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BO CO TIU LUN: LN MEN LACTIC

Li m u
H sinh vt trn th gii rt phong phu va a dang vi s lng ging va chung loai khac nhau vi mt con s khng tng. Va h vi khun la bt ngun cua t khi s sng xut hin va ti gi con ngi khng th xac inh c co nhng vi khun nao mi xut hin va kha nng cua chung ti u. Vi khun vi s lng c xem la ln nht hanh tinh mang cho con ngi va xa hi bao nhiu kho khn vi nhng cn bnh him ac. Tuy nhin, con ngi cung khng th phu nhn c gia tri quan trong cua no khi ng dung vao i sng va mang lai nhiu li ich ma ta khng tng. Va vi khun lactic a c con ngi phat hin va em lai nhiu gia tri. Nhom a tim hiu va bit c ln men lactic la qua trinh c trng cho no vy no co nhng phat trin, bin i va ng dung gi do o nhom chon tai Ln men lactic tim hiu ky hn. Do thi gian hn ch, nhm khng th tm hiu k v nh gi thc t hon chnh, cc s liu v ni dung ch yu c tham kho qua bo ch, sch v qua mng internet nn khng trnh khi thiu st trong ti tiu lun. Nh m mong nhn li nhn xt ca
thy v chng em gi li cm n chn thnh n thy hng dn tn tnh trong

qu trnh nhm lm ti. Nhom thc hin.

BO CO TIU LUN: LN MEN LACTIC

1. Gii thiu v acid lactic 1.1. Khi nim. Acid lactic hay Acid sa l mt hp cht ha hc c sinh ra do qu trnh ln men ca vi sinh vt ng vai tr quan trng trong nhiu qu trnh sinh ha v acid lactic l mt acid carboxylic 1.2. Lch s pht trin. Acid lactic c tinh ch ln u tin bi nh ha hc Thy in Carl Wilhelm Scheelevo nm 1780 t sa chua. Nm 1808 Jons Jacob Berzelius pht hin ra rng acid lactic (L-lactate) cng c sn xut trong c bp trong qu trnh c th hoat ng nhiu. Cu trc ca n c xy dng lai bi Johannes Wislicenus vo nm 1873. Nm 1856, Louis Pasteur pht hin ra Lactobacillus v vai tr ca n trong vic to ra acid lactic. Acid lactic bt u c sn xut thng mi Boehringer Ingelheimca c vo nm 1895. 1.3. Cng thc ha hc. C3H6O3 c cng thc tng qut l CH 3CH(OH)COOH, n c mt nhm hydroxy ng gn nhm carboxyl khin n l mt acid alpha hydroxy (AHA). Trong dung dch, n c th mt mt proton t nhm acid, to ra ion lactate CH3CH(OH)COO.

Acid lactic

BO CO TIU LUN: LN MEN LACTIC

1.4. Phn loi. Acid lactic l chiral v c hai ng phn quang hc do chng c mt cacbon bt i xng to nn . Mt c gi l L (+)-acid lactic hoc ( S ) acid lactic v cc khc, hnh nh gng ca n, l D - (-)-lactic acid hoc ( R )-acid lactic. L-(+)lactic acid thng c to ra t pyruvate qua xc tc ca men lactate dehydrogen (LDH) trong qu trnh ln men ca qu trnh chuyn ha bnh thng v tp luyn ca c th. Hai dng ng phn ny c tnh cht ha l ging nhau nhng do s khc nhau v kh nng quay cc nn chng c nhng tnh cht sinh hc khc nhau nu trong hn hp c s cn bng cng lc ca hai dng ng phn ny (50-50) l DL-acid lactic thng c gi l roxemic.

Cc tn thng gi: Alpha-Hydroxypropionic Acid. 2-Hydroxypropanoic acid. 1-Hydroxyethanecarboxylic acid. Ethylidenelactic acid. 1.5. Tnh cht ca acid lactic. L cht hu c khng mu, c ht m cao, l cht lng snh, c mi nh, tan trong nc v cn, c nhit d si vo khong 122C, c im tan 17C, c khi lng phn t 98.08 DVC, ng phn dng D _acid lactic: dng tinh th tan trong nc, cn, nhit nng chy l 28C, nhit si l 28C, cn i vi tinh th ng phn dng L_acid lactic th ngoi tan trong nc v cn th chng cn tan
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BO CO TIU LUN: LN MEN LACTIC

trong cc hp cht etylic, eter i vi ng phn dang L_acid lactic th tan trong nc khng tan trong CHCl3 c nhit nng chy 16, 8C, si 122C c kh nng c ch vi sinh vt (lm gim pH mi trng) cao hn so vi cc acid tartic, acid acetic, hay acid citric, m khng gy mt gi tr cm quan ca sn phm, khng gy nh hng n mi v, mu sc ca sn phm v khng nh hng n sc khe ca con ngi. 1.6. Ngun gc hnh thnh. L sn phm do qu trnh ln men ng, qu trnh oxy ha glucid ym kh ny l mt qu trnh oxy ha khng hon ton hay l mt qu trnh t ln men lactic. Kt qu ca s phn gii 1 phn t glucoz t do cung cp cho t bo 2 phn t ATP v to ra 2 phn t acid Lactic. Nu qu trnh ny bt u t glycogen d tr trong c th cung cp cho t bo c 3 phn t ATP v cng to ra 2 phn t acid Lactic. S quy trnh:

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BO CO TIU LUN: LN MEN LACTIC

2. Vi khun lactic. 2.1. Khi nim. Nhng vi khun gy ln men sinh acid lactic c gi l vi khun lactic. Vi khun lactic c c trng bi kh nng sinh acid lactic rt mnh t cc qu trnh chuyn ha cc loi ng n hay ng i khc nhau, c bit l ng lactose 2.2. c im. Hu ht cc vi sinh vt sinh acid lactic u thuc v h Lactobacillaceae v c xp bn chi: Streptococus, Pediococcus, Lactobacillus v Leuconostoc. Chng c dng hnh cu hoc hnh que ng n c thnh chui vi nhau, u l vi khun Gram dng, khng sinh bo t bo t, khng di ng. Tuy nhin, hin nay ngi ta tm thy mt s ging trong h vi khun lactic c kh nng to bo t. Vi khun lactic khng kh nitrate, phn ng catalase m tnh, k kh tu , mt vi loi k kh sng trong h tiu ho ca con ngi.chng ch yu phn phi cc dng cacbonhydrat n gin ly nng lng ng thi cng sn sinh ra acid lactic, etanol, acid acetic, CO2 , chng d dng ln men chuyn ha cc dng ng n: glucoza, frutoza, manose, galatoseng i saccaroza, mantoza Nhng khng c kh nng chuyn ha cc loai gluxit phc tp hay tinh bt, dextin Vi khun lac tic ln men tt nht iu kin l 15-50C, pH = 5,5 - 6, ph thuc vo mi loi th c mt ngng ti u khc nhau, nhit 80C th vi khun lactic b tiu dit. Chng khng cha cytochrom v enzim catalase nhng nh kh nng t tng hp c enzim peroxydase v qua cc khi khun lac tic c kh nng phn gii c H2O2 to thnh H2O v O2 phc v cho qu trnh sng vy nn a s vi khun lactic thuc vo nhm hiu kh ty tin.

BO CO TIU LUN: LN MEN LACTIC

2.3. Phn loi. Lactobaretium casei: L trc khun ngn, gy chua t nhin, sng ym kh ty tin, ln men ch yu l glucose, maltose v lactose to mi trng 0, 8-1% acid lactic.gy chua t 10-12 H nhit thng, nhit ti thiu l 10C, nhit ti u 35-45C, thy phn yu cazetin v geltin. Lactobaccterium bulgalicus: Trc khun, rt di ln men gucose v lactose, to ti 37% acid lactic, nhit ti u 20C. Lactobaccterium delbrucki: L trc khun ln, c kha nng to thnh si, c kh nng ln men ng lactose, nhit ti u l 45-50C. Lactobaccterium cueumeris fermentin: Khi ln men rau ci chu atoj thnh acid axetcc, ru etylic acid lactic co2, ln men ng saccarose v lactose Lactobaccterium lycopersici: Trc khun gram(+), tao thanh chui n hay ghp thnh i, ln men tao thnh co2, acid lactic .acid acetic, ru etylic, c kh nng to bo t, sinh hi, cht 80C. Streptococuss cremoris: Thng to chui di ln men glucose v galactose, nhit ti u 25-30C 2.4. Nhu cu dinh dng. Vi khun lactic l nhng vi sinh vt c nhu cu dinh dng cao. sinh trng bnh thng, ngoi ngun cacbon, chng cn nit, mt phn di dng cc acid amin, mt s vitamin, cc cht sinh trng, v cc cht khongChng khng th pht trin c trong mi trng c thnh phn n gin nh glucose v NH4+ nh mt s loi khc. V th ngi ta phi cho vo mi trng mt s cht giu dinh dng: trong sa, trong rut, cao nm men, cao tht, cc loi ng chng c th ln men.
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BO CO TIU LUN: LN MEN LACTIC

Vi khun lactic c th tn ti trong mi trng kh, c th chu c hm lng cn t 10 15% v c th chu c nng CO2 cao. Chng c tm thy khp ni trong t nhin, di da, trong h tiu ho Lactobacillus c vai tr quan trng nht trong ln men lactic. 2.5. Hnh thc ln men. Da trn c ch l chuyn ha ng thnh acid lactic ngi ta chia cc phn ng ln men lactic thanh 2 kiu l ln men lactic in hnh v len men lactic khng in hnh. Hai kiu ln men ny khc nhau ch: ln men lactic in hnh ch to ra acid lactic cn ln men lactic khng in hnh ngoi to ra acid lactic cn to ra ethanol, acid acetic, glycerol v mt s cht khc nhng ch c ln men lactic in hnh l c ngha v mt ng dng trong sn xut cng nghip. Nhm vi khun lactic rt a dng gm nhiu ging rt khc nhau, t bo ca chng c th l hnh cu, hnh que, phn bit chng v kh nng ln men ng hnh hay d hnh. Ln men ng hnh. Qu trnh ln men ng hnh da trn S EMP(embden mayerhorf parmas ).

BO CO TIU LUN: LN MEN LACTIC

- Gii thch qu trnh: Hot ha phn t ng: ban u nh ATP cc enzym tham gia, glucoza bin i ln lt thnh dng este mono v k thnh dng este diphosphat rt linh ng v d bin i. Vic chuyn ha dng glucopiranoza thnh fructofuranoza cng lm tng thm tnh linh ng ca nguyn liu h hp. + Giai on 1: Phn ct ng 6C thnh ng 2C3. Cu trc i xng ca frutoza-1, 6iphotphat d b gy gia C3 v C4 thnh DOAP v Al-3-PG. DOAP d dng bin i thnh Al-3-PG tip tc bin i v trnh vic mt lt glucoza tham gia trong phn ng. + Giai on 2: Oxy ha Al-3-PG thnh Al-2-PG chng ny sinh ra nng lng gii phng trong phn ng oxy ha. H c tch ra v chuyn n NAD v sau chuyn cho enzym khc v cui cng cho oxy kh tri trong trng hp h hp hiu kh hoc c s dng kh cc nguyn liu hu c khc nh acid piruvic, axetaldehyt trong hnh thc ln men. + Giai on 3: Chuyn ha Al-2-PG thnh acid piruvic. Chng cui din ra phn ng tch nng lng th hai v bin mt oxy acid thnh mt xeto acid c kh nng phn ng cao v c v tr quan trng trong qu trnh trao i cht sau di tc dng ca enzim lactahydrogenase v H+ th 2 phn t pyruvic s chuyn ha thnh 2 phn t acid lactic. Phng trnh cn bng tng qut ca ng phn c th tm tt nh sau:
C6 H12O6 + 2NAD + 2ADP + 2H3PO4 2C3H4O3 + 2NADH + 2H+ + 2ATP + 2H+ C6 H12O6 enzim 2CH3CH(OH)COOH +225Kcal

Qu trnh ny t hiu xut to thnh acid lactic cao v ng thi sinh ra nhiu nng lng cung cp cho hot ng sng ca vi khun m khng cn c
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xy y cng c xem nh l mt qu trnh ln men ym kh. C th ng dng n trong sn xut acid lactic trong cng nghip. Qu trnh ln men d hnh: L qu trnh ln men m khng cha cc enzim thwo s EMP c ngha l glucose-6-photphat, 6-phtphatglucose, ribulo-5-photphat di tc dng ca enzim petrozaphotphatxetolaza theo con ng petrophaophat hnh thnh ln acid photpho glyxerinic v acetyphotphat ln men d hnh cc sn c phm cui cng kh a dng acid lactic, etanol, acid acetic, CO2. Phng trnh tng qut :
C6H12O6 => CH3CHOHCOOH + CH3COOH + C 2H5OH + COOH(CH2)2COOH + CO2

Kh nng tng hp nhiu hp cht cn cho s sng ca nhng vi khun ny rt yu. Do , chng l nhng vi khun k kh ty nghi, vi hiu kh, l loi c kh nng ln men hiu kh cng nh k kh. 3. Ln men lactic. 3.1. C ch ln men lactic. Ln men lactic l qu trnh chuyn ha ng thnh acid lactic nh vi sinh vt, in hnh l vi khun lactic. Ln men lactic l mt trong nhng loi hnh ln men pht trin nht trong thin nhin, c hai kiu ln men lactic chnh l ln men ng hnh v ln men d hnh. Ln men lactic ng hnh (in hnh). Trong trng hp ny acid pyruvic c to thnh theo s EmbdenMayerhorf-Parnas (EMP). Sau acid pyruvic s to thnh acid lactic di tc dng ca enzyme lactatdehydrogenase. Lng acid lactic to thnh chim hn 90%. Ch mt lng nh pyruvat b kh cacbon to thnh acid axetic, etanol, CO2 v axeton. Lng sn phm ph to thnh ph thuc vo s c mt ca oxy. Ln men lactic d hnh (khng in hnh).

BO CO TIU LUN: LN MEN LACTIC

Xy ra trong trng hp vi khun lactic khng c cc enzyme c bn ca s Embden Mayerhorf Parnas (aldolase v triozophotphatizomerase) v vy xilulose 5-photphat s c to thnh theo con ng pento-photphat (PP). Trong trng hp ny ch c 50% lng ng to thnh acid lactic, ngoi ra cn c cc sn phm ph khc nh: axic axetic, etanol, CO2. Cc sn phm ph tng tc vi nhau to thnh ester c mi thm. Phng trnh tng qut:
C6H12O6 CH3CHOHCOOH + CH3COOH + C 2H5OH + COOH(CH2)2COOH + CO2

Glucose acid lactic (40%) acid acetic etanol

acid sucxinic

Lng sn phm ph to thnh hon ton ph thuc vo ging vi sinh vt, vo mi trng dinh dng v iu kin ngoi cnh, ni chung th acid lactic thng chim 40% lng ng c phn hy, acid sucxinic 20%, ru etylic chim 10%, acid axetic 10% v cc loi kh gn 20%. 3.2. Vi khun ln men lactic. 3.2.1. c im. Vi khun ln men lactic thuc h Lactobacterium. y l nhng trc khun, cu khun khng to bo t v hu ht khng di ng, h hp tu tin. Chng c kh nng ln men nhiu loi ng n v ng i nhng khng c kh nng ln men cc loi glucid phc tp v tinh bt. S pht trin ca n cn c s c mt ca peptone, acid amin hay mui amn. Chng c yu cu c bit v cht dinh dng l giu vitamin, acid amin v khong cht. Qu trnh ln men xy ra tt nht trong mi trng acid pH t 5,5 6, khi pH nh hn 5,5 qu trnh ln men b dng li. Nhit thch hp cho qu trnh ln men t 15 50C. Tuy nhin, mi loi c khong nhit thch hp khc nhau, nu nhit ln hn 80C vi khun lactic b tiu dit hon ton. 3.2.2. Phn loi. Ngi ta da vo qu trnh ln men chia vi khun lactic thnh hai loi: vi khun lactic ln men ng hnh v d hnh.

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Ln men ng hnh: + Lactobacterium casei: y l nhng trc khun rt ngn gy chua sa t nhin. Ym kh tu tin, ln men tt glucose, maltose, lactose to ra mi trng c t 0,8 1% acid lactic. iu kin bnh thng gy chua sa trong vng 10 n 12 gi. Ngun nit cho vi khun ny l peptone. Nhit ti thiu cho chng pht trin l 10C, ti u l 35C v ti a l 45C, chng thu phn cazein v gelatin rt yu. + Streptococcus cremoris: thng to thnh chui di, thng pht trin nhit thp hn Lactobacterium casei, ti u t 25C 30C, ln men glucose, galactose. + Lactobacterium bulgaricus: y l trc khun rt di, nhit pht trin ti u l 20C, c kh nng ln men glucose, lactose. C kh nng to acid cao (3,7% acid lactic). + Lactobacterium delbruckii: thng gp trn ht i mch, y l trc khun ln. Trong qu trnh pht trin ca mnh chng c kh nng to thnh si. Nhit ti u cho chng pht trin t 45 50C, khc vi cc loi khc chng khng c kh nng ln men ng lactose v vy chng khng c dng trong ch bin sa. + Lactobacterium cueumeris fermenti: thng tm thy chng trong sa chua. L trc khun khng chuyn ng, thng to thnh t bo n v c khi to thnh chui. Thng chng to thnh chui trong qu trnh ln men. Kh nng to acid ti a trong mi trng t 0,9 1,2%. Ln men d hnh: + Streptobacterium hassice fermentatae: thng thy chng trong cc dch ln men chua rau ci. Chng tn ti tng t bo ring bit hoc ghp thnh tng i, hoc chui ngn c khi ghp thnh tng chui di hnh si. Khi ln men rau ci chua to thnh acid lactic, acid axetic, ru etylic v CO 2. Ln men ng saccarose tt hn ln men ng lactose. + Lactobacterium lycopersici: l trc khun gram dng, sinh hi, t bo to thnh chui hay n, c khi ghp thnh i mt. Khi ln men chng to thnh acid lactic, ru tylic, acid axetic v CO2. Chng c kh nng to bo t, t bo sinh dng thng cht nhit 80C.
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3.2.3. Cac yu t anh hng. Cc qu trnh ln men d khc nhau v c ch iu kin nhng u b nh hng bi cc nhn t: Nng ng. - Nng ng ln men x dch t 5- 20%. nu nng ng t hn 5% th ko dng cht cho qu trnh ln men, ngc li nng ng cao hn 20% th n c ch qu trnh ln men. Nu nguyn liu l mt r hay r ng cn phi lm trong. V trong nhng nguyn liu , c bit l r ng cha nhng hp cht cha ni t c hi cho sn xut acid lactic.nhng hp cht nh acidamin khi tng tc vi ng s to ra melanoidin, khi tng tc vi acid lactic to ra cht gn ging nh acid humic. Tt c nhng sn phm ny s lm cho thnh phm c mu nu sm kh loi b. Nhit . Mi loi vi sinh vt u c mt yu cu nhit thch hp cho s pht trin ca mnh. Vi sinh vt a lnh : tmin = 0C tmax =20 30C top = 5 -10C Vi sinh vt a m: tmin = 3C tmax =45 50 C top = 20 -35C Vi sinh vt a nng: tmin = 30C tmax =80C top = 50 -60C V d: Vi khun lactic nhit t 30 32C, nhit khng thch hp enzyme gim i khi xy ra hin tng ln men ph. + iu chnh nhit thch hp s:
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* Rt ngn thi gian ln men. * Hn ch s nhim cc vi sinh vt l khc. * Sn phm thu c t kt qu nh mong mun. pH ca mi trng. pH ca mi trng nh hng n hot ng pht trin ca vi sinh vt, s c mt ca ion H+ s tc ng ln t bo vi sinh vt theo nhiu cch: + nh hng trc tip ln b mt t bo lm thay i s tch in trn b mt ca mng t dn n hot ng ca cc loi enzim b gim. V d : pH<4 vi khun lactic ngng hot ng. + Nng ion H+ nh hng n phn ly ca cc cht dinh dng trong mi trng. + Vi vi khun lactic th cc loi cu khun chu pH km hn so vi cc trc khun. i vi cc vi khun ln men lactic ng hnh, pH mi trng khng nh hng n cc sn phm c trng ca qu trnh ln men cn i vi cc vi khun ln men lactic d hnh, ngc li. + Khi pH mi trng cao th sn phm to thnh ch yu l acid lactic. + Khi pH mi trng thp th sn phm to thnh ngoi acid cn c thm acid acetic, v nhiu sn phm khc. Chnh qu trnh ln men lactic tin hnh thun li trong mi trng acid, tuy nhin vi khun lactic s khng chu c nng acid trong dch ln men ln. Do lng acid tha khng c trung ha th qu trnh ln men s dng li trc khi ton b ng chuyn thnh acid lactic. V vy, bin php k thut tng ng trong sn xut l phi trung ha acid tha n 6.3- 6.5. Thng ngi ta dng vi ti hoc caxi cacbonat trung ha v cho vo trc hoc cho vo t t trong sut qu trnh ln men. Song cch trung ha th hai tt hn v gi c phn ng acid ca mi trng ln men lm cho cc sinh vt ngoi khng pht trin c. Oxy. N quyt nh chiu hng ln men din ra theo kiu ym kh hay k kh.
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+ Theo nghin cu cho rng vi khun lactic pht trin tt nht trong mi trng c nng oxy thp. Yu t quan trng nht trong 4 nhn t l pH v nu vi khun lactic pht trin u th th pH s l 3 3,5, cn nu khng th vi sinh vt khc s pht trin (pH 4,5 5: vi khun gy thi hot ng, pH 5 5,5: vi khun ng rut pht trin, pH 2.5 3: nm men di hot ng, pH 1,2 3: nm mc pht trin). 4. Cng ngh sn xut acid lactic. 4.1. Phng php truyn thng. Theo phng php ny, cng ngh sn xut phi qua 3 giai oan chnh: Chun b mi trng ln men: Ngi ta thng s dng ngun mt r v r v d kim. Trc tin mt r cn c x l ty mu v tch cc cht keo c trong mt r. x l mu, ngi ta thng dng than hot tnh. Trc tin mt r cn phi c pha long theo t l 1:3, sau cho chy qua ct than hot tnh. Than hot tnh s hp ph cc cht mu. Sau lm long mt r n nng cht kh 15% v dng H 2SO4 5% theo khi lng dch acid ha mi trng. H2SO4 c ngha rt quan trng trong qu trnh x l mt r: H2SO4 nh mt cht chuyn ha ng saccharose thnh ng nghch o gip qu trnh ln men sau ny tt hn. Trong giai on ny ngi ta un dung dch 90-95C trong 6 gi. Tip tc pha long dung dch xung cn 5-10% ng v iu chnh pH ngc li n 6.3-6.5. Lm ngui dung dich ng xung 50C v bm chng vo thng ln men tin hnh qu trnh ln men. Giai on ln men. Vi khun lactic c nui cy ring phn xng ging, khi lng ging m bo v s lng t bo (khong 106 t bo/ml) ngi ta chuyn ging vo thng ln men vi t l ging l 2,5-3%. Trong qu tnh ln men, ngi ta s dng vi mn trung ha lng acid to thnh nhm trnh hin tng acid ha dung dch
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ln men v to ra lactate canxi. S lng CaCO 3 cho vao ty thuc vo lng acid lactic to thnh. Duy tr pH trong dung dch ln men mc 5-6. Trong qu trnh ln men,ngi ta tin hnh khuy trn lin tc mi trng. Giai on to lactate canxi v thu nhn acid lactic. Sau khi ln men xong, dung dch ln men c un nng n 80-90C. Ngi ta dng CaCO3 iu chnh dch n pH 10-11 yn t 3-5 gi. Sau loi b cht lng, lc dch bng my lc khung bn. Sau khi lc xong, ton b dch ln men c chuyn sang thit b kt ta lactate canxi. Qu trnh to kt ta lactate canxi phi mt 10-16 gi. Kt thc qu trnh,ngi ta em lc bng my lc khung bn. ring kt ta v dch lc. dch lc c em i c c li v tin hnh ta li 1 ln na thu hi ton b lng acid lactic c trong dch ln men. Phn kt ta ny c trn chung vi phn trc v em sang thit b thu nhn acid lactic. thu nhn acid lactic ngi ta cho H 2SO4 vo phn ta. phn ng s xy ra v to thnh CaSO4 kt ta v dung dch cha acid lactic (C3H 6O3). Dung dch acid lactic c em i kh mu bng than hot tnh v em c c chn khng thu nhn acid lactic tinh khit. 4.2. Phng php sn xut hin i. Phng php thm tch in v trao i ion. Phng php ny thi khc vi phng php truyn thng 2 ni dung: Thay i ging v mi trng ln men. Thay i phng php thu nhn acid lactic.

Ging v mi trng ln men: Ging dng trong qu trnh ln men l Lactobacillus acidophilus. Lng ging cho vo ln men l 5% so vi dung dch ln men. Dung dch cha 40-100 ng trong 1000ml. 1% du bp th. 1-45 nc chit bp. Ngi ta b sung kh nhiu khong vi lng vo mi trng ln men.
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BO CO TIU LUN: LN MEN LACTIC

Nhit ln men 40-50C. iu chnh pH rong sut qu trnh ln men l 4,8 - 5,7 bng NaOH. Phng php thu nhn acid lactic Sau khi ln men ngi ta dng CaCO 3 a pH dung dch ln men n 6.5 v thc hin cc iu kin cho vic to thnh lactic canxi nh phng php truyn thng. Ton b dung dch,c phn lactate v sinh khi c a vo thit b hm tch in (eletro dialysis) thu nhn lactate canxi dng lng v sinh khi vi sinh vt. Sinh khi vi sinh vt c kh nng ln men s c chuyn ngc li ln men m k tip. Lactate canxi c c c chn khng v chuyn sang mmays thm tch in trch ly (water spiltting eletrodialysis) thu nhn acid lactic. Dung dch acid lactic s c a qua ct trao i ion tch cc ion Ca+ v cc cation khc. Acis lactic sau khi thu c s c tinh khit 99%. Phng php thu nhn acid lactic Phng php thu nhn acid lactic pH>pKa u tin ngi ta cho dung dch ln men tip xc vi cht hp th alamin 336 (tricaprylylamin ha tan trong methyl iso butylketone). Tip n,cht hp ph s tip xc vi ammoniac v trialkylamin phn t thp l trimethylamin (TMA). TMA s c to thnh trimethylamonium (TMAm), sau TMA v hi nc s c ti s dng, cn acid lactic s c thu nhn. Phng php tch pha Acid lactic c chuyn thnh lactate canxi dung dch ln men. Dung dch ny c chuyn qua thit b lc. Phn sinh khi c ti s dng. Phn lactate ha tan c c c n khong 40-70% khi lng ban u. (Ngi ta iu chnh pH bng Na2CO3 n pH 6,0-6,5 to ra lactate natri). Lactate natri c a vo thit b cha trialkylamin v kh CO 2 p sut 75pSi. Lc ny dung dch s to thnh hai pha: + Pha hu c gm cht hp ph acid lactic. + Pha ha tan gm mui carbonate v acid carbonic.

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BO CO TIU LUN: LN MEN LACTIC

Ngi ta thu hi acid lactic t pha hu c bng phng php chng ct chn khng vi p sut 2-10 mmHg, nhit 80-240C. 5. ng dng tao ra cac san phm va s h hong. 5.1. ng dung. Sn xut acid lactic Nguyn liu dng sn xut acid lactic l: r mt, ng, tinh bt c ng ho. Nng ng s dng cho qu trnh ln men lactic t 8 n 20%. Nu nguyn liu l r mt phi lm trong loi b cc hp cht cha nit. Qu trnh ln men lactic xy ra rt tt trong mi trng acid, tuy nhin vi khun lactic khng c kh nng chu c nng acid qu cao. Khi nng acid qu cao s nh hng n s pht trin ca vi khun, v vy cn phi iu chnh pH ca mi trng t 6,3 6,5. Trong thc t sn xut ngi ta thng xuyn b sung vi ti hoc cacbonat canxi gi pH ca mi trng khng thay i. Acid lactic thu c s dng mui canxilactat. Nhit ti u cho qu trnh ln men lactic l 50C, trong qu trnh ln men lactic c nhiu vi khun tham gia v vy sn phm thu c ngoi acid lactic cn c CO 2 v mt s sn phm ph khc. Ngi ta sn xut acid lactic theo cch ln men ng hnh sau tinh ch thnh acid lactic tinh khit ng dng vo trong ngnh cng ngh thc phm, thay th acid citric trong sn xut bnh ko, hp Trong cng nghip nh, acid lactic l dung mi cho cng nghip sn xut sn, vecni, nhum v thuc da. Trong cng nghip ru, acid lactic c dng di dng mui ca canxi. Ch bin cc sn phm sa. Trong sa cha ng, cazein v cc loi mui khong khc nn l mi trng thun li cho vi sinh vt pht trin. Trong sa bnh thng cha kh nhiu vi sinh vt (khong 300 n 400tb/1ml), vi sinh vt xm nhp vo sa bng nhiu con ng khc nhau. sn xut cc sn phm sa khc nhau ngi ta dng cc

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BO CO TIU LUN: LN MEN LACTIC

ging vi khun lactic khc nhau. ng dng vi sinh vt vo trong ch bin sa c bit t rt lu. - Sn xut sa chua: nguyn tc lm sa chua l do s pht trin ca vi khun lactic lm pH gim mnh, cazein trong sa b ng t. Sa t dng lng chuyn sang dng keo st v c mi v thm ngon. Qu trnh lm sa chua ngi ta phi s dng hai chng vi khun lactic ng hnh v d hnh. Vi khun lactic ng hnh ln men nhanh lm gim pH, vi khun lactic d hnh ln men chm v to thnh mi thm c trng ca sa chua. - Sn xut phomat: sn xut phomat ngi ta dng enzyme ng kt thu cazein trong sa, sau tip tc cho ln men vi nng mui long. Tu loi phomat m trong qu trnh chn ngi ta s dng cc loi vi sinh vt khc nhau. Cc loi vi sinh vt thng c s dng lm chn phomat l: vi khun propionic, nm mc Mui chua rau qu Mui chua rau qu nhm hai mc ch c bn sau y: bo qun nguyn liu v lm tng gi tr dinh dng, gi tr cm quan ca rau qu. Nguyn tc mui chua rau qu l to iu kin pht trin vi khun lactic ng thi hn ch tc dng ca vi khun gy thi ra. Hin nay c rt nhiu sn phm rau qu mui chua c s dng rng ri Vit Nam cng nh trn th gii. Qu trnh mui chua rau qu c tin hnh nh sau: - La chn rau qu - X l s b - Phi nng - Cho thm ng, mui, nc - Ln men - Mui chua.

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BO CO TIU LUN: LN MEN LACTIC

Thng thng mui chua rau qu ngi ta s dng 3% lng mui so vi rau qu. Nu nng mui thp th rau qu d b thi. Nu nng mui qu cao th qu trnh ln men chm, s to thnh acid lactic gim. Tc dng ca mt s qu trnh c bn trong mui chua rau qu. - Qu trnh phi nng: lm gim lng nc c trong nguyn liu. - Cho thm mui, ng: to p sut thm thu, lm nguyn liu d nn cht, khng b nt v tr nn gin. Lm tng nhanh qu trnh ln men. Nhit thch hp cho qu trnh ln men l 26 35C. Tuy nhin, nhit ny vi khun butyric c th pht trin mnh nn trn thc t ngi ta khng ch nhit trong khong 20 25C. Thng thng vi khun lactic chu c nhit thp hn so vi vi khun khc, v vy trong mui chua cn tng nhanh acid loi tr kh nng nhim ca mt s loi vi sinh vt khc. chua thc n gia sc T lu ngi ta bit s dng qu trnh ln men lactic chua thc n gia sc. Phng php chua thc n gia sc c bit cn thit i vi cc tri chn nui gia sc. Nguyn liu dng lm thc n cho gia sc nu em phi kh s lm gim 50% gi tr ca chng. Nhng nu ta em chua th ch gim khong 10% gi tr. c bit bng phng php chua s tng nhiu ch s dinh dng khc ca thc n. Mt trong nhng phng php ph bin l chua thc n th cng. Cc loi thc n gia sc l thc vt c bm nh ri cho vo vt cha, cho thm mt t nc vo go. Sau kn 1 n 2 ngy v cho gia sc n. Qu trnh chua thc n gia sc thng qua 3 giai on sau: Giai on 1: l giai on pht trin hn hp nhiu loi vi sinh vt khc nhau c trong thnh phn ca nguyn liu, t nc hoc t khng kh. Giai on 2: qu trnh ln men lactic ng hnh xy ra mnh. Cc loi vi khun lactic ch pht trin trong iu kin ym kh, nu c oxy vi khun gy thi pht trin s to thnh mi kh chu v nh hng n thc n chua. Cht lng khi ph thuc rt nhiu vo s pht trin ca vi khun lactic.
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BO CO TIU LUN: LN MEN LACTIC

Giai on 3: khi ti thi k chn th chnh vi khun lactic cng b tiu dit do lng acid lactic to thnh nhiu trong mi trng. Trong giai on ny nu khi khng sch m b ln t ct, vi khun butyric s pht trin, gy cho khi c v ng v mi kh chu. Nhit thch hp cho khi l 25 30C. Hin nay trong qu trnh chua ngi ta cn cn cho thm mui vi nng t 0,1 0,5% so vi nguyn liu. Cho thm mui lm tng kh nng trch ly cc cht v tng cng kh nng trao i cht ca vi sinh vt. Sn xut tng. Trong sn xut tng qu trnh ln men lactic to pH thch hp cho sn phm v tng hng v cho sn phm. Mt s ng dng khc ca vi khun lactic. - ng dng trong y hc - ng dng trong ngnh cng ngh vt liu - ng dng trong ngnh m phm 5.2. H hong. Ngoi nhng mt c li c ng dng v pht huy, vi khun lactic cn gy ra nhng tc dng c hi. Gy ra hin tng vn c v b chua trong cng ngh sn xut bia, nc ngt, ru vang, lm nh hng xu n cht lng ca sn phm. Do chng ta cn phi c bin php phng v chng li nhng nh hng xu . Hin tng ng vng trn b mt nc rau qu ln men:

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BO CO TIU LUN: LN MEN LACTIC

Nguyn nhn:

Do hot ng ca mt s nm men, nm mc. Cc vi sinh vt gy vng l cc chng Debaromyces, Mycoderma, Pichia thng chu nng mui cao. C ch:

Chng phn hy acid lactic bng cch oxi ha acid ny , lm gim acid n mc khng cn c ch ni cc vi sinh vt gy hng sn phm. Bin php khc phc:

Ph ln b mt sn phm mt lp du thc vt trung tnh, dy khong 3mm S dng tia t ngoi chng vng nhng gi thnh s kh cao Hin tng sn phm b sm mu: Nguyn nhn:

Phn rau qu khng ngp nc dn thm en do b oxi ha vi khng kh. Mu thm en ca nc rau qu ln men cn do cc sc tha tan to ra bi Bacillus nifrificans + Do to thnh st sunfua. + Do tc dng gia tannin trong g ng thng vi st c trongmui n hoc trong nc. + Ngoi ra ci cn ng mu hng do nm men sinh sc t Rhodotorula glutinis

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BO CO TIU LUN: LN MEN LACTIC

Bin php khc phc:

To iu kin k kh trong qu trnh ln men bng cch cho ngp nc rau qu, nn khi rau qu, y kn ym kh. Hin tng sn phm b nht: Nguyn nhn:

Do cc vi khun c v nang pht trin. Nc ln men rau qu c hm lng mui v hm lng acid qu thp, nhit ln men cao to iu kin cho vi khun sinh nhy pht trin nh PediCCcus acidilactici. Bin php khc phc:

Loi b nc ang ln men v thay bng nc mui. Cht nc ang ln men ra, em un si, ngui ri li vo sn phm. Hin tng sn phm b mm nhn: Nguyn nhn:

Do mui rau qu trong thng qu ln, cc lp rau qu pha di thng chu mt p sut ln nn b mm hoc b bin dng. Trong iu kin nng mui thp hot ng ca cc enzyme phn gii pectin do vi sinh vt to ra chuyn ha protopectin thnh pectin ha tan. Bin php khc phc:

Loi b nc ang ln men v thay bng nc mui.


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BO CO TIU LUN: LN MEN LACTIC

Nng nc mui khng nn thp hn 8%, c ch s pht trin ca Bacillus vulgatus l vi sinh vt ch yu gy ra hin tng rau qu b mm. Cht nc ang ln men ra, em un si, ngui ri li vo sn phm. Khng nn nn qu cht nguyn liu trong thng ln men. Hin tng sn phm c hng v l kh chu: Nguyn nhn:

Cc nm mc, nm men Mycoderma, Debaromyces, Hanzeuula Pichia v mt s vi sinh vt khc hot ng ,lm gim acid ca sn phm, nh hng xu n hng v sn phm v c th lm cho sn phm c hng v l. Hin tng ny xy ra khi iu kin ln men thc hin khng tt.

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BO CO TIU LUN: LN MEN LACTIC

TI LIU THAM KHO


Ha sinh cng nghip_L Ngc T (ch bin) Nh xut bn Khoa hc k thut H Ni.

Vi sinh thc phm _dhcntphcm http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lactic_acid http://www.oxychemicals.com.vn/index.php/lactic-acid.html?directory=56

http://www.sackyhaidang.com.vn/resources/item/732 http://thuviensinhhoc.com/Baigiang/SLTV/Chuong6/C6m3.htm http://s4.zetaboards.com/BioFood_Tech/topic/8959770/2/ http://svdanang.com/@forum/threads/len-men-lactic.23642/ http://thuvien.hcmute.edu.vn/xem-tai-lieu/bao-cao-tim-hieu-qua-trinh-lenmen-do-vi-sinh-vat.66922.html http://vi.scribd.com/dC/44196848/49/C%C6%A1-ch%E1%BA%BF-c %E1%BB%A7a-qua-trinh-len-men-lactic http://congnghesinhhC24h.com/tai-lieu/khao-sat-qua-trinh-len-men-acidlactic-lactobacillus-delbrueckii-327.html

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BO CO TIU LUN: LN MEN LACTIC

Muc luc
1.Gii thiu v acid lactic ...................................................................................................2 1.1.Khi nim.......................................................................................................................2 1.2.Lch s pht trin...........................................................................................................2 1.3.Cng thc ha hc.........................................................................................................2 1.4.Phn loi.........................................................................................................................3 1.5.Tnh cht ca acid lactic................................................................................................3 1.6.Ngun gc hnh thnh....................................................................................................4 2.Vi khun lactic. ................................................................................................................5 2.1.Khi nim.......................................................................................................................5 2.2.c im........................................................................................................................5 2.3.Phn loi.........................................................................................................................6 2.4.Nhu cu dinh dng.......................................................................................................6 2.5.Hnh thc ln men..........................................................................................................7 3.Ln men lactic...................................................................................................................9 3.1. C ch ln men lactic....................................................................................................9 3.2. Vi khun ln men lactic..............................................................................................10 3.2.1.c im...................................................................................................................10 3.2.2.Phn loi....................................................................................................................10 3.2.3.Cac yu t anh hng...............................................................................................12 4.Cng ngh sn xut acid lactic........................................................................................14 4.1.Phng php truyn thng...........................................................................................14 4.2.Phng php sn xut hin i....................................................................................15 5.ng dng tao ra cac san phm va s h hong................................................................17 5.1.ng dung.....................................................................................................................17 5.2.H hong.......................................................................................................................20 TI LIU THAM KHO.................................................................................................24

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