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Amazon.

com trang web mua bn trc tuyn, thng ch hi tn bn khi bn ng k trn trang web, nhng li rt cn thn theo di nhng g bn mua v thu thp thng tin c nhn thng qua thi quen mua sm ca bn. V mt khi bn quyt nh mua sm, trang web s gii thiu nhiu sn phm vi cc mc gi tng ng, thch hp vi nhng cch thc chi tiu ca bn. Cho n khi Amazon.com b pht hin l bn cng mt a DVD nhng cc mc gi khc nhau cho nhng khch hng khc nhau, ngi pht ngn ca Amazon ni rng, ch l mt

Bi 6: NH GI SN PHM
nh gi trong cc cu trc th trng nh gi sn phm mi nh gi cng chi ph

nh gi trong cc cu trc th trng


Gi do cung cu th trng quyt nh Doanh nghip l ngi chp nhn gi

nh gi trong cnh tranh hon ho

T mc gi th trng, doanh nghip xc nh mc sn lng ti a ha li nhun

nh gi trong cc cu trc th trng


t li nhun ti a, DN c quyn chn mc gi m MR = MC
R ( PQ) Q Q P Q P MR P Q P P ( )( ) Q P Q MR P P (1 / Ed ) MR P P (1 / Ed ) MC ( P MC) / P 1 / Ed MC P 1 (1 / Ed )

nh gi trong c quyn

nh gi trong c quyn
Cu cng t co gin th chnh lch gia P v MC cng ln Ch : nu cu hon ton co gin (trng hp cnh tranh hon ho) P=MC

Nu vic gia nhp ngnh khng b phong ta hon ton DN c quyn c th phi ch n nh hng ca gi v li nhun ca n n hnh vi ca nhng DN gia nhp tim nng

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Phn bit gi cp 1

PHN BIT GI
Phn bit gi cp 1: t cho mi khch hng mc gi m h sn sng tr
Li nhun tng thm khi phn bit gi cp 1 (phn bit gi hon ho)

Do hng t cho mi khch hng mc gi m h sn sng tr nn hng c th tng c mc sn lng n Q**. Khi ch nh gi P* duy nht, li nhun bin i ca hng l phn din tch gia ng MR v MC. Khi phn bit gi hon ho, phn li nhun bin i thu c m rng ti phn din tch gia ng cu v ng MC.

Li nhun bin i: Phn li nhun khng tnh n chi ph c nh.

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Phn bit gi cp 2

PHN BIT GI

Phn bit gi cp 2: t mc gi n v khc nhau cho nhng khi tiu dng khc nhau.

nh gi theo khi: t gi khc nhau cho nhng khi lng tiu dng mt hng ha khc nhau.
y c 3 khi tiu dng khc nhau, v c t cc mc gi khc nhau: P1, P2, and P3. Hnh bn cho thy hng c tnh kinh t nh quy m, ng AC v ng MC dc xung pha di. Do phn bit gi cp 2 c th lm li hn cho ngi tiu dng khi hng tng sn lng v theo gim chi ph.

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Phn bit gi cp 3

PHN BIT GI

Phn bit gi cp 3: Chia khch hng thnh nhng nhm khch hng c ng cu khc nhau, v t cho mi nhm mt mc gi.
iu kin phn bit gi Th trng tng th phi c chia thnh cc th trng nh c cc co gin khc nhau Cc th trng nh phi tch ri: ngi mua trong th trng ny khng th bn li cho ngi mua th trng khc Tiu thc phn chia th trng nh V tr a l Thu nhp a v x hi tui

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Phn bit gi cp 3

PHN BIT GI

Cch xc nh gi v sn lng cho mi th trng

PHN BIT GI
V d 1: Phiu thng khi mua hng ging nh phn bit gi. Nghin cu cho thy ch c 20 n 30% ngi tiu dng thng xuyn tit kim v s dng phiu thng khi mua hng.

Nhng chng trnh gim gi cng l mt v d ca phn bit gi. Thng nhng khch hng nhy cm tng i vi s thay i gi s a thch cc chng trnh ny.

PHN BIT GI
Bng 1 co gin ca cu theo gi ca nhng ngi s dng phiu thng v nhng ngi cn li co gin theo gi

Sn phm
Giy v sinh Qun o Du gi Du n Thc n sn Bnh ngt Thc n cho vt nui ng lnh

Khng s dng
0.60 0.71 0.84 1.22 0.88 0.21 0.49 0.60

S dng
0.66 0.96 1.04 1.32 1.09 0.43 1.13 0.95

Nc st spagetti
Bnh kp tht

1.65
0.59

1.81
0.77

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V d 2: V my bay

PHN BIT GI

Khch hng c th la chn rt nhiu loi v my bay cho cc tuyn bay t Hanoi vo thnh ph H Ch Minh. V d, c cc loi v VIP, hng thng gia, hng bnh dn la chn. Ngoi ra, nu t mua v sm, hoc chn bay vo nhng gi thp im (nh bui ti hoc sng sm), khch hng c th c c gi v gim hn.

Cch thc t gi v my bay l v d in hnh ca phn bit gi. Li nhun thu c t vic phn bit gi ny l rt ln do c nhiu loi khch hng, c co gin ca cu rt khc nhau v sn sng mua cc loi v khc nhau.
Bng 2 co gin ca cu v my bay
Loi v co gin
Theo gi Theo thu nhp

Hng nht
0.3 1.2

Bnh dn
0.4 1.2

Gim gi
0.9 1.8

PHN BIT GI THEO THI GIAN V T GI VO LC CAO IM

Phn bit gi theo thi gian: Phn tch khch hng vo nhng nhm c ng cu khc nhau v t gi thay i theo thi gian t gi gi cao im: t gi cao hn trong nhng gi cao im khi kh nng cng sut hn ch khin chi ph cn bin MC tng cao.

PHN BIT GI THEO THI GIAN V T GI VO LC CAO IM

V d 3: Lm th no nh gi cun tiu thuyt bn chy nht? Xut bn c sch ba cng v ba mm cho php NXB phn bit c gi. Mt s khch hng mun mua tp mi nht Harry Porter 7, ba cng ngay khi mi ra mt vi gi 34.99 USD. Nhng mt s khch hng khc li sn sng ch khong 6 thng cho n khi cun sch c xut bn di dng ba mm vi gi ch 10 USD.

Nh vy NXB chia khch hng thnh hai nhm, nhm sn sng tr gi cao c sch ngay khi mi xut bn, v nhm khng mun tr gi cao v ch i cho n khi c bn mm. R rng l nhm khch th 2 c ng cu rt co gin so vi nhm th nht. V v th, s khng ngc nhin nu bn mm ca cun sch thng c bn vi s lng t hn rt nhiu so vi bn cng khi mi ra l.

T GI HAI PHN
t gi hai phn: Khch hng phi tr c gi vo ca v gi s dng thm dch v.

Khch hng c ng cu D.
Hng ti a ha li nhun bng cch t ph s dng P bng vi chi ph cn bin MC; v gi vo ca T* bng vi ton b thng d ca ngi tiu dng.

T GI HAI PHN

V d 4: t gi dich v in thoi di ng Phn ln dch v di ng ca cc nc trn th gii u p dng t gi hai phn: ph thu bao hng thng (c th bao gm mt s pht m thoi min ph) v ph t cho s pht b sung. V nhng nh cung cp dch v c sc mnh th trng nn h phi tnh ton rt cn thn chin lc t gi ti a ha li nhun. Cch t gi hai phn l cch thc l tng nh cung cp dch v di ng chim ot thng d ca ngi tiu dng v chuyn ha thnh li nhun ca mnh.

BN TRN GI
BN TRN GI Bn hai hay nhiu sn phm cng nhau.

thy mt hng phim khai thc tnh khng ng nht v cu ca khch hng, gi s c hai rp chiu phim v di y l gi m h sn sng tr cho hai b phim:

Nu cc phim c thu ring bit, gi cao nht c th t cho Wind l $10,000 v nu t cao hn s loi B. Tng t, gi cao nht c th t cho Gertie l $3000. Nhng gi s cc phim c cho thu cng nhau. Rp A sn sng tr $15,000 ($12,000 + $3000), v Rp B sn sng tr $14,000 ($10,000 + $4000). Do , chng ta c th cho mi rp thu trn gi $14,000 v nhn tng doanh thu $28,000.

BN TRN GI
Gi sn sng tr
Hnh 11.12

Gi sn sng tr r1 v r2 i vi hai sn phm c biu din cho ba khch hng, k hiu l A, B, v C.

BN TRN GI
Quyt nh tiu dng khi sn phm c bn ring r

Gi sn sng tr ca khch hng vng I cao hn gi P1 v P2 i vi c hai sn phm, do vy nhng khch hng ny mua c hai sn phm. Nhng khch hng vng II v IV ch mua mt sn phm, V khch hng vng III khng mua sn phm no.

BN TRN GI
Quyt nh tiu dng khi sn phm c bn theo gi

Khch hng so snh tng ca cc gi sn sng tr r1 + r2, vi gi ca gi PB. H mua gi ch khi r1 + r2 t nht cng nh PB.

BN TRN GI

V d v thu phim Khch hng A v B l hai rp chiu phim. Biu cho thy gi sn sng tr cho phim Gone with the Wind v Getting Gerties Garter. V cu c mi tng quan ngc, BN TRN GI s c li.

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Bn trn gi hn hp

BN TRN GI

Bn trn gi hn hp Bn hai hay nhiu sn phm theo c hai hnh thc: ring bit ln trn gi trong gi trn gi thp hn gi ring bit.

Hnh 11.17

Bn trn gi hn hp so vi thun ty Vi chi ph bin dng, bn trn gi hn hp c th li hn bn trn gi thun ty. Khch hng A c gi sn sng thanh ton i vi sn phm 1 thp hn chi ph bin c1, v khch hng D c gi sn sng thanh ton i vi sn phm 2 thp hn chi ph bin c2. Vi bn trn gi hn hp, khch hng A ch mua sn phm 2, v khch hng D ch mua sn phm 1, nh vy gim c chi ph cho hng.

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Bn trn gi hn hp

BN TRN GI

Hy so snh ba chin lc:

1. Bn ring r cc sn phm vi P1 = $50 v P2 = $90.


2. Ch bn trn gi vi gi $100. 3. Bn trn gi hn hp, theo cc sn phm c bn ring r vi gi P1 = P2 = $89.95, hay bn trng gi vi gi $100.

nh gi trong cc cu trc th trng


Mi DN c mt ng cu dc xung i vi sn phm ca mnh trong ngn hn cch nh gi rt ging nh c quyn
MR = MC

nh gi trong cnh tranh c quyn

Trong di hn, s tn ti ca siu li nhun gia nhp mi gim cu i vi sn phm ca DN DN t gi bng chi ph trung bnh AC tip im gia ng cu v ng AC

nh gi cho sn phm mi
Chin lc ht vng
Cch nh gi
DN t gi cao cho sn phm, c bn cho mt nhm chn lc nhng ngi tiu dng sn sng tr gi cao Khi sn phm i qua vng i, v c s bt chc trn th trng gi c th gim dn khi cu tr nn co gin

Thng s dng khi


C ngi sn sng tr gi cao Cu rt khng co gin Gi cao khng hp dn s gia nhp Mc cu khng chc chn v ngi mua ght s tng gi t gi cao l hnh thc th th trng

nh gi cho sn phm mi
tip theo
Chin lc thm nhp
Cch nh gi
DN t gi thp xy dng th phn ln trong khong thi gian ngn

Thng s dng khi


Cu co gin Cc doanh nghip c th gia nhp th trng nhanh chng nu b hp dn bi gi cao C c li th chi ph nu hot ng mc sn xut ln i vi mt s hng ha m co gin ca cu l cao trong giai on u ca vng i sn phm, gim trong giai on chn mi v li tng trong giai on gim st

nh gi cng chi ph
Tnh chi ph trung bnh trc tip sn xut, cng thm cc chi ph gin tip, v cng thm mt phn c li
Khng tng ng vi mt cch trc tip vi nh gi m t trong m hnh chun v ti a ha li nhun, nhng khng phi khng nht qun

Phc tp v:
Nu chi ph n v ph thuc vo mc sn lng DN phi bit chc chn mc sn lng. Mc sn lng bn c li ph thuc vo gi

nh gi cng chi ph tip theo


V th
DN thng tinh ton chi ph chun, bng cch gi nh mt mc sn lng chun, ri ly chi ph cc yu t cho mi n v sn lng cng thm phn chi ph gin tip phn b cho mi sn phm Phn cng b sung thm ngoi chi ph n v c iu chnh theo cc iu kin th trng v theo li khuyn ca b phn Marketing t c kt qu ti chnh tt hn

Thc t: DN coi gi ch l mt kha cnh ca hn hp Marketing nn vic nh gi khng tch ri xc nh cht lng sn phm, qung co, bo b, dch v v s