of consequence. He should be able to conceptualize it in terms to the study. and create in him an interest in the subject-matter of the study. loneliness. The interviewer should try to reduce the effect of demotivating factors like desire to get on with other activities. 114 . He should also try to build up the effect of motivating actors like curiosity. The above requirement reminds that the interview is an interaction process. The extent of his success as an interviewer is very largely dependent upon his insight and skill in dealing with varying sociophysiological situations. sense of duty. but the respondent has no personal interest in it. politeness. He should know what is a relevant and how complete it should be. and be capable of communicating it.4 Qualities of Interviews The requirements or conditions necessary for a successful interview are: Data availability: The needed information should be available with the respondent. Sikkim Manipal University Page No. Therefore. 11. He can learn much of this from the interviewer‟s introduction. the interviewer should establish a friendly relationship with the respondent. The investigator should keep this in mind and take care to see that his appearance and behaviour do not distort the interview situation. embarrassment at ignorance. suspicious about the interviewer. explanations and questioning procedure. This depends partly on the interviewer‟s approach and skill.

faulty memory.  First the greatest value of this method is the depth and detail of information that can be secured. the interviewer can use special scoring devices. When used with well conceived schedules. Sikkim Manipal University Page No. 11. Such information might be supplied more willingly on mail questionnaires.  Third. and incorrect recording and also by the respondent‟s faulty perception.  Fifth. visual materials and the like in order to improve the quality of interviewing. living conditions etc. the accuracy and dependability of the answers given by the respondent can be checked by observation and probing.  Second.6 Demerits of Interview Method Interviewing is not free limitations. through observation of the respondent‟s environment.  Last.  Its greatest drawback is that it is costly both in money and time. etc.5 Merits of Interview Method There are several real advantages to personal interviewing.Research Methodology Unit 11 11. especially if they are to be unsigned. Even more.  Fourth. the interview results are often adversely affected by interviewer‟s mode of asking questions and interactions. and adopt appropriate approaches to overcome such problems as the respondent‟s unwillingness. the interviewer can gather other supplemental information like economic level.  Third. interview poses the problem of recording information obtained from the respondents. suspicion. incorrect understanding of question. It far exceeds mail survey in amount and quality of data that can be secured. He can note the conditions of the interview situation. certain types of personal and financial information may be refused in face-to face interviews. the interviewer can do more to improve the percentage of responses and the quality of information received than other method. control can be exercised over the interview situation.  Second. an interview can obtain a great deal of information. Note taking is invariably distracting to both the respondent and the interviewer and affects the thread of the conversation. No full proof system is available. 115 . interview is flexible and adaptable to individual situations.  Fourth. inability to articulate etc.

Mode varies according to the type of respondents.Research Methodology Unit 11  Last. The interviewer should keep the copies of interview schedule/guide (as the case may be) ready to use.7.2 Introduction The investigator is a stranger to the respondents. He should think about how he should approach a respondent. distortion. etc. The availability of such persons is limited and the training of interviewers is often a long and costly process. diffidence. 11. The interviewer may come across such situations as respondents. he should mentally prepare himself for the interview.7. reluctance.7 Interviewing techniques in Business Research The interview process consists of the following stages:  Preparation  Introduction  Developing rapport  Carrying the interview forward  Recording the interview  Closing the interview 11. he will be caught unaware and fail to deal appropriately when he actually faces any such situation. The investigator should plan the strategies for dealing with them. the head of the organization should be Sikkim Manipal University Page No. Therefore. he should regroup them into contiguous groups in terms of location in order to save time and cost in traveling. inadequate responses.1 Preparation The interviewing requires some preplanning and preparation. 116 . interview calls for highly interviewers. what situations he may have to face and how he could deal with them. Above all. he should be properly introduced to each of the respondents. suspicion. what mode of introduction he could adopt. When making a study of an organization or institution. What is the proper mode of introduction? There is no one appropriate universal mode of introduction. It is possible to plan in advance and keep the plan and mind flexible and expectant of new development. If such preplanning is not done. The interviewer should find out the general daily routine of the respondents in order to determine the suitable timings for interview. 11. He should have the list of names and addresses of respondents. avoidance.

in order to motivate the respondent to permit the interview: 1. 4. making such statements as “You are among the few in a position to supply the information”. Explain their usefulness of the study. presuming that they are being contacted for collection of land revenue or subscription to some government bond. For interviewing rural respondents. the interviewer should establish a friendly relationship with the respondent. This is described as “rapport”. the interviewer should never attempt to approach them along with someone from the revenue department. He should not also approach them through a local political leader. 3.Research Methodology Unit 11 approached first and his cooperation secured before contacting the sample inmates/employees. For a survey or urban households. When studying a community or a cultural group. It means establishing a relationship of confidence and understanding between the interviewer and the respondent. the research organization‟s letter of introduction and the interviewer‟s identity card can be shown. Assure the anonymity or confidential nature of the interview. Identify the respondent by name. 2. 5. say a popular person in the area e.3 Developing Rapport Before starting the research interview. a social worker. for they would immediately hide themselves. the interviewer can follow a sequence of procedures as under. if the interviewer attempts to get him introduced through a person known to them.. After getting himself introduced to the respondent in the most appropriate manner. Mention the name of the organization conducting the research. Emphasize the value of respondent‟s cooperation.” “I have come to learn from your experience and knowledge”. It is a skill which depends primarily on Sikkim Manipal University Page No. because persons who do not belong to his party will not cooperate with the interviewer. Describe the method by which the respondent was selected. “Your response is invaluable. residents cooperation can be easily secured. With a smile. In these days of fear of opening the door for a stranger. 7.7. it is essential to approach the leader first and to enlist cooperation.g. 117 . greet the respondent in accordance with his cultural pattern. It is rather desirable to approach the rural respondents through the local teacher or social worker. 6. 11.

sports event. Do not take answers for granted.7. commonsense. 2. In carrying on this task of gathering information from the respondent by putting questions to him. 6. 5. Start the interview. the following guidelines may be followed: 1. Ask all the applicable questions in the same order as they appear on the schedule without any elucidation and change in the wording.4 Carrying the Interview Forward After establishing rapport. experience. the interviewer may tailor his questions to each respondent. However. Carry it on in an informal and natural conversational style. 11. alertness and ability to listen with understanding. never showing disapproval or surprise. Ask all the applicable questions listed in the schedule. covering of course. Sikkim Manipal University Page No. self-restraint. 3. the areas to be investigated. 4. denial. This task requires care. If a question is not understood. Such initial conversation may create a friendly atmosphere and a warm interpersonal relationship and mutual understanding. respect and curiosity.” The interviewer should use his discretion in striking a happy medium. and keen Start the conversation with a general topic of interest such as weather. current news. Know the objectives of each question so as to make sure that the answers adequately satisfy the question objectives. Too much identification and too much courtesy result in tailoring replied to the image of a “nice interviewer. When the respondent does not meet the interruptions. Talk all answers naturally. contradiction and other harassment. the interviewer should “guard against the over rapport” as cautioned by Herbert Hyman. sensitivity. or the like perceiving the probable of the respondent from his context. the technical task of asking questions from the interview schedule starts. He will be motivated to communicate when the atmosphere is permissive and the listener‟s attitude is non judgmental and is genuinely absorbed in the revelations.Research Methodology Unit 11 the interviewer‟s observation. when necessary. If interview guide is used. repeat it slowly with proper emphasis and appropriate explanation. 118 . he may feel free and may not try to withhold information.

” 11. At times the interview “runs dry” and needs re-stimulation. At the same time. “you know. Show genuine concern and interest in the ideas expressed by the respondent.Research Methodology Unit 11 7. introducing appropriate questions which will aid in revealing the past. I was very much interested in what you said a moment ago. maintain an impartial and objective attitude. 13. non specific and inconsistent answers. steer the conversation back to the track by some such remark as. 15. 10. jot down unobtrusively the points which need elaboration or verification for later and timelier probing. but also personal warmth. Be alert to discover drifting. Neither argue nor dispute. and particularly when it deals with crises in the life of the individual. Then use such expressions as “Uh-huh” or “That interesting” or “I see” “can you tell me more about that?” and the like. represent the stimulus situation. Could you tell me more about it?” 14. the conversation may go off the track. is this…. introduce a stimulus saying “You mentioned that… What happened then?” Sikkim Manipal University Page No. The appropriate technique for this probing is to ask for further clarification in such a polite manner as “I am not sure. 12. at the same time. laugh off the request. Then drop the subject for the time being and pursue another line of conversation for a while so that a less direct approach to the subject can be made later. Listen quietly with patience and humility. I understood fully. 119 . saying “Well. your opinions are more important than mine. Take it as a matter of course with an interested look or a sympathetic half-smile. At times. emotional blockage may occur. be alert and analytic to incomplete. If necessary. do not hurry the interview. Even when you are asked of your views. “Under what circumstances did such and such a phenomenon occur?” or “How did you feel about it and the like.what you meant?” 8. 9. but avoid interrupting the flow of information. When the interviewee fails to supply his reactions to related past experiences. Give not only undivided attention. When there is a pause in the flow of information. Should not reveal your own opinion or reaction. When the conversation turns to some intimate subjects. If the silence is too prolonged.

so that I can get your words exactly. select the occasion for departure more carefully. 11. How can complete recording be made without interrupting the free flow of conversation? Electronic transcription through devices like tape recorder can achieve this.6 Recording the Interview It is essential to record responses as they take place. If the respondent desires to Sikkim Manipal University Page No.7. it is desirable to have two or more sittings with the consent of the respondent. he can use it with advantage. the interviewer‟s task is easy. a thank-you and a good-bye. Consequently the risk of lower response rate will rise especially for sensitive topics.7. a good deal of relevant information may be lost. With the precoded structured questions. Otherwise.7. Assembling the papers for putting them in the folder at the time of asking the final question sets the stage for a final handshake. take leave off the respondent thanking him with a friendly smile. It has obvious advantages over note-taking during the interview. as the case may be. He has to simply ring the appropriate code or tick the appropriate box. The responses should not be summarized or paraphrased. even the fast writer may fail to record all that is said at conversational speed. one single sitting will not do.Research Methodology Unit 11 11. 120 . However. he can write rapidly by abbreviating word and using only key words and the like. would you mind repeating it. At such times. it is useful to interrupt by some such comment as “that seems to be a very important point.5 Additional Sittings In the case of qualitative interviews involving longer duration. He should not make mistakes by carelessly ringing or ticketing a wrong item. The interviewer should also record all his probes and other comments on the schedule. But it also has certain disadvantages. Some respondents may object to or fear “going on record”. in brackets to set them off from responses.7 Closing the Interview After the interview is over. If the note taking is done after the interview. Hence. It should be complete and verbatim.” The respondent is usually flattered by this attention and the rapport is not disturbed. Nothing should be made in the schedule under respective question. as it would cause interview weariness. 11. If the interviewer knows short-hand. In the case of a qualitative interview of longer duration.

11. 11. They are: o partial response. when the respondent remains silent or refuses to answer the question o irrelevant response. The interviewers can influence the responses by inappropriate suggestions. his attitude to the survey. word emphasis.1 Inadequate response Kahn and Cannel distinguish five principal symptoms of inadequate response. in which the respondent‟s answer is not relevant to the question asked o inaccurate response. 121 . note down his name and address so that a summary of the result could be posted to him when ready. faced in securing his cooperation and the interviewer‟s assessment of the validity of the respondent‟s answers. 11. He must ensure that everything is legible.8 Interview Problems In personal interviewing. if any. which arises on account of respondent‟s failure to understand a question or lack of information necessary for answering it. 11.Research Methodology Unit 11 know the result of the survey. non-response and interviewer‟s bias. Abbreviations in recording must be replaced by full words. It is desirable to record a brief sketch of his impressions of the interview and observational notes on the respondent‟s living environment.2 Interviewer’s Bias The interviewer is an important cause of response bias. in which the respondent gives a relevant but incomplete answer o non-response.7. He may resort to cheating by „cooking up‟ data without actually interviewing. His own attitudes and expectations about what a particular category of respondents may say or think may bias the data. the interviewer must edit the schedule to check that he has asked all the questions and recorded all the answers and that there is no inconsistency between answers. when the reply is biased or distorted and o verbalized response problem. inadequate response. Another source of response of the interviewer‟s characteristics Sikkim Manipal University Page No. tone of voice and question rephrasing. difficulties. the researcher must deal with two major problems.8.8.8 Editing At the close of the interview.

Research Methodology Unit 11 (education.8. There are many sources of non-response. apparent social status. Incapacity or inability may refer to illness which prevents a response during the entire survey period.8. Selection of appropriate timing for calls could solve this problem.5 Refusal Some persons may refuse to furnish information because they are illdisposed. refusal. If someone is available. As interviewers are human beings. a hardcore of refusals remains.8. employed persons may not be available during working hours. 11. 11. Evenings and weekends may be favourable interviewing hours for such respondents. standard instructions on probing procedure and so on) and standardization of interviewer behaviour. line respondent‟s hours of availability can be ascertained and the next visit can be planned accordingly. This depends upon the nature of the respondent and the time of calls. This may also arise on account of language barrier. 122 . standardization or interview procedures (use of standard wording in survey questions. There is need for more research on ways to minimize bias in the interview. Although.3 Non-response Non-response refers to failure to obtain responses from some sample respondents. another try or perhaps another approach may find some of them cooperative. non-availability. For example. if he regards the assignment as impossible or sees the results of the survey as possible threats to personal interests or beliefs he is likely to introduce bias. Another source of response bias arises from interviewer‟s perception of the situation. Farmers may not be available at home during cultivation season. proper motivation and supervision. but their effects can be reduced by careful selection and training of interviewers. etc) may also bias his answers. then. 11. Sikkim Manipal University Page No. such biasing factors can never be overcome completely.4 Non-availability Some respondents may not be available at home at the time of call. incapacity and inaccessibility. or approached at the wrong hour and so on.

2. 3. Attempts to reduce the percentage or effects on non-responses aim at reducing the bias caused by differences on non-respondents from respondents. either by anticipating the size of non-response in designing the sample size or by compensating for it with a supplement. The latter effect can be easily overcome. but they do not reduce the non-response percentage or bias. Call-backs are most effective way of reducing not-at-homes in personal interviews.8. beneficial substitution methods can sometimes be designed with reference to important characteristics of the population. Substitution for the non-response is often suggested as a remedy. It may be used as a major method or supplementary method. substitution for a respondent with a particular size holding by another with the holding of the same size is possible. Nevertheless. The non-response bias should not be confused with the reduction of sampled size due to non-response. These adjustments increase the size of the response and the sampling precision.6 Inaccessibility Some respondents may be inaccessible. (b) motivation of the respondent to co-operate (c) arousing the respondents‟ interest with clever opening remarks and questions. 11. 11. Non-responses reduce the effective sample size and its representativeness. Some may not be found due to migration and other reasons.7 Methods and Aims of control of non-response Kish suggests the following methods to reduce either the percentage of nonresponse or its effects: 1.9 Telephone Interviewing Telephone interviewing is a non-personal method of data collection.Research Methodology Unit 11 11.8. Improvements advocated are (a) guarantees of anonymity. as are repeated mailings to no-returns in mail surveys. the farm size is an important variable and if the sampling is based on farm size. (d) advance notice to the respondents. Usually this is a mistake because the substitutes resemble the responses rather than the non-responses. Sikkim Manipal University Page No. 123 . For example. in a farm management study. Improved procedures for collecting data are the most obvious remedy for non-response.

3. Disadvantages: Telephone interview has several limitations: 1. It is limited to persons with listed telephones. 2. The sample will be distorted.Research Methodology Unit 11 It will be useful in the following situations: 1. provided the units of study are listed in telephone directory. 6. 5. When the subject is interesting or important to respondents. When the respondents are widely scattered. business executives. Quality of response is good. Hence. This method of interviewing is less demanding upon the interviewer. Individuals who could not be reached or who might not care to be interviewed personally can be contacted easily. the method is not useful for studying the general population. Information can be collected in a short period of time. 2. Advantages: The advantages of telephone interview are: 1. business houses. a survey relating to trade conducted by a trade association or a chamber of commerce. Usually. 3. The survey can be completed at very low cost.g. E. 5 to 10 interviews can be conducted per hours. Telephone facility is very rare in rural areas. Sikkim Manipal University Page No. When the study required responses to five or six simple questions. 4. telephone cannot be used for a longer questionnaire. When the universe is composed of those persons whose names are listed in telephone directories. a survey relating to a profession conducted by the concerned professional association. 2. Radio or Television program survey. Hence. because telephone survey does not involve travel time and cost and all calls can be made from a single location. because interviewer bias is reduced as there is no face-to-face contact between the interviewer and the respondent. If the universe includes persons not on phone in several counties like India only a few persons have phone facility and that too in urban areas only.g. other professionals.g. 4. Only five or six simple questions can be asked. 5. There is a limit to the length of interview. doctors. e. a call cannot last over five minutes. e. 124 . It does not involve field work. When the survey must be conducted in a very short period of time.

8. most respondents will not cooperate with the interviewer. In a personal interview. promotional strategies and attitudes.Research Methodology Unit 11 3. The group may consist of about six to eight individuals with a common interest. Hence. 125 . 5. clubs and other organized groups. It is not possible to use visual aids like charts. telephone is not suitable for complex surveys. In particular. The type of information to be collected is limited to what can be given in simple. The interviewer acts as the discussion leader. Samples for group interview can be obtained through schools. The group interview technique can be employed by researchers in studying people‟s reactions on public amenities. brands names. intentions and opinions among individuals in the group. There is no possibility to ensure the identity of the interviewer and to overcome suspicions. The respondent‟s characteristics and environment cannot be observed. When an organization needs a great variety of information in as much detail as possible at a relatively low cost Sikkim Manipal University Page No.10 Group Interviews A group interview may be defined as a method of collecting primary data in which a number of individuals with a common interest interact with each other. The discussion leader stimulates the group members to interact with each other. with the discussion serving as a guide to ensure consideration of the areas of concern. short answers of a few words. and there is no possibility of obtaining detailed information. welfare schemes etc. At the same time. the flow of information is multi dimensional. If the questions cover personal matters. the interviewers look for evidence of common elements of attitudes. The desired information may be obtained through self-administered questionnaire or interview. It is a popular method in marketing research to evaluate new product or service concepts. 11. illustrations or complex scales. maps. 6. public health projects. It is rather difficult to establish rapport between the respondent and the interviewer. beliefs. he must be aware that a single comment by a member can provide important insight. Free discussion is encouraged on some aspect of the subject under study. 7. 4. packages.

Respondents are more articulated in a group than in the individual interviews. Advantages: The advantages of this technique are: 1. 126 . Self Assessment Questions State whether the following statements are true or false: 1.11 Summary Interviewing is one of the prominent methods of data collection. The technique eliminates the physical limitations inherent in individual interviews. The method is highly flexible. Disadvantages: This method is not free from draw backs. This is an interview made with a details standardized schedule. The focused interview is concerned with the effects of specific experience. 11. Sikkim Manipal University Page No. 6. the group interview technique is more useful. Nevertheless. the advantage of this technique outweighs the disadvantages and the technique is found to be useful for surveys on topics of common interest. The client can watch the interview unobserved. 2. 4. 3. The flexibility helps the research work with new concepts or topics which have not been previously investigated. A semi-structured interview where the investigator attempts to focus the discussion on the actual effects of a given experience to which the respondents have been exposed. 3. It is difficult to get a representative sample. It can be used to generate primary data in the exploratory phase of a project. Visual aids can be used. The interview may be classified into: (a) structured or directive interview. The respondents comment freely and in detail. 2. 5. 3. 4. 7. 2. clinical interview is concerned with broad underlying feelings or motivations or with the course of the individual‟s life experiences. 1. There is the possibility of the group being dominated by one individual. A group can be interviewed in the time required for one personal interview.Research Methodology Unit 11 and in a short period of time. The respondents may answer to please the interviewer or the other members in the group.

The interviewer encourages the respondent to talk freely about a given topic with a minimum of prompting or guidance. While the focused interview is concerned with the effects of specific experience. There are several real advantages to personal interviewing. (c) focused interview. Clinical interview is a semi-structured interview where the investigator attempts to focus the discussion on the actual effects of a given experience to which the respondents have been exposed. The same questions are put to all the respondents and in the same order. careful selection and proper training of interviewers is essential. A group interview may be defined as a method of collecting primary data in which a number of individuals with a common interest interact with each other. Detailed interview requires much more training on interpersonal skills than structured interview.Research Methodology Unit 11 (b) unstructured or non-directive interview. Telephone interviewing is a non-personal method of data collection. The quality of data collected depends ultimately upon the capabilities of interviewers. In focused type of interview. inadequate response. 127 . It may be used as a major method or supplementary method. non-response and interviewer‟s bias. the researcher must deal with two major problems. In a personal interview the flow of information is multi dimensional. The requirements or conditions necessary for a successful interview are: 2. clinical interview is concerned with broad underlying feelings or motivations or with the course of the individual‟s life experiences. They are: 1. This is an intensive and searching interview aiming at studying the respondent‟s opinion. Sikkim Manipal University Page No. This deliberately aims to elicit unconscious as well as extremely personal feelings and emotions. and (d) clinical interview and (e) depth interview. This is similar to the focused interview but with a subtle difference. a detailed pre-planned schedule is not used. Non-directive method is the least structured one. 3. The group may consist of about six to eight individuals with a common interest. emotions or convictions on the basis of an interview guide. Structured interview is made with a details standardized schedule. In personal interviewing. Interviewing as a method of data collection has certain features. Hence. The interviewer acts as the discussion. It will be useful in the following situations. Interviewing is not free limitations.

True TQs 1.2.7 Section 11.Research Methodology Unit 11 11.4 Section 11. 4. 11.6 Section 11. 8.4 Section 11.3 Section 11. 13. 13.2. What is the meaning of Interview method? Briefly explain the types of Interviews What is Structured Directive Interview? What is Unstructured or Non-Directive Interview? What is Focused Interview? What is Clinical Interview? What is Depth Interview? Explain the approaches to Interview. 8.13 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs 1. 6. 2. 5.2 Section 11. 12. Section 11.1 Section 11.2.1 Section 11. 11. True 2. 10. 10.5 Section 11.2. 9. 2. 3.3 Section 11.2. 4. True 3.12 Terminal Questions 1. 6. 7. What are the qualities of Interviews? What are the advantages of Interviews? What are the limitations of Interviews? Briefly explain Interviewing techniques in Business Research What are the Problems encountered in interview? 11. 12. 7. 9. 5.8 Page No.5 Section 11. 3.2 Section 11. 128 Sikkim Manipal University .

1 Measures of Central Tendency 12.12.10 Principles of Table Construction 12.12 Graphs.13.13. Charts and Diagrams 12.5 Classification 12.6.3 Long Work Sheets 12.2 Checking for Analysis 12.13 Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis 12.8 Construction of Frequency Table 12.Research Methodology Unit 12 Unit 12 Processing Data Structure: 12.2 Line Graphs 12.3 Editing 12.4 Coding 12.1 Data Editing at the Time of Recording the Data 12.3.7 Tabulation 12.9 Components of a Table 12.3 Correlation Analysis 12.2 Manual Transcription 12.2 Data Editing at the Time of Analysis of Data 12.1 Meaning of Data Processing Objective 12.13.4 Coefficient of Determination Self Assessment Questions 12.1 Types of Graphs and General Rules 12.1 Methods of Transcription 12.1 Manual Tabulation 12.6 Transcription of Data 12.15 Terminal Questions 12.11 Frequency Distribution and Class intervals 12.6.12.14 Summary 12.3.13.7.6.16 Answers to SAQs and TQs Sikkim Manipal University Page No. 129 .2 Dispersion 12.

This preparation involves the identification of data structures.1 Meaning of Data Processing Data in the real world often comes with a large quantum and in a variety of formats that any meaningful interpretation of data cannot be achieved straightaway. 130 . Data processing is an intermediary stage of work between data collections and data interpretation. The research variables recognized is the result of the preliminary research plan. Social science researches. To arrive at a meaningful interpretation on the research hypothesis. The various steps in processing of data may be stated as: o Identifying the data structures o Editing the data o Coding and classifying the data o Transcription of data o Tabulation of data. This data preparation for research analysis is teamed as processing of data. draw conclusions using both primary and secondary data. hypothetical relationship among the variables and the tentative research hypothesis. to be very specific. the researcher has to prepare his data for this purpose. Objectives: After studying this lesson you should be able to understand:  Checking for analysis  Editing  Coding  Classification  Transcription of data Sikkim Manipal University Page No. The data gathered in the form of questionnaires/interview schedules/field notes/data sheets is mostly in the form of a large volume of research variables. the coding of data and the grouping of data for preliminary research interpretation. Processing of data requires advanced planning and this planning may cover such aspects as identification of variables. Further selections of tools for analysis would to a large extent depend on the results of this data processing.Research Methodology Unit 12 12. which also sets out the data processing methods beforehand.

A data structure is a dynamic collection of related variables and can be conveniently represented as a graph where nodes are labelled by variables. which allows the analyst to use modern analysis software such as SAS or SPSS. charts and diagrams Types of graphs and general rules Quantitative and qualitative analysis Measures of central tendency Dispersion Correlation analysis Coefficient of determination 12. Sikkim Manipal University Page No. Most data structures can be graphically presented to give clarity as to the frames researched hypothesis. The major criterion in this is to define the data structure. The identification of the nodal points and the relationships among the nodes could sometimes be a complex task than estimated. A sample structure could be a linear structure. the clear definition of such data structures would help in the further processing of data. When the task is complex.Research Methodology Unit 12             Tabulation Construction of Frequency Table Components of a table Principles of table construction Frequency distribution and class intervals Graphs. the procedures for drawing the data structure would involve a series of steps. The data structure also defines and stages of the preliminary relationship between variables/groups that have been pre-planned by the researcher. which involves several types of instruments being collected for the same research question. In several intermediate steps. the data are prepared in a data format. to the resultant end variable. 131 . However. the heterogeneous data structure of the individual data sets can be harmonized to a common standard and the separate data sets are then integrated into a single data set.2 Checking for Analysis In the data preparation step. in which one variable leads to the other and finally.

4. Are there differences between questionnaire. Is the storage medium readable and reliable.3 Editing The next step in the processing of data is editing of the data instruments.Research Methodology Unit 12 12. 132 . Are there undefined and so-called “wild codes”? 8. Is the documentary material sufficient for the methodological description of the study? 3. accuracy and uniformity of the data as created by the researcher. 12.2 Data Editing at the Time of Analysis of Data Data editing is also a requisite before the analysis of data is carried out. Is the coding frame complete? 2. one at the time of recording of the data and second at the time of analysis of data.3. Some of the usual check list questions that can be had by a researcher for editing data sets before analysis would be: 1.3. The editing step checks for the completeness. Editing is a process of checking to detect and correct errors and omissions. Sikkim Manipal University Page No. Has the correct data set been framed? 5. This ensures that the data is complete in all respect for subjecting them to further analysis. Data editing happens at two stages. Comparison of the first counting of the data with the original documents of the researcher. Is the number of cases correct? 6. 12. so that. the redefinition of variables or later analytical modification requirements could be easily incorporated into the data sets.  Do the filters agree or are the data inconsistent?  Have „missing values‟ been set to values.1 Data Editing at the Time of Recording of Data Document editing and testing of the data at the time of data recording is done considering the following questions in mind. which are the same for all research questions?  Have variable descriptions been specified?  Have labels for variable names and value labels been defined and written? All editing and cleaning steps are documented. coding frame and data? 7.

If there were any omission. the researcher sometimes would be able to deduce the correct answer from other related data on the same instrument. The cross verification to a few related responses would help in checking for consistency in responses. the data set has to rewritten on the basis of the new information. in interpretation of questions and instructions by the data recorders. approximate spending and saving and borrowing habits of family members‟ etc. fact responses should be dropped from the data sets. For instance. If the information is vital and has been found to be incomplete. care should be taken as a record the answer as a “positive question” response or as “negative question” response in all uniformity checks for consistency in coding throughout the questionnaire/interview schedule response/data set.Research Methodology Unit 12 Completeness: The first step of editing is to check whether there is an answer to all the questions/variables set out in the data set. 133 . The reliability of the data set would heavily depend on this step of error correction. Accuracy: Apart from checking for omissions. sources of income. the approximate family income can be inferred from other answers to probes such as occupation of family members. While clear inconsistencies should be rectified in the data sets. another keen lookout should be for any lack of uniformity. A random check process can be applied to trace the errors at this step. The final point in the editing of data set is to maintain a log of all corrections that have been carried out at this stage. the responses towards a specific feeling could have been queried from a positive as well as a negative angle. For example. then the researcher can take the step of contacting the respondent personally again and solicit the requisite data again. While interpreting the answers. Uniformity: In editing data sets. the accuracy of each recorded answer should be checked. Consistency in response can also be checked at this step. If this is possible. Sikkim Manipal University Page No. If none of these steps could be resorted to the marking of the data as “missing” must be resorted to. The documentation of these corrections helps the researcher to retain the original data set.

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12.4 Coding
The edited data are then subject to codification and classification. Coding process assigns numerals or other symbols to the several responses of the data set. It is therefore a pre-requisite to prepare a coding scheme for the data set. The recording of the data is done on the basis of this coding scheme. The responses collected in a data sheet varies, sometimes the responses could be the choice among a multiple response, sometimes the response could be in terms of values and sometimes the response could be alphanumeric. At the recording stage itself, if some codification were done to the responses collected, it would be useful in the data analysis. When codification is done, it is imperative to keep a log of the codes allotted to the observations. This code sheet will help in the identification of variables/observations and the basis for such codification. The first coding done to primary data sets are the individual observation themselves. This responses sheet coding gives a benefit to the research, in that, the verification and editing of recordings and further contact with respondents can be achieved without any difficulty. The codification can be made at the time of distribution of the primary data sheets itself. The codes can be alphanumeric to keep track of where and to whom it had been sent. For instance, if the data consists of several public at different localities, the sheets that are distributed in a specific locality may carry a unique part code which is alphabetic. To this alphabetic code, a numeric code can be attached to distinguish the person to whom the primary instrument was distributed. This also helps the researcher to keep track of who the respondents are and who are the probable respondents from whom primary data sheets are yet to be collected. Even at a latter stage, any specific queries on a specific responses sheet can be clarified. The variables or observations in the primary instrument would also need codification, especially when they are categorized. The categorization could be on a scale i.e., most preferable to not preferable, or it could be very specific such as Gender classified as Male and Female. Certain classifications can lead to open ended classification such as education classification, Illiterate, Graduate, Professional, Others. Please specify. In such instances, the codification needs to be carefully done to include all
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possible responses under “Others, please specify”. If the preparation of the exhaustive list is not feasible, then it will be better to create a separate variable for the “Others please specify” category and records all responses as such. Numeric Coding: Coding need not necessarily be numeric. It can also be alphabetic. Coding has to be compulsorily numeric, when the variable is subject to further parametric analysis. Alphabetic Coding: A mere tabulation or frequency count or graphical representation of the variable may be given in an alphabetic coding. Zero Coding: A coding of zero has to be assigned carefully to a variable. In many instances, when manual analysis is done, a code of 0 would imply a “no response” from the respondents. Hence, if a value of 0 is to be given to specific responses in the data sheet, it should not lead to the same interpretation of „non response‟. For instance, there will be a tendency to give a code of 0 to a „no‟, then a different coding than 0 should be given in the data sheet. An illustration of the coding process of some of the demographic variables is given in the following table. Question Number 1.1 Variable observation Organisation Response categories Private Public Government Yes No Excellent Good Adequate Bad Worst Up to 20 years 21-40 years 40-60 years Salaried Professional Code Pt Pb Go 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 S P
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3.4 4.2

Owner of Vehicle Vehicle performs

5.1

Age

5.2

Occupation

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Technical Business Retired Housewife Others

T B R H =

= Could be treated as a separate variable/observation and the actual response could be recorded. The new variable could be termed as “other occupation” The coding sheet needs to be prepared carefully, if the data recording is not done by the researcher, but is outsourced to a data entry firm or individual. In order to enter the data in the same perspective, as the researcher would like to view it, the data coding sheet is to be prepared first and a copy of the data coding sheet should be given to the outsourcer to help in the data entry procedure. Sometimes, the researcher might not be able to code the data from the primary instrument itself. He may need to classify the responses and then code them. For this purpose, classification of data is also necessary at the data entry stage.

12.5 Classification
When open ended responses have been received, classification is necessary to code the responses. For instance, the income of the respondent could be an open-ended question. From all responses, a suitable classification can be arrived at. A classification method should meet certain requirements or should be guided by certain rules. First, classification should be linked to the theory and the aim of the particular study. The objectives of the study will determine the dimensions chosen for coding. The categorization should meet the information required to test the hypothesis or investigate the questions. Second, the scheme of classification should be exhaustive. That is, there must be a category for every response. For example, the classification of martial status into three category viz., “married” “Single” and “divorced” is not exhaustive, because responses like “widower” or “separated” cannot be fitted into the scheme. Here, an open ended question will be the best mode of getting the responses. From the responses collected, the researcher can
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fit a meaningful and theoretically supportive classification. The inclusion of the classification “Others” tends to fill the cluttered, but few responses from the data sheets. But “others” categorization has to carefully used by the researcher. However, the other categorization tends to defeat the very purpose of classification, which is designed to distinguish between observations in terms of the properties under study. The classification “others” will be very useful when a minority of respondents in the data set give varying answers. For instance, the reading habits of newspaper may be surveyed. The 95 respondents out of 100 could be easily classified into 5 large reading groups while 5 respondents could have given a unique answer. These given answer rather than being separately considered could be clubbed under the “others” heading for meaningful interpretation of respondents and reading habits. Third, the categories must also be mutually exhaustive, so that each case is classified only once. This requirement is violated when some of the categories overlap or different dimensions are mixed up. The number of categorization for a specific question/observation at the coding stage should be maximum permissible since, reducing the categorization at the analysis level would be easier than splitting an already classified group of responses. However the number of categories is limited by the number of cases and the anticipated statistical analysis that are to be used on the observation.

12.6 Transcription of Data
When the observations collected by the researcher are not very large, the simple inferences, which can be drawn from the observations, can be transferred to a data sheet, which is a summary of all responses on all observations from a research instrument. The main aim of transition is to minimize the shuffling proceeds between several responses and several observations. Suppose a research instrument contains 120 responses and the observations has been collected from 200 respondents, a simple summary of one response from all 200 observations would require shuffling of 200 pages. The process is quite tedious if several summary tables are to be prepared from the instrument. The transcription process helps in the presentation of all responses and observations on data sheets which can
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Research Methodology Unit 12 help the researcher to arrive at preliminary conclusions as to the nature of the sample collected etc. CS7. 12. say 10 responses. 138 . The main requisite for a transcription process is the preparation of the data sheets where observations are the row of the database and the responses/variables are the columns of the data sheet. For instance. opinion on consumer satisfaction could be identified through a number of statements (say 10).6. CS5. CS8.1 Methods of Transcription The researcher may adopt a manual or computerized transcription. The researcher could prefer a manual transcription and analysis of responses. Transcription is hence. Each variable should be given a label so that long questions can be covered under the label names. CS2. The computerized transcription could be done using a data base package such as spreadsheets. Once the labelling process has been done for all the responses in the research instrument. the transcription of the response is done. A transcription sheet with 100x50 (assuming each response has 5 options) row/column can be easily managed by a researcher manually. In the second instance. on the other hand the variables in the research instrument are more than 40 and each variable has 5 options. the researcher need not use any computerization process to analyze the data. the data sheet does not contain the details of the statement. sorting cards or sorting strips could be used by the researcher to manually transcript the responses. 12.2 Manual Transcription When the sample size is manageable. If. CS4. CS6. The label names are thus the links to specific questions in the research instrument. The choice of manual transcription would be when the number of responses in a research instrument is very less. an intermediary process between data coding and data tabulation. The label CS indicating Consumer satisfaction and the number 1 to 10 indicate the statement measuring consumer satisfaction. and the numbers of observations collected are within 100. Long work sheets. CS9 and CS10.6. text files or other databases. if the number of responses is Sikkim Manipal University Page No. it leads to a worksheet of 100x200 sizes which might not be easily managed by the researcher manually. CS3. but gives a link to the question in the research instrument though variable labels. In this instance the variable names could be given as CS1.

6. allowing responses to be written in the boxes. Heading of responses which are variable names and their coding (options) are filled in the first two rows. The worksheet can then be used for preparing the summary tables or can be subjected to further analysis of data. then the manual worksheet could be attempted manually. 12. thick enough to last several usages. preferably chart sheets. If the variable cannot be coded into categories. Sl vehicle Occupation Vehicle No Owner performance Age Age Y N S P T B R R Other occ 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 1 x x x 2 x x x x 3 x x x x 4 x x x 5 x x x x 6 x x x 7 x Student x x 8 x Artist x x 4 x x x Sikkim Manipal University Page No. A sample worksheet is given below for reference. These worksheets normally are ruled both horizontally and vertically. The first column contains the code of observations. Copies of the data sheets can also be kept for future references. 139 . As has been discussed under the editing section. If one sheet is not sufficient. In all other instances. the transcript data has to be subjected to a testing to ensure error free transcription of data. The original research instrument can be now kept aside as safe documents. For each variable. requisite length for recording the actual response of the observer should be provided for in the work sheet. it is advisable to use a computerized transcription process.Research Methodology Unit 12 less than 30. the researcher may use multiple rules sheets to accommodate all the observations. now the responses from the research instrument are then transferred to the worksheet by ticking the specific option that the observer has chosen.3 Long Worksheets Long worksheets require quality paper.

„vehicle owners‟.Research Methodology Unit 12 Transcription can be made as and when the edited instrument is ready for processing. It involves counting the number of cases falling into each of the categories identified by the researcher. Tabulation can be done manually or through the computer. Sometimes the researcher has to cross tabulate two variables. category-wise totals can be extracted from the respective columns of the work sheets. This represents a group of five items. tabulation is a process of summarizing raw data displaying them on compact statistical tables for further analysis. Tally marks are then made for the respective group i. In olden days. Thus. This is a one-way frequency table and they are readily inferred from the totals of each column in the work sheet. Once all schedules/questionnaires have been transcribed. The process is called tabulation. The choice depends upon the size and type of study. data entry and processing were made through mechanical and semi auto-metric devices such as key punch using punch cards. This requires a two-way classification and cannot be inferred straight from any technical knowledge or skill. A simple frequency table counting the number of “Yes” and “No” responses can be made easily by counting the “Y” response column and “N” response column in the manual worksheet table prepared earlier. 12.1 Manual Tabulation When data are transcribed in a classified form as per the planned scheme of classification. 12. Manual tabulation is suitable for small and simple studies. The arrival of computers has changed the data processing methodology altogether. 140 .7 Tabulation The transcription of data can be used to summarize and arrange the data in compact form for further analysis. the fifth tally is cut across the previous four tallies. This arrangement Sikkim Manipal University Page No. If one wants to prepare a table showing the distribution of respondents by age. from each line of response in the worksheet.7. Other methods of manual transcription include adoption of sorting strips or cards. for instance. the frequency tables can be constructed straight from worksheet. cost considerations. time pressures and the availability of software packages.. the age group of vehicle owners. After every four tally. a tally sheet showing the age groups horizontally is prepared.e.

Computerized tabulation is easy with the help of software packages. The most popular package is the Statistical package for Social Science (SPSS). recording variable information. The special purpose tables are analytical or derivate ones that demonstrate significant relationships in the data or the results of Sikkim Manipal University Page No. The general purpose tables are primary or reference tables designed to include large amount of source data in convenient and accessible form. The software package then computes the number of records in each cell of three row column categories. They give a visual picture of relationships between variables and categories.Research Methodology Unit 12 facilitates easy counting of each one of the class groups. 141 . of Responses 2 23 15 10 50 Although manual tabulation is simple and easy to construct. It is important to make a distinction between the general purpose tables and specific tables.8 Construction of Frequency Table Frequency tables provide a “shorthand” summary of data. cross tabulation. simple descriptive analysis. They facilitate summation of item and the detection of errors and omissions and provide a basis for computations. It is an integrated set of programs suitable for analysis of social science data. Age groups Below 20 – 39 40 – 59 Above 59 Total II IIII IIII IIII IIII IIII IIII IIII IIII IIII III Tally marks No. multivariate analysis and non-parametric analysis. they conserve space and reduce explanations and descriptions to a minimum. slow and error-prone as responses increase. 12. Illustration of this tally sheet is present below. Tables facilitate comprehending masses of data at a glance. This package contains programs for a wide range of operations and analysis such as handling missing data. it can be tedious. The importance of presenting statistical data in tabular form needs no emphasis. The input requirement will be the column and row variables.

In research.. It should be clear and concise. 1…. Special purpose tables are found in monographs.2. 4. in chapter 2 as 2.9 Components of a Table The major components of a table are: A Heading: (a) Table Number (b) Title of the Table (c) Designation of units B Body 1 Sub-head. are of general purpose type.10 Principles of Table Construction There are certain generally accepted principles of rules relating to construction of tables. wherever applicable. industries etc. The captions (or column headings) should be clear and brief. The units of measurement under each heading must always be indicated. Heading of all rows or blocks of stub items 2 Body-head: Headings of all columns or main captions and their subcaptions.2. 1. we are primarily concerned with special purpose.1.1. Sikkim Manipal University Page No. 3..3…. Alternatively tables in chapter 1 be numbered as 1. The tile should represent a succinct description of the contents of the table. 2. agriculture. C Notations:  Footnotes. They are: 1. wherever applicable.Research Methodology Unit 12 statistical analysis. Every table should have a title. and so on. 12. 3 Field/body: The cells in rows and columns. 142 . They represent extensive repositories and statistical information. The number can be centred above the title. It should be placed above the body of the table. A number facilitating easy reference should identify every table. 12.  Source. 2. The table numbers should run in consecutive serial order. vital statistics. 2.. Tables in reports of government on population. research reports and articles and reused as instruments of analysis.

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5. Any explanatory footnotes concerning the table itself are placed directly beneath the table and in order to obviate any possible confusion with the textual footnotes such reference symbols as the asterisk (*) DAGGER (+) and the like may be used. 6. If the data in a series of tables have been obtained from different sources, it is ordinarily advisable to indicate the specific sources in a place just below the table. 7. Usually lines separate columns from one another. Lines are always drawn at the top and bottom of the table and below the captions. 8. The columns may be numbered to facilitate reference. 9. All column figures should be properly aligned. Decimal points and “plus” or “minus” signs should be in perfect alignment. 10. Columns and rows that are to be compared with one another should be brought closed together. 11. Totals of rows should be placed at the extreme right column and totals of columns at the bottom. 12. In order to emphasize the relative significance of certain categories, different kinds of type, spacing and identifications can be used. 13. The arrangement of the categories in a table may be chronological, geographical, alphabetical or according to magnitude. Numerical categories are usually arranged in descending order of magnitude. 14. Miscellaneous and exceptions items are generally placed in the last row of the table. 15. Usually the larger number of items is listed vertically. This means that a table‟s length is more than its width. 16. Abbreviations should be avoided whenever possible and ditto marks should not be used in a table. 17. The table should be made as logical, clear, accurate and simple as possible. Text references should identify tables by number, rather than by such expressions as “the table above” or “the following table”. Tables should not exceed the page size by photo stating. Tables those are too wide for the page may be turned sidewise, with the top facing the left margin or binding of the script. Where tables should be placed in research report or thesis? Some writers place both special purpose and general purpose tables in an appendix and refer to them in the text by numbers. This practice has the
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disadvantages of inconveniencing the reader who wants to study the tabulated data as the text is read. A more appropriate procedure is to place special purpose tables in the text and primary tables, if needed at all, in an appendix.

12.11 Frequency Distribution and Class Intervals
Variables that are classified according to magnitude or size are often arranged in the form of a frequency table. In constructing this table, it is necessary to determine the number of class intervals to be used and the size of the class intervals. A distinction is usually made between continuous and discrete variables. A continuous variable has an unlimited number of possible values between the lowest and highest with no gaps or breaks. Examples of continuous variable are age, weight, temperature etc. A discrete variable can have a series of specified values with no possibility of values between these points. Each value of a discrete variable is distinct and separate. Examples of discrete variables are gender of persons (male/female) occupation (salaried, business, profession) car size (800cc, 1000cc, 1200cc) In practice, all variables are treated as discrete units, the continuous variables being stated in some discrete unit size according to the needs of a particular situation. For example, length is described in discrete units of millimetres or a tenth of an inch. Class Intervals: Ordinarily, the number of class intervals may not be less than 5 not more than 15, depending on the nature of the data and the number of cases being studied. After noting the highest and lower values and the feature of the data, the number of intervals can be easily determined. For many types of data, it is desirable to have class intervals of uniform size. The intervals should neither be too small nor too large. Whenever possible, the intervals should represent common and convenient numerical divisions such as 5 or 10, rather than odd division such as 3 to 7. Class intervals must be clearly designated in a frequency table in such a way as to obviate any possibility of misinterpretation of confusion. For example, to present the age

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group of a population, the use of intervals of 1-20, 20-50, and 50 and above would be confusing. This may be presented as 1-20, 21-50, and above 50. Every class interval has a mid point. For example, the midpoint of an interval 1-20 is 10.5 and the midpoint of class interval 1-25 would be 13. Once class intervals are determined, it is routine work to count the number of cases that fall in each interval. One-Way Tables: One-way frequency tables present the distribution of cases on only a single dimension or variable. For example, the distribution of respondents of gender, by religion, socio economic status and the like are shown in one way tables (Table 10.1) lustrates one-way tables. One way tables are rarely used since the result of frequency distributions can be described in simple sentences. For instance, the gender distribution of a sample study may be described as “The sample data represents 58% by males and 42% of the sample are females.” Tow-Way Table: Distributions in terms of two or more variables and the relationship between the two variables are show in two-way table. The categories of one variable are presented one below another, on the left margin of the table those of another variable at the upper part of the table, one by the side of another. The cells represent particular combination of both variables. To compare the distributions of cases, raw numbers are converted into percentages based on the number of cases in each category. (Table 10.2) illustrate two-way tables. TABLE 10.2
Extent of participation Category Members Low No. of Respondents 65 4 % Medium No. of Respondents 83 33 % High No. of Respondents 2 2 % Total

Ordinary Committee

41.9 10.3

56.8 84.6

1.3 5.1

115 39

Another method of constructing a two-way table is to state the percent of representation as a within brackets term rather than as a separate column. Here, special care has been taken as to how the percentages are calculated, either on a horizontal representation of data or as vertical
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representation of data. Sometimes, the table heading itself provides a meaning as to the method of representation in the two-way table.
Economic Status Low Medium High Very High Total Democratic Participation Low 6(35.3) 13(38.2) 6(62.5) 2(33.3) 27 Medium 11(64.7) 18(53.0) 10(62.5) 3(50.0) 42 High 0(0.0) 3(8.8) 0(0.0) 1(16.7) 4 Total 17 34 16 6 73

12.12 Graphs, Charts & Diagrams
In presenting the data of frequency distributions and statistical computations, it is often desirable to use appropriate forms of graphic presentations. In additions to tabular forms, graphic presentation involves use of graphics, charts and other pictorial devices such as diagrams. These forms and devices reduce large masses of statistical data to a form that can be quickly understood at the glance. The meaning of figures in tabular form may be difficult for the mind to grasp or retain. “Properly constructed graphs and charts relieve the mind of burdensome details by portraying facts concisely, logically and simply.” They, by emphasizing new and significant relationship, are also useful in discovering new facts and in developing hypothesis. The device of graphic presentation is particularly useful when the prospective readers are non-technical people or general public. It is useful to even technical people for dramatizing certain points about data; for important points can be more effectively captured in pictures than in tables. However, graphic forms are not substitutes for tables, but are additional tools for the researcher to emphasize the research findings. Graphic presentation must be planned with utmost care and diligence. Graphic forms used should be simple, clear and accurate and also be appropriate to the data. In planning this work, the following questions must be considered. (a) What is the purpose of the diagram? (b) What facts are to be emphasized?
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9. d) Scatter plots e) Bubble charts f) Stock plots g) Pictographs h) Chesnokov Faces The general rules to be followed in graphic representations are: 1. Each curve or bar on the chart should be labelled. concise and simple and should describe the nature of the data presented. Sikkim Manipal University Page No. 7. The zero point should always be represented and the scale intervals should be equal. Graphic forms should be used sparingly. 2.12. Numerical data upon which the chart is based should be presented in an accompanying table. Measurements proceed from left to right on the horizontal line and from bottom to top on the vertical. 10. they should be clearly differentiated from one another by distinct patterns or colours. 147 . 5. The horizontal line measures time or independent variable and the vertical line the measured variable. The title should be clear. Too many forms detract rather than illuminating the presentation.Research Methodology Unit 12 (c) What is the educational level of the audience? (d) How much time is available for the preparation of the diagram? (e) What kind of chart will portray the data most clearly and accurately? 12. 6. 8.1 Types of Graphs and General Rules The most commonly used graphic forms may be grouped into the following categories: a) Line Graphs or Charts b) Bar Charts c) Segmental presentations. 3. 4. If there are more than one curves or bar. The chart should have a title placed directly above the chart. Graphic forms should follow and not precede the related textual discussion.

Scale intervals in both the axes should be equal.2 Line Graphs The line graph is useful for showing changes in data relationship over a period of time. Central tendency of the data is measured by statistical averages. the individual students may score marks between zero and hundred. The time dimension or independent variable is represented by the X-axis and the other variable by Y-axis. For instance. In this graph. many students may score marks. If a part of the scale is omitted. Positional averages Sikkim Manipal University Page No. in a mark distribution. Averages are classified into two groups. Such a tendency of the data to concentrate to the central position of the distribution is called central tendency. which are near to the average marks. i. a set of parallel jagged lines should be used to indicate the break in the scale. is an illustration of the features of a rectangular coordinate type of graph. Any point of plane of the two axes is plotted in terms of the two axes reading from the origin „O‟. The following are the important characteristics of a statistical data:  Central tendency  Dispersion  Skew ness  Kurtosis In a data distribution. The horizontal line is called the abscissa or X-axis and the vertical. 50. Mathematical averages 2.13 Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis 12. The point at which the two axes intersect is zero for both X and Y axis. the individual items may have a tendency to come to a central position or an average value.1 Measures of Central Tendency Analysis of data involves understanding of the characteristics of the data. the ordinal or Y-axis. The „O‟ is the origin of coordinates. The two lines divide the region of the plane into four sections known as quadrants that are numbered anti-clockwise. In this distribution. 1. 148 .e.13.Research Methodology Unit 12 12. Measurements to the right and above „O‟ are positive (plus) and measurements to the left and below „O‟ are negative (minus).12. figures are plotted in relation to two intersecting lines or axes. 12.

If put (x1 + x2 + x3… +xn) = X. If the values of distribution approximately come near to the average value. Arithmetic mean = fx/ f Where. f = sum of the frequency If x1 x2 x3… xn are the values of a series.Research Methodology Unit 12 Statistical Averages Mathematical averages Arithmetic mean Geometric mean Harmonic mean Positional averages Median Mode Arithmetic mean. It is the value obtained by dividing the sum of the item by the number of items in a series. Thus in a discrete series. fx = sum the values multiplied by the corresponding frequency. Then their sum is divided by the number of frequency. If x1 x2 x3… xn are the values of a series. to calculate arithmetic mean. geometric mean and harmonic mean are mathematical averages. we conclude that the distribution has central tendency. and f1 f2 f3… fn are their corresponding frequencies. arithmetic mean is calculated by the following formula. then arithmetic mean = X/n When frequencies are also given with the values. the values are first multiplied with the corresponding frequency. then arithmetic mean of the series obtained by (x1 + x2 + x3… +xn) / n. Sikkim Manipal University Page No. Median and mode are positional averages. These statistical measures try to understand how individual values in a distribution concentrate to a central value like average. Symbolically we say Arithmetic mean = X/n Where X N = the sum of the item = the number of items in the series. 149 . Arithmetic Mean Arithmetic mean is the most commonly used statistical average.

3 Sikkim Manipal University Page No.2 2.8 + 2.0 + 1. Find arithmetic mean for the following distribution 2.8 2.9 2.8 2.5 2.2 + 2.9 + 2.0 1. 58 67 60 84 93 98 100 Arithmetic mean = X/n Where X = the sum of the item n = the number of items in the series.0 2.07 Discrete series 3. Daily wage : Numbers of workers : 15 2 18 3 20 5 25 10 30 12 35 10 40 5 42 2 2.0 + 2.0 + 1.9 2.9 + 2.5 + 2.3 1.0+ 1.Research Methodology Unit 12 Arithmetic mean is calculated by (f1 x1 + f2 x2 + f3x3… + fn xn) / (f1 + f2 + f3… + fn) or Arithmetic mean = fx / f Individual series 1. 150 .0 + 2.3 = 29 n = 14 X = 29/14 = 2.3 + 2.0 1.0 1.3 + 1. Calculate arithmetic mean of the following 50 workers according to their daily wages.8 + 2. X = 2. X = 58 + 67+ 60 + 84 + 93 + 98 + 100 = 560 n = 7 X = 560/7 = 80 2.3 Arithmetic mean = X/n Where X = the sum of the item n = the number of items in the series. Find arithmetic mean of the following data.0 2.

151 . fx f Arithmetic mean = = = = fx/ f 473 0 1473 /50 29. Find arithmetic mean for the following distribution.Research Methodology Unit 12 Arithmetic mean using direct formula Wages (x) 15 18 20 25 30 35 40 42 45 Frequency ( F ) 2 3 5 10 12 10 5 2 1 f =50 fx 30 54 100 250 360 350 200 84 45 fx =473 Arithmetic mean Where. Marks : 10-20 20-30 30-40 40-50 50-60 60-70 70-80 80-90 No.46 Continuous Series 4. of students : 6 12 18 20 20 14 8 2 Arithmetic mean using direct method Marks 10-20 20-30 30-40 40-50 50-60 60-70 70-80 80-90 Frequency (f) 6 12 18 20 20 14 8 2 f =100 Mid Value (x) 15 25 35 45 55 65 75 85 fx 90 300 630 900 1100 910 600 170 fx = 4700 Arithmetic mean Where. fx f Arithmetic mean Sikkim Manipal University = fx/ f = 4700 = 100 = 4700 / 100 = 47 Page No.

8633 2. log x /  f Illustration 1. . Symbolically. 25 279 112 3675 84 9 Values (x) 25 279 112 3675 84 9 18 54 73 648 Log x 18 54 73 648 1. If there are two items in the data.0492 3.967 Sikkim Manipal University Page No.Research Methodology Unit 12 Geometric Mean Geometric mean is defined as the nth root of the product of N items of a series. 152 .9242 0. if there are three items we take the cube root. 1 2 n GM = Where x1.2552 1.9986 99. n x .x . Find Geometric mean for the following data. and so on. GM = Anti log of (log x /n) In discrete series GM = Anti log of  f .3979 2.xn are the items of the given series. logarithms are used.8116 19..7323 1.x Accordingly.5652 1.. To simplify calculations. x2.9986 / 10) Anti log of 1.9986 GM = = = = Anti log of (log x /n) Anti log of (19..4456 2.9542 1. we take the square root.

86871 73.7502 6.Research Methodology Unit 12 Geometric mean for discrete series Calculate geometric mean of the following data given below:Class Landlords Cultivators Landless labourers Money lenders Scholl teachers Shop keepers Carpenters Weavers Income 1000 80 40 750 100 150 120 60 No.0000 2.0525 5. Log x 3.7907 / 93 Anti log 1.7044 6.91 N / (1/x) N / f (1/m) Total frequency Mi values of the class Sikkim Manipal University Page No. log x /  f Anti log of 173.0000 95.6021 2.8910 173. 153 .1550 40.0000 8.0792 1.9031 1.0000 1.2376 8.8751 2.7907 GM = = = = Harmonic Mean In individual series HM = In discrete series HM = N = M = Anti log of  f.1761 2.7782 Income 100 80 40 750 100 150 120 60 f. of families 1 50 25 2 3 4 3 5 Frequency 1 50 25 2 3 4 3 5 93 Log x 3.

154 .89 = 11.4 f (1/x) = 4.1 .0 .02 40 10 50 20 f.235 Harmonic mean for discrete series Compute harmonic mean for the following data Marks : 10 20 25 30 Frequency : 20 10 15 25 Marks 10 20 25 30 40 50 Frequency 20 10 15 25 10 20 f = 100 N / f (1/x) 100/4.05 .021 .Research Methodology Unit 12 Illustration For individual series 1.6 .014 .025 .04 . 1/x 2.2 . Find harmonic mean of the following data 5 10 3 7 125 58 47 Values x 5 10 3 7 125 58 47 80 45 26 HM HM Factorial 1/x .5 .033 .33 .58 HM HM = = = Sikkim Manipal University Page No.008 .017 .834 1/x .022 .1 .14 .038 ( 1/x) =.83 .89 80 45 26 = N / (1/x) = 10 / .58 21.25 .

8689 Median Median is the middlemost item of a given series.123  f ( 1/x) =1.333 .0181 . Find the median of the following scores. In individual series. 155 . 97 50 95 51 90 60 85 64 81 65 80 70 75 First we arrange the series according to ascending order. When two values occur in the middle. we take the average of these two values as median.Research Methodology Unit 12 Harmonic mean for continuous series 1.28 .0153 50-60 12 60-70 8 F . there occur equal number of values to the left and right of the median. Calculate harmonic mean for the given data.04 .218 .0285 . Since median is the central value of an ordered distribution. we arrange the given data according to ascending or descending order and take the middlemost item as the median.369 HM HM = = N / (1/x) 50 / 1. 1/x . Class : 10-20 20-30 30-40 40-50 Frequency : 5 7 3 15 Class 10-20 20-30 30-40 40-50 50-60 50-60 Frequency 5 7 3 15 12 8  f =50 Mid x 15 25 35 45 55 65 1/x .085 .33 .0661 .369 = 37. Individual series Median = (N+ 1 / 2) th item Illustration 1.0222 . 50 51 60 64 65 70 75 80 81 85 90 95 97 Median = (N+ 1) / 2 th item = (13+ 1) / 2 th item = (14 / 2) th item = (7) th item = 75 Sikkim Manipal University Page No.

95 51 91 60 90 64 85 69 70 78 75 First we arrange the series according to ascending order. Find out cumulative frequencies 3.5) th item = (6th item + 7th item) / 2 = (75 + 78) / 2 = 153/2 = 76. Steps 1. cumulate the frequencies. Frequency 16 40 (N+ 1) / 2 66 96 116 122 Page No.5 80 85 Median for Discrete Series To find the median of a grouped series. Look at the cumulative frequency column and find the value of the variable corresponding to the above. Arrange the values of the data in ascending order of magnitude. Find median for the following data. N is the cumulative frequency taken. we first of all. 156 Sikkim Manipal University . Find the median of the following data. Income : 100 150 80 200 250 180 Number of persons : 24 26 16 20 6 30 First of all arrange the data according to ascending order. 51 60 64 69 70 75 78 80 90 91 95 Median = (N+ 1) / 2 th item = (12+ 1) / 2 th item = (13 / 2) th item = (6. Locate median at the size of (N+ 1) / 2 th cumulative frequency. Apply the formula (N+ 1) / 2 th item 4. Income 80 100 150 180 200 250 Frequency 16 24 26 30 20 6 Cum.Research Methodology Unit 12 Median for distribution with even number of items 2. 2.

cumulate the frequencies. with class interval. we first of all. Locate median at the size of (N) / 2 th cumulative frequency. Apply the interpolation formula to obtain the median Median = L1 + (N/2 – m) / f X C L1 = Lower limit of the median Class N/2 = Cumulative frequency/ 2 m = Cumulative frequency of the class preceding the median class f = frequency of the median class C = Class interval Find median of the following data.5 Page No.Research Methodology Unit 12 = (N+ 1) / 2 th item = (122+ 1) / 2 th item = (123) / 2 th item = (61.5 19. 157 Sikkim Manipal University .5) th item = Value at the 61.5 cumulative frequency is taken as median Therefore Median = 150 Median Median for Continuous Series To find the median of a grouped series. Class : 12-14 15-17 18-20 21-23 24-26 Frequency : 1 3 8 2 6 Class 12-14 15-17 18-20 21-23 24-26 Frequency 1 3 8 2 6 CF 1 4 12 (N/2 = 10) 14 20 Median L1 N/2 m f C = = = = = = = = = = = L1 + (N/2 – m) / f X C 18 10 4 8 2 18+ (10 – 4) / 8 X 2 18 + 6/8 X 2 18 + (12/8) 18 + 1.

6. The median distributes the values of the data equally to either side of the median.  Median is not amenable to further algebraic treatment. Mode Mode is the most repeating value of a distribution.Research Methodology Unit 12 Merits of Median 1. Mode is not based on all the items of the series. 158 . 2. It is difficult to calculate mode when one item repeats more number of times than others. When one item repeats more number of times than other or when two items repeat equal number of times. Mode is a widely used measure of central tendency in business.  Since the value of median is determined by observation.  It is not affected by extreme values. data should be arranged according to ascending order.  Mode can be graphically determined. it is not a true representative of all the values. 2.  The value of median is affected by sampling fluctuation. Demerits of Mode 1. 4. When the data is very large median is the most convenient measure of central tendency. Mode is not capable of further algebraic treatment. Median is easy to calculate and simple to understand. Median is not influenced by the extreme values present in the data. Median is useful finding average for data with open-ended classes. Sikkim Manipal University Page No. This is tedious when the number of items in a series is numerous.  Mode can be determined even for series with open-ended classes. We speak of model wage which is the wage earned by most of the workers. mode is ill defined. Model shoe size is the mostly demanded shoe. 3. Under such case. Demerits of Median  To calculate median. 5. 3. Value of the median can be graphically determined. Merits of Mode  Mode is the most typical and frequented value of the distribution. mode is calculated by the formula (3 median – 2 mean).

3. Calculation of mode for the following data. Mode for Individual Series 1. Frequencies are grouped in two leaving the first frequency. 15 25 14 18 21 16 19 20 Since no item repeats more number of times mode is ill defined. of persons 10 20 40 65 50 15 5 Since 65 is the highest frequency its size is taken as mode Mode = 31 Calculation of Mode Using Grouping Table and Analysis Table To make Grouping Table 1. 7 10 8 5 8 6 8 9 Since item 8 repeats more number of times. 2. Calculation of mode for the following data. 3. Frequencies are grouped in three leaving the first frequency.Research Methodology Unit 12 4. Find mode for the following data. Group the frequency in two 2. Group the frequency in three 4.5 = 19 Mode for Discrete data Series In discrete series the item with highest frequency is taken as mode. Sikkim Manipal University Page No. Mode = (3 median – 2 mean) Mean = 18. 159 .5 Mode = (3 X 18. Mode is not rigidly defined.5) – (2 X 18.5) = 55.5 – 36. There are several formulae for calculating mode. Size of shirt 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 No.5 Median = (18 +19)/2 = 18. Therefore mode = 8 Calculation of mode when mode is ill defined.

To make Analysis Table 1. Sikkim Manipal University Page No. In column II. which constitute the highest value of the column. 2. 160 . Expenditure No. 5. 3. Frequencies are grouped in three leaving the first and second frequency. Count the number of marks. the frequencies are grouped in two 2. leaving the first frequency. frequencies are grouped in two. Mode = L1 + (f1 – f0 / 2f1-f0-f2) X C L1 = Lower limit of the model class f1 = frequency of the model class f0 frequency of the class preceding the model class = f2 = frequency of the class succeeding the model class C = class interval Illustration Find mode for the following data using grouping table and analysis table. In column I. 4. of families 0-20 14 20-40 15 40-60 27 60-80 13 80-100 12 100-120 17 120-140 2 Grouping Table Class 0-20 20-40 40-60 60-80 80-100 100-120 120-140 Frequency 14 15 27 13 12 17 2 29 29 40 25 42 31 29 42 56 55 52 I II III IV V Steps 1. The class with the highest marks is selected as the model class.Research Methodology Unit 12 5. Assign marks to classes. Analysis table is made based on grouping table. Apply the interpolation formula and find the mode. Circle the highest value of each column. 6.

In column III. 5. leaving the first and second frequency.4615) 20 40 + 9. Analysis Table Class 0-20 20-40 40-60 60-80 80-100 100-120 120-140 Frequency 14 15 27 13 12 17 2 I I I I I II III I I I I I I I I I IV V Total 1 3 5 4 1 0 0 Since highest mark is 5 and is obtained by the class 40-60. In column IV frequencies are grouped in three.Research Methodology Unit 12 3. frequencies are grouped in three 4. leaving the first frequency. Therefore model class = 40-60 Mode is calculated by the formula Mode L1 f1 f0 f2 C Mode = = = = L1 + (f1 – f0) / (2f1-f0-f2) X C Lower limit of the model class frequency of the model class frequency of the class preceding the model class class interval 40 + (27 – 15) / (2 X 27 –15-13) X 20 40 + (12/ 54-28) 20 40 + (12/ 26) 20 40 + (.23 49. In column V frequencies are grouped in three.23 = = = = 40 27 15 13 20 = = = = = = = = frequency of the class succeeding the model class = Sikkim Manipal University Page No. 161 .

To facilitate the use of other statistical measures. It should be based on all the values of a distribution 4. Range 2. A high degree of variation would mean little consistency and low degree of variation would mean high consistency. Quartile deviation 3. Measures of dispersion points out as to how far the average value is representative of the individual items. Objectives of Measuring Dispersion Study of dispersion is needed to: 1. the average tends to closely represent the individual values and it is reliable. 162 . To control variability of the data 3. Dispersion is a statistical measure.. wage etc. 5. It should have sampling stability 6. When dispersion is large. Measures of Dispersion 1. Lorenz curve Sikkim Manipal University Page No. which understands the degree of variation of items from the average. are widely varied from the mean. Mean deviation 4. To test the reliability of the average 2. Standard deviation 5. To enable comparison with two or more distribution with regard to their variability 4. efficient operation requires control of quality variation. Properties of a Good Measure of Dispersion A good measure of dispersion should be simple to understand. It should be easy to calculate 2. In industrial production. Many economic variables like income.Research Methodology Unit 12 Dispersion Dispersion is the tendency of the individual values in a distribution to spread away from the average. If the dispersion value is small. It should not be unduly affected by extreme values. It should be amenable to further statistical and algebraic treatment. Measures of variation enable comparison of two or more series with regard to their variability. 1. the average is not a typical representative value. It should be rigidly defined 3. Measures of dispersion are useful to control the cause of variation.

relative measures of dispersion are used for comparison. Coefficient of Standard deviation Range Range is the difference between the lowest and the highest value. Calculate of range of the following distribution. Quartile deviation. Also calculate the co-efficient of range. Measures of dispersion can be absolute or relative. 163 . The following are the important relative measures of dispersion. Coefficient of Quartile deviation 3.Research Methodology Unit 12 Range. Lorenz curve is a graphical measure of dispersion. Symbolically. Coefficient of range = (H – L) / (H + L) 1. It is obtained by the following formula. A relative measure of dispersion is the ratio of absolute measure to an appropriate average. When two sets of data are expressed in different units. Coefficient of range 2. An absolute measure of dispersion is expressed in the same unit of the original data. Mean deviation and Standard deviation are mathematical measures of dispersion. 1. range = highest value – lowest value Range = H–L H = highest value L = lowest value Relative measure of dispersion is co-efficient of range. giving income of 10 workers.6521 Sikkim Manipal University Page No. Coefficient of Mean deviation 4. 25 37 40 23 58 75 89 20 81 95 Range = H–L H = highest value = 95 L = lowest value = 20 Range = 95 –20 = 75 Coefficient of range = (H – L) / (H + L) = (95 –20) / (95 +20) = 75/ 115 = .

Research Methodology Unit 12 Range is simple to understand and easy to calculate. Q2. inter-quartile range Quartile Deviation Co-efficient of Quartile Deviation = = = Q3. 3. First quartile Q1 is point of the distribution where 25% of the items of the distribution lie below Q1. Demerits of Quartile Deviation 1. It is subject to fluctuations from sample to sample. 2. Q2 is the median of the distribution. Q3 and Q4. Quartile Deviation ignores the first 25% of the distribution below Q 1 and 25% of the distribution above the Q3. But it is not based on all items of the distribution.Q1) / 2 (Q3. and 25% of the items of the distribution lie above the Q3. and 75% of the items of the distribution lie above the Q1. Quartile Deviation is very much affected by sampling fluctuations. Symbolically. It has a special merit in measuring dispersion in open-ended series. Quartile deviation is based on the difference between the third and first quartiles. It is based on the first and the third quartile of a distribution. Third quartile Q3 is point of the distribution where 75% of the items of the distribution lie below Q3. Quartile Deviation is superior to range as a rough measure of dispersion. we obtain four quartiles. and 50% of the items of the distribution lie above the Q2. When a distribution is divided into four equal parts.Q1 (Q3. Find the Quartile Deviation and its co-efficient. 2. 20 58 40 12 30 15 50 Sikkim Manipal University Page No. 3. Quartile Deviation Quartile deviation is defined as inter quartile range. Quartile Deviation is not affected by extreme values. 164 . Q1. Problems Individual Series 1. Quartile Deviation is not amenable to further mathematical treatment. Range cannot be calculated for open-ended series. where 50% of the items of the distribution lie below Q2.Q1) / (Q3 + Q1) Merits of Quartile Deviation 1. So quartile deviation is defined as the inter-quartile range.

Find quartile Deviation and its co-efficient for the following data.4545 Co-efficient of Quartile Deviation Discrete Series 2.Research Methodology Unit 12 First of all arrange the data according to ascending order. Income : 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 Frequency: 50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 Income 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 Frequency 50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 CF 50 95 (N+1) / 4 th item = 69 = 120 135 170 200 225 3(N+1) / 4 th item = 207 =160 245 260 270 275 Sikkim Manipal University Page No. 12 15 20 28 30 40 50 th Q1 = Size of (N+1) / 4 item = Size of (7+1) / 4 th item = Size of (8 / 4) th item = 2nd item = 15 Q3 = = = = = = Size of 3(N+1) / 4 th item Size of 3 X (7+1) / 4 th item Size of 3 X 8 / 4 th item (3 X 2) nd item 6th item 40 = = = = (Q3. 165 .15) / (40+ 15) 25/55 .Q1) / (Q3 + Q1) (40.

166 .Research Methodology Unit 12 Q1 Q3 Quartile Deviation Co-efficient of Quartile Deviation = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = Size of (N+1) / 4 th item Size of (275+1) / 4 th item Size of (276 / 4) th item size of 69th cumulative frequency 120 Size of 3(N+1) / 4 th item Size of 3 X (275 +1) / 4 th item Size of 3 X69 th item Size of 207th cumulative frequency 160 (160 –120) /2 40/2 20 (Q3.120 / (160+ 120) 20/280 .0714 Continuous Series Find quartile deviation for the following series Marks : 0-20 20-40 40-60 60-80 Frequency : 10 30 36 30 Income 0-20 20-40 40-60 60-80 80-100 Q1 Frequency CF 10 30 36 30 14 10 40 (N) / 4 th class = 20.Q1) / (Q3 + Q1) (160.40 Q1 can be obtained by applying the interpolation formula = L1 + (N/4) – m / f X C = 20 + (30 – 10) / 30 X 20 Sikkim Manipal University Page No.40 76 106 3(N) / 4 th class = 60-80 120 80-100 14 = lies in (N) / 4 th class = lies in (120) / 4 th class = lies in (30) th cumulative frequency class = lies in 20.

33) = 36/ 102.33 Q3 = lies in 3(30)th cumulative frequency class = lies in 60-80 class Q3 can be obtained by applying the interpolation formula = L1 + 3 (N/4) – m / f X C = 60 + (90 – 76) / 30 X 20 = 60 + (14/ 30) X 20 = 60 + 280/30 = 60 + 9.33 = 33. we calculate mean deviation from mean.33) 2 = 36/2 = 18 Co-efficient of Quartile Deviation = (Q3. That is why it is commonly called as mean deviation.Q1) /2 = (69.33 = 69. mean deviation and standard deviation help us to achieve the dispersion. However.66 = . median or mode. Theoretically. in practice.3505 Mean Deviation Range and quartile deviation do not show any scatter ness from the average.Q1) / (Q3 + Q1) = (69. Thus.Research Methodology Unit 12 = 20 + 20/ 30 X 20 = 20 + 400/30 = 20 + 13. Formula for calculating mean deviation = ΣD/N Where ΣD = sum of the deviation of the items from mean. However. mean deviation from mean is frequently used.33 –33. 167 . mean deviation from median has an advantage because sum of deviations of items from median is the minimum when signs are ignored. Mean deviation is the average of the deviations of the items in a distribution from an appropriate average.33 + 33. Sikkim Manipal University Page No.33 Quartile Deviation = (Q3. median or mode N = number of items D is mode less meaning values or deviation is taken without signs.33) / (69.33 –33.

x 30 54 100 250 360 350 200 84 45 1473 D =x-20 5 2 0 5 10 15 20 22 25 45 1 Fd 10 6 0 50 120 150 100 44 25 505 Sikkim Manipal University Page No.Research Methodology Unit 12 Steps 1. Sum the deviations and obtain ΣD 4. the co-efficient of mean deviation is obtained by dividing mean deviation by mean. median or mode of the series 2. The co-efficient of mean deviation = mean deviation / mean If mean deviation is obtained from mode. Find the deviation of items from the mean. median or mode 3. It is obtained by dividing the mean deviation by a particular measure of average used for measuring mean deviation. If mean deviation is obtained from median. Take the average of the deviations ΣD/N. 168 . the co-efficient of mean deviation is obtained by dividing mean deviation by median. The co-efficient of mean deviation = mean deviation / median If mean deviation is obtained from mean. the co-efficient of mean deviation is obtained by dividing mean deviation by mode.efficient of mean deviation is the relative measure of mean deviation. The co-efficient of mean deviation = mean deviation / mode Problems Calculate mean deviation for the following data from mean Daily wages : 15 18 20 25 30 35 40 42 Frequency : 2 3 5 10 12 10 5 2 Daily wages 15 18 20 25 30 35 40 42 45 Frequency 2 3 5 10 12 10 5 2 1 50 f. which is the mean deviation. The co. Calculate mean.

5 16. The only difference is that we have to obtain the midpoints of the various classes and take deviations of these midpoints.3 1.5 14.5 (22.505 Continuous series The procedure remains the same.332 Page No.1 27.5 d – 15 – 10 –5 0 5 10 15 20 fd – 90 – 50 – 75 0 25 40 45 40 -65 A + Σ fx / ΣF 22.4 516.7 FD 127.1 /20 .1 The co-efficient of mean deviation = = = mean deviation / mean 10.5 17.5 12.3 6. Calculate mean deviation for the following data. The value so obtained is added and its average is the mean deviation.5 + 65/50 22.5 169.6/50 10.5) 27.6 Mean deviation from mean Sikkim Manipal University . Class Frequency Class 5-10 10-15 15-20 20-25 25-30 30-35 35-40 40-45 : 5-10 10-15 15-20 20-25 25-30 30-35 35-40 40-45 : 6 5 15 10 5 4 3 2 Frequency 6 5 15 10 5 4 3 2 50 Arithmetic mean = = = = = = = Mid x 7.3 3.5 +1.3 11.Research Methodology Unit 12 Mean = 1473/50 = 20 Mean deviation = ΣfD/N = 505/50 = 10.5 32.8 26.8 81.8 21.5 63 6. 169 D = x-28.5 42.8 ΣfD/N 516.3 28.7 13.7 8.5 37. The deviations are multiplied by their corresponding frequencies.

434 model class 15-20 L1 + (f1-f0 / 2 f1-f0-f2) C 15 + (15-5 / 2X15-5-10) X 5 15 + (10 / 30-5-10) X 5 Page No.5 37.Research Methodology Unit 12 The co-efficient of mean deviation = = = Mean deviation from median To find median Class 5-10 10-15 15-20 Frequency 6 5 15 6 11 CF mean deviation / mean 10.5 D = X.5 57 22.5 12.5 20.5 7.5 32.5 55 52.8 .5 42.5 4.17 9.5 26 (N/2) = 25 20-25 25-30 30-35 35-40 40-45 10 5 4 3 2 50 36 41 45 48 50 22.5 .332 / 28.5 5.5 62 61.38/17 .38 mean deviation / median 7.5 25.5 27.5 10.5 51 369 Median Mean deviation from median The co-efficient of mean deviation Mean deviation from mode = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = L1 + (n/2 – m/f) C 15 + 25 – 11/ 15 X 5 15 + 6/15 X 5 15 + 30/15 15 + 2 17 ΣfD/N 369/50 7.5 15.3762 Midx 7. 170 Sikkim Manipal University .5 17.

72/50 = 7.17 14. 2.5 37.17 fD 64. 4.45 41. Mean deviation is simple to understand and easy to calculate 2.85 56.72 Mid x 7.34 356. It is less affected by the values of extreme items compared to standard deviation.68 57.83 4.33 10. Since deviations are taken from a central value.5 27.17 24. Various methods give different results. Algebraic signs are ignored while taking the deviations of the items. 171 . But median is not a satisfactory measure when variability is very high.5 17.83 5. Sikkim Manipal University Page No.17 19.16/18. It is not capable of further mathematical treatment.5 32. It is rarely used for sociological studies. Mean deviation gives the best result when it is calculated from median.13 The co-efficient of mean deviation = mean deviation / mode = 7. comparison about formation of different distribution can be easily made. Demerits of Mean Deviation 1.5 = ΣfD/N = 356.7 45. 4. 5.17 9. It is based on each and every item of the distribution 3.Research Methodology Unit 12 = = = Class 5-10 10-15 15-20 20-25 25-30 30-35 35-40 40-45 Frequency 6 5 15 10 5 4 3 2 50 Mean deviation from mode 15 + (10 / 15) X 5 15 + 3.33 18.5 12.5 42.57 48.98 29.3 = .33 D = X – 18.15 12. 3.3912 Merits of Mean Deviation 1.5 22.83 .

Standard deviation is denoted by the Greek letter Mean deviation and standard deviation are calculated from deviation of each and every item. It satisfies most of the properties of a good measure of dispersion. Formula for finding standard deviation is   (x-x)2 / N Steps 1. First of all. Take the square root of the average of the sum of the deviation Problems 1. Standard deviation is defined as the mean of the squared deviations from the arithmetic mean. signs are taken into account in calculating standard deviation whereas. standard deviation is found only from mean. 172 . Sum the squares of the deviations  ( x-x)2 5. Calculate the standard deviation of the following data 49 50 65 58 42 60 51 48 Standard deviation from actual mean Arithmetic mean = x/N = 550 /10 = 55 68 59 Sikkim Manipal University Page No.Research Methodology Unit 12 Standard deviation Standard deviation is the most important measure of dispersion. Take deviation of the items from the mean ( x-x) 3. Find the square of the deviation from actual mean -x)2 / N 4. Whereas. Standard deviation is different from mean deviation in two respects. Secondly. Find the average of the squares of the deviations  ( x-x)2 / N 6. It was introduced by Karl Pearson in 1893. mean deviation can be found from mean. Standard deviation can be computed in two methods 1. Taking deviation from actual mean 2. median or mode. algebraic signs are ignored in calculating mean deviation. Taking deviation from assumed mean. Calculate the actual mean of the series  x / N 2.

Research Methodology Unit 12 Values 49 50 65 58 42 60 51 48 68 59 550 (x-55) -6 -5 10 3 -13 5 -4 -7 13 4 (x-55)2 36 25 100 9 169 25 16 49 169 16  (x-x) 614 2 =   (x-x) 2 / N =  614 /10 =  61.836 Standard deviation from assumed mean Assumed mean = 50 S.4 = 7.D Values 49 50 65 58 42 60 51 48 68 59 550 (x-50) -1 0 15 8 -8 10 1 -2 18 9  ( x-x) = 50 (x-55)2 1 0 225 64 64 100 1 4 324 81 2  (x-x) =864 Sikkim Manipal University Page No. 173 .

 {(fx) / N}2 Calculate standard deviation for the following frequency distribution. 174 .D = = = = = =   (FX) 2 / N –  {(FX) / N} 2  112200/60 –  {2460 / 60}2 2  1870 –  1870 – 1681  189 13. Step deviation Direct method Under this method formula is S. {(x-x) / N} 2  864 /10 – 50/10  86. 1.4 7. Direct method 2.25  61.4 .836 Discrete Series Standard deviation can be obtained by three methods. Short cut method 3.D = = = = = =   (x-x) 2 / N .D =   (fx) 2 / N .52  81.747 X2 400 900 1600 2500 3600 4900 fx 160 360 800 500 360 280 2460 Fx2 3200 10800 32000 25000 21600 19600 112200 Sikkim Manipal University Page No.4 . Marks : 20 30 40 50 60 70 Frequency : 8 12 20 10 6 4 Marks 20 30 40 50 60 70 Frequency 8 12 20 10 6 4 60 S.Research Methodology Unit 12 S.

Correlation and Causation Although. Higher the heat. which studies the relationship between two variables. Demand for a commodity increases as price falls. Supply of the commodity decreases when its price falls. For instance.I. We say supply and price are directly related or positively co-related. Connor. it is not always necessary that they have cause and effect relation. are examples of bi-variant data that change together. “if two or more quantities vary in sympathy so that movements in the one tend to be accompanied by corresponding movements in the other(s) they are said to be correlated”. If two variables are said to be correlated. Heights and weights of a group of people.13. age of husbands and wives etc. Sikkim Manipal University Page No. (b) Both the correlated variables are being affected by a third variable. Correlation between two variables can be due to following reasons:(a) Cause and effect relationship: Heat and temperature are cause and effect variable.3 Correlation Analysis Economic and business variables are related. According to L. Here there may not be any cause and effect relation between price of rice and price of sugar. We say demand and price are inversely related or negatively correlated.. price of rice and price of sugar are affected by rainfall.R. King defined “Correlation means that between two series or groups of data. W. For instance. there exists some casual connection”.Research Methodology Unit 12 12. demand and supply of a commodity is related to its price. the term correlation is used in the sense of mutual dependence of two or more variable. Even a high degree of correlation between two variables does not necessarily indicate a cause and effect relationship between them. change in the value of one variable result in a corresponding change in the value of other variable. The definitions make it clear that the term correlation refers to the study of relationship between two or more variables. 175 . correlation indicates the relationship between two such variables in which changes in the value of one variable is accompanies with a change in the value of other variable. Thus. Correlation is a statistical device. But sellers supply more of a commodity when its price rises. higher will be the temperature. Demand for a commodity decreases as its price rises. Heat is the cause of temperature.

In this case. correlation is said to be negative. When prices rise. Types of Correlation Analysis Correlation can be:  Positive or negative  Linear or non-linear  Simple. correlation is said to be linear. In real life it need not be true. In case on linear correlation. (d) The correlation may be due to chance. For instance. an increase in the value of one variable on an average results in a decrease in the value of other variable. supply increases and when prices fall supply decreases. There are cases when price rise due to increased demand. relationship between number of divorces and television exports may be correlated. There cannot be any relationship between divorce and exports of television.Research Methodology Unit 12 (c) Related variable may be mutually affecting each other so that none of them is either a cause or an effect. a small sample may show correlation between wages and productivity. 176 . Sikkim Manipal University Page No. When prices rise. multiple or partial Positive and Negative Correlation When values of two variables move in the same direction. In this case. Demand may be the result of price. Linear and Non-Linear Correlation When the change in one variable leads to a constant ratio of change in the other variable. Such correlation is due to chance. For instance. demand decreases and when prices fall demand increases. (e) There might be a situation of nonsense or spurious correlation between two variables. That is. correlation is said to be positive. results in an increase in the value of other variable or decrease in the value on one variable on an average results in the decrease in the value of other variable. If on the other hand. higher wage leading to lower productivity. an increase in the value of one variable on an average. The above points make it clear that correlation is only a statistical relationship and it does not necessarily signify a cause and effect relationship between the variables. values of two variables move in the opposite direction.

In economics. we are interested in finding the important dependant variables on the basis of independent variable. Utility of Correlation Study of correlation is of immense practical use in business and economics. Partial correlation studies the relationship of a variable with one of the many variables with which it is related. It is called curvilinear correlation because graph of such correlation results in a curve. we can estimate the value of one variable on the basis of the other.  The correlation study is useful for formulation of economic policies.  Correlation study helps us to make relatively more dependable forecasts Methods of Studying Correlation Following methods are used in the study of correlation:  Scatter diagram  Karl Pearson method of Correlation  Spearman‟s Rank correlation method  Concurrent Deviation method Sikkim Manipal University Page No.  Correlation analysis enables us to measure the magnitude of relationship existing between variables under study. Multiple correlation studies relationship of one variable with many variables. For instance. which determine yield of a crop. correlation between price and demand is simple as only two variables are studied in this case. yield and rainfall is a partial correlation. seed quality. For instance. Partial and Multiple Correlations Simple correlation studies relationship between two variables only.Research Methodology Unit 12 points of correlation plotted on a graph will give a straight line. In this case. 177 . In case of non-linear correlation. This is done with the help of regression equations. points of correlation plotted on a graph do not give a straight line. For instance. Simple.  Once we establish correlation. temperature and rainfall are three variables. fertilizer use and seed quality is a multiple correlation. Correlation is said to be non-linear when the change in one variable is not accompanied by a constant ratio of change in the other variable. correlation of agricultural production with rainfall.

The formula for obtaining Karl Pearson‟s Co-Efficient of Correlation is: Direct method r Covariance betw een x and y SD . the formula for obtaining Karl Pearson‟s Co-Efficient of Correlation is: Covariance between x and y = dxdy / N – (dx/N X dy/N) SDx =  (dx2 / N) – (dx /N) 2 SDy =  (dy2 / N) – (dy /N) 2 r dxdy / N  (dx / N x dy / N (dx 2 / N) . Karl Pearson‟s Co-Efficient of Correlation is denoted by symbol r. 178 . one variable is measured on the x-axis and the other is measured on the y-axis of the graph. correlation is negative. x SDy Covariance between x and y = xy / N – (x/N X y/N) SDx = standard deviation of x series =  (x2 / N) – (x/N) 2 SDy = standard deviation of y series =  (y2 / N) – (y/N) 2 Shortcut Method using Assumed Mean If short cut method is used using assumed mean.(dx / N) 2  (dy 2 / N) . If the trend shows upward rising movement. correlation is positive.Research Methodology Unit 12 Scatter Diagram This is a graphical method of studying correlation between two variables.(dy / N) 2 Steps in calculating Karl Pearson‟s Correlation Coefficient using Shortcut Method  Assume means of x and y series  Take deviations of x and y series from assumed mean and get dx and dy Sikkim Manipal University Page No. Karl Pearson developed the correlation from the covariance between two sets of variables. In scatter diagram. If plotted points do not show any trend. two variables are not correlated. Karl Pearson’s Co-Efficient of Correlation Karl Pearson‟s Co-Efficient of Correlation is a mathematical method for measuring correlation. If the trend is downward sloping. Each pair of values is plotted on the graph by means of dot marks.

it is interpreted as good positive correlation. If the value of Co-Efficient of Correlation r is 0 < r < 0.5 > r > -1. the formula for obtaining Karl Pearson‟s Co-Efficient of Correlation is: dx dy r dx 2  dy 2 Interpreting Co-Efficient of Correlation The Co-Efficient of Correlation measures the correlation between two variables.5. 179 . Sikkim Manipal University Page No. it is interpreted as zero correlation. The value of Co-Efficient of Correlation always lies between +1 and –1. If the value of Co-Efficient of Correlation r is 0. If the value of Co-Efficient of Correlation r is –0.5 < r < 1.  Multiply the corresponding deviations of x and y series and total the products to get dxdy.5. If the value of Co-Efficient of Correlation r is 0 > r > -0. If the value of Co-Efficient of Correlation r is 0.Research Methodology Unit 12  Square the dx and dy and find the sum of squares and get dx2 and dy2. it is interpreted as perfect negative correlation. it is interpreted as poor positive correlation. It can be interpreted in the following ways. If the value of Co-Efficient of Correlation r is –1. If the deviations are taken from the arithmetic mean dx = 0 and dy =0 and the formula becomes dxdy r dx 2 dy 2 Shortcut Method using Arithmetic Mean If short cut method is used using actual mean. it is interpreted as good negative correlation. it is interpreted as poor negative correlation. If the value of Co-Efficient of Correlation r is 1 it is interpreted as perfect positive correlation.

It means that 64% of the variation in supply is on account of changes in price. in such cases. For instance. number of pairs correlated. If Probable Error is 0. This method is adopted when the variables are not capable of quantitative measurements like intelligence. Spearman’s Rank Correlation Method Charles Edward Spearman. correlation is calculated between direction of deviations and not their magnitudes.13. We calculate the coefficient of determination as r2.82 or . As such only the direction of deviations is taken into account in the calculation of this coefficient and their magnitude is ignored.8. suppose the coefficient of correlation between price and supply is 0.6 D2 / n (n2-1) Where D is the difference between ranks and n. If the coefficient of correlation r is more than six times the Probable Error. it is generally considered as significant. which is .4 Coefficient of Determination Besides probable error. Probable Error is estimated by the following formula PE = 0.Research Methodology Unit 12 Probable Error Probable Error of Correlation coefficient is estimated to find out the extent to which the value of r is dependable.r2/  N) 12. Coefficient of Determination is the square of correlation or r2. It is in such cases rank correlation is useful. Sikkim Manipal University Page No.6745 (1. If the coefficient of correlation is less than Probable Error it will not be significant. beauty etc.64. it is impossible to assign numerical values for change taking place in such variables. Concurrent Deviation Method In this method. it would give such limits within which we can reasonably expect the value of correlation to vary. 180 . another important method of interpreting coefficient of correlation is the Coefficient of Determination. If Probable Error is added to or subtracted from the correlation coefficient.5 or more. correlation is definitely significant. a British psychologist devised a method for measuring correlation between two variables based on ranks given to the observations. Spearman‟s rank correlation coefficient is given by rk = 1.

When a successive figure in the series increase direction is marked as + and when a successive figure in the series decrease direction of change is marked as -. Calculate Karl Pearson‟s co-efficient of correlation for the following data.  Find out the change in direction of y-variable.  Multiply dx and dy and determine the value of C. Use the formula rc = +. 2C-n / n Steps in the Calculation of Concurrent Deviation  Find out the direction of change of x-variable. It is denoted as dy. X : 43 44 46 40 44 42 45 42 38 40 42 57 Y : 29 31 19 18 19 27 27 29 41 30 26 10 X 43 44 46 A(40) 44 42 45 42 38 40 42 57 Y 29 31 19 18 19 27 27 29 41 A(30) 26 10 dx 3 4 6 0 4 2 5 2 -2 0 2 17 43 dy -1 1 -11 -12 -11 -3 -3 -1 11 0 -4 -20 54 dx2 9 16 36 0 16 4 25 4 4 0 4 289 407 Dy2 1 1 121 144 121 9 9 1 121 0 16 400 944 -22 0 -8 -340 494 dxdy 3 4 -66 0 -44 -6 -15 Sikkim Manipal University Page No.or + X +). It is denoted as dx.Research Methodology Unit 12 The formula for the calculation of coefficient of concurrent deviations is given below: rc = +. 181 .X . C is the number of positive products of dxdy (. Problems 1. 2C-n / nto obtain the value of coefficient of  rc.

(dx/N X dy/N)  (dx2 / N) .09 58.58  4.11 21.(dx /N) 2  (dy2 / N) .12.Research Methodology Unit 12 Direct method Covariance betw een x and y r SD x  SD y Covariance between x and y = xy / N .(dy /N) 2 dxdy / N  (dx / N x dy / N) (dx 2 / N) .(dy / N) 2 dxdy N dx dy dx2 dy2 = = = = = = 494 12 43 54 407 944 494/12 (43/12 X 54/12) 407 / 12  ( 43 / 12) 2  944 / 12  (54 / 12) 2 41.16  16.(x/N X y/N) Dx = standard deviation of x series =  (x2 / N) .25 41.5) 33.41 Page No.(y/N) 2 Shortcut Method using Assumed Mean If short cut method is used using assumed mean.91  78.66  20. the formula for obtaining Karl Pearson‟s Co-Efficient of Correlation is: r Covariance betw een x and y D x  D y Covariance between x and y Dx Dy r = = = dxdy / N .(3.(dx / N) 2  (dy 2 / N) .(x/N) 2 Dy = standard deviation of y series =  (y2 / N) . 182 Sikkim Manipal University .17 .96 .

05 35. When the task is complex. 12. The edited data are then subject to codification and Sikkim Manipal University Page No.08 = 0. one at the time of recording the data and second at the time of analysis of data.64 25. The identification of the nodal points and the relationships among the nodes could sometimes be a complex task than estimated.14 Summary Data processing is an intermediary stage of work between data collections and data interpretation.714 Interpretation: There is good positive correlation between x and y variable. Data editing happens at two stages. which involves several types of instruments being collected for the same research question. The various steps in processing of data may be stated as: o Identifying the data structures o Editing the data o Coding and classifying the data o Transcription of data o Tabulation of data.05  7. All editing and cleaning steps are documented. the procedures for drawing the data structure would involve a series of steps. Coding need not necessarily be numeric 2. The editing step checks for the completeness. so that the redefinition of variables or later analytical modification requirements could be easily incorporated into the data sets. A mere tabulation or frequency count or graphical representation of the variable may be given an alphabetic coding. accuracy and uniformity of the data set created by the researcher. 183 . Self Assessment Questions State whether the following statements are true or false: 1. A coding of zero has to be assigned carefully to a variable.Research Methodology Unit 12 25. 3.

Computerized tabulation is easy with the help of software packages. Heading of all rows or blocks of sub items o Body-head: Headings of all columns or main captions and their subcaptions. Alphabetic Coding: A mere tabulation or frequency count or graphical representation of the variable may be given an alphabetic coding. The most commonly used graphic forms may be grouped into the following categories: o Line Graphs or Charts o Bar Charts Sikkim Manipal University Page No. In constructing this table. Coding has to be compulsorily numeric. when the variable is subject to further parametric analysis. o Field/body: The cells in rows and columns. wherever applicable. Frequency tables provide a “shorthand” summary of data. A coding of zero has to be assigned carefully to a   The transcription of data can be used to summarize and arrange the data in compact form for further analysis. The major components of a table are: o A Heading: o Table Number o Title of the Table o Designation of units o B Body o Stub-head. Zero Coding: variable. It is therefore a pre-requisite to prepare a coding scheme for the data set. o Source. 184 .Research Methodology Unit 12 classification. Coding process assigns numerals or other symbols to the several responses of the data set. Variables that are classified according to magnitude or size are often arranged in the form of a frequency table. It can also be alphabetic. wherever applicable. o C Notations: o Footnotes.  Numeric Coding: Coding need not necessarily be numeric. The recording of the data is done on the basis of this coding scheme. The importance of presenting statistical data in tabular form needs no emphasis. it is necessary to determine the number of class intervals to be used and the size of the class intervals.

How is Data Editing is done at the Time of Recording of Data 3. Scatter plots Bubble charts Stock plots Pictographs Chesnokov Faces 12. True TQs 1. Explain the Construction of Frequency Table 8. 185 . What are the Components of a Table? 9. Explain the role of Graphs and diagrams 12. Section 12.15 Terminal Questions 1. What is data Classification? 5. What are the fundamentals of Frequency Distribution? 11.2 2.3.3.1 Sikkim Manipal University Page No. What is Transcription of Data? 6. What are types of Coding? 4. What are the various steps in processing of data? 2.1 to Section 12. Explain the methods of Transcription: 7. What are the principles of Table Construction? 10.16 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs 1. What are Line Graphs? 12.Research Methodology Unit 12 o o o o o o Segmental presentations. What are the Types and General Rules for graphical representation of data? 13. True 3. True 2. Section 12.

Section 12. Section 12. section 12.5 5. Section 12.4 4.2 Sikkim Manipal University Page No. Section 12. Section 12. Section 12.6.2 7.1 13.Research Methodology Unit 12 3.6 6.12. Section 12.9 9.1 to Section 12.10 10. Section 12. Section 12.12.6. 186 .11 8.12 12.11 11. Section 12.

4 Summary Reports 13.1 Meaning of Research Report Research report is a means for communicating research experience to others.2.2 Structure the Presentation 13. Sikkim Manipal University Page No.4 Styles of Reporting 13.8 Summary 13.5 Research Abstract 13.1 Meaning of Research Reports Objectives 13.7 Evaluating the Final Drafts Self Assessment Questions 13.6 Editing the Final Draft 13.4.1.2 Types of Research Report 13.1 Communicate To Specific Audience 13. A research report is a formal statement of the research process and it results.2. It narrates the problem studied.2 Popular Report 13.Research Methodology Unit 13 Unit 13 Research Report Writing Structure: 13.3 Functions of Research Report 13.4.2.4.2.3 Interim Report 13.10 Answers To SAQ’s And TQ’s 13.2.4.2.5 Address Validity and Reliability Issues 13.6 Research Articles 13.3 Contents of Reports 13.2 Characteristics of Research Report 13. 187 .4 Be Specific and Visual 13.1.1 Purpose of Research Report 13.1.9 Terminal Questions 13. methods used for studying it and the findings and conclusions of the study.4.5 Steps in Drafting Reports 13.1 Technical Report 13.3 Create Audience Interest 13.

1. 13. methods and techniques used for collecting and analyzing data. The aim is not to convince but to convey what was done.3 Functions of Research Report It serves as a means for presenting the problem studied.  It provides a systematic knowledge on problems and issues analyzed. why and what was its outcome.1 Purpose of Research Report The purpose of the research report is to communicate to interested persons the methodology and the results of the study in such a manner as to enable them to understand the research process and to determine its validity.2 Types of Research Report Research reports can be classified as:  Technical reports  Popular reports Sikkim Manipal University Page No. findings and conclusions and recommendations.  It is a means for evaluating researcher’s competency.Research Methodology Unit 13 Objectives: After learning this lesson you should be able to understand:  Purpose of Research Report  Characteristics of Research Report  Functions of Research Report  Types of Research Report  Contents of Reports  Styles of Reporting  Steps in Drafting Reports  Editing the Final Draft  Evaluating the Final Drafts 13.1.  It is a means for judging the quality of research project. 13. It is simple.2 Characteristics of Research Report Research report is a narrative and authoritative document on the outcome of a research effort.1. It serves as a basic reference material for future use. 188 . readable and accurate form of communication. It represents highly specific information for a clearly designated audience. 13.

method and techniques used. the objectives of the study. the general pubic.3 Interim Report When there is a time lag between data collection and presentation of the result. After a brief introduction to the problem and the objectives of the study.e. scope. but more interested in the findings of the study.1 Technical Reports In a technical report a comprehensive full report of the research process and its outcome are included. style and size.2. 13. underlining pictures and graphs may be used. 13. Complicated statistics are avoided and pictorial devices are used.2.Research Methodology Unit 13    Summary reports Research abstract Research article These differ in terms of the degree of formality. conclusion and recommendations are presented.2. Sentences and paragraphs should be short. methods of data processing and analysis. sources of data. 13. an abstract of the findings of the study. It is prepared by a doctoral student on the eve of submitting his thesis.. the study may lose significance and usefulness.2. It contains a brief Sikkim Manipal University Page No. More headline.2 Popular Reports In popular report the reader is less interested in the methodological details. tools for data collection. It presents a summary of the findings of that part of analysis which has been completed. An interim report in such case can narrate what has been done so far and what was its outcome. detailed findings and conclusions and suggestion.5 Research Abstract Research abstract is a short summary of technical report. It is a short report of two to three pages. It is written in non-technical.4 Summary Reports Summary report is meant for lay audience i.2. findings and its implications. A description of the problem studied. physical form. 13. a detailed account of sampling filed and other research procedures. 189 . simple language with pictorial charts that just contains objectives. It covers all the aspects of the research process. 13.

Prefatory Items  Title page  Declaration  Certificates  Preface/acknowledgements  Table of contents  List of tables  List of graphs/figures/charts  Abstract or synopsis II. methods and techniques used and an overview of the report. through analysis of evidence to the conclusions and implications are given in the report.Research Methodology Unit 13 presentation of the statement of the problem. 13. Body of the Report  Introduction  Theoretical background of the topic  Statement of the problem  Review of literature  The scope of the study  The objectives of the study  Hypothesis to be tested  Definition of the concepts  Models if any  Design of the study  Methodology  Method of data collection Sikkim Manipal University Page No. the objectives of the study.3 Contents of the Research Report The outline of a research report is given below: I. 13.6 Research Article Research article is designed for publication in a professional journal. 190 .2. Progression from a statement of a problem and purpose of the study. It must be logically organized. A brief summary of the results of the study may also be used. A research article must be clearly written in concise unambiguous language.

Sometimes introduction to a chapter or a Sikkim Manipal University Page No. 13. 191 . Reference Material  Bibliography  Appendix  Copies of data collection instruments  Technical details on sampling plan  Complex tables  Glossary of new terms used. an executive summary at the outset can provide an overview of the conclusions for the benefit of those in the audience who are not interested in details. An appendix can be used to reach some people selectively. There are ways to deal with such a problem. The audience can become irritated when material perceived as relevant is excluded or the material is presented at too high level. Most effective presentations seem live conversations or memos to a particular person as opposed to an amorphous group. and its objectives. the presenter can ask audience whether they already know some of the material. without distracting the others. Frequently. its background. Excessive detail or material presented at too low a level can be boring. In a written presentation.4 Styles of Reporting 13.4. conclusions and recommendations III. In an oral presentation. The presentation must respect the audience’s time constraints. Audience identification affects presentation decisions such as selecting the material to be included and the level of presentation.1 Communicate to a Specific Audience The first step is to know the audience. a presentation must be addressed to two or more different audiences.Research Methodology Unit 13          Sources of data Sampling plan Data collection instruments Field work Data processing and analysis plan Overview of the report Limitation of the study Results: findings and discussions Summary.

Third. The most useful presentations will include a statement of implications and recommendations relevant to the research purpose. it is necessary to use a longer list. The audience will be able to absorb only so much information. Introduction should play several roles. It is better to divide the body of the presentation into two to five parts. The solution to this is to provide a well-defined structure. 13. The summary should support the presentation communication objectives by helping the audience to retain the key parts of the content. 192 . The audience should feel that there is a natural flow from one section to another. In an oral presentation. However. Another method that is often useful when presenting the research proposal is to base it on the research process. it will be easier to assimilate. Further.4. In that case. say it and then tell them what you said. which certain audiences may bypass.2 Structure the Presentation Each piece of presentation should fit into the whole. The precept is to tell the audience what you are going to say. Sometimes you want to withhold the conclusion to create interest.Research Methodology Unit 13 section can convey the nature of the contents. A second function is to identify the presentation’s central idea or objective. The purpose of the presentation summary is to identify and underline the important points of the presentations and to provide some repetition of their content. the presence of multiple audiences should be recognized. One way to structure the presentation is by the research questions. and a summary. Sikkim Manipal University Page No. the ability to generate recommendations may be limited. it should provide a road map to the rest of the presentation so that the audience can picture its organisation and flow. when researcher lacks information about the total situation because the research study addresses only a limited aspect of it. The structure should include an introduction. If that information can be aggregated into chunks. First. just as individual pieces fit into a jigsaw puzzle. The audience should not be muttering. it should provide audience interest. each of the major sections should be structured similarly. Sometimes the points to be made cannot be combined easily or naturally. a body.

The wording of the questions.4. the researcher should be on the lookout for results that are exceptionally persuasive.3 Create Audience Interest The audience should be motivated to read or listen to the presentation’s major parts and to the individual elements of each section the audience should know why the presentation is relevant to them and why each section was included. As the analysis proceeds and presentation is being prepared. anecdotes. The most interesting presentations usually use specific stories. a presentation that attempts to report on all the questions that were included in the survey and in the cross-tabulations often will be long. Terms that are ambiguous or not well known should be defined and illustrated or else omitted. and unusual. the order in which they are asked. there is a potential problem. or how you locate homes in an area sampling design. uninteresting and of little value. or incidents to make points. A presentation that focuses on those research questions and their associated hypothesis will naturally be tied to relevant decisions and hold audience interest. 13. Nobody is interested in a textbook discussion of the advantages of telephone over mail surveys.4. interesting. If different members of the audience have different or vague understandings of important concepts. relevant. In contrast. 193 . The research purpose should specify decisions to be made and should relate to the research questions.4 Be Specific and Visual Avoid taking or writing in the abstract. and the sampling design are among the design dimensions that can lead to biased results and misinterpretations. A section that cannot hold interest should be excluded or relegated to appendix. The presentation should not include an exhaustive description of all the design considerations. Sikkim Manipal University Page No. the deviant respondent with strange answers can provide the most insight in his or her responses that are pursued and not discarded.4.Research Methodology Unit 13 13. 13. Sometimes.5 Address Validity and Reliability Issues The presentation should help the audience avoid misinterpreting the results. The research purpose and objectives are good vehicles to provide motivation. studies.

Each chapter may be divided into two or more sections with appropriate headings and in each section margin headings and paragraph headings may be used to indicate subject shifts. given the sample size. A page should not be fully filled in from top to bottom.  Create audience interest  Be specific and visual  Address validity and reliability issues 13. it always should be clear what sample size was involved. what probability exists that the results were merely an accident of sampling. Second. the ability to communicate effectively is undoubtedly the most important attribute a manager can have. presentations are made twice during the research process. then the results probably would not be repeated.5 Steps in Drafting the Research Report Along with the related skill of working with and motivating people. there is the presentation of the research results.Research Methodology Unit 13 The presentation should include some indication of the reliability of the results. 13.6 Editing the Final Draft A research report requires clear organisation. Do not imply more precision than is warranted. 194 . Guidelines for successful presentations In general a presenter should:  Communicate to a specific audience. First. Generally. Sikkim Manipal University Page No. Wider margins should be provided on both sides and on top and bottom as well. The formal presentation usually plays a key role in the communication effort. If the probability of the latter is not low.  Structure the presentation. there is the research proposal presentation. Effective communication between research users and research professional is extremely important to the research process. The hypothesis test basically indicates. The key results should be supported by more precise information in the form of interval estimates or a hypothesis test. At the minimum. Physical presentation is another aspect of organisation.

It is separated from other textual material by two or three line space. Marginal heading is used for a subdivision in each section.Research Methodology Unit 13 Centred section heading is provided in the centre of the page and is usually in solid font size. i. Reference style should have a clear format and used consistently. spell out them in full. Sikkim Manipal University Page No. Use present tense for presenting the findings of the study and for stating generalizations. Do not use masculine nouns and pronouns when the content refers to both the genders. Footnote citation is indicated by placing an index number.. a superscript or numeral. Do not abbreviate words in the text. long sentences should be reconsidered and the critical main points should stand out. it is important to generate a research report that will be interesting to read. There is some space between the margin and this heading. Here are some hints for effective report writing.  Use the present tense as much as possible to communicate information. 195 . In their enthusiasm for research. 13. If the writer is not strong in grammar.e. However.7 Evaluating the Final Draft The general guidelines discussed so far are applicable to both written and oral presentations. It starts from the left side margin without leaving any space. get the manuscript corrected by a language expert. Most researchers are not trained in effective report writing.  Use computer-generated tables and graphs for effective presentations.  Use main heading and subheadings to communicate the content of the material discussed.  Whether the presentation is written or oral. In writing a report. they often overlook the need for a good writing style. at the point of reference. Presentation should be free form spelling and grammar errors. passive voice is wordy and dull. use active voice construction to make it lively and interesting. Paragraph heading is used to head an important aspect of the subject matter discussed in a subdivision. Use the rules of punctuations.

13. It is Sikkim Manipal University Page No. In popular report the reader is less interested in the methodological details. Research abstract is a short summary of technical report. the general pubic.8 Summary Research report is a means for communicating research experience to others. It is a means for evaluating researcher’s competency. The purpose of the research report is to communicate to interested persons the methodology and the results of the study.e. simple language with pictorial charts it just contains objectives. Research report is a narrative and authoritative document. Research report is a means for communicating research experience to others. It serves as a means for presenting the problem studied. 2. It presents a summary of the findings of that part of analysis which has been completed. It is a means for judging the quality of research project. It covers all the aspects of the research process. Summary report is meant for lay audience i. 3. methods and techniques used for collecting and analyzing data. An interim report in such case can narrate what has been done so far and what was its outcome.. 196 . In a technical report a comprehensive full report of the research process and its outcome. It provides a systematic knowledge on problems and issues analyzed. It is a short report of two to three pages. Research report is a narrative and authoritative document on the outcome of a research effort. The purpose of the research report is to communicate to interested persons the methodology and the results of the study in such a manner as to enable them to understand the research process and to determine its validity. It represents highly specific information for a clearly designated audience. findings and its implications. It is written in non-technical.Research Methodology Unit 13   Use informative headings. Self Assessment Questions I State whether the following statements are true or false: 1. tables or graphs could be presented on the left side of an open report and their descriptions on the right side. It serves as a basic reference material for future use. findings and conclusions and recommendations. For example. but more interested in the findings of the study. Use double-sided presentation if possible.

2. 3. Research article is designed for publication in a professional journal.2 Section 13. 13. Section 13. Sikkim Manipal University Page No. 197 . What is a research report? What are the contents of research report? What are the types of research reports? Draw an outline of research report.3. True 2.1 Section 13. 3.9 Terminal Questions 1.10 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs 1.Research Methodology Unit 13 prepared by a doctoral student on the eve of submitting his thesis. 4. True TQs 1. True 3. 4. 2. 13. A research article must be clearly written in concise and unambiguous language.1 Section 13.

198 . you should be able to :  Explain what is meant by ethical research  Describe the main ethical issues that could arise in the research process  Prepare a code of ethics for the conduct of research  Recognize how ethical research contributes to better quality research Sikkim Manipal University Page No.5 Ethical Issues in Data Collection 14. In other words.11 Answers to SAQs and TQs 14.Research Methodology Unit 14 Unit 14 Ethics in Research Structure: 14.10 Terminal Questions 14.7 Ethically Questionable Research Situations 14.9 Summary 14. one of the most important characteristics of good research is that it should be conducted in an appropriate manner that does not encroach upon the rights of the various parties involved in the process. Objectives: After studying this unit.1 Introduction Apart from being well designed and accurate. The various types of ethical issues that could arise during the different stages of the research process will also be examined in detail. respondents or on those conducting the actual research.3 Ethical Issues in the Overall Research Process 14.2 Meaning of Research Ethics 14.4 Ethical Issues in Gaining Access to Participants 14.1 Introduction Objectives 14. research should not have an adverse impact – either on clients. This final unit will begin by defining “ethics” in research and will go on to emphasize that ethical research is the responsibility of both clients and suppliers of research.6 Ethical Issues related to Data Analysis & Reporting 14.8 Responsibility for Ethics in Research Responsibilities of Clients Responsibilities of Suppliers of Research Self Assessment Questions 14.

A code of ethics is essentially a set of guidelines and procedures to be followed when conducting research.  The right to refuse to be contacted during unreasonable times of the day Example – Respondents would not like to be contacted at their workplace during working hours or late at night.Research Methodology Unit 14 14. The appropriateness of behavior means that your behavior as a researcher should be acceptable to those who are involved in the research process. or are affected by it. Invasion of privacy is essentially a violation of any of the following rights of respondents –  The right of respondents not to participate in a research study  The right to refuse to participate beyond a certain limit Example – A respondent may refuse to participate in an interview beyond an agreed duration or time limit. ethics in a research context refers to “the appropriateness of your behavior in relation to the rights of those who become the subject of your work.2 Meaning of Research Ethics According to Mark Saunders.” In simple words. The most important ethical concern that may crop up across the various stages of research is the invasion of privacy of participants or respondents of a research study. 199 . Philip Lewis and Adrian Thornhill (2003).” Wells (1994) defines ethics as “a code of behavior appropriate to academics and the conduct of research.  The right to refuse to answer any questions that are perceived to be sensitive or of a confidential nature Examples – A respondent may not want to reveal his/her monthly income or expenditure. or the type of behavior that is expected in a particular situation. This in turn will depend on broad social norms. ethics in research refers to whether a particular practice or behavior is right or wrong. Every industry and profession has its own code of ethics. Sikkim Manipal University Page No.3 Ethical Issues in the Overall Research Process Ethical issues in research may be broadly classified into 1) general issues that may arise during any stage of the research process and 2) issues that arise during a specific stage of the research process. 14.

)  The time required for gathering the data  The time frame for participation in the research  The rights of the participant.Research Methodology Unit 14 Some respondents may find questions related to religion or political ideology to be too sensitive. a researcher may study rural communities without their knowledge.4 Ethical Issues in Gaining Access to Participants The initial stage of trying to approach respondents to participate in a study is the stage when ethical issues are bound to be most frequent. For example. getting the consent of the participant to take part in a research study alone is not sufficient. Some of the other aspects of the research about which participants need to be informed before getting their consent are –  The purpose of the research  The name of the person/organization that will be undertaking the research  The size of the sample and the type of participants  The type of information that will be required to be gathered  The method of data collection (e. Sikkim Manipal University Page No. the use of information gathered and other aspects. or by not revealing that the information gathered from them will be used for commercial purposes. You may still deceive the participant by hiding the real purpose of the study. etc. based on complete and accurate information regarding the purpose of the study.. face to face interview. Getting people to participate in a research project without their knowledge or consent is clearly unethical. 14. This is where the concept of “informed consent” comes in. online questionnaire. especially when reporting the findings of the study . as listed in section 15. 200 . in the fear that their awareness of the study may affect their responses and behavior.4  The use of data that will be gathered  The manner in which the findings of the research will be reported  The manner in which the anonymity and confidentiality of participants will be guaranteed. Informed consent means that the participant gives his/her consent freely.  The right to retain their anonymity and the confidentiality of information provided.g. However.

A key issue during this stage is to maintain objectivity. popularly known as “netiquette” needs to be developed and strictly followed for this purpose. irrespective of the method used to gather data. rather than via email. Each method of data collection also gives rise to different ethical concerns. For example. When using observation as a method of data collection. Similarly. A separate code of ethical use of the Internet. Objectivity means that you have to record information without being selective or influencing the responses with your own opinions and judgments. as mentioned earlier. One example of observing “netiquette” is to administer online surveys or questionnaires via a website. While the internet may make it easier to contact respondents more easily and repeatedly. during face to face interviews. 201 . when using qualitative research methods such as in-depth interviews and projective techniques. care should be taken not to invade the privacy of those being observed.Research Methodology Unit 14 14. For example. Lack of objectivity will lead to “interviewer bias” and affect the accuracy of data. Another ethical concern of a general nature includes the use of the Internet to collect both primary and secondary data. the respondents should not be contacted at “unreasonable times” of the day. The time should be fixed depending on the convenience of the participant. Sikkim Manipal University Page No. The questions asked should also be tactfully worded and should not come across as sensitive. it may also lead to greater invasion of privacy. This method ensures that respondents retain their anonymity. In the case of telephone interviews. you should not observe any behavior related to the private life of the participants. you should not force participants to provide answers. The questionnaire may be advertised on email and the respondents invited to fill in an online questionnaire by accessing a website.5 Ethical Issues in Data Collection A number of ethical issues may also arise during the data collection stage. researchers should take care not to probe into the private lives of respondents or try to get information on personal matters such as religion or political ideology.

202 . Some examples of such situations and practices are described below –  Undertaking research dictated by top management. in order to arrive at findings that have already been identified as desirable. The same caution needs to be exercised when naming particular individuals is true of individuals 14. involve invasion of privacy or deception of respondents or clients.7 Ethically Questionable Research Situations Research situations and practices that have a hidden or ulterior purpose may be considered to be clearly unethical. This means that the statistical accuracy of the data gathered should not be misrepresented. Sikkim Manipal University Page No. since they are either manipulated.Research Methodology Unit 14 14.  Deliberately using jargon or technical terms more than is needed to give the reader the impression of being competent.  Obtaining information to compile mailing lists in the name of doing a survey. Sometimes you may have to seek permission from an organization before revealing their name while reporting your findings.  Pretending to do a survey when you are actually making a door to door or telephone sales pitch.6 Ethical Issues during the Data Analysis & Reporting stages Being objective is a major ethical issue during the data analysis and reporting stages as well and is a reflection of the honesty and integrity of the researcher. The researcher should also not be selective in reporting only some of the data at the cost of other data. Such subjectivity will distort the conclusions and recommendations made after the research has been completed.  Continuing a research study without revealing to the client that major mistakes have been identified and costly corrections may be needed. The issue of confidentiality and anonymity that was discussed earlier is also equally important during this stage. This may involve explaining to them the context in which their name would be used.  Trying to extract information from someone by falsely stating that his or her superior has authorized this.

the respondents’ respondents are minimal. the client or manager should not deliberately distort the results to his own advantage. since they are only expected to be honest in their behavior and responses. Accepting to undertake a research study. Specifying certain techniques to be used in a study and then failing to apply these techniques. Regarding honesty towards those to whom the findings of the study are being disseminated. the supplier of research and the respondents or the participants. 14. Of these. as well as with those to whom the findings of research are being reported. Objectivity in turn implies that the researcher should refrain from expressing his or her own judgments while recording responses or from interpreting the findings of the research in a manner that suits his or her own interests. 203 .1 Responsibilities of Clients The primary responsibility of clients or managers is to be honest with the researcher.Research Methodology Unit 14       Seeking the co-operation of respondents by promising to give feedback on the research results and then not keeping up the promise. Conducting research under a false or fictitious name.8. without getting the permission of the first client.8 Responsibility for Ethics in Research The situations described above imply that the responsibility for ethical research lies with three parties that are directly involved in the research process – the client or manager. in order to obtain information that would be difficult to get otherwise. Including questions developed for one client’s questionnaire for another client.1) not disguising the real purpose of the study and 2) encouraging the researcher to be objective in the process of gathering information. Being honest with the researcher means . Using hidden tape recorders and other devices when conducting depth interviews and other qualitative techniques to probe into respondents’ motivations. fully knowing that it cannot be completed on time. 14. Sikkim Manipal University Page No. The responsibilities of the clients and suppliers of research are described in detail below.

it would be dishonest to inflate the cost just to match the client’s budget. The same is true of time constraints. including clients. its purpose and its impact on them as participants. respondents. a marketer of a particular brand of detergent A should not claim that a majority of respondents favored brand A as compared to another brand B. The researcher has responsibilities towards all the parties involved in the research process. Based on these results. respondents have various rights. the right to safety. For example. such as an independent research firm that supplies research studies to client companies. This is tantamount to abuse of respondents. if the research can be done with less money than what the client has available. ”espionage” or Sikkim Manipal University Page No. 14. Confidentiality means not revealing the findings of the research to the client’s competitors. The researcher’s responsibility towards respondents includes respecting their time and their privacy. Some researchers even conduct fake surveys that deceive respondents by delivering a sales pitch. For example. including the desire to remain anonymous and free from physical or psychological harm and the right to be informed about the sponsor of the study. 2% preferred brand A and the remaining 1% preferred brand B. the researcher has to work within ethical limits.Research Methodology Unit 14 Example A study may reveal that 97% of respondents did not express their preference for any particular brand. This is because it is the researcher who deals directly with participants of a study as well as with clients. Regarding the researcher’s responsibilities towards competitors. As emphasized earlier in this chapter. Researchers doing telephone surveys in particular call respondents at odd hours of the day to obtain various kinds of information. integrity and confidentiality. including the right to choose not to participate in a study.2 Responsibilities of Suppliers of Research The bulk of the responsibility for ethical research lies with the researcher. The researcher may be an individual or an organization. The primary responsibilities of the researcher towards clients are honesty.8. competitors and society at large. 204 .

2. It is ethical for top management to modify the findings of a study to highlight the strengths of the organization.9 Summary Ethics in the context of research refers to whether a researcher’s behavior is appropriate and acceptable to all the parties that are involved in the Sikkim Manipal University Page No. 14. 4. 7. Filling in incomplete answers in a questionnaire is an example of lack of objectivity. Using cameras to observe respondent’s reactions to advertisements is unethical. researchers have an ethical responsibility to society at large. Self Assessment Questions Are the following statements true or false? 1.  Hiring a competitor’s employee in order to gain access to competitor information Finally. 5. This can best be achieved by being honest and objective. 6. This implies that it is up to researchers to build a positive image of research as a profession in the eyes of the general public. 3. Failure to observe these ethical principles will only lead to a negative attitude towards research by the public. both while conducting the research and when disseminating the results to society at large. Other examples of situations that are unethical include –  Developing a strategy to distort the results of a competitor’s test marketing experiment. Observation is not an ethical method of data collection. One of the rights of respondents is to refuse to be contacted over the telephone. Confidentiality implies that you may have to change the name of the organization that was researched when reporting the findings. Participants of a study should be informed about the sampling procedure before getting their consent. The bulk of responsibility for ethical research lies with clients or managers. 8. 205 .Research Methodology Unit 14 stealing product information from competitors is clearly unethical.

care must be taken to avoid sensitive questions and to word questions tactfully. The responsibilities of respondents and clients include honesty – respondents are expected to be honest while providing information. Regarding the data collection stage. Objectivity means reporting the statistical accuracy of the data and the findings of the study without distorting them. The responsibility for ethical research lies with respondents. 206 . it is important to get their informed consent. while Sikkim Manipal University Page No. the right to confidentiality and anonymity and the right to refuse to participate in a study. confidentiality and anonymity. participants of a study. the primary ethical concerns are objectivity. Research situations and practices that are manipulated. the type of information that will be gathered. Some of the ethical concerns that arise during the overall process are with regard to the rights of respondents. how it will be gathered. However. These include clients. Confidentiality and anonymity imply that the permission of organizations or individuals would have to be sought before revealing their names and identities. each method of data collection gives rise to different ethical concerns. While using observation and qualitative research techniques. how it will be reported and used. researchers should not invade the privacy of respondents. respondents have minimal responsibilities for ethical research. while researchers have the maximum number of responsibilities. This means getting their consent to participate based on complete information on various aspects of the research. or try to deceive respondents are clearly unethical. researchers should avoid probing into the private lives of participants. During the data analysis and reporting stages. have ulterior motives. competitors and society at large. While trying to gain initial access to participants of a study. Telephone interviewers must refrain from calling participants at odd times of the day. It is unethical to violate the rights of respondents such as the right to privacy. including the purpose of the study. when using the internet to collect primary data. Ethical issues in research may crop up during the overall research process or at a specific stage of the research. clients and researchers. etc.Research Methodology Unit 14 research process. Similarly. While administering questions face to face.

The researcher has ethical responsibilities towards clients. Develop a code of ethics for use of the internet to conduct online surveys. 14. 3.Research Methodology Unit 14 clients need to be honest regarding the purpose of the research. 14. 4. including honesty regarding the cost and time involved in conducting the study and objectivity in collecting. Responsibilities towards competitors include avoiding practices such as stealing confidential information. 3. researchers also have responsibilities towards society at large in terms of building a positive image of the research profession. analyzing and reporting the data. False False True False False True False False Sikkim Manipal University Page No. Think of three different research questions that might be perceived by respondents as sensitive or of a confidential nature and are therefore unethical. Explain with an example how a researcher can deceive participants even after getting their consent to participate in a study. Briefly describe three different ways in which a researcher can introduce subjectivity into a study. Finally.10 Terminal Questions 1. listing out the “do’s” and “don’t’ s”. 6. 7.11 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs 1. Give examples of two ethically questionable research situations. 8. 2. in addition to what is mentioned in this unit. 4. 2. Responsibilities toward respondents include being honest and respecting their various rights. 5. 207 . 5.

3 Refer 14.8. 208 . 2.1 Sikkim Manipal University Page No.7 Refer 14. Refer 14.4 Refer 14. 5.5 Refer 14. 3. 4.Research Methodology Unit 14 TQs 1.

Lewis P. 5. L. The Design of Social Research.R. Pannershelvam. 209 . Chicago.. L. S. 2004. Prentice-Hall of India. Pearson Education (Singapore). Methodology of Research in Social Sciences. Research Methods for Business Students.. 3. Saunders M.. P. 4. Bhandarkar and T. Ackoff R. Krishnaswamy O. Himalaya Publishing House. Methodology and Techniques of Social Research. 1953. Wilkinson. –––––––––––––––––– Sikkim Manipal University Page No. 1993 2. Delhi. and Thornhill A. New Delhi. 2003. Research Methodology. Himalaya Publishing House. R.Research Methodology Unit 14 References: 1..

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