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HALL. N. Formerly Art Director of the Albert Studio of Fashion Drawing. N. J.
NEW YORK WILEY & SONS. J. Newark.. and Instructor of Fashion Drawing Young Women's Christian Ass'n.STUDENT'S MANUAL
Thirty Lessons with Conventional Charts
Director of the Edith Young Art ScJwol. Albert Business
BRAUNWORTH ft CO* BOOK MANUFACTURERS
XXVII. The Ben
13 13 13 17 17
Proportions of Children
62 64 64 69
The Head and Hair
the Dress on the
Arm and Hand
The Back Form
Original Dress Designing
XII. Ribbons and Flowers
etc. Stripes and Figures
. Bows. Lacing. The
The Box-plaited The
XIII. Furs and Fans
Newspapers and Cata97
The Large Coat
Hat on the Head
XIV. Pen and Ink
a Sketch from a Costume
Feathers and Hats
76 78 80 82
The Tucked Waist
The Tight Jacket
XXIV. The Leg and Shoe
. Texture and
VII. The Back Figure
II. The Arm and Hand.
XXX. To Place a Dress on the Figure
The Tucked The
Illustrating a Costume
the Form. The Construction
The Dress Form.
30 32 35 39
VIII. The Plaited Waist
In the fashion field. but the author's aim has been not so much to offer a discussion of methods in
a collection of pictures. select only pen and ink
illustrations. In drawing. Place these in
boxes. cards. mastered as it is encountered. newspaper clippings in another." because in
the meaning can be
skipped the student has drawn
cause trouble later on.
manual has had much
experience in teaching pupils of the limited
preparation suggested. who have a desire to draw.
is. In this. as
Christian Association and the
Albert Business College. Begin right now to save.
lines. he make original drawings.
standingly. decorative work.
fashion drawing as to provide the means for practice in applying these methods. etc. newspaper clippings. They thus bring to the study prac-
rather to teach the pupil how to study.
fashion papers. using these
and pictures as guides. in another. N. you will have something to work " from. the pupil is urged to heed
." They are conventional charts illustrating the subject.
figures in underclothes
and the nude
pupil will learn best by carefully following directions and by constant pracThe manual is to be used as a guide.
any costume. with numerous illustrations and ample opportunity for drill on fundatically
each illustration is important." Do not let this happen to you.
should perhaps be stated that the plates given in connection with the lessons are not supposed to
In this connection
pretty. The first steps must be very simple.
principles are carefully explained. etc. study the fashion drawings and find the subjects that you have papers learned.
sorted. J. As such they are very " set. Successful instruction for such classes must necessarily follow a very definite and carefully worked-out plan. Newark. The cry has been so often. in a conventional manner. photos and wash drawings are too vague for the beginner.
Merely copying these
charts will not
the pupil a fashion intended
without any preparatory instruction in art. are much interested in fashion drawing and wish to take up the subject
artist. and as
no knowledge of fashions and very knowledge of drawing. advertisements. tice. but putting feeling and grace into his work. then when you get to the lessons on the back and on sitting figures. The text sets forth in detail the course
are clear cut. Every chart is fully explained. the artist may use a
which has been followed with and which has been found
picture as a
model and from it construct an which may be dressed in
results. I can not find any back figure in underclothes. such as dealt with in Lesson XXX. and the succeeding steps must follow in a carefully selected order and in easy stages.INTRODUCTION
people. in connection with her classes in fashion drawing at the Young
studying each lesson carefully fully understood and making for the same.
Be on the lookout for anything that will help you in your study. say one-half head..
NEWARK. use the following measuring system to true up your work:
piece of cardboard. a book.
your own work. etc.
1919. Use the second measurement on all corresponding parts on your drawing. hands. For the main part of costumes. See how many times the first measurement goes into certain parts on the model. N. A novice will often see a defect that you have passed over. and you. For fine work. sharpen your fine lines. So many drawings are poor for the simple reason that a dull point is not the proper tool for To save time. When you use an eraser. mark off at the top
by four a meas-
them to show. rest the eye. at least one-third inch. use a very fine point. View your picture at a distance..
on an emery pad. be it a picture. and on these indistinct lines make your drawing better. but if you are not satisfied with results. use a blunt pencil point with
upside down. After drawing for a time. have plenty of lead exposed and do not try to draw with the wood. Use a soft
rag or feather duster to clean off the specks.
plenty of lead exposed.
let others criticise it for
not be too emphatic about this. even if they are not artists.
Erase the old
EDITH YOUNG. I can details.
J. as the eye becomes stale with close watching. such as faces. a fine point is not good.
gowns themselves. reverse
urement of the model. build as you
Learn to trust to your eye. one inch or five inches.VI
the following suggestions: When beginning to draw.
a looking-glass. Below this mark make another mark the size of one-half the head of your figure.
emery sharpener. small piece of blue glass
bottle Higgin's drawing ink (waterproof).
two No. fixatif (to spray charcoal and pencil drawings). The student should try experiments with these papers. pencil holder. water colors in one-half pans as follows
Yellow ochre. crayons. sable hair brushes (No.
Greens can be mixed. draw two lines and fill in between them with a brush or
. cobalt. (x) light red. raw sienna. 170 Gillott pens.
Articles. burnt umber.
There are many kinds of papers in white and color. note book. ink compass. madder brown. one
study drawings through). portfolio.
up along the pencil line.
glass. orange vermilion.
black and white
are rendered in pencil. although certain papers are prepared for certain mediums. 290
one stub-pen. 2 and No. burnt sienna. compass. (x) rose madder. 2).
Gillott pens. penknife. 6) .
tacks. (x) Hunter's green. tin box to hold more than these colors.
ink eraser (be careful of its use).
drawing tablet. gamboge. Prussian blue.
place the ruler
atomizer. art gum (to clean drawings). raw potato (to clean pens).
many more good colors. B.
When ruling a line in ink.
card white (in a jar)
jar). If a wide line is required. ruler with
cotton rag. two No. B. charcoal.
one sheet of blotting
plumb line. small camel's hair brush (for ink). (x) Hooker's green (No. vermilion. Vandyke brown.
sheet of tracing paper paper. 1 and No. (x) may be omitted for
T-square. Payne's gray. (x) indian yellow.
diminishing glass. 3. two pen holders.
For Water-color Work. crayon pencils. Bristol board (plate finish) or pen and ink paper. hold very steady and rule with the ruling pen.
baking board). crimson lake.DRAWING MATERIALS
For Pencil Work.
For Ink Work. No. 1.
metal edge. (x) sepia. raw umber. hard pencil
soft pencil (H.
a tube). crayon pencils and oil or water color paint.
draw of two
careful note of the direction of the
form must have good proportion and A form leaning forward. The waist goes into the skirt two and one-half times. When the dress
on the human figure. as one might express it. 4). which consists ovals. the sleeve is thrown out. Leave a
do not flare as much as for a full one.
dumpy placed on a will have no style whatever. Lines 4 and 5 cross lines 2 and 3 at the waist. then lines 2.
relating to a certain figure (of course beginning with Fig. pretty a. and also to dress the The best figure in a variety of costumes.STUDENT'S
MANUAL OF FASHION DRAWING
THE DRESS FORM
In taking up this lesson the student must remember that a good form is the
to begin the study of this and all succeeding lessons. and for any dress to be placed on
line 1. re-read the instructions. the shoulders
TO DRAW THE FORM
Make the drawing somewhat
are thrown back.
figure. is not stylish. This form is used for dressmaker's sketches. nor one with high. a bow. In the next lesson we dress the same form in a very simple
at the bottom. at first curving out
for the hips.
the student will find progress
as directed than
and quicker by proceeding by trying some other way. and form a mental image of the figure by imagining that you are drawing it. A. going over the lines of the figure with the point. Next select a sheet of drawing paper. is to read all points
succeeding lessons. then how to place the form on this layout. the length of the skirt may be shortened. and line 3 is thrown in at the waist. play and a complete
zontal curve up.
a very slight hori-
a lay figure. then curving in to the
. Line 2 is
understanding of these lessons will enable the student to draw the human figure in a
variety of positions. Fig. 3. without looking at the
lesson plate. placing the figure in the center of the paper. and with a soft pencil (medium). and the skirt hangs straight down from the For a scant waist.
thrown out for the bust. neither is one with too large a bust and a tiny waist. flaring at the bottom. which throws the shoulders back. and as the styles change.
the copy. or a dull point of some kind. then take a hard pencil. 4.
below. 5. according to the directions. it
In this lesson we
a layout for the form.
for a long dress. draw Fig.
explained. or making style. This may be done by getting the proportions and measuring to see just where to begin the drawing. dress or design
is. 6 and 7 as marked on the lesson plate. In this lesson we learn
lines of the collar
about the same height. You observe but little of the far side in a three-quarter view.
the edges of your paper. like
the sides of the collar. if a sleeve is to be drawn. take up Fig.' skirt '-oval. For a sketch of a dress one sleeve is suf8). This piece. drop the dotted lines from the center of the near shoulder to the end of the waist line.'.
The armhole has a
the collar three-
shoulder and from there
quarter view. curve down. and the bottom of the sleeve curves down. may be used for a far sleeve.
it is well to have two sleeves on a dress. This is true of the collar also. Put the skirt on with a flare. This line must be vertical or parallel with
line 2 is cut into for the chest
which comes out to the bust. skirt.
the ellipses graceful.
opposite the waist line.
collar are all
that the waist.
collar goes into the shoulders three
The armhole is not as large would suppose by the drawing.
that has preceded and can with snap.
where the armhole goes under the arm. The planes on the collar do the same. The upper half of the sleeve is somewhat
than the lower
half. and one sleeve
of the dress.
reversed. forming a graceful curve. doing it many times. which shows the front. . as does
as the sleeve touches the waist after
leaves the armhole. kept until the form is completed. Proceed with Fig. Get good curves on the shoulders. but the bottom of the sleeve
curves up. To test the accuracy of your form. but taking
. feel confident that you unall
Fig. the waist goes one-half (2J) times.
and the bottom
of the sleeves.Lin'e'fi'
the general direction. B in the same way. cut off of line 2. waist) literally. This makes the length of the upper part of the sleeve equal to that of the lower part.
In this position one may of a sleeve
goods by not connecting the lines.
you have followed all directions carefully. side. Drop the dotted from the end of the far shoulder to the other end of the waist line.
curves slightly towards the front. con-
necting the collar with the ends of line 1.
the waist line.
In the back view this order is is explained in Lesson II.thfe.
the drawing a three-quarter view. as is the waist and skirt. The center line of the collar is vertical. and do not show too much of the inside
of the collar
line 6. getting straighter Line 7 (center as it reaches the waist line. and show the thickness of the
show a design on the outside
or on the side of a dress. three-quarter view.. slightly in.
a sketch being used to show
made. There are three planes at the waist:
the front. A. coming out at the hips (not in).
and lines are the lines of Fig. but do not hollow the armhole too much.
These three planes on the waist run into each other. you will have a good form on which any costume may be placed. B
which is the dress form placed on Fig.
ficient. Be sure to throw the
Practice this figure. going over the lines and studying out the
sleeve out (curving very to take away the stiffness).
(center line of line not follows 2. this distance at the bottom of the skirt
oval. not too high and not too low.
vertical. but just high enough to Allow get good curves on the shoulders. The collar and waist lines curve up.
keep the center line until the dress
As already pointed into the skirt two and
out. and be sure to make a graceful curve on the bottom of the
form. and two sides. not pointed at the ends.
the bend coming
Put on the collar above line 1.
MANUAL OF FASHION DRAWING
THE FORM READY FOR ANY COSTUME
light lines. cuffs.
which follows the center
line of the waist. It is sewed on at the bottom and flares slightly at the
the waist opens and goes under the blouse.
round button has a small shadow
underneath. Place all buttons on the center line. as directed in Lesson
thoroughly understood. Put the pockets on at the right height for the hands and keep them the same size and about an even distance from the center line.
around the neck.
Place the belt one-half above and one-half
below the waist
show the opening. show a little less of it than the near
top. round button casts a shadow like a
To obtain this draw the round sphere. place the dress on the form as directed below.
Decide how far down the V in the neck opens. and the lines must follow the form. A high. and mark off on the center line. of the button.
follow the waist line.
I. and run straight out to the left of the drawing
you face the
figure). then draw another round the same size through the center of the
one. and center of pocket. The buttonholes may be
drawn with one or two
opens past the center line. blackening the part underneath the button. and extends past the belt at the sides. and not be drawn straight.
point. but must be opposite the center of the buttons.
be able to judge distances. marking each center with a
dot. Note the large buttons at the bottom
of the page. The near side takes a slight reverse curve around the neck to the center line. having the buttons the same size and evenly
spaced. curves up. curving the far side of the V around the neck to the center line.
Do not flare too much.
the top of the button in this way the
student can obtain better curves. also at the ends of the buttonholes and between
opens past the center
curving the lines to The sides of the belt
and does not
Note all drawn the turnover through guide collar. When you
that your form is good in all with respects.
cuff. Draw just as few lines as possible. Women's clothing opens from right to
and then the bottom. and follows the center line of the
top of the high collar and flares at the bottom. showing its full width. If the waist were not bloused.
sewed on at the
left. Make the collar open in the center
which hangs straight down. darkest at the bottom.
which follows the bottom
change of direction where
of the sleeve. As the far side is lost somewhat.
After a while the student's eye
. in dressing up a form that it is.
Around these dots draw the buttons. oval. in the right direction.
waist blouses over the belt in front. continue the far side of the V past the center line to the opening of the waist. Then draw the form as directed in Lesson I.
opens directly under the waist
opening. until then might be well to measure from the center of one button to the center of the next button. the lines
would follow the form and go into the belt. Remember.LESSON
TO PUT THE DRESS ON THE FORM
the upper rightlesson
width as from
must be a
not necessary to repeat in every how to study. Study the full back
to the top of the at these points
center line in this view
TO PUT THE DRESS ON THE FORM
flaps of the pockets
Note how the
past the pockets. on the right side Until to draw is explained.
quarter view. 1. in a while will make a more graceful draw-
Draw layout for full back. and run together. The student can see for himself just what these
do. gradually bringing the bottom line of the dress out to the next X. stitching. The is hollowed in and the far armhole is lost. Do not bend the arms.
is not as full in places.
(about six inches in height) of a simple dress illustrating what you have learned in this lesson. cuffs.
small. On layout D draw Fig. etc. as the
not of the form. Be sure to make the pockets the right size for the dress. pockets.
expected to remember and apply previous lessons on each new lesson. take a sheet of tracing paper.
full. turn this tracing wrong side up and you will have the form facing in the
line. as the dress is a three-quarter view form facing the same way as the clipping. placing the
. as illustrated on the To do this once right side of the skirt.
In Lesson III we shall learn
at the top of a skirt are drawn. E. A and B of Lesson I. and not too
it. Draw like Fig. but the skirt
appears farther back.
then proceed to the next one. 5. but a small three-quarter back
the student can judge distances. vertical and at
one side of the middle of the drawing.
the skirt the stitch-
drawn on the hem. and runs straight down.
so. drawing the lines in order. If you find this difficult. The
THE BACK FORM
lesson details as to
line of the dress. measure up to the top of the hem.
fullness at the top
ever. is the edge of the fold
of the dress
Learn how to draw the form facing the way and dress it in a simple dress.
The opening of the skirt the nearest point. using the principles learned. is X. trace off Figs. a dress with collar. 7.
not merely copying the lines.
ness at the bottom. In this lesson we take up the full back in detail. and draw light lines through these points. Mark with dots and between them.
where the fold touches this on a line with X.
lesson slowly. cut out of a fashion paper a pen and ink drawing
the skirt two and one-half times and that
the center line
middle of the drawing. and how both pocket and flap extend past the skirt on the far side.
Do not make the waist Remember that the waist goes
Note where the three principal wrinkles come on the sleeve. As an application of this lesson.
in this dress.
of the skirt. and dress
not the point to
The idea to be grasped by the student is how to draw fullness which goes
trated. an even distance from the seam. buttons. B.
must be evenly spaced. 4. The back form is drawn sometimes full and sometimes three-quarter view. 6.
and hands. 3. all you need. When you are convinced that the hem follows the bottom
line of the dress.
Next comes the with no
fullness of the skirt.
The top of follows the bottom line of the
sleeve. exposing the inside of the cuff. which curves slightly in. but the bottom
and opposite each other. Do not hollow the armholes too much. to take away the stiffness).
The armholes must be the same
. This is the reverse of the
front view. and connect the ends of the collar with the shoulders. The waist is full in the front as shown
of the sleeve curves
down. The collar and waist lines curve up. but the back
perfectly plain and
STUDENT'S MANUAL OF FASHION DRAWING
collar above line 1.
the blouse at the sides. Throw the sleeve
out (curving very slightly out. a little higher than in the front view.
FITTING A SIMPLE DRESS
ON THE FORM
which must be in good proportion to the boxplait. Decide upon the width of the side plaits. Draw the form. back. flaring slightly as in the You will observe that
and a box-plaited expected to draw two
them as done on
skirt. The deeper the plait the farther back O is from X. being sure to have all the
the student with untrained eye the
back. thus deriving more practice upon the subject. F which is a full front view).
Begin with the side. On each side of this
before. marking the size at the waist. In Fig. flaring slightly until they touch the bottom line of the skirt form.
the lesson plate.
longer in the back than consequently it shows the
front box-plait. H.
marked at the waist.
It will be well for the
After drawing a complete form for this and placing the belt as directed
the front. and on each side of the box plait mark them off.plaited skirt (Fig. and puff seem very confusing. being sure to make a graceful
each box-plait has two 's. but after studying and drawing the three figures G. draw skirt with fullness at the bottom (Lesson
II). and a very curve between them. This star line
the top. and after placing the
as directed in
II. The plaits are wider at the bottom than at
at the waist the size of the center box-
which are an even distance from the center line. The star gentle up
the distance between the box-plaits. the in the as so.
but make each plait a sharper point than in the gathered skirt. which must be the same width as the first one. and the deeper the plait the higher the star line is from X. panier. and if your lines are straight the width between the top and the bottom will also be even. they somewhat after leaving the belt.
same width. and I.
the distance between
flares. Fig. Draw down until they touch the bottom
under part of each
plait. and the student will
be able to use this knowledge to great advantage when sketching from a costume.
For both box-plaited and side-plaited be careful to make the plaits even at the bottom and at the top. for example.
THE OVER-SKIRT (LONGER
lines down. the literal meaning of the lines will be understood. as any part slurred over will cause trouble later on. F is a combination of a side-plaited
then the size of the following box-plait.
and the other
THE BOX-PLAITED SKIRT
gathered. to make two drawings and not combine them as on the lesson plate. G. open
the top. until all the
and the next
sewed on at the waist Note the guide lines of the
line of the
side-plaited skirt. the same as O.LESSON
THE SIDE-PLAITED SKIRT
Lessons III and IV are devoted to skirts and it will be well for the student to
thoroughly master these. one side of the
Not being stitched down.
around the under-skirt.
will not flare.
but instead of the
ruffle effect. hence it follows that the yoke line (if a perfectly plain yoke) will follow the waist line. the lines of the fullness at the top fall down between the lines of the fullness which run
SKIRT WITH YOKE AND TUCKS
As we learned before " the lines follow " the form so the yoke must fit around
the form. It descends as it goes until it almost touches the under fold (square).
the knowledge acquired from this
draw numerous forms three-quarter view.
in the over-skirt (Fig. that the goods is gathered and is very
full. G}. Note the guide drawn through the ends of the tucks (where they stop) and where the fullness
lines of the panier (Fig.
Note how the
student has been successful with
happens to be a fancy design on the yoke. descends until it almost touches the next XX. the lower part only being exposed to
view. as the lines indicate in
The lines under the puff are Fig. but if stitched down. Note how different the lines look on the far side. caused by the shadow cast by the
Note the crispness and the sharpness of the lines as they curl around and fit into each other.
clippings of skirts.
Begin with the curved
of the skirt (that
. descending toward the back.
line in the
begins. as the lines curl around and fit into
also sewed on at the more than the under-
skirt as it descends.
drawn) then draw and curve it around. as you see but little of the under
surface of the goods. Note these lines as seen through the
puff. the general direction of the yoke will fit the form. I.
therefore the goods beneath the puff full.
Place the tucks an even distance from
the center line the same as the plaits.10
STUDENT'S MANUAL OF FASHION DRAWING
under -skirt as they run up to the waist
This skirt is drawn three-quarter view. The under fold hangs
form is well down from the waist
seen on the panier. etc. the inside crease of the fold. the goods is drawn in The puff means again. hence the puff. curves around.
panier projects at the hips in effect while the over-skirt hangs straight
but the a ruffle
which also hangs straight down from the belt. and dress them in skirts
the ones illustrated in this lesson.
the guide lines of one of the plaits as runs up to the waist line.
THE PUFFED SKIRT
being gathered. where it comes out from under the skirt. skirt that is puffed at the hips will extend past the normal skirt line.
the edge of the
The straight down. the panier will be easy to draw.
lines for the puff are somewhat difand yet somewhat the same as in G.
each other. as they are in Fig. but will be broken into
the lines of Fig. or full front.
up from the bottom. which shows the full panier on the near side and but little of it on the far side.
FITTING THE UP AND
LINES OF A SKIRT
ON THE SKIRT FORM
are sewed at the top
On a very full
the tucks are of equal width.
THE CIRCULAR OVER-SKIRT
learned in Lesson II that the
followed the bottom line of the dress. of the form. the whole skirt will have a peculiar appearance.
and much practice is required for practice on each lesson draw a complete skirt form
with a graceful ellipse at the top. there will be no difficulty in drawing the remaining
ones. K) is illustrated.
but not often. like the ones on the lesson plate.)
in the back.
view). As the skirt is shorter on the sides than in front.
or any around the bottom of a
braiding. the point being on the center line. the under top one being even one being pointed on the front. but
observe a set form. where it runs up to the waist. carefully with the first tuck. then place as many XX's as you think In the figure we have two will look well. and after deciding how high the first tuck is to be.
on the near
and one on the
(the being After getting a good bottom line.
THE RUFFLED SKIRT
Ruffles are hard for a beginner to draw. ripples
when the bottom
line is poor. place the tucks on the skirt according to directions. the bottom of the over-skirt and of the under-skirt.
is plain at the top the at bottom.
form marked by the arrow. not therefore tucks.LESSON IV
THE TUCKED SKIRT
In Lesson IV only the bottom of the tucked skirt (Fig. Bias bands are stitched on both edges. not down or
(See the ruffle at the top of the Lesson
Plate. each side of this form two XX lines
O's on the
The top of each tuck may be by a broken line for stitching. They
Begin at the front.
over-skirts. O is very much Note the guide lines for higher than X. but
past the side of the skirt at
the bottom. draw so.
trimming which goes
and O on this skirt.
or scant as
tuck must be the same width in all places and appear to go in and out of the
which is very full will stick out bottom and expose the under part. bands.
cling to the dress. at the
and go around the edges of the the same height.
tucks follow this poor line.
Occasionally this will happen Note the X's and
tuck. draw it around as you would a hem. there being no special rule to go by.
widths are required. but if repeated too often the effect will be a row of autumn
leaves or sea shells.
draw the continuous line at first. being sure to If you do this follow the bottom line. not showing too much of the back of the ellipse. Observe
the X's and O's carefully before attempting to put the tucks on.
follow this line.
and some meet
line. the goods being gathered in at the top. one turned up and the other down..14
STUDENT'S MANUAL OF FASHION DRAWING
curve out. ruching has the appearance of two ruffles. Study the lines of fullness on other drawand notice that some long.
curve out to the right.
Tulle. and on the side they curve out to the left. calico.
in the middle.
the lines being the same. lines are more curved than the but the
In between these set forms the
This skirt (Fig. The ruffle must go in and out of the
where gathered. draw guide lines the width of the ruffle
on which place the ruffle.
Fig. which are stiff and heavy.
lines of the fullness
gathered at the from the
the bottom of the ruffle waves in and out.
must look as
lines are short.
of the lesson plate.
the set form being nearer to you than the
Materials like taffeta.
(See Example. The form is narrower where sewed on than at the bottom. Notice
the under part of this set form.
the ruffle at the top of the page.
at the right side
heavy. the lines being somewhat the same as the lines of
After placing X's and O's for the bottom line. if thin material but is used some lines will fall short of the band and be hooked at
lines of fullness will
appearance of the bottom of a full skirt.
All lines for fullness
must be sharp and
skirt lines. will have
lines like the ruffle at the
snappy. and when you are convinced that you
you did the previous
scant ruffle will have somewhat the
go under the band.
which is which
on a separate piece of paper.
they were pulled together at the top of the
All lines for the fullness
down between the lines of the which run up from the bottom.) Apply this lesson as
PLACING THE RUFFLE AND TUCKS IN AND OUT OF THE FULLNESS OF A SKIRT
the waist on the form. All new information will be given for each figure.
right side of the belt laps over the Make it definite left. Make all widths even and place
the hole and fastening over the center
line. and when combined with previous lessons. the buckle being merely suggested here. flares
in a ruffle effect
strict attention to all points relating to
drawing. The band on the sleeve
around the arm and
a continuation of the
. Note how the
lines of the large
guide lines on the
THE PLAITED WAIST
drawing the form for Fig. Fig. shows a tight waist with deep Fig.
V curve around the form.
rules. Or. and note all
follow the center line.
In placing the ruffle and jabot. Follow Lesson II carefully in all details when putting on the waists. applying Lesson III.
running over the shoulders.
instructions as the student
not be necessary to repeat all is supposed to
being gathered at the belt. as the waist
feature. P we have a waist with fullness but not bloused as in Lesson II.
fullness at the top of the sleeve
form and at the bottom
only at the back. Fig. G. have no difficulty with this lesson. It is
on the center
draw them within these
guide lines. See how the buckle curves to fit the waist.
placed around the neck and a jabot down the front of the waist.
a very important
Note the form seen through the sleeve. you as the form is the same.
belt is flat
and the buckle
Like the panier (Lesson
III. but instead of very
oblong in shape and fits over the belt. there should be no difficulty in rendering Lessons V and VI satisfactorily. and place all buttons at even distances at the
simple waists being placed upon it. the V of which is on the center line and the opening under the first plait. They It also has a vest.
back of the
sleeve. Study it carefully.
have learned them by this time. that is. draw the small V for the neck. N. (Lesson III. The buckle in detail is given below. something new is to be learned on each new
figure. Fig.) Here. as in the over-skirt. which side of the belt is on top. the normal sleeve form being first drawn and the sleeve placed upon
guide lines of the sleeve
and bloused on the
you succeeded with Lessons I and II. following all place
THE RUFFLED WAIST
In Fig. the lines being the same as the lines of the over-skirt. past the center line.
Flare the gauntlet at the bottom. you observe the wrong
side of the material. then the large V for the width of the jabot. H) see but little of the under surface of
the goods on the far side.
N is tight on the inside
fullness. the belt must run through the buckle.LESSON V
and VI being devoted to is expected to pay
The sleeve of Fig.
but the main
principles are given in these lessons.
cause confusion. Fig.
of fine plaiting. At the elbow the wrinkles curve around the form toward the outside.
around a low neck. F
Study the bent sleeve and note lie mainly on the inside. You would readily see the underside of the fluting.
of a sleeve causes
sharp and sometimes wavy. Be sure standing away to fit it around the neck. standing up close
by applying them
carefully. You will find many kinds of waists to draw. the sleeve
above and below
the wrinkles which
away the stiff appearance of the set plaits and make the goods look soft and thin. but these
omitted as too
the lines too near
guide lines for the width of each all lines from the band out to
Always draw understandingly.18
MANUAL OF FASHION DRAWING
guide lines of the sleeve form. being held to the neck by a tight band.
THE BENT SLEEVE
drawing any design. but do not draw
the fluting turns up.
and Lesson VI as you
did the previous ones.
merely copy the
turning over and from the neck.
these lines. connecting them at the bottom and top as described in Lesson III. being placed
and down around the neck.
COLLARS AND THE BUCKLE
ON THE WAIST FORM
V at the bottom must also be on the
takes the opposite direction for the point. which is a continuation of the far side of the V neck.
This causes a deep wrinkle down. draw the lines for the fullness. although a few of the smaller ones may take the opposite direction. is at the back. Place the full sleeve on the form.LESSON VI
THE TUCKED WAIST
In Fig. draw as if it were a flat belt. This guide line
you observe a
side of the
opening at the bottom of the jacket. after going under the right side.
center line. then place the fullness. Draw the guide line to the other point.
In placing this full girdle. This makes the waist
vest lines follow the center line. but students have made this mistake. R is shown a tight jacket effect over a kimona sleeve.
. It fits around the waist. which extends just a little past the normal hip line.
diagonally. the lines are like the lines of
THE TIGHT JACKET
In Fig. realizing it is narrower where tied than at the
then the sash.
left-hand side of the sash. which extends just a little past the normal waist line. gradually
well over the bust. the lines for the yoke being directly
opposite each other.
opposite point. hangs over it
The yoke curves
slightly to follow the
looser. then make the armhole
around the hips and
tied at the side of the front. the near side of the V neck takes a slight reverse curve. The ends being cut
(Lesson III. First draw the waist. extend They past the form at the sides.
In Collar 4
shown a deep
point hanging over the sleeve. being pointed at the back.
draw the tucks directly opposite each other on both sides of the vest. R. In drawing a kimona sleeve place the normal armhole. Fig. This may
and both ends hang straight down. The cuff. The inside of the cuff follows the bottom
line of the sleeve.
causes a slight reverse curve at the top.)
seem unnecessary advice. as does also the part that fits the hips. the main lines following
the form. The fullness falls from the yoke. Note on the ends.
a sash as
shown not only a waist but well. the jacket having a large armhole and extending past the under-waist on the shoulder and under the arm. The tucks follow the waist line and wave
(the waist being a full one).
(?. Be the yoke fit into the top of the sleeve and not hang over like a collar.
After ascertaining the width. and
The collar turns over. As learned in Lesson II. therefore the lines for the plaiting will take sharp turns in
another direction. there being no fullness at the top. while the botparticular to
tom hangs well over the deep gauntlet.
therefore in Fig. The sash is all important. continue this reverse curve to the point. The cuff being open. all lines fitting between other lines. being crossed in the back.
THE POINTED GIRDLE
In the deep pointed
girdle. fits around the sleeve. must have the appearance of
going around the neck at the same height. extending past
See application of Lesson V.
Collar 7 happens to be
of a cape
over the shoulders. while the far
side takes the opposite curve
sewed on the edge
STUDENT'S MANUAL OF FASHION DRAWING
change of direction where the
over the sleeve.
the lines are
the front of a sailor collar. he can easily place the
this collar. rippling slightly at the bottom.
the points directly opposite each In this collar the student will
as explained in Fig. Note the lines.
and where the cape
the student understands the lines of the
as the collar
the guide lines around the neck. If
surface of the goods. The bottom line follows the waist line.
form. the under
Collar 5 has a ruffle placed evenly around the top. extending well past the sides.
other. curves down. Q.
of the neck. and the top.
. on the near side.
AND THE SASH ON THE WAIST FORM
but do not bring the break below the shoulder line.
For a double-breasted coat. so do not draw this piece even with the top of the belt. The bottom of a coat should be drawn
the coat sets
previous ones in mind. Make one side of the belt lap well over the other.
curve in Lesson
to the opening. and if he keeps
away from the form. do not touch the line of the
opening. chest. but hangs straight up and down.
than the reverse
C. but in reality that gives this effect. to draw all kinds of coats.
at the back
high. Elsewhere it hangs well away from the form.
. the curve is somewhat less than a belt which fits the form
tightly. Study the back collar.
The turn-over point of the belt must have the appearance of going over the top of the belt. Place the point directly in the middle.
Study the separate
dress. all buttons must be an even distance from the center line and evenly spaced. The student is expected.
thickness of the goods by not connecting the front lines with the back of the collar.
touch the form on the shoulders.
and the and reveres are Refer to Lessons V and VI for
there should be no difficulty in rendering all coats satisfactorily.
the top. the fullness above and below the belt being on a line. however. standing well up of the neck. thus giving the collar the appearance of being turned over.
the form the same size as for a
Place the coat upon
to previous instructions.
places where the
joined. P. T is a very simple coat illustrating the principles of how a large coat should fit.
somewhat stouter than a form
the opening at
belt at the
just a dress. Note the vertical guide line where
the point ends. having the diagonal lines even.
drawing the near side of the
In drawing the collar with the reveres make the points of the collar opposite each
other. and bust only. the near side view
V is a straighter
II. as designated by the
through the coat. The belt being very wide and standing well away from the form. the above and below the belt does not cling to it and does not follow the form as in Lesson V. as shown by the
In drawing the shawl
collar. but let the coat
the lesson plate. The button is in the middle of the point and the
diagonal sides are even. Note the breaks which show that the collar is going
around the neck toward the
front. but being very deep
downward curve at the bottom.
on the shoulder.LESSON
THE LARGE COAT
A form in a large coat has the appearance
the same as the bottom of a dress.
FITTING THE LARGE COAT
ON THE FORM
etc. Begin on the
this dress skirt
leaving a high light on top of the fold.
placing the stripes around. it well to obtain a foundation for the direc-
around. they follow the waist line. If not.
plaids. thus allow them to touch
re-draw the outline before attempting to
it. using the
skirt. F.. being careful to
tion of lines. go around the
assumed that the student has drawn the outline of Fig. They continue to do this.
note the guide
guide lines being
placed in pencil only.
time the student should be prodrawing dresses. "The form is oval and the lines follow
They change gradually
over the bust.
kind of a plaid
form up and down.
In placing a texture all over a dress. To place a plaid on a dress draw all up
stripes. U. and
lines. and under stripes being well in the shadow. do not on the top.
be marked on the center line from the bottom up to the waist. cuffs. where they take the opposite direcfitting nicely
at the bust until they follow the shoulder
and follow the under-arm
Suppose it is desired to stripe up and down.
but do not flare as you
did the plaits. and if this is the plaids.
On the waist the stripes follow the center
line. Keep all broken lines for the texture in the direction of this plaid. cuffs. and where the fullness stops.
the examples of plaids. etc.
See Example No.
is full. STRIPES
stripes near the bottom follow the bottom line of the dress (as did the hem and tuck). going in and out of the fullness. They continue to do this until they reach the arm.
stripes at the belt.
as even as possible. which means that the lines of the stripes are not drawn to the edge of the
the sleeve they follow the
On this foundation any may be constructed.
Around Fig. In Plaid No. at the waist. Be particular to make the stripes go in and out of the fullness.
the edges of plaid pockets.LESSON
PLAIDS. placing one-half of a square on each side of the center line. U will be seen many examples of plaids.
high light. but the student should pay no attention to them until the principle of all plaids is understood. waving slightly. Fig.
On the sleeve they follow its bottom line. 1 draw a simple plaid in pencil and the short diagonal lines only in
as they approach the
member the instructions given in Lesson II. Some of the stripes will vanish at the sides.
shoulder. and that a very good bottom line has been secured. All stripes running around a skirt should
large plaid in pencil will serve this purpose.
line. 4. colbelts. you will also observe this
instructions given for the plaited
III. but underneath draw them close to XX. all
On this foundation any kind of a stripe may be created. On the waist the stripes running around follow the waist line. stripes and figures will seem
in pencil. This may be more truly the way the cloth is cut but it is not as atat the top
tractive. you will surely
to grief. draw
drawing the guide
check. See the illustration of the check
Plaids the goods it is drawn diagonally.
Plaids are very attractive. In Plaid No. always connect the drawing black squares from corner to corner like a checker board. 2
bottom or at the side. Also try to create new plaids.
which forms a plaid of three
When the rings cover
we have one heavy
ones. These may be placed by means of squares. particularly black and white checks.
with longer diagonal lines. the lines of the and down stripes taking a different up direction from the lines of the cross
of the checks out. draw the
plaid. and must take the same direction. If you attempt to skip
the short diagonal ink
about. 7 is more com-
sleeve. Plaid No.
No. If this is done.28
STUDENT'S MANUAL OF FASHION DRAWING
heavy lines first. 5 and 6 are two more examples of simple plaids.
When this is finished. or just scattered over the skirt. No. and some being cut off at the
an outline drawing
not show up
against the texture. Plaid No.
indicating them by rings.
placing a plaid or texture all over it is necessary to strengthen the outline of the drawing.
Another way to plaid a skirt is to begin and work downward. but instead of being straight on
fine line in
Study all plaids and stripes and use the same by placing them on simple dresses. as one
on these guide lines. some being lost under XX. the plaids will be cut off at the bottom.
figure a skirt with roses.
the skirt to the best advantage.
roses carefully. which Cut this plaid in the center
both directions. then place the remaining fine lines on each side of the center fine line. as the lines drawn
must be the
spaced evenly. thus obtaining a wide stripe in both directions. 3 is very simple.
FOUNDATION LINES FOR ALL PLAIDS AND STRIPES
comes out of that hole. ETC. the smocking and the tassel. the goods falling free from the lowest cord. the lines from above falling
to obtain this effect
up from below.
quick snappy strokes.
the lacing as shown in the large example.
ing a scallop at
may XX. draw shirred dresses. showing that has inside strands as well as the ones drawn. Draw all holes opposite each other. Notice how the ribbon comes out of one hole and goes under the edge of the opening and under the next hole on the opposite side. as on the dress.
a scallop underneath
vice versa. but instead of the yoke and waist proper being sewed directly together. extending
past the normal form line.
be helped by breakIf
you place the
As an application of this lesson.
take somewhat the direction of
the puff. but do not curve them too much. Study and draw the part of the full girdle with a frill at the opening. hang straight down. and vest). they are joined by a cord. Study the reverse curves which fit over these guide
shirred without a cord. cuffs.
that the bottom of the
and form the cord. and the unevenness of the cord where the goods is shirred over it. as in this position the idea
shirred over a cord in three places.
there will be but one line.
the lacing in one direction on ones (the top). All scallops must be the same size. the width of the scallop. then the lacing in the opposite direction. Some lines may connect the cords. All lines for the shirring are drawn with
can be more readily explained than if the opening were pulled closely together. See how the
lines. but most of them reach only part way. Start at the top and run the ribbon through as you would do if you were lacing your own dress.
If material is
Draw the guide lines for the cord. LACING.
whole scallop on top of
SHIRRING. then the lacing. which is underneath.
the tassel curve.
The cords cling to the form. the goods being shirred over it. The ends hang straight down. throwing one end over the other. etc. and also place a scallop on the collar. SCALLOPS. Note the guide lines for the cording. and go in and out of the fullness.
In drawing this figure the student must apply the principles of Lesson III (overskirts) and Lesson VI (waist with yoke. draw
different shapes of scallops.
only. and skirt of a simple
dress. short sleeve. while the goods between them puffs slightly. Here. the opening is separated.
SHIRRING. ETC. SCALLOPS. LACING.
In Bow No.
the knot and wrinkles curve around
turned over. 6 follows the principles of Bow
have a few irregular high lights. In Bow No.
caused by the way the ribbon is tied. holes. 1.
bulge at the top and bottom.
other. 4 we have the ends only.
an example of a four-inhand. Make a careful study of black ribbon and bows.
No. 2 is an example of a pointed bow for the waist. Bow No. Outline all places to be made solid.
A belt like this is hard and shiny. while the ends hang straight down. the width
the ends. Note the XX lines on the ends.
Practicedrawingbowsand flowers. Fig G). Bow No.
direction of the lines to obtain
this effect. Flowers are expressed with a few lines. Note the guide lines at the top and bottom of the All holes must be the same size. and as in
At the bottom
a broad ribbon run through holes. Draw the full front flower. the heavy parts fitting in
between other heavy parts.
belt. but the knot is a different shape.
must wrap around the loops and ends.
of the ribbon vanishes
turned. around the edge except on the dark side. causing the lines to take a rounding shape init will
stead of being straight like the openings. You see inside of
one of the loops. A ribbon the width of the holes will not
wrinkle as this wide one does.
to put the of this
of ink with the paper left for the high lights.
1. Bow No. then ink in with a small brush. but an explanation of ink on for black ribbon. Note the inside of the loop as in Bow No. the knot and wrinkles curving around the ends. remember that the outline of the buckle where it touches the belt will be a part of the back
also a line of light
evenly spaced. the ends take the direction of the
1. but hi outlining a buckle on a solid back ground. 1. pulling them in tightly. The loops stand out. 5 is a stiff hat bow and follows
the principles of loops. here we have not an outline alone to deal
with. RIBBONS AND FLOWERS
A bow must be smart looking and as if made of new ribbon. also the side
view. and not drawn too near the edge of banding.
accordingly. notice how the knot curves around. then ink in with a brush. hence the over-skirt
(Lesson III. Remember the instruction on the buckle given in Lesson V. the loops and ends
fitting well into the
ends. as also do the wrinkles on the knot.
but being a neck bow with short
drawing the patent leather
outline the place for the black after the belt is outlined.LESSON
BOWS. See Lesson XIX. If the ribbon is wide.
PRINCIPAL LINES OF RIBBONS.
BOWS AND FLOWERS
(Lesson VI. Answer. Ask yourself these ques-
depth while the top one is longer.
of the gauntlet. The collar goes toward the back and falls over the normal arm hole. The latter hangs down as low as the sleeve.
so applying principles of Lesson II.
an attempt were made to draw it as one would draw a flower or a vase.
Less than halfway
Three small buttons on each side of the over-waist which extend from the collar to the bottom of the V. Twice the width of the insertion on the sleeves. Q. Note
the fullness. R) fulled into a deep gauntlet. High in the back and low in
You can make
a sketch even
. proceed as follows: Let us imagine that we are viewing the
dress itself which
Three deep flounces. (Lesson VI.
Question. Fig. C. Fig.
Compare this plate with Lesson II.)
Is the waist all in one piece? Question. R) and is gathered in with the under-waist at the belt where
experienced art student.
on the sleeve? Answer.
In sketching a dress directly from the model.
kind of buttons has
Answer. What is the shape of the Question.LESSON XI
TO MAKE A SKETCH FROM A COSTUME
a sketch directly from the dress difficult problem to the init
seems a very
The two lower
flounces are the
on a dressmaker's
After drawing the form. But if
the student has thoroughly mastered
in a short
kind of a sleeve has
previous lessons and applies them as this lesson is studied. using light lines. look at the dress carefully.) Of what does the skirt conQuestion.
kind of a girdle has it? crushed girdle as wide as two-thirds of the width of the gauntlet.
What shape is the front openIt is V-shaped.
low does the
Answer. place the proportions on your form. No.
II. Is the neck high or low? Question.
Question. Answer. she will have no difficulty in sketching space of time.
the lace inserof
and as you answer them.
Question. It has an over.
the front. how some folds turn one way. Collar 4.) When you feel that
tions are placed
these proporcorrectly. Note how much easier the bottom lines of the flounces are.
How wide is the lace inseron the skirt? Answer. the lower two being sewed on the underskirt. Fig.waist which fits up to the middle of the shoulders
on your form
strokes. (Lesson VI. taking in everything regarding it. and some the other. and
blouses over the
girdle. Q. It is a deep sailor collar which is sewed on the V neck more than halfway down. About
and the more you sketch the quicker you will become and the more valuable to your
art of accurate sketching
two and one-half times larger.
guide line through the center of the insertion will be a help in placing a
looser than this
STUDENT'S MANUAL OF FASHION DRAWING
by breaking some
the high lights. Figs. This is excel-
back view must accord with the front. Lesson II.
well to try to
see in the shops and on people.
. D and E. make a careful sketch of it in the corner of your paper. write them out opposite each material. By at them and looking closely asking yourself
the materials used. connecting them to the material with horizontal lines. obtaining Practice sketching from costumes. as the
is worth money.
questions you can remember enough draw them afterwards. all dimensions on it must be
All dimensions for the
and will aid you greatly in ideas for original designing. This front view being two and one-half times larger than the back.
If it is necessary to record the
exact design of the lace or embroidery required.
QUICK METHOD OF SKETCHING COSTUMES
giving it a soft expression. Lesson XII deals with the features which
are illustrated in the
and is Note
the construction of the
lid is soft
often omitted in fashions. the whole length being twice the height.
These plates are outline drawings. which effect is not
very noticeable in the front view. a good outline being a very essential point.
After you understand of the features. In the front view the ball is round. he may go into the subject as deeply as he wishes. I designates the inner part
THE EYE (THREE-QUARTER VIEW)
slighlly^lower than the outer part. as used by artists
As the upper lid projects over the lower.
and is In pen and
ink drawings you will observe a few lashes suggested on the upper lid. The deep lashes on. as
part of the
cross line indicates the widest
whole eye. the eye-ball has a tendency to slant backwards at the bottom. it and gives the eye
tions of position will not
. the three-quarter
guide line which runs slightly up. There are many books on anatomy. draw them
on the corresponding sides of both eyes. dressing-up process will then be considered. no attempt made to teach the muscles. By continuing
the ball through the upper lid one can prove if the ball is hidden enough.
is also the pupil. the ball occupying about one-third of the width of the eye. if so.
three-quarter. The ball must fit well under the upper lid and not project.
but a complete understanding of these lessons will enable the student to render
pen and ink the human
In studying the human figure. bones. but we will reduce them to three. Note
the direction of the three planes marked above the eye and the two planes below it. and the student should become very familiar with them. and the outline. If done correctly.
profile views. varia-
light. and when one understands proportion.
seem very simple. each part be dealt with separately. poise. and bones which come in contact with the outline are mentioned here. and when one understands the outline construction as given here.
eye-ball moves from side to side raising the lid as it goes. this is very
effective. then the The figure as a whole will be considered. the upper lid cause a shadow which hides the eye still more.
the principles learned in the sons will apply. which will be extremely interesting.
the eye in good proportion. he has made great A few of the principal muscles progress. On the upper lid there are five planes. which may be taken from the public libraries.
which curves around
catch light on the ball.
In these lessons on anatomy. Some artists indicate the lashes all around both lids.
Begin with the
front eye in the upper
left-hand corner of the lesson plate.
gradually grows thinner outer extremity. thicker at the inside. Place the eye a little lower than where the nose begins. also the
In the center the shadow
darkest. and make the ball an ellipse. also
Viewing the mouth directly in front one will observe the same shape and distance on each side of the center line. Note the three planes on the upper lid and the two on the lower.
forms a reverse curve. then reproduce the same effect on the other side. beginning at the left.
the deepest shadow being on the far side where the lashes show more prominently.
See both eyes at
the bottom of the lesson plate. hence the ball is not a perfect round.
the observer. which is fully exposed.
lid. As the upper lid is over the lower. but slightly oval. which causes it to be foreshortened. which
is illustrated with an exagabove the eye.
being deeper and
. part of the reverse curve being lost. as in the full
eye. In the center of the upper lip two Vs are formed.40
STUDENT'S MANUAL OF FASHION DRAWING
the inner part.
Place the eye a proper distance from the nose. one plane being hidden by the lashes.
Notice the five planes on the reduce them to three. while the lower lid
sure to draw the upper lid well over the lower. He sees the under side of
looking down eye slants at the outside. Study one side carefully. The student will observe that this is the other eye. hence the shadow is not as heavy. as
In the looking-down profile view the still remains.
THE LOOKING DOWN EYE (THREE-QUARTER VIEW)
looking-down eye but foreshorten as in the three-quarter open eye. In fashions the upper part of the upper
lid is often omitted. the ball
on the near. but as the lid
closed. which show mostly on the far side. See the lines of direction of these planes marked above and below the mouth. The upper lip has two planes. Note the slant up to the outer side. the top
by the eye being
the height being mostly on the upper lid. being indicated at the corners only. from there it being slants upward.
In fashions it is customary to show lashes on the far side and the lid on the near side. A deep shadow is cast under the eye by the deep
foreshortened. while the lower lip has three. more so. In this view the eye is turned away from
the sleeping eye the lids are closed. The height is about one-half the length.
is on the forehead bone.
downward not upward. one at the top and the other at
takes the shape of a reverse
curve. hiding part of the upper lid on that
diagonal line through its widest part.
THE LOOKING DOWN EYE (PROFILE VIEW)
the slant of the ball backward
In the profile view it is seen by the illustration. fitting around the fore-
THE EYE (PROFILE VIEW)
In the profile view we see but half the eye. the lashes being on the far side and the
THE LOOKING DOWN EYE
be a vacant In
between the brows is a diamond shape and from its lower part the nose begins. being note the lines of
all planes which are under the the nose. piece between the nostrils being on the lower plane.
In this view the thickness of the upper
which causes a shadow. and how the line below the mouth slants back to the chin.
They are both on the not separate the points
two very pretty
in the three-quarter view of the helps to give the effect of the
under plane of the nose. In connection with this mouth study the figure at the bottom of the page. Note
the pretty curve between the nose and the upper lip.
too far. On the forehead
appearance to the whole countenance.
directions of the lower
THE MOUTH (PROFILE VIEW)
In this view we see exactly how far the upper lip projects over the lower. the.
not part too
the lips meet.
reverse curves are formed. therefore it shows but one side of the V's.
The outer extremities of the upper lip are much lower than at the center. consequently the center line of the upper lip
extends past the center line of the lower In the open three-quarter mouth the lip.
the nostrils being under the wings or in the outer planes.
thinner in the front. The upper lip fits well over the lower.
but one-half of the mouth.
drawn sideways. Follow all directions for the closed mouth
which are on each
but part the
all its parts to advantage. and
the far side of the lower part of the upper lip takes the opposite curve from the near
Under the nose there
are three planes. having a depression at each corner.
as are also the wings.
THE NOSE (FRONT VIEW)
Draw make it
times. jaws may be together. side of the end.
This causes them to be
The whole nose spreads The end of projection. the upper lip extends past the lower. lower V on the upper lip is spread. If
the three planes of the nose (below the open profile mouth). and how
THE NOSE (THREE-QUARTER VIEW)
In this view the bridge is prominent and the far side of the wing and nostril
. bring the ends up again. the reverse curve between the lips being very
nose viewed directly in front does not
graceful with pretty curves. which is more apparent in the three-quarter view than in the full view.
stands for the diamond and
the open smiling mouth.
In fashions the
side. This causes the mouth to go
around the face and also to smile. but after
drooping these extremities. and
line for the bridge is often
THE MOUTH (THREE-QUARTER VIEW)
In the closed three-quarter mouth.
slightly thinner. making the V's spread. The whole mouth measures about two and one-half times its
thus making the go around the face. Study the nose in connection with the looking down eyes at the bottom of the page and
THE OPEN MOUTH
In the open mouth the upper jaw remains stationary while the lower one drops. If this piece is
face. this being the
bone of the nose. and
bridge. but the lips are parted.
STUDENT'S MANUAL OF FASHION DRAWING
given the construction
lines for placing features. In the three-quarter nose tipped sidewise. See the general line of direction for a young
into three equal parts.
ear slants backwards
THE NOSE (PROFILE VIEW)
In this view all parts are apparent. the opening being in the center divisions. This is the full
ear as seen on the profile face. an old person's nose being inclined to point downward.
causing the far nostril to touch the under piece of the nose.
one can see more of these under
In drawing fashion ladies. the ear is hidden unless the hair is brushed back
tightly. On the full face less of the ear shows.
Continue this line around the oval and down one side of the neck.
. Hence the
chin takes the opposite direction. Place them high enough.
OVALS FOR HEADS
Begin by drawing the ovals.
middle of the drawing.
doing so the understand and
head with normal
XIV should be studied
they bear upon the same heads. in a woman are higher than in a man.
some pretty and some
as well as
Oval No. this line will be in the
positions. full. many business houses preferring the first type while others prefer the second. the outline
but in order to do this you must thoroughly understand the foundation principles of
From of the features giving it its shape. 2.
subject. 2 is drawn the same way. indicating that the head goes slightly forward from the shoulders. Note the
back of the neck begins on a line with the nose.
these three ovals
be placed the
From the top of the head draw the center line down through the chin. 1 is.
lines as in
Indicate these proportions oval No.
that you try to create an original head. which might make a hit with the public. 2
faces. three-quarter. the top of it is bent to the right. but as the head is turned partly away from you This oval it gives the three-quarter view. on which may be constructed the full. As this is
three heads below. Here we have three ovals. Do not make the space between the arrow and the neck line TOO wide. that is. so in fashions we want
cross line showing that the
the faces to look fresh and
the dresses. 3
quite different. back or front.
construct an original
will find in
Oval No. which is egg shape. which is also back. After you have learned to draw a normal
middle of the face but not in the middle of the drawing. it is widest higher than the center or through the eyebrows. left. 1 is sketched in by beginning at the arrow and making a sweep around the oval. the nose the slant is back to the forehead
heads. The oval is full
at the back. A head that is turned is moved from When side to side in an upright position. The nose is halfway between the eyebrows and the chin and the mouth is onethird of the way down from the nose to the
Place the^yes in the middle
head and have them an eye apart.LESSON XIII
THE HEAD AND HAIR
Lessons XIII and
together. The center line of oval No. In young people the eyes are in the middle of the head. not slant too much. and the profile views." By studying and applying the principles of these lessons.
Oval No. the student will be able to use a picture as a
model and from
head. three-quarter and profile
heads. is not tipped as No.
to the chin. a head is tipped. It is well to redraw this oval carefully before placing
the features. See how it curves around
and goes away
from the face over the
. do not continue the solid ink
to the extreme limit. also the few points regarding the hair. one of the eyebrows side. curvy effect.46
STUDENT'S MANUAL OF FASHION DRAWING
the student understands the construc-
tion of the features
and the head as given
Lesson XIV. Keep all rules in mind when copying them.
wavy. The hat should be placed on the head to give stylish effect.
After finishing a drawing of any kind. fits around the head at the temples. The crown must fit the and far side of the brim must be the head.
continuous. the lines following the direction the head and hair where rolled.
. goes toward the back. Black hair has white lines. first with then with a pen.
in the right
dark hair is required. Be systematic in this and you continue to improve. decide just what you have learned on that
the same direction. Note the hole formed at the bottom. Light
After studying these two lessons. Get the direction of
pencil. Study the curl.
wrong side of the loose part is exposed to view and how the lines fit around this part more loosely.
should be broken on the edges and fit between each other in a soft.
Never draw the hat and place the face under it. and you will find you can create a type of face which is
show too much
of the hair
of the three-quarter face. See Lesson XIX
In the lower profile the hair
quite differently. See how the lines fit around to form the curl. Always draw a full head and
put the hat upon it.
with ease. leaving the direction white (or the
THE FULL FRONT HEAD
surface of the paper). drops on the forehead. Be sure the heads are normal before
attempting to draw them.
is built up. then ink in with a brush.
obtain the general direction of the
dark enough. continue between these lines or make the lines heavier in the hollows of the hair and underneath the puffed out places. follows the head in all directions.
TO PLACE THE HAT ON THE HEAD
THE THREE-QUARTER HEAD
In the three-quarter view. Notice how the
view of the head the
parted at the side. Tip it slightly to one If this is done. while the project past the flat part will cling closely to it.
lines. the hair is brushed directly back. As the hair is soft at the edge.
hair has black lines indicating the direction. will be hidden.
THE PROFILE HEAD
In the profile view.
just a few lines at direction. On the dark side the lines are heavy and on the light side fine lines are drawn which fit between the dark ones. the hair. but draw fine lines which extend past the solid mass. study pen-and-ink heads in the fashion papers.
all lines. When drawing a black
curl.cheek bone. he will be able to render these
is arranged consequently the lines will fall in a different direction but observe that they fit the head. that part will normal head line. fitting around the head toward the back at the temples and Do not curling around the . being parted at the side.
the head and be soft and
on Pen and Ink Lines.
PtACING THE FEATURES. HAIR AMD HAT ON THE HEAD
the eyes. on the neck atthe ears.
features. and one cafi^set more of the top of the head.
shape from the ear to the shoulder curves in.
muscles of the body. to where the arm joins the body.
pronounced this is. and the lines of the chin. descends. all construction lines curve dowh. 4). 5.LESSON XIV
THE CONSTRUCTION OF THE HEAD
THE FULL FRONT HEAD
Head No. extends from the pit of the neck (PN). 3 one sees where the neck really joins the head. but
seen in this position the jaw bone.
the space of an eye between the eyes. as do all the
of a V.pit of the ne'<fc. but remember that TZ curves out. In the front view the cheek bone is not as apparwell
Note the triangle formed on all faces.
the more pronounced these effectsi'v becoitfes -short and the top
full. The sterno mastoid muscle (k/[) runs from the ears to4iie.
larger. The more the head is thrown back.
. further back the head is thrown. See Head No.
the ear. The lines of the neck extend -vfr6m the ears to the middle of these bones. The moreT the head is tipped
(Head No. tjje
After drawing the center lines and the cross guide lines at the correct distances.
which runs straight across.
or collar bone. In Lesson XIII. When the head is tipjlbd down.
The perfectly straight position.
In the three-quarter view.
and extending down the back
XIII. also about the forehead bone. while the remaining portion is on the side.
a view directly in
front. This triangle takes in the front of the face. slanting inward to the bdfie. fitting on the clavicle in front
head on which place Head No. pl^ne lost. consequently one sees under the
chin and loses the top of the head. you learned the outline of the features. which shows that the chest is forward from the sfioulders.
backward. The jaw
. The neck appears longer as one views more of it.
ent as in the three-quarter view. 2 is tipped backward. Be careful to make the eyes mates and have them set the same under the lids. Head No. but never Try to keep them the same size. then in agai$swcifce ^jtojminently
THE PROFILE HEAD
the correct oval for the profile
chin. In the front view of the nesk this musc^ gives the neck a slight outward curve. As one head the upper lip lock's thinner and the eyebrows nearer appears
of the. placing of the features was given in Lesson
ears are between the eyebrows the nose. 3.
shoulders. A head in this position causes the construction lines to curve up.
All features must follow these guide lines. ->*" The line of the outline<6f fhelace. In Head No. It slants slightly
clavicle (C). The nose appears the and the chin are under longer. the more the lines curve
closer together they appear. the far eye
might be a trifle smaller. and the space of half an eye between the eye and the edge of the face.
view. The trapezius muscle is at the back of the neck. the outline going in slightly above it. the far side of the face is lost still more as This view comes between those shown by Heads No. 9. 6.
and the reverse
curve which is more prominent in a man than a woman. Show definitely where the line leaves the cheek and runs
into the chin. 6.
7. out to the cheek bone.
ear. The line from this bone descends. the fashion Head No.
a collection of heads in different
outline of the far
positions. showing that the
higher in the back than in the Watch the front line of the neck
joins the jaw. Select large pictures of heads and draw
the construction lines through the prope^
jaw runs up to the back of the head. 5 and not as near as in No.
The forehead bone
advised to use pen-and-
jects. Practice drawing heads from the fashion papers. which is as far from the eye as from the mouth. charts as guides. The
and wash drawings should be saved.
side of the face. In this view the line of the chin from the
are also the features. A man's neck is shorter than a woman's.
from the front
to the back of the neck.
6. Be on the
everywhere for some point of
Remember to place three-quarter features on a three-quarter face and have the center line in the middle of the face.
quite noticeable. also the advertisements in the cars. 8 is the profile view tipped away from you. while the general direction of the back of the neck slopes in. down to the jaw bone. measuring from the nose
to the chin the
the three planes of the cap as they around the head.
Copy them understandingly. but not as wide as in the full front view.
points learned in this lesson.
have the feeling of a
for this muscle. not draw a woman's neck too long.
THE THREE-QUARTER HEAD
In Head No.
Note the diagonal
front. which is straight across.
ink drawings to draw from as the lines can be seen plainly. which is the threethe cheek bone is very
attempting to draw the features.50
STUDENT'S MANUAL OF FASHION DRAWING
bone runs up to the ear. 5 and No. Study and draw this. you must
THE SEVEN-EIGHTHS HEAD
In the seven-eighths view.
how many pictures you can apply
the knowledge gained from this lesson.
Study the people on the cars. therefore the ear is nearer the back than in No. but all photographs
goes into the eye. Head No. a head by drawing construct Always the oval and placing all guide lines before
same as from chin to PN.
CONSTRUCTION OF THE HEAD IN DIFFERENT POSITIONS
1. then of the lower.
over to the
higher than the outside. The rotates over the ulna causing the to fall on the inside. It is not a position used in fashions. Hands. bear this in mind. except below the elbow.
but are slender.
Place your hand in
Ascertain the direction of the upper part of the arm.
hand. and the arm
Begin with Fig.
shows the inner view of the hand. breaks being left where the lines change their
satisfactorily. and turn the lower part only to the position of Fig. and direction of the principal lines of an arm and hand. in this position.
Fig. the others being of nearly equal length. 2. More genis
arm hangs down more
position of Fig. with the biceps
one bone. 3 and 6. On the
part of the
1. but a good one to study from. are not chubby.LESSON XV
THE ARM AND HAND
Arms and hands
require a great deal of
they can be drawn
are on the shaft.
a few only being mentioned here. 1
the view of the
arm extended. which is the widest part of the whole arm. In Fig.
on the inside
and the and turned
tapers from the shoulder to the wrist. the outside.
Leave all breaks when drawing the figures from the chart. defined. in the arm. especially so when the arm is bent. This is the end of the humerus. the biceps being on the front part and the triceps on the back.
under. 2 the whole arm as in Fig.
projection of the deltoid lower than where the inner part of the arm joins the body. The middle finger is the longest and the little one the shortest. is lost to view.
In this lesson are given the proportions. makes a more
drawing. arm being more slender and delicate than
a man's. 1. but use the chart as a
guide. 2. which indicates that the inside bulge is
direction. except on children.
Place your own arm in front of a mirror in the positions given. the fingers being long and
tapering. 5. position of Fig. the biceps being on the
PROPORTIONS OF THE ARM AND HAND
The upper part of the arm equals the lower. or upper bone of the
arm. then of the
the position of Fig.
three directions for the
arm and hand. the humerus. Figs. The middle and
next finger are inclined to fall together.
triceps on the of the hand is seen.
supinator longus (SL) is very prominent. the muscles are not so clearly When drawing arms in fashions. and two bones. Place your own hand and
position of Fig. is turned over. This
matter how slender or delicate an arm is. The deltoid (D) is at the top on the outside. Note the cross line on the lower part of the arm. the and the ulna in the lower. in fashions. and see if you can
woman's follow the points illustrated. it must have the shape of an arm and not look like a post.
The bulging part of the palm shows between the thumb
drawing an arm under a sleeve.
and the first finger. 6 the humerus (H) and ulna (U) show at the elbow. Take up Fig. a position
palm and the one at
The fingers are shorter on the They join the hand on a curve. be sure to have the sleeve take the shape
of the arm.
the side of the finger give the effect of a
hip. watch the
directions the lines take. here shown chest. Fig.
but not at the knuckles. then place the glove lines.
Note how narrow the side view of the is. Note the break where the hand joins the wrist. and is half way between the wrist and the ends of the
fingers. Fig. it differs from the others in that the first joint is forward of the crease below it.
a collection of figures (in underin dresses) with the arms in
positions. then takes a square effect between the curve and the
wrist. the center line being
bends. 10 is the first finger.
the gloved hand. learn its proporis then refer to the inside.
The fleshy part of the thumb forms the palm and is about half its of part width at the wrist. the line for the supinator longus.
In Fig. the inner part being a reverse curve. 11
STUDENT'S MANUAL OF FASHION DRAWING
In this position the lower part
as in Fig. Double your hand and
see for yourself what curve the on the inside of the palm. the hand in the latter being
middle and the next
line at the side of the
finger. or raised as in Fig. When the arm is bent
while the outer part curves in. 1. which is more apparent when the hand is turned over. Note the direction
Draw and re -draw
of the lines of the
the arms on the lesson you become perfectly familiar
thumb. 8 and 9. would run to
may be turned still more. The stitching on the back gives the appearance
of a glove.
fully. 6. 1 the crease in the palm is under the knuckles and is in the middle of the
hand. if continued.
the outside of the hand. which extend slightly past the arm line. 7 which is
tions. Draw the hand and
has two joints where
arm. 3. The thumb joins the hand slightly back of the knuckles and reaches almost to the second joint.
placed on the
in fashions. one joint only being given except in Figs. When the fingers are doubled or bent. the deltoid is raised and the trapezius shows back of the deltoid.
opposite the knuckles.
CONSTRUCTION OF THE ARM AND HAND IN DIFFERENT POSITIONS
see the vertical line. 1. All parts of the inner side are nearly on a line. noting the cross
reference. Much practice of this kind will
which are given here. yet the general direction of this projection slopes toward
them only being mentioned
the front view of the shoe note the
direction of the leg.
drawing from the chart leave all when making a finished draw-
general direction of this view of the in. 1 is the main outline of the leg. 2 is the modeled leg placed on Fig. 1. 3. and yet at the knee and below
ing connect the lines.
THE FRONT VIEW OF THE LEG
it. Study the lower part of the leg.
the leg takes the outward direction. you will see a which does not affect the genslight out. Practice reverse curves with your pencil.
how far back to place the lower The general direction of the front
At the ankle
this is reversed. while the lower
but on this in. 1 and 2 note the vertical line
to the toes.
THE FRONT VIEW OF THE SHOE On
The foot also points out.
broken. being sketched in with broken lines. 1. of the upper portion
part of the leg. the direction of
Fig. See Figs.
and place Fig.
In the five different positions of the shoe
body form very pretty reverse curves you must have this feeling in mind in order to
breaks. The lower portion in the back is a decided
partly hidden and Get the direction of
of the foot as
out. notice how much higher the outside is than the
inside ankle being higher than the outside.
e vastus interims (VI) is on the inside and is low. going back and forth over the lines.
THE BACK VIEW OF THE LEG
In the back view of the leg the lower part of the upper. The back part of the upper portion is in. but on this also you will see a slight out. eral direction of the inward curve.
the back. thus obtain-
the general shape and proportion. which does not change the general direction. 2 on it careRemember that the muscles of the
. In Figs.
Keep these drawings
Make other drawings of these figures on which place Figs. the calf being a very prominent feature. 1 and 2. 4. and 5. the lower part being set well back of the upper. while the vastus externus (VE) is on the outside and is high. 5
Figs. The knee fits between these muscles and the lower
drawn from the upper part
portion. 2. then place Fig. then of the foot as
the lines are
give grace to your work.LESSON XVI
THE LEG AND SHOE
THE PROFILE VIEW OF THE LEG
view of the leg forms a
muscles. 6 on it. and 6.
shortened. The knee projects.
showing that nearer to you than the instep. When drawing a black shoe. not down. Get the three
planes on the vamp and tip. you.
views. the ground.
the shoe is pointing slightly toward the inside of the heel is seen. leg fit under the surface. at the edge (except on the dark side) and on
THE BACK VIEW OF THE SHOE
In the back view of the shoe the top line curves up. Study from these books just how the bones of the It will be excellent practice. the heel
lost. it is foreshortened and the vamp does not appear as long as
drawing a slipper. not like a rubber.
NOTE. leaving high lights for the shape of the shoe.
more prominent than the There are three planes on the shoe which show most distinctly where the vamp and tip are sewed. mark with the place to be inked in. Do not confine yourself to one book.
. make it look and like a slipper.
. The foot being turned away from you. The top line curves down and the heel is on a line with the sole.58
STUDENT'S MANUAL OF FASHION DRAWING
comes toward you.
Note the plane at the back of the shoe and the two planes on the heel. The next lesson advises the student to study books on anatcmy. The inside ankle is very prominent while the outside one is
In the three-quarter view of the shoe is almost lost.
lost. also the center This shoe is not resting evenly on line. There are many books on this subject and from each one the student will leara something.
recedes. The heel
does not appear as far under the foot as
in the side view.
THE THREE-QUARTER VIEW OF THE SHOE
THE SIDE VIEW OF THE SHOE
Note all breaks and curves on this shoe and make the heel fit well under the foot.
outer curve of the shoe
breaks into the instep. the toe only touching it.
CONSTRUCTION OF THE LEG AND SHOE IN DIFFERENT POSITIONS
line (or line of support) is
pit of the
to the standing foot.
figure given in this lesson is not nude. also sketch of the
PROPORTIONS OF THE FIGURE
In the three-quarter view one sees considerably more of one side than of the other. In fashions there are very few strictly
when you know how. and the placing of the figure on the action. 1. you <may use curved lines if you prefer.
as long as from the chin
to above the eyebrows. but must extend from the hip and not from the knee.LESSON XVII
THE FRONT FIGURE (THREE-QUARTER VIEW)
To draw a good
fashion figure the
about one-third (f ) the width
be placed under the
of the shoulders. The waist is about one
waist. 1 It is a
(7) to eight
faces. bathing suit. The figure must be slim and graceful. as parts poorly drawn will make a poor
whole. After you have drawn Fig. See line of direction for the hips. The knees are less than half
complete figure carefully under every garment.
waist measures less than the shoullegs join the
at the center of
course not clinging to the figure as closely as a dress).
a saving of time
one who knows how. given on heads. 2 on it. review the previous lessons. but the student will do well to make figures seven (7) to eight (8) heads high.
the shoulder to under the
one-half (5) head or less. See Lesson XVIII. using broken lines. of
ders. or one in underclothes
although busy artists merely sketch in the figure without finishing parts that do not show in the finished drawing. The arms bend opposite the reaching down to the center of the
Remember the lesson on the three-quarter form. The figure may measure the required number of heads. both of the hips being above the middle of the figure.
In this position the standing hip is high while the other one is low. but is too stout it will not look
rough outline of the proportion.
Study the proportions given here and apply them to Fig. arms and legs.
Fig. which would give it a knock-kneed appearance. The relaxed leg may be placed anywhere.
while the hands extend below this point.
legs must join the body at the cenand on the center line of the figure.
the figure were balanced evenly (on both feet) the line of support would fall between the feet. or a coat (a coat. The foot is about the length of the head. place Remember all instructions Fig.
being turned slightly. underclothes. See how the dress form conforms to the shape of the human figure. 1. dress. If you are weak on these. This line must be parallel with the edge of the paper.
heads high. he will have no trouble when drawing a bathing figure. If the student will draw the
heads down from the chin. Lesson I. but is ready for a corset.
Fashion figures vary as style changes.
ages. the standing hip.
cording to their ages. at sixteen years from six and onefrom
five (5) to five
(5 to 5|) heads. but never as long as a woman's.62
STUDENT'S MANUAL OF FASHION DRAWING
often turned in the opposite direction to the body.
their proportions are quite of adults. In fashions a tiny baby measures three (3) heads high.
time the student should know enough of the outline of the figure to be able to use books on anatomy to advantage. at four years.
"Oh. and is still jection. Inquire at the library for books on this Make numerous drawings from subject. being short. cards. give them plenty
of action toy. six to six and one-half (6 to 65) heads.
At fourteen the child becomes a young miss. but be sure that you make them cute.
longer at sixteen years. making a mark where the foot comes. they things. So many
would just love to such cute little are children. Do not draw the features until thp whole figure is swung
in correctly. draw the shoulders. book-covers. children play a great part. but the student must
advertisements. They wear
square. This takes but little time and can be easily erased if the figure does not fill the given space
nicely." no extra drawings are given.
draw with heavy
Children are used for so
lines are advised until the
sure of his proportions.
dresses.. which is
turn to the upper lid. from six to eight
TO DRAW THE FIGURE
Place the figure nicely on the paper.
. Professionals begin to
figure. and one long line down to the standing foot.
and one-half from twelve to fourteen years. and swing in the
correct oval. also be careful to have the feet
mates. etc. the bust. and not little old men and
heads. A tiny baby's eyes may be placed a little below the middle.
Children's proportions vary ac-
and chubby. Children have no busts.
a round head instead of an
the oval the proper size. keep them the same size. Their cheeks stick out. from catalogues. this lends grace to
girl. Lesson deals with this class of work. Remember the standing line must pass
through the ball of the foot.
egg-shaped one. the eyes being in the middle of the head.
you can of
and make them
subject. their eyes are
the waist line one and three-
and wide-awake. also make drawings of ladies and children in underclothes.
If incorrect. commence at the top. Keep proportions and swing in the
these spacings as guides. measure or eight heads to the standing foot. three and
years." That is so. help to
When this is done. and takes somewhat the build of a woman without any apparent bust proThe dress is longer. Their hands and arms are chubby as are also their legs and feet.
boy has squarer
drawing hands. In
PROPORTIONS OF CHILDREN
children are "little people.
When drawing children.
these books. with a peculiar
quarter heads down.
Much study should be given to anatomy. that the student would do well to devote much tune to them. flat shoes. Their noses are short and small and their mouths small
on the action side.
THE WHOLE FIGURE READY FOR A COSTUME
easier the lines of this
In either case pick out
than the ones in Lesson II.
use a suit figure. find another evening dress figure in the same position (as nearly
Pick out the dress
first. On this figure may be placed any costume.
to work from.
wind were blowing
it. etc. putting them together understandingly.
then a proper figure on which to place it.
As the weight
equally between the feet. you will have either the gown itself. then try the swingy kind. If an evening-dress. Be careful
to poise the figure correctly.LESSON XVIII
TO PLACE A DRESS ON THE FIGURE
ILLUSTRATING A COSTUME
If the student is able to dress
dummy form and understands the figure in the last lessons. one that will show the costume to the best advantage.
using a picture as a guide and changing it enough to make it your own.
figure in the illustration is
may have one designer who decides how the gowns are to be made. is placing a given costume. do not draw the far foot straight
across the paper. Try to draw possible positions. put the arm up. This figure is slightly different from the last one as
a suitable figure. such as some of the pattern houses use. When illustrating a costume be careful to
nothing has been said about Lessons XXIX and original designing. the knowledge
required to place
figure is the
the lines of the suit on the figure. we have the lines. and place the given suit on
ments. The figure may have the legs crossed in walking and the weight be solely on one foot. also the X's
. the line of support falls between them.
In the dress illustrated the right-hand should not rest on the hip. and many illustrators who put these designs on figures ready for reproduction.
matter whether you are designing a costume or illustrating one.
standing position. In the beginning you will find it hard to render the costumes from the costumes themselves. which is an original drawing.
drawing a figure with the legs crossed. or a sketch of it. like the illustrations
newspapers or the catchy advertiseLearn to draw the up and down figure.
suit. nor should the left hand be placed on the chest.
principles apply. An original drawing is one that has been
sleeves. which has been designed by someone else. he will have no difficulty
in understanding this lesson. are devoted to this subject.
If there is something particularly attractive under the arm. on a suitable figure which will show the costume
to the best advantage.
the center line and
lines of fullness will also swing. but if you practice taking one figure and another dress from the fashion papers. while some houses require the "swingy" kind. When illustrating a costume. bring it slightly forward. which would cover the design. as they fit the figure. An illustration.
Copy the lines used by other artists. top of the arm. A large dark will balance several small ones. tracing the lines carefully with a hard pencil. place rate.
Obtain a good lines to denote the material.
extended. but when representing a costume.
transfer the drawing to a clean
not draw a stylish figure if one does not know how to render the figure and the
In a layout good spotting holds
the drawing together. The tracing paper may be lifted to examine the work without disturbing its position.
one that will tend to induce the customer to buy the costume. bear this in mind when making a drawing. use the proper
put on airs.
find this easier
to accomplish a stylish figure for your
model. Considerable dark in a picture looks attractive. When illustrating a costume. faithfully. Note how the XX lines fall both ways and how sometimes X and O run together.
are illustrated in outline only. with a hard pencil. If desired to use shading or textures.
on original work. only. place Mark and the fresh over paper. Place all darks so that the eye will be
every drawing. for one can
the student finds his work
costume appears expensive.
come toward you
plished by making an accurate tracing on transparent paper.
thought should be given. is heavy. a twenty-dollar suit appear. then fill in gradually with lines for shading which accord with the outline.
shading should follow the
form and help to mold the
O's. applying he will be ready to draw figures on bristol board. pick out a figure which will show it to advantage. the
parasol. There is usually a dark and a light side to
ting. it is called good spot-
shoes. whether light or dark.
there are two
XX lines near
but do not
equally to both sides of the Keep the sizes and shapes con-
draw them continuous with the leg. etc. you must study carefully the illustrations in the fashion papers and copy
the lines of
artists. on the hat.
with each other. be accuIf the costume is all light. keep the whole drawing going and do not concentrate on the shaded places.
places which for example. studying them
carefully. the dark somewhere else.
for textures. but do not make the figure so dark in one place that the general build of the whole will be lost. your services will be in demand. If the
Place this tracing over the clean sheet in the same position. ready for pen and ink.
rials of the
technique in expressing the matecostume is necessary. like a fiftydollar one.
costumes and see how others treat their work. Three things must always be kept in mind good style."
. other poor If you can make points may be forgiven. these darks are attractively distributed " over a drawing. and good technique. fastening it on the board
at the top. line of the leg. background. Fill in gradually.
paper about five and after rubbing
Take a smooth piece of inches by seven inches.
XIX for pen lines and Lesson
necessary. Now that you understand what the lines mean. outline.
gether form a shade.
a soft downward it face between the pencil. costumes.
TO PLACE A DRESS ON THE FIGURE When
. This lesson may be referred to from time time as the student progresses. silk or velvet. Keep
the technique of these.
should be shaded to bring out the charmthere must be a light and a dark side. while others do not.
done in a sketchy Well being used. A " sketchy effect " for a hat is attractive.
Illustrations are often
if it is
attractive. The shading lines may then be placed in pencil and inked in.
manner. then inking them in and erasing the pencil lines. one. Some houses like sketchy work. It is well in studying to adopt the practice of first building the outlines. placing lines closer on the dark side but do not be mechanical. even Do not stint on ribbons and bows.
work cannot be mastered
a very cheap expensive looking.
is further advanced.
shapes. behind hats lend enchantment.66
STUDENT'S MANUAL OF FASHION DRAWING LESSON XVIII
side. many lines connected lines are advised until the student understands the meaning of all lines.
Represent the material the hat is made of whether straw.
FITTING A COSTUME
ON THE FIGURE
etc. ink in your drawing of lines
Several fine lines instead of
line give the
sion. tice all lines with
horizontal. and the artist must know beforehand.
slowly. the wider the shadow. Refer to Lesson I on how to study with a sharp
point. as underneath parts that project.LESSON XIX
PEN AND INK
ready to ink in a fashion figure. unless shadis
eye a soft expresthese lines in the fashion Study
satisfactory. using the knowl-
to ink in his
Fine lines should be used for faces. that
take a wash
of water-color paint. hands.
become very familiar with them.
TICE. allow the first set to dry before crossing them. Ink lines should be rendered on hard
finished paper. and on this paper. The idea
projection. Kid finished bristol is
FRENCH WASH. a little
place a pen line should be made with one clean-cut stroke and not patched up. etc. he
parallel lines. bristol board.
way. the student must
wavy. lines are often wider. and many good
drawings have been spoiled because the student did not practice the lines on a
separate piece of paper. A long. and connect the dots. cuffs. fairly near the point. grip
be joined. As bristol board is expensive for practice work.
ink in a drawing.
In the shadow. just what he wishes to do. place the pen point back of the end and do not press on the pen
This will take the ink.
lines. Fill sheets with these lines until you feel perfectly free and have control over your
pen. plate finish being the best. as
belts. BEN DAY MACHINE
interesting. buy a good qual-
not to draw just an ink line
over the pencil line but to draw the right kind of a line. Lastly. In this way you will become familiar with the lines. and a very steady hand is
required. but when
larger than the chart. A
should be of even width.
ones. You may be able to render a nice drawing in pencil and be afraid to touch your pen
it. Lines should be thick or
Cut out a sheet
of bristol board.. ity of shelf paper.
edge gained by drawing them in pencil. and with pencil copy all lines carefully.
time the student must desire to Ink work is extremely
but it requires much practice.
not forget this when
of the line
has been reached. The very idea that you are afraid will cause your hand to be unsteady. it
must be the right kind of a line in the right place.
keeping the wrist well
In this lesson are given some of the lines used in fashions and the student must
pressed on the board. When one can draw these lines well on a separate
paper. When crossing diagonal lines. and very fine lines for
should be professional. keeping the eye in advance of
STUDENT'S MANUAL OF FASHION DRAWING
THE USE OF LINES
paint being used.
The shadows may be
by darker tones.
and much practice
effect is required,
Follow directions carefully.
parts of the lines
touch, but keep the
lines well separated so that the parts
touching will not run together when reproduced. Study all lines in the fashion papers, cut out examples as you have done for other
DIRECTIONS FOR FRENCH WASH
kinds of lines; become familiar with them
Mix the tones of gray in different saucers, having more color than is needed to go over a given space. Try the color tones on a piece of paper, allowing them to dry, as when dry they will be lighter. If too
dark, add water; if too light, add paint. Hold the drawing on a slant and, begin-
Line 1 is used for trimmings, worsted, etc. Lines 2 and 4 are used for lace;
lines 3 for feathers;
lines 5 for designs
ning at the top, apply a coat of clear water all over the parts to be painted. Allow
this to dry.
trimmings; lines 6 for fullness. Practice with bold strokes. Lines 7 are used for chiff on keep the lines fine. Lines 8 and 9
are used for silk
full of color,
Pick up some paint, having begin at the top,
and gently carry the color across the paper,
one cluster into another. are used for hair; lines 11 for crepe; lines 12 for woolen goods this is done with the point of the pen; be careful not to make hooks at the ends of the dots. This is called stipple and may be scattered all over a garment which gives a light tone, or the dots may fall on top of one another, or be placed close together, which causes a dark shade. This is an easy way to shade
Spatter work is the spattering of ink all over the part to be covered. Put a little
spaced, Lines 10
go back or allow the color to dry; keep the edge wet until the bottom is reached, then pick up the extra paint with the dry brush wipe on a rag.
blotting paper is very handy if the color tries to run below the bottom line
THE BEN DAY MACHINE
Benjamin Day of New York, invented a machine for placing lines and dots over given surfaces. This machine will print, on the drawing, textures, such as diagonals, squares, dots, etc., wherever it touches
the drawing, thus saving the artist the time required to draw them. They are more
ink in a saucer, dip a tooth-brush in it, and while holding the bristles down, run a
knife over them, of course, covering the part not to be spattered. Try this out on
a separate piece of paper. A line may be very fine but must be black. See method of reproduction, Lesson XXVIII.
All the artist
French wash is an outline ink drawing, rendered on illustration board with flat washes of gray, lamp black water-color
do is to rub with a blue pencil or apply a coat of Cobalt blue watercolor paint to the part of the drawing on which he wishes this machine applied. Blue will not show in the reproduction. Cut out illustrations of Ben Day and do not confuse it with French wash,
stipple or spatter work.
PEN AND INK LINES
FEATHERS AND HATS
few lines are used, the to object being explain the general direction the lines take.
To draw a
The student should
careful study of all drawings of feathers, also of the feathers themselves. The mass of small feathers to make up the
At the bottom they fit more closely together and take a slight reverse curve. Feather No. 5 is a feather which turns over at the top. Note the line of feather where the turns and light the little feathers which show at the
the ostrich feather, boa and tas-
whole are confusing, but when one
the direction that
lines of the right
is important, kind will give the
If the feather is soft like those of
must be drawn
the ends of the lines form-
prominent. When drawing a black feather, obtain the direction as in the lesson plate, ink it,
leaving the direction white. Draw the hat with the wings. Note how the feathers in the wings fit behind
ing the edge of the feather. under. The vein is often
Feather No. 6 separates at the top, being in two parts. At the bottom one side only of the second part is seen. Draw the pompon. The short lines curve around the edge and form the circle, only a few lines being drawn within its border on the dark side. The center, being left light, gives the ball shape. Study the straw hat with high crown,
and turn-up brim.
Note the three planes
around the high crown and brim and how
the cross lines of the straw are indicated on
the dark side.
each other, some lines being drawn
length while others fall short. The hat shows a plane on the side, and one in front. When making a finished drawing, the
of the curve of the hat.
planes are not apparent. of direction below the hat.
See the lines
This hat has a high crown.
center, curve the lines to be inked around the center in the direction of the hat, leav-
round crown forms an ellipse. a hat is viewed from above, one sees much of the brim and crown. This hat is bound on the edge. Where the brim turns up, the width of the binding is lost. The band follows the crown.
ing high lights
where the hat turns the
at the top where the feather turns and how the small feathers take
As said before in Lesson XIII, the hat must be so placed on the head as to give a stylish effect. Refer to this lesson when drawing hats. When drawing a hat, have some decided turns on it, not points
which will keep the hat from looking like a tin pan. When drawing a black hat, be sure to have white lines separating its parts. A hat made solid black will look larger than
exactly, but a change of direction
Feather No. 3 is a paradise Study the direction of the lines. Note how fine they are and how some are long, some short, the lines fitting between
show a decided high a given place. Study carefully the
Use a hat for a profile head.74
STUDENT'S MANUAL OF FASHION DRAWING
outlined. You can use any picture facing the other way by reversing it in a looking glass. This high light takes the shape of the hat. like beaver. If you succeeded with the lesson on pen
. to ink in these feathers will
other artists treat hats and
placing a hat on another
feathers. etc. shiny sur-
face. hard. as the line of the edge beof the hat.
interesting. use one facing the same way.
CONSTRUCTION LINES FOR HATS AND FEATHERS
silk. you view the The stick must go through the middle and the ribs must curve to form the hollow of the parasol.
being viewed on a slant. vanishing on the far side.
then the ends of the ribs which form a around the stick.
and place and place
side. on the shoulder and
Begin through the
Fig. The less you observe of the top of the parasol.
the openings fall. middle and be
to obtain a straight line.
In the Japanese parasol.
you show much
of the outside.
part of the stick
a right angle to it.
hand. Fig. Fig.
layout. place the loops on
a perfect round.
parasol has eight ribs. 7
you see of the inside.
open parasol resting on the ground
inside. and extending past the edge
on the near side. Fig.LESSON XXI
Parasols are very interesting and they
are not hard to
their formation. of the short end of the stick.
the inner part. 5 shows where the ribs join the center and the supports from the stick to the ribs. the layout.
Fig. Fig. Study the parasol carefully. 3 part of the hidden. Note the center and how the ribs curve. the more
the outside only. 4.
1. and notice how the curve of the
far side is less
than the curve of the near
parasol. This parasol does not take
inside. They extend past the edge.
CONSTRUCTION OF THE PARASOL IN DIFFERENT POSITIONS
or lines used to represent the texture of the article. The lines for the fur fall down towards
hand. The hole is nearer
the far side. the main shape of Figs. Feather fans are very popular in fashions.
the fur the
fan partly open will take the lines
middle causes the fur to fall both up and down. 4. which
Fur should look
follow the shape of the fur piece. 2.
lines. furs and fans. while on the shoulder they go toward the back. 1. 1 and 2. use curly ones. use long lines. as it is viewed in perspective. as he may wish to use them in summer
for the following season.
but remember the principles stated.
black fur will have white
All sticks for a fan
shape. the lines are straighter and the plane at the end is narrow. a catalogue on the subject will give the different
kind of technique. so at the tails. These divisions may be divided
and sub-divided. In the flat muff the lines follow the form. 3.
Watch the lines carefully as they go around the muff and around the hole.
white fur against a black back-
edges and where
FURS AND FANS
The student must learn to dress his figure warmly for winter and to convey the effect of coolness. There are many kinds of furs. If the shape at the
it so. the top of the fan. The long or curly.
the front. so we have two
extremes. which form the
Draw the end sticks making them meet. Note the different direction of lines where
joined in the
of the plaits on a skirt. Fig. then the lines for the fur.
with a double
line. all fur obtain a good outline on which place the correct lines. See Lesson XXVII on perspective.
the fur has long hairs.
Fur trimming which
Sticks are often
Make the fur look edge.
but the end takes the shape of an ellipse. As the muff is flat. and the one half-way between it and the end sticks. Follow the lines for the neck piece. In this position the middle sticks are hidden where they join the center.
curly lines may be massed in places to form the shadows or indications of the fur. for summer. the thickness of the fur extending
drawn with short
the round muff. Fig.
follow around the muff and give it There is a plane at the end (which
with a round hole in the middle. The student should make a large collection of pictures of furs during the winter.
On these foundations any kind of may be created. Note the lines as they go around the muff and around the hole.
Try placing a
fur texture all over a coat. the middle stick.
this set curve.
THE GEHERAL DIRECTION OF LINES FOR FURS AND FANS
showing that the upper part arm is on this side of the lower.
Lesson II on the back form. the legs join the body below the middle and the waist-line curves up. then out for the shoulders. The ends of these lines in the back form a curved up line like the back collar line.
. 1 and place Fig. although a profile or seven-eighths front head may be placed on this body. not down. even upper and lower parts
of figures. use a back figure going the same way as the costume sketch to be illustrated. you Always use figures facing the same way. This is a three-quarter back view. and do not make the mistake of putting an almost full face on a back figure. showing that the face and throat are forward. Draw Fig.
figures in corsets and in These are harder to find
trapezius muscle breaks into the neck. the
beginning at the neck it curves in.
portion of the
When illustrating the back of a costume. When the arm is bent and extended forward. and the line for the neck breaks into the face. the break of the sleeve at the supinator longus takes the opposite direction from
the front view. Try turning your own head toward your back. 2 on it. as it is on this side
the bust goes
around to the front as also do the arms. In this view of the head. out again over the hips and buttock.
Do not curve the center line too much for
the fashion figure. In the back figure. the throat being lost some-
figures. as are also the figures in Lesson XXIV and Lesson XXV. the lesson.
what. Do not turn the head too far around to the front. Use previous instructions when drawing the legs and feet. Note the hair lines.
underclothes. The head is a threequarter batk view. he
be somewhat at home when studying As in Lesson XVII. in again for the waist. figure is not nude but ready for a garment.
far shoulder is longer
sloping than the near one. When placing a dress on this figure. which are brushed up to the top of the head.
Study the little sketch of the nude back and of the trapezius muscle as it fits on the back of the head. in one can combine them drawing.
measuring seven and three-quarter heads high. in again to where the legs join the body.
help you.LESSON XXIII
THE BACK FIGURE
the student has been successful with
center line of the
body takes two
the front figure and remembers its proportions and how to start the drawing. have the lines of the dress conform to the action of the figure as in Lesson XVIII.
See if several back figures.
reverse curves. the ear is nearer the front.
THE BACK FIGURE READY FOR A COSTUME
note the square effect on the back. and the student
See the clavicle in the
drawing. See Lesson
XXX. caused by the shoulder blades.
from which to draw. If the student can draw a graceful figure in all positions.
show a costume in all its parts. unless the figure is interested in some object and is inclined to bend the head downward. and the long
of the figure. When the arm is extended forward. such as cards.
The body may bend
at the waist forin fashions.
ward and side-ways. with the head on an
gained in decorative work. book covers and advertisements. If the features of a figure are not clearly
defined. It is better to find a satisfactory figure
curved line in the back. note the long straight line in front.LESSON XXIV
THE SIDE FIGURE
fashions as the front view.
should be as familiar with
which extends from the pit of the neck to where the arm begins. use other features.
Refer to Lesson
leg is slightly different
sketches are given here of the straight and bent knee. but the student may combine parts' of different figures if he
understands their construction. graceful and artistic.
from the arm. but
keep the figure erect.
profile leg. See
the separate sketch of
as with the
This figure measures seven and threequarter heads high.
upward turn. the side of the body being narrower than the front. he can use the knowledge
mind all points regarding the As the inner view of the profrom the outer. which does not show where the legs join the body. but be sure they belong to a head in the same position. In this case the eyes must be lowered as well.
this figure is ready for a corset. as
not as frequent in it does not
Be sure to show the plane on the shoulder. This is also noticeable
view is inclined to look somethan it is.
THE SIDE FIGURE READY FOR A COSTUME
as the arm placed behind this figure.
the heavy line be allowed to be on the outIf brought within
border. to where the body bends two. but not in the middle of the
drawing. From the head to below the
one. but one seldom
the lines for the bust extending to the center of it. Study the wrinkles in the bent arm which are mostly on the inside. Draw the sitting figure in underclothes
legs join the body in the middle of the figure.
As under the arm is on a different plane from the front of the body it is often
side of the pencil line.
the horizontal part.
pull as the
the figure bends where it and again at the knees. On
thrust out. the shape will be destroyed.
the far leg through the near one as by the dotted lines. Study the lines of the main wrinkles.
not draw the near side of the bench close to the under side of the knees. is lost in the height of the
figure. Let us divide the drawing into three equal parts. so draw sitting figures in
drawn arm. the inside one being illustrated in
the last lesson.
Bear this in mind when placing
at the wrist. all of
Study the sketch of the outside bent knee.
armhole forms a reverse curve. It is possible to sit far back. fall dress. which is resting on the bench. a carefully
or recline quite differ-
ently from this.
for example. to the bottom of the foot is three.
bent more than a standing one. from the edge of the bench and from the knees.
It is suggested that when a wide line is placed around a careful drawing.LESSON XXV
THE SITTING FIGURE
figure in this lesson
Study the lines of the around the figure. observing
your knees extend past the edge. unless the arm is turned back. the leg flatit
An arm will show
the inside of the sleeve
tening out slightly where bench.
THE SITTING FIGURE READY FOR A COSTUME
5 is outing flannel or cotton goods. dimity
good ink lines. For white rendered in white paint.
Fig. Always allow this to dry before applying the
or obtain samples. Review Lesson VIII. but they should be competent to do detail work as well.
correctly. should be the aim of all students of fashion drawing. the artist needs to be familiar with textures. the lines of the drawtake the form of the weave. 7 is moire silk.
Study the eight examples given
Study carefully the pen
lines of artists. the lines take the shape of the straw. and if placed on a nicely drawn sweater.
Fig. 10 is embroidery.
leafing high lights on top of XX. Be careful of the outline and have a good foundation of stripes or plaids on which to
place the texture. He must be able to make
the garment. 6 is rough cloth. and also of the basket. the lines of the net being
. 11 represents black silk.
the mesh round. 8 is or use fine lines for thin swiss. Fig. this order
you are not conversant
in the stores
wash drawings have the lace and embroidery worked out this way.
flat tone of gray paint being first applied as a background for the lace. 1
pieces of materials. the outline of all parts to be inked in. worked out in white used thick from a jar. when drawing a
basket. if very rough.
To form a
must and the whole mass of lines must follow the form on which the texture is placed. a flat piece would not be shaded but on the figure the shading helps
the form. Fig. another kind of stroke
The same kind
effect. as the customer has only the picture to order from. Fig. Consult the lists of materials given at the end of
lesson. the imagination does the rest. When filling an order in
all its parts.
representation of textures comes
classification of detail
It requires great
artist. 9 work out the is lace.LESSON XXVI
TEXTURES AND DETAIL
and to be able to group figures.
under the general
accuracy to be devote their
2 and 3 are crochet or knitted worsted. Then textures study carefully from catalogues.
might be used for a worsted sweater.
impression of silk. For catalogues this would not be accurate enough. For example. very fine lines for chiffon.
the drawing for a silk dress convey the
pattern carefully. 13
part of a light silk skirt. placing a shadow under each design. we
recognize the material. The student of this lesson needs
to be able to render
in either squares or
Fig. unless the texture has no noticeable direction of line. as you must have a good foundation on which to place the lines. 12 is a loose sketchy way of placing net all over a skirt. The solid ink parts fit into each other in a sori
of lighting effect. 4 is corduroy. and from the goods themselves.
texture. allow the rough edges to form the edge of
whole time to this type of work.
chambray. take a lines. pompadour striped silk. flannel. nun's veilcloth. camel hair cheviot.
gros de Londres. taffeta. Chantilly.
Cluny. craquela. crepe duchesse
voile. broadcloth. gold brocade. crash. flaxon.
Cotton. mousseline. Bolivia cloth. sheet of tracing paper and trace their lines with pen and ink. lawn. chiffon
cloth. jersey cloth. Russian
sook. crepe. beige. georgette crepe.
STUDENT'S MANUAL OF FASHION DRAWING
organdie. point d'Alengon.
. Dresden voile.
tweed. alpaca. cretonne. needle cloth.
pique percale. crepe de Chine.
d'esprit. chiffon taffeta. Limerick.
and try to reproduce the same kind of If you do not succeed in this. khaki. punjab.
Japanese habutai. seersucker. Make a line clean cut
as instructed in Lesson
Batiste. voile. Rugby stockinette
serge. moire. English flannel.
metal lace net. sateen. mull. Brussels point d'Argentan. China silk. pongee.
velour. Brocade bengaline.
Lace. marquissatin. ramie linen. Anglelace. rose point. imperial dress
cord. point de Venise.
duvetyn. Albatross. velvet. silk poplin.
cloth. faille. repp. poplin.
khaki. pussy twill. charmeuse. Henmohair. duchgold lame tissue. prunella.
silk. satin majestic.
velveteen. military striped silk. crepe chiffon. rietta cloth. melton. Devonshire cloth. foulard.
voile de soie. crepe meteor.
It is very important for the student to understand something about perspective in order to be able to place chairs, tables, etc., in his drawings; rugs and squares on floors must be drawn according to rule. A few simple rules are here given to aid the student in the perspective needed in
station point, Fig. 3.
the eye of
the ground plane.
to the ground.
Place a large plane of glass perpendicular Place a cube on the other side a little
back. Keep the eye steady and trace on the glass the outline of the cube. If this is done accurately, you will have a picture of the cube in perspective.
Close one eye while doing
copying the chart, draw in large enough scale to enable you to work well; Be these illustrations are very small.
very accurate as
parallel lines which run directly from the observer are called converaway lines. ging Converging lines which are
every fraction of an inch
perpendicular to the picture plane vanish in the point of sight. (Fig. 1) and (Fig. 5
and a compass for circles. There are two kinds
one point) perspective, and two angular (or point) perspective. The horizon (H) is an imaginary horizontal line, where earth and sky seem to
which are not perpendicular to the picture plane but run obliquely away from the observer, vanish in a point on the horizon, but not in the
point of sight.
(Fig. 5 (2 ft.))
high or low according to the
elevation of the observer.
Example. A person on a mountain can view more of the surrounding country than if he were on the level, hence the horizon will be high as it is directly on a line
with his eyes.
The prime vertical (PV) is a drawn perpendicular to the
through the point of sight and the station point. (Fig. 3.) through is the horizon, PS is Study Fig. 3.
Place your pencil across your eyes, if you can see just over the top you have the horizon line.
point of sight (PS) is an imaginary on the horizon directly in front of point the eyes. The direction of vision is an
the point of sight, S is the station point. Place the station point at a distance of
diagonal of the picture plane. the prime vertical, abed is the picpoints, or as far
and D' are distance
as the observer can see on each side of the
from the eye to the point of
point of sight.
from PS to
to equals one-half this dis-
The picture plane is a vertical plane on which the picture is drawn. The ground plane is the plane on which
the observer stands.
be explained later. Find H and PS.
wishing to represent objects by
place he stands (S)
measurement, a measuring scale can be used in the foreground. This measuring
the more one under or upper surface. See the posts. 5 let us call the spaces in the foreground feet. connect the end of the
. Fig. just how much smaller can
inches. Study the lines of the bureau which is built in the form of a block. In Fig. Fig. 2 is a room in parallel perspective.
(parallel to the picture plane) between these lines will equal three feet. etc.
If an entire object is above the level of the eye.
(Fig. you see its under part.
placed. it exposes the under part.
shows how to obtain the correct measurement. The farther
back the shorter three
feet will appear. Place the rug
use one-half the distance (D') and one-half the measurements on the measuring scale. it exposes upper part. Use whole measurement and dotted line to D or half measurement and dotted line to D2. 4
in parallel perspective
its sides is parallel
with the picture
the horizon. 6. are to decide
using the same rule. The block at the left of the point of The block sight exposes its right side. then the backs of the blocks.
can see of its A plane at a distance loses in depth. If a six-foot post were
placed close to the (glass) picture plane (on the other side). Draw the picture plane. prime vertical. The ceiling lines conWhen drawing verge (down) to PS.
the distance. Find H. find six feet on the ground in the
distance. This makes six feet in the distance.
and stand it up on the threefoot line. so all converging lines will run up to the point of sight. Build all furniture away Irom the wall from the floor up. ^
relation of the object to the horizon determines the size of the object.
floor. and all converging lines above the eye will run
rect length or so that
to the point of sight. then the converging lines. this will look small.
be determined by using this scale.)
this will cut the converging line the cor-
Objects higher than the level of the eye will extend higher than the horizon. The top of the bureau is below the eye and the top of the back above the eye.
the seat of the chair.
objects recede. enough to draw
As the DSD'. or take the six-foot measure on the scale. chair.
to obtain the
at the right exposes its left side.
same length on the converging draw the broken line (auxiliary line)
block. When draw-
To cut the converging line coming forward from A. 3. they appear smaller. the fronts of
First study Fig.
lower a plane
place a six-foot post a distance back. and the converging lines. chairs. The floor lines converge (up) to PS..
bureaus. Draw the blocks. A plane on a level with the eye has the appearline. The block in the center has both sides hidden.
high horizon. Fig. Draw picture plane. The higher or
ance of a
life size. A is the length of a horizontal line in perspective. count off three feet on the scale. 1. Note the lines for the beginning of a table. point of sight.
the point of sight. the student is inclined to show too much of the top planes.92
STUDENT'S MANUAL OF FASHION DRAWING
scale should be the actual
ing children. table or
object lower than the level of the eye will show the top.
from the end of A equal to one-half the measurement of A. 4. Draw a dotted line from the end of the auxiliary to D'. connect
the ends with PS.
feet. then stand
up. it would appear six
placed farther back would look smaller. If above the eye. PS. If below the eye.
you see as one side of the cube as you do of
perspective. 6 and 7.
cross lines to PS.
Place the circle at the
junction of these lines on the converging square. Fig.
auxiliary to the picture plane half measurement of A.
Parallel oblique lines in the air converge to the same point on the prime vertical.
then draw the other side to the
hold your pencil along the line and get the direction this way.
being that to cover
closed. The greater the slant of one side the more gentle the slant of the other. Remember.
very helpful when and doors which open windows drawing toward you. enclose with a square. they would meet above the horizon. 8.
on the horizon.
lines. if the near edge of the cube is on the prime
If the diagonal of the picture plane. You see of the one side than you do of the other. children's furniture.
A horizontal circle in perspective may be
This cube is to the right PS. which or an oval can be
show how drawn in
an angle of 45. drop lines to the floor converging line.
note that this station
To obtain the depth of the window. cross the square from corner to corner up and down and across through the center. the vanishing point on the side with
. when neither side of
object is parallel to the picture plane. the actual size in feet or inches. Lines drawn from both ends
mirrors. this will give you a vertical
circle in perspective). So in a room. 9 picture plane.
one part was large enough whole window when the
also distance points the in parallel perspective.LESSON XXVII
hooples. In this case they meet below the horizon. If the slant were in the
ing scale. the vanishing line will fall elsewhere
by filling the top plane with the same kind of
you move the cube at another angle or change its position to the right or left. different objects have different
vanishing points while objects in parallel perspective all vanish in the point of sight. being on hinges.
Place the rungs of the chair according
scale in the foreground but instead of using
same as you did The measuring
also be used
Use this rule to ascertain the length of the converging lines of the chair. and the table and bureau. Fig.
Figs. or on the measur-
will give one-
Draw an oval mirror on the bureau Draw a basket in Fig.
Both sides will vanish at equal angles and the vanishing points will fall on D and D'.
an angular perspective
slightly. draw the height. 4. where
touches the horizon
ing point. These opened toward me. When drawing from a real cube.
picture plane. 2. Remember. and one vanishing line to the horizon. 2. and again up and down and across where the circle
view. both sides are on the slant.
makes A=a=aa. point of
prime vertical and station point.
opposite direction. horizon. 7. but the minute
will explain the use-
The window was
In Fig. the mistake
divided into two parts. the vanishing points will change. Fig.
and D' use
and M'. in angular perspective. You may place this line on any slant. Fig. Obtain the slant of one side
of the back.
and extend two converging lines.94
STUDENT'S MANUAL OF FASHION DRAWING
. The lines of the door follow the wall. horizon. You know that parallel oblique lines vanish in the same point. so the parallel
sides of the
to the vanishing point. while the converging lines of the parallel objects vanish in the point of sight. door and seat are the same. or the to the horizon. paste the cut-out on paper.
vanishing and measuring points.
lines of the seat follow the other wall. extend the horizon and continue the converging lines
not on the paper.
Draw the auxiliary lines the same length as the height of the cube. The parallel sides of
A room in angular contain objects at the
You know the angle of the object is really
a right angle. the picture plane. point
same angle and objects at different angles and objects in parallel perspective. 10 is an angular view of a room. then the dotted line to and M'. These points are used as D and D' in parallel perspec-
and therefore the vanishing points for walls.
cube vanish in the same points. Fig. draw the line from V to S (or station point). are at different angles.
of the side is seen
mine by and M' instead of D and D'. a Using compass and with V as a center and VS as a radius.
Continue this line struct a right angle.
and V. the same as
the lines of the room. so
other vanishing point. mark off the horizon M'. and at the station con-
Fig. With as a center and V'S as a radius.
it is like
the cube vanish to the
the inside of a large box.
9. A room in parallel perspective may contain objects which are in parallel perspective and objects which are in angular
If several objects in a room perspective. Carry measuring lines forward to obtain the size on the scale. Cut out a picture of a room with furniture hi angular and parallel perspective.
vertical. so after finding one vanishing point V. mark off the horizon M. which will give
slip another under paper your drawing. where they meet
be the horizon.
the greater slant will be nearer the other vanishing point. each one has its
PERSPECTIVE FOR FASHION DRAWING
and adheres to the ink parts only. during the The " bite " eats between biting process.
by a coating
Taking it for granted that the student to fill an order in all its parts. each artist doing the class of work In such that he is most proficient in. and to place it on the figure.
work. The photographic film is then toughened by a solution. leaving the image in relief
different articles of
turned negative is placed in a frame over a sensitized zinc plate and placed in the
clothing. hardening it under the lines only. turned. should have learned to sketch a gar-
through an engraving plant. the student of this book might become one of the artists to make the layouts for these wash drawings.
be interesting as well as help97
protected. A fine powder (dragon's
blood) is sprinkled on the plate. that is getting the
action and proportion without
part protected by the black portion of the film remains hi its natural condition. thus protecting the lines.
photographed. photo-engraving process. in a given
side up. etc. thus leaving a copy of the drawing on the plate. and placed over another sheet of glass with the positive
original. waists. he should keep on practicing until he can place one figure in. by which line pictures are reful
ment from the model. the plate is sprinkled several times.
here given. and another the detail
time the student should have
learned to draw the fashion figure in the
back. another artist inks or paints the costumes.LESSON XXVIII
LAYOUTS FOR NEWSPAPERS AND CATALOGUES
front.. another the heads. bear in
In this case all lines and dots be reduced in size.
then inked and afterward
part. He should have learned also how to ink a drawing using the proper techTo draw four or five figures may nique.
usually to a reduced scale. side and sitting positions. As the photograph is a negative. only.
one drawing may pass through hands before it reaches completion. it being the size of the picture when
finished. may be imposthe a brief account of sible.
seem an undertaking and
washed. white and in water color are done in these houses. lines and dots. As the bite eats sideways as well as down. many business
houses employ a staff of artists on the work. The back of the plate is protected
up wash work.
sun or under a powerful electric light.
artist begins the drawing. and also the spaces between them. The size of the plate is very important. corsets. the lines of the drawing are transparent and the light shines through on the zinc plate. as hats. stripped from the glass. " " in is given several bites
which eats away the surface not
mind the rule for enlargement.
of asphalt varnish. with the powder. and while this book does not take
the ink. and brought down to a size much smaller than the
slow in drawing one figure. fairly quickly.
one who draws the figures and their costumes. dresses. must be advertised.
In the latter case it will be enlarged when reproduced." Many pattern houses are more conservative and like the figures more
Some houses have the figures drawn on separate papers. if made
too large. Any horizontal and vertical line meeting on the diagonal will
printing. he does not wish to waste space.
of the plate
all sides. will lose in value when reduced.
arranging several figures.
for printing. extending it indefinitely. Fig. Lines that are crowded will run together when reduced. Fig. These they cut out and paste on a large sheet of paper in an arrangement to suit themselves. The artist leaves a margin on the
papers and some business houses require " " swingy figures with plenty of dash and " go. and a variety of positions of feet.
THE METHOD OF ENLARGEMENT
Where drawings are to be made for reproduction by printing.
line b far enough to give a good height to draw the figure.
. d will be in the same proportion as Fig.
It is called mortice. 2
a suit layout. R. consequently.
slightly overlap the edge of the space
in this space with
paying so metal plate.
foreground the same size. the rectangle a. vases. then place as many ovals as
there are to be figures. or out-of-door views.
c touches this line.
Fig. As a rule the original drawing is larger
Fig. Fig. underclothes layout. b. The proper size space having been
mined. Draw Draw d from where c to the diagonal line. to contain one figure. waists. If there is much detail.
In this case they give the artist the height
of the figures to be drawn. On the other hand a drawing.
mark off the same proportion. there must be room enough for careful drawing.)
is the size of the plate..) are enlarged in the same way. 3
the beginning of a layout for three figures. Keep the space well covered and the separate garments the size of the ones on
figures. 6 is a catalogue. A drawing which is to be reduced by the photo-engraving process must be large enough so that the lines may be clean cut and distinct.
reduced. Make the figures
the figures. draw the size of the plate. See mirrors.
normal.STUDENT'S MANUAL OF FASHION DRAWING
on the plate. underclothes. make a of variety positions of heads. ners. From this relief the drawing may be printed. the customer will
give the artist the size of the plate which will be the size of the picture when reproduced.
not draw back figures unless your employer wishes the backs of garments
illustrated. enlarge it. c. to a. etc. etc. 4 is the way to space
through the opposite cor(See Figs.
and make the
smaller. This layout calls for two figures and nine garments. 2.
figures. Lesson XXVII on Perspective. such as tables.
one inch margin. although it may be the same size or even smaller. Leave at least
Fig. 5 is the
to place the
other layouts (for hats.
figures in the
for every square inch of
Odd spaces may be filled in with backgrounds. make the figure touch the edges
as in Fig.
and at the bottom of his He then draws the exact size of the the lower left-hand corner and a
supposed to be at a
distance back of the others.
than the plate.
METHOD OF ENLARGING LAYOUTS FOR NEWSPAPERS AND CATALOGUES
Leon Bakst. Do not divide up spaces into mechanical divisions. Worth.
dream that they
of which place on a nicely drawn figure.
note-book handy in which jot
as they present themselves. A.
Note where the
1. do not make the tucks the same size as the
the long line effect.
skirt. (Lucile). Monge.LESSON XXIX
ORIGINAL DRESS DESIGNING
Costume design is a very interesting If one can subject and is an art in itself. Redfern. and that will make a good
whole. Ideas for new designs
the openings and French newspapers send artists to
for the student to start.
if you want to place very up and down on a waist. length
of over-skirt to under-skirt.
not open a
The student should
the front. In Fig. The simplest way
The shops. Doeiullet. Georgette. Douchet.
Armand. using the main lines as a foundation. This rule applies
to cluster of tucks
original work. This good practice. while the design
this lesson carefully
spaces between them.
belt in Fig. Lavin. Have all proportions interesting.
obtain an idea for a design seems difthe beginner. etc. Soulie. Soeurs. familiar with the names of principal designers and their work. A. or any mechanical division of the same.
suggests the piece over the shoulder in
Fig. Lacroix. also of the size of the pockets
to the distance
the belt. Talbot.
running around the figure lend breadth
to the slim figure. 2. a bobolink.
1. Paquin. 2
Revillion. Long lines from the down are good. See how lines Fig. Drecoll.
be taken from
one not versed
many things in in this art would
existed. while lines
The very first thing to are the prevailing styles. as for example:
Callot. Long lines running up and down tend to make a stout person look more slender. Beer. Jenny. 1.
another sleeve. these shops to sketch the latest designs for their papers. draw fashions correctly.
omitted as indicated by dots.
waist. Callot. lines 1 and 2 are continued to the bottom
of the dress. Erte. he can learn to
create them. but designs made this way are not original enough to be sold. All parts of the costume must look as if
what must design be simple and have good lines.
to cut out of
the fashion papers parts of different dresses that will accord. Premet.
collar. The next step in dress designing is to create a modern dress from a modern dress. 1 is taken from Fig. one-
He must become
Consider the proportion of cuffs to other dimensions. is
thing to be considered in
proper proportions. but these may be broken at intervals without destroying
they were meant to go together.
idea for Fig.
Keep a down ideas
and to the space beneck one-quarter. Lady Duff Gordon. 3 and 4 are preserved.
was taken from a designs and colors
of the bird are carried
many good books on color. These should be rendered on
the shape of the figure repeated so often on the rug is used for the front of the waist and for the collar. They may be outlined in pencil."
Designers general outline of the whole figure (when dressed). The breast and wings are a greyish black (B) as also is the tail. Select a sample of goods and design a suitable costume for that goods. The part where the mottled feathers are may be embroidered in many colors on
the dress.. There are many ways of illustrating costumes.
water-color paper. Things around you. which extends past the wing line. rendering
appears in different centuries. especially when they are colored.
Manufacturers of costume
If it is
Study the costumes worn by ancients
he should use every
effort to perfect
countries. use the directions for French wash but use
color instead of
Costume Design. The bird has a white (W) back with mottled (M) feathers near the head.
wings and the shape of the white back. work of successful artists in both branches
and try for stylg. The student may mix white
paint with ordinary colors to obtain this effecf.
Illustration. Designers use costumes from all periods
washes of color over given surfaces.
Tempera colors are often used. you will be able (if you keep in mind the present style) to create a design from an ancient dress. expressed most clearly by the
silhouette. or a different color from the
themselves. \ Be particular about making the back of a dress correspond with the front. as it is the clever thing that counts.
places for inspirations. try for something clever. The student may best decide which " " branch of Fashion Drawing he wishes
materials like nicely drawn fashion figures dressed in their materials to advertise their
MANUAL OF FASHION DRAWING
on the dress. Obtain books from the library on ancient costumes. all
suggest designs and
ways to put what has been learned from
attention to the
He must study the applies to this line.
is embroidered with the design taken from the outside edge of the rug. They take their ideas from both court and peasant life. or he can use show-card colors. If you can create a design from a modern dress.
vases. or they may be placed on the human figure.
Follow the shape used for the
Designs may be submitted in pencil on the lay figure. ink. etc. See
pleasing. Fig 3 is taken from a rug design. These come in tubes and are applied thick like oil paints. study them carefully.
in history for their work. which come next to the yellow (Y) on the head. such as flowers.
schemes on separate paper. Color schemes may also be carried out. These are
TO OBTAIN IDEAS FOR ORIGINAL DRESS DESIGNS
" This is called a finder. without having them too differAll parts must pull together for one ent.
giving the publisher
They may be very rough but must have snap and the lines must be drawn as if one knew how. Start with some selected idea and place
very roughly with pencil
and XXIX. but the artist's finished work must first be
approved. the figure itself being drawn first (the figure was in
combinations. or they may have flat washes of color placed on the parts to be colored. harmony and tone
A finished pen-and-ink drawing should be drawn on bristol board. Try out
underclothes. but not crowded.
book covers. If the colors are to be given. when worked out. may be rendered on pencil paper with pencil only.
way. A composition is good when the main
point in the picture is most apparent. To ascertain just where to place this frame line. but to use his knowledge in designing box covers.
It is well to
. ideas from decorative pictures. These should be rendered on illustration board with wash
sold with the colors carefully
or tempera colors. make a small hole in a piece of paper.
it that will fill in the given these lines will suggest shapes of space." and by this method you can find the best place to
in a position not
only to draw for fashion papers. purpose. This will suggest
to the publisher the color scheme. being pasted on the wrong side of the top edge of the bristol board. The more sketches one creates of this class the more ideas will come to him.
schemes on other paper before attempting to color your drawings. This may be accomplished by making a variety of shapes and sizes.. These treat on balance. place them on transparent paper which is laid over the picture.
Consult previous use of water-color
and practice paper. and to draw catchy pictures which may be used for advertising purposes and which will be
salable. objects which may be used for the main idea or for the background.
shifting the opening in different positions. The sketch shown in Fig.
drawings are sold this Others are
ground spaces interesting. Lesson Try for good color schemes. cards. they are
line drawings. cut the hole round or square and view the picture through it.
It is well first to sketch in
worked out on the pictures themselves.
from sketches submitted in rough form. These sketches. the right-hand held flowers. Keep your point of interest near the center and have the back
when reproducing the
drawing. Sketches are
made with a few
ideas. They require a different process for reproduction than that
line drawings. Study books on composition. all other things being subordinate to it.
binations of colors
Use comseen. although
given space must be filled in nicely. paints. changing the figures and the backgrounds. The
draw the frame around the picture.LESSON
background before placing the frame line around them. etc. 1 was taken from seven different pictures.
Use a compass for circles and a ruler for
squares and oblongs. The composition needs a lawn for the standing figure and this is taken from still another picture.
it will give lead to opportunity.
draw diagonal lines from corner to corner and a vertical line and a horizontal line
through the middle.
The student must not only strive to draw
well. A good way to make a perfect oval is to
and they might get one a But position.
submitting sketches. 4 the winter
a rose bush
hot. Go to them with samples
of your work. Show what you can do and do not get discouraged if you do not make a
sale at once. Trace off this quarter of the whole drawing
and are willing to offer suggestions. and taking to each house the class of work that that house uses.
Take your knocks as so much medicine and keep on learning and pushing to the front. A
small portion of a figure may extend past the circle. the dress.
the figure were leaning against an object. and a few clouds at the top which help the summer day. 2. Construct an oval within an oblong. The window suggests the house part. let us dress the figure in a summer
dress with a hat suitable for the occasion. then turn the tracing over and
all lines fit. This little girl was seated
in a daisy field with hills in the background. the bushes. Draw one-quarter of the oval in the left-hand top corner. placing
the right-hand corner. ovals and
things to have. for
in the right-hand lower corner.
go well with the idea of a
day. the hair. the parasol. There
place her dress in her
at the right.
place a few
roses on the left at the
bottom. the dress. Study Fig. Everything is driven in the same direction. so we have the
child. good work is required to keep a position. There are many positions open for artists and even a subordinate position
a wonderful thing. the lawn and the clouds. but do not extend it too far.
need not be perfect.
. Remember publishers will not go to you
you have shown yourself worth looking up. Thus we have parts of seven pictures. give her long hair and another dress and have her fixing a pot of flowers in the house. as it is the work that really counts.
tures. even the snow. Her hair had a Dutch cut.
parasol will go nicely in the right hand and fill in the space at the right.
hands and help the old-fashioned effect by the diamond window in the background? In Fig. the lady.
and then redraw carefully. having Trace off. Let us
blown by the wind. the window taken from five different pic-
but he must strive to sell his work. nothing in this sketch to suggest
trace to the left lower corner similarly
except the position.
and turn the tracing
over. The little colonial lady had one hand resting on a piano and the other one
extended. Suppose we draw her as she sits.
She was picking a daisy. "Free Lancing" is when an artist has his own studio and sells his work
to different business houses. the
hat. In case of distance the space between lends atmosphere.
the plant and
always taking your best drawings. she would touch the object.
not touch the feather with the
or the figure with the distant
STUDENT'S MANUAL OF FASHION DRAWING
one was resting on a table). but when making finished drawings be very accurate. 3 was designed in the same way.
DECORATIVE PICTURES FOR CARDS AND ADVERTISEMENTS
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